Precepts On Carefulness (Samiti) and Self-Control (Gupti) 关于谨慎同自律
(A) Asta-Pravacana-Mata - Eight Mother Precepts 八大规则
Iriyabhasesana'dane, uccare samii iya.
Managutti vayagutti, kayagutti ya atthama. (384)
Vigilance in walk, speech, begging alms, receiving and keeping down of things
and excreting are five Samitis (acts of carefulnes): control of mind, control
of speech and control of body (i.e. actions) are three guptis. All are eight
in number. (384)
Edao attha pavayanamadao nanadamsanacarittam.
Rakkhamti sada munino, mada puttam va payadao. (385)
These eight are called pravacanamata (mother precepts). Just as a diligent
mother protects her son, so they protect right knowledge, right faith and
right conduct of the monk. (385)
Eyao pamca samiio, caranassa ya pavattane.
Gutti niyattane vutta, asubhatthesu savvaso. (386)
The five types of vigilances are meant for the practice of religious life and
the three controls (guptis) for the prevention of every thing sinful. (386)
Jaha guttassiriyai, na homti dosa taheva samiyassa.
Guttitthiya ppamayam, rumbhai samu sacetthassa. (387)
Just as one who practises the gupti is not touched by defects pertaining to
Samiti so also one who practises the samiti; does not have the defects of
gupti. Certainly a gupti puts an act of negligence on the part of one who is
undertaking an activity, to an end. (387)
Maradu va jiyadu va jivo, ayadacarassa nicchida
Payadassa natthi bandho, himsamettena samidisu. (388)
The person who is careless in his activities is certainly guilty of violence
irrespective of whether a living being remains alive or dies; on the other
hand, th4e person who is careful in observing the samitis experiences no
karmic bondage simply because some killing has not taken place in connection
with his activities. (388)
Ahacca himsa samitassa ja tu, sa davvato hoti na
Bhavena himsa tu asamjatassa, je va vi satte na sada vadheti.
Sampatti tasseva jada bhavijja, sa davvahimsa khalu bhavato ya.
Ajjhatthasuddhassa jada na hojja, vadhena jogo duhato va'himsa. (389 & 390)
A monk who is observing the Samitis i.e. vigilant about his activities may
commit himsa (injury) through oversight; in such a case, there is only
external violence (Dravya-Himsa) and not the internal. On the other hand a
negligent person is guilty of the internal violence (Bhava-Himsa) even though
no external violence is caused by him by killing being. When an injury is
caused through negligence of a person, whether he is ascetic or not there will
be both types of violence external (physical) as well as internal (mental). A
monk firm in his observance of the samitis will not cause nay violence because
of the purity of his soul; there will be neither external violence nor
internal violence. (389 & 390)
Uccaliyammi pae, Iriyasamiyassa niggamanatthae.
Abadhejja kulimgi, marijja tam jogamasajja.
Na hi tagghadanimitto, bandho suhumo vi desio samae.
Muccha pariggaho tti ya, ajjhappa pamanado bhanido.(391 & 392)
If a tiny living creature is accidentally crushed under the foot of a monk who
is careful in respect of his movement, the scriptures state that he will not
attract even the slightest of karmac bondage (i.e. he is not responsible for
that violence). Just as possessiveness consists in a sese of attachment so the
violence consists in the intention of killing. (391 & 392)
Pauminipattam va jaha, udayena na lippadi
Taha samidihim na lippai, sadhu kaesu iriyamto. (393)
Just as a lotus-leaf possessing the property of smoothness in not touched by
water; similarly a monk practising samitis is not touched by karmic bondage in
the course of moving around in the midst of living beings. (393)
Jayana u dhammajanani, jayana dhammassa palani
Tavvuddhikari jayana, egamtasuhavaha jayana. (394)
Carefulness (Yatana) is the mother of religion; it is also the protector of
religion; it helps the growth of religion and it begets perfect happiness.
Jayam care jayam citthe, jayamase jayam sae.
Jayam bhumjamto bhasamto, pavam kammam na bandhai. (395)
A monk who moves cautiously, stands cautiously, sits cautiously, sleeps
cautiously, eats cautiously and speaks cautiously would not be bounded by the
evil karmas. (395)
(B) Samiti - Acts of Carefulness 谨慎个行为
Phasuyamaggena diva, jugamtarappehina sakajjena.
Jamtuna pariharamteniriyasamidi have gamanam. (396)
Iryasamiti consists in walking along a trodden path during day-time when
required to move out for any work, looking ahead to a distance of four cubits
and avoiding the killing of tiny living creatures. (396)
Imdiyatthe vivajjitta, sajjhayam ceva pamcaha.
Tammutti tappurakkare, uvautte iriyam rie. (397)
Not paying attention to the objects of sensuous enjoyment and not taking up
the study of five types, one should walk cautiously absorbing oneself in the
task of walking and giving all out prominence to the task of walking. (397)
Note:- The five-fold methods of study are: Reading of sacred texts (vacana),
questioning the teacher (prcchana), revision by re-reading (paravartana),
pondering over what has already been studied and learnt (anupreksa) and
reading illustrative strories (dharmakatha).
Tahevuccavaya pana, bhattatthae samagaya.
Tam ujjuam na gacchijja, jayameva parakkame. (398)
Similarly, one ought not to walk on straight within the midst of such livintg
beings of all sorts as have gathered together (on the wayside) with a view to
feeding themselves: this is how one ought to move cautiously. (398)
Na lