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SamanSuttam

26. Samiti-Guptisutra

Precepts On Carefulness (Samiti) and Self-Control (Gupti) 关于谨慎同自律

(A) Asta-Pravacana-Mata - Eight Mother Precepts 八大规则

Iriyabhasesana'dane, uccare samii iya.

Managutti vayagutti, kayagutti ya atthama. (384)


Vigilance in walk, speech, begging alms, receiving and keeping down of things and excreting are five Samitis (acts of carefulnes): control of mind, control of speech and control of body (i.e. actions) are three guptis. All are eight in number. (384)

谨慎个行走、讲话、乞求布施、接受或保存物品以及排泄係五种谨慎个行为;对思
想个控制、对言语个控制以及对行为个控制係三大自律,总计係八种。

Edao attha pavayanamadao nanadamsanacarittam.

Rakkhamti sada munino, mada puttam va payadao. (385)


These eight are called pravacanamata (mother precepts). Just as a diligent mother protects her son, so they protect right knowledge, right faith and right conduct of the monk. (385)

咧八条称为八大规则。咧就似勤勉个母亲保护自己个仔一样,佢地保护僧侣们正确
个知识、正确个信仰同正确个行为。

Eyao pamca samiio, caranassa ya pavattane.

Gutti niyattane vutta, asubhatthesu savvaso. (386)


The five types of vigilances are meant for the practice of religious life and the three controls (guptis) for the prevention of every thing sinful. (386)

五大谨慎意味住遵守宗教个要求生活,但係三大控制意味住防止罪恶个事情。

Jaha guttassiriyai, na homti dosa taheva samiyassa.

Guttitthiya ppamayam, rumbhai samu sacetthassa. (387)


Just as one who practises the gupti is not touched by defects pertaining to Samiti so also one who practises the samiti; does not have the defects of gupti. Certainly a gupti puts an act of negligence on the part of one who is undertaking an activity, to an end. (387)

就似一个自律个人唔会受到受到谨慎行为个影响,反过来亦都係一样。谨慎个行为
能够结束一个人个疏忽大意。

Maradu va jiyadu va jivo, ayadacarassa nicchida himsa.

Payadassa natthi bandho, himsamettena samidisu. (388)


The person who is careless in his activities is certainly guilty of violence irrespective of whether a living being remains alive or dies; on the other hand, th4e person who is careful in observing the samitis experiences no karmic bondage simply because some killing has not taken place in connection with his activities. (388)

一个行为上唔谨慎个人肯定会唔顾及生物个死活但係係行为上出现暴力;另一方面,
一个谨慎咁遵循samitis个人就唔会受到因果报应个限制,因为佢个行为唔会造成杀
生。

Ahacca himsa samitassa ja tu, sa davvato hoti na bhavato u.

Bhavena himsa tu asamjatassa, je va vi satte na sada vadheti.

Sampatti tasseva jada bhavijja, sa davvahimsa khalu bhavato ya.

Ajjhatthasuddhassa jada na hojja, vadhena jogo duhato va'himsa. (389 & 390)


A monk who is observing the Samitis i.e. vigilant about his activities may commit himsa (injury) through oversight; in such a case, there is only external violence (Dravya-Himsa) and not the internal. On the other hand a negligent person is guilty of the internal violence (Bhava-Himsa) even though no external violence is caused by him by killing being. When an injury is caused through negligence of a person, whether he is ascetic or not there will be both types of violence external (physical) as well as internal (mental). A monk firm in his observance of the samitis will not cause nay violence because of the purity of his soul; there will be neither external violence nor internal violence. (389 & 390)

一个遵守Samitis个僧侣会因为疏忽但係导致伤害,係咧种情况下,咧只係外部个暴
力但係唔係内心个暴力。係另一方面,一个疏忽个人尽管可能唔会造成外部个暴力,
佢内心却係暴力嘅。当一个人由于疏忽但係造成对人地个伤害个时候,无论佢是否
禁欲,佢都有外部个同内心个伤害。一个遵守Samitis个僧侣由于佢内心个纯洁,唔
会造成任何内部同外部个暴力。

Uccaliyammi pae, Iriyasamiyassa niggamanatthae.

Abadhejja kulimgi, marijja tam jogamasajja.

Na hi tagghadanimitto, bandho suhumo vi desio samae.

Muccha pariggaho tti ya, ajjhappa pamanado bhanido.(391 & 392)


If a tiny living creature is accidentally crushed under the foot of a monk who is careful in respect of his movement, the scriptures state that he will not attract even the slightest of karmac bondage (i.e. he is not responsible for that violence). Just as possessiveness consists in a sese of attachment so the violence consists in the intention of killing. (391 & 392)

如果僧侣无意中踩死着细小个生物,根据典籍,佢唔会受到因果报应个束缚,因为
佢唔需要为咧个暴力负责。就似占有欲存在于爱恋中一样,暴力存在于有意个杀戮。

Pauminipattam va jaha, udayena na lippadi sinehagunajutta.

Taha samidihim na lippai, sadhu kaesu iriyamto. (393)


Just as a lotus-leaf possessing the property of smoothness in not touched by water; similarly a monk practising samitis is not touched by karmic bondage in the course of moving around in the midst of living beings. (393)

就似莲花叶子表面光滑但係且唔会沾水一样,一个遵守samitis个僧侣係生物中移动
时,唔会因为杀生受到因果报应个束缚。

Jayana u dhammajanani, jayana dhammassa palani ceva.

Tavvuddhikari jayana, egamtasuhavaha jayana. (394)


Carefulness (Yatana) is the mother of religion; it is also the protector of religion; it helps the growth of religion and it begets perfect happiness. (394)

谨慎係宗教个母亲,佢同样亦都係宗教个守护神;佢使宗教成长并带来无尽个快乐。

Jayam care jayam citthe, jayamase jayam sae.

Jayam bhumjamto bhasamto, pavam kammam na bandhai. (395)


A monk who moves cautiously, stands cautiously, sits cautiously, sleeps cautiously, eats cautiously and speaks cautiously would not be bounded by the evil karmas. (395)

一个谨慎行走、站立、坐、睡眠、进食以及讲话个僧侣唔会受到罪恶因果报应个束
缚。

(B) Samiti - Acts of Carefulness 谨慎个行为

Phasuyamaggena diva, jugamtarappehina sakajjena.

Jamtuna pariharamteniriyasamidi have gamanam. (396)


Iryasamiti consists in walking along a trodden path during day-time when required to move out for any work, looking ahead to a distance of four cubits and avoiding the killing of tiny living creatures. (396)

Iryasamiti就係指当日间需要出去工作,走係路上时要注视住前面四腕尺以免杀害微
小个生物。

Imdiyatthe vivajjitta, sajjhayam ceva pamcaha.

Tammutti tappurakkare, uvautte iriyam rie. (397)

Not paying attention to the objects of sensuous enjoyment and not taking up the study of five types, one should walk cautiously absorbing oneself in the task of walking and giving all out prominence to the task of walking. (397)

即使唔关心能够带来感观欢愉个事物、唔学习,人们亦都应当全神贯注于苦行并首
先要开始苦行。

Note:- The five-fold methods of study are: Reading of sacred texts (vacana), questioning the teacher (prcchana), revision by re-reading (paravartana), pondering over what has already been studied and learnt (anupreksa) and reading illustrative strories (dharmakatha).

备注:五种学习方式为:阅读典籍,向上师提问,反复阅读,对已经学习过嘅进行
沉思,阅 读有启发意义个故事。

Tahevuccavaya pana, bhattatthae samagaya.

Tam ujjuam na gacchijja, jayameva parakkame. (398)


Similarly, one ought not to walk on straight within the midst of such livintg beings of all sorts as have gathered together (on the wayside) with a view to feeding themselves: this is how one ought to move cautiously. (398)

同样嘅,一个人亦都唔应当係微小生物聚集个地方径直穿过,应当跟路边行过,咧
就係人为乜要谨慎行路个原因。

Na lavejja puttho savajjam, na nirattham na mammayam.

Appanattha parattha va, ubhayassantarena va. (399)

Even when enquired, a monk ought not to utter a sinful word, a senseless word, a heart-rending word either for the sake of oneself, or for the sake of another one, or for the sake of both. (399)

即使比问到,僧侣亦都唔应当因为自己或者他人而讲出罪恶个话、无意义个话、令
人伤心个话。

Taheva pharusa bhasa, gurubhuvaghani.

Sacca-vi sa na vattavva, jao pavassa agamo. (400)


The monk should not use harsh words or speak what is harmful to other living beings; even if it is true, because it is sinful. (400)

僧侣唔应当对他人讲出严厉个或者有害个话,即使佢係正确嘅,因为咁样做係罪恶
嘅。

Taheva kanam kane tti, pamdagam pamdage tti va.

Vahiyam va vi rogi tti, tenam core tti no vae. (401)


Similarly, he should not call an one-eyed person as one-eyed, and eunuch as eunuch, a diseased person as diseased or a thief a thief. (401)

同样,佢亦都唔能够直接讲人地个缺陷。

Pesunnahasakakkasa-paranimdappappasamsa vikahadi.

vajjitta saparahiyam, bhasasamidi have kahanam. (402)


Carefulness in speech (bhasasamiti) consists in avoiding slanderous, ridiculous and speeches blaming others, self-praise or incredible stories. Such speeches conduce neither to the good of oneself nor that of others. (402)

谨慎个言语包括避免诽谤、荒唐同责备个话、自我夸耀或者虚假个故事。咁样个言
语对自己同他人都冇好处。

Dittham miyam asamdiddham, padipunnam viyamjiyam.

Ayampiramanuvviggam, bhasam nisira attavam. (403)


A wise monk would speak what he has seen; his speech should be brief, free from ambiguity, clearly expressed, free from prattle and incapable of causing anxiety. (403)

一个智慧个僧侣能够讲出佢所见嘅,佢个话应当简短、意思清楚、表达清晰,唔会
啰嗦或者比人地造成焦虑。

Dullaha u muhadai, muhajivi vi dullaha.

Muhadai muhajivi, dovi gacchamti soggaim. (404)

It is difficult to find faultless alms-givers; it is more difficult to find one who lives on faultless begging; one who gives faultless alms and the one who lives one faultless begging, both will attain happy state in the next birth. (404)

好难揾到完全布施个人,亦都唔可能揾到一个人完全靠布施生存。咧两者係来生中
都会得到欢乐。

Uggama-uppadana-esanehim, pimdam ca uvadhi sajjam va.

Sodhamtassa ya munino, parisujjhai esana samidi. (405)

The monk, who begs for a meal, an implement or a bedding in a manner not vitiated by the defects pertaining to their sources, preparation and receiving, practises in a true sense the carefulness (samiti) in respect of begging for alms. (405)

一个祈求饭食、器皿以及床位个僧侣但係唔会受到咧地物品个来源、制备等个影响,
係真正意义上对于乞讨个谨慎。

Na balausauattham, na sarirassuvacayattha tejattham.

nanatthasamjamattham, jhanttham ceva bhumjejja. (406)


A monk should not take food for the sake of (physical) strength, taste, bodily improvement or lustre; but only for acquisition of knowledge, self-restraint and meditation. (406)

僧侣唔应当为着力量、味道、身体上个改善或者贪食来乞求食物,佢地乞求食物只
係为着知识、自律以及冥思

Jaha dumassa pupphesu, bhamaro aviyai rasam.

Na ya puppham kilamei, so ya pinei appayam.

Emee samana mutta, je loe samti sahuno.

Vihamgama va pupphesu, danabhattesaneraya. (407 & 408)


Just as a bee sips the sap of a tree flowers without injuring the flowers and pleases itself, similarly in this world the monks who properly observe the monstic code of conduct and are free from all possessions are engaged in begging for meal and other things heeded (from householders without being burden on them) as the bees procure nourishment from flowers. (407 & 408)

就似蜜蜂吮吸花蜜但係唔伤害花朵咁,僧侣们就似蜜蜂咁遵循宗教个行为、身无一
物靠乞讨来生存但係唔会比其他家庭造成负担。

Ahakamma-parinao, phasuyabhoi vi bamdhao hoi.

Suddham gavesamano, ahakamme vi so suddho. (409)

A monk who entertains in his mind the idea of having a violently prepared meal; binds down karmas even if he is actually having a non-violently prepared meal. On the other hand, a monk who always looks for a pure (non-violently prepared) meal is pure (blameless) even if perchance he gets a violently prepared meal. (409)

如果一个僧侣係佢大脑中希望获得一份精心准备个饭菜,咁佢就会受到因果报应个
束缚,即使佢冇得到精心准备个饭菜;反过来,如果一个人冇想到会获得一份精心
准备个饭菜却得到着一份精心准备个饭菜,佢係唔会受到责备嘅。

Cakkhusa padilehitta, pamajjejja jayam jai.

Aie nikkhivejja va, duhaovi samie saya. (410)


If a monk attentively undertakes the required visual inspection and cleaning while receiving or placing down things, he always practises the concerned two-fold samiti (i.e., samiti in respect of receiving and placing things). (410)

如果一个僧侣係接受或者出售物品时,刻意个去追寻一种视觉上个感受,咁佢就係
遵循接受同出售物品方面两重个samiti。

Egamte accitte dure, gudhe visalamavirohe.

Uccaradiccao, padithavaniya have samidi. (411)


A monk should answer his calls of nature at a place which is solitary, free from insects and grass, concealed, spacious, free from objection, this is observance of Utsarga Samiti. (411)

当僧侣係一个孤独嘅、冇昆虫同青草、隐蔽个、空旷个地方居住时,应当满足佢自
身个需求,咧係遵照Utsarga Samiti

(I) Gupti - Self-Control 自律

Samrambhasamaramhe, arambhe ya taheva ya.

Manam pavattamanam tu, niyattejja jayam jai. (412)


An attentive monk should prevent his mind from indulging in evil thoughts (samrambha), collection of impliments which cause harm to others (samarambha) and evil actions (arambha). (412)

僧侣应当避免佢个思想陷入邪恶个想法、会对人地造成伤害个自我膨胀以及罪恶个
行为。

Samrambhasamarambhe, arambhe ya taheva ya.

Vayam pavattamanam tu, niyattejja jayam jai. (413)


An attentive monk should control his speech as soon as it is inclined towards the thought of evil expression efforts for evil expression and evil expression. (413)

一旦佢个思想想要表达邪恶个主意时,僧侣应当控制佢个语言。

Samrambhasamarambhe, arambhammi taheva ya.

Kayam pavattamanam tu, niyattejja jayam jai. (414)


An attentive monk should bring under control his body as soon as it is inclined towards a mental plan for causing misery, collection of impliments to others to cause misery to others and action causing misery to others. (414)

当佢想要产生会比人地带来痛苦个行为时,僧侣应当控制佢个身体。

Khettassa vai nayarassa, khaiya ahava hoi payaro.

Taha pavassa niroho, tao guttio sahussa. (415)


As a fence protects a field, a ditch or a rempart protects a city, so the guptis (i.e., control of mind, speech and body) protect a monk from sins. (415)

就似篱笆保护土地,壕沟同护城河保护城市一样,自律保护僧侣远离罪恶。

Eya pavayanamaya, je sammam ayare muni.

Se khippam savvasamsara, vippamuccai pandie. (416)


A monk who practises these eight mother-precepts by his righteous conduct is a wise person who will be liberated quickly from all bondages of mundane existence. (416)

一个通过佢正确个行为来遵守咧八条准则个僧侣係一个智慧个人,佢会跟世俗中迅
速咁解脱。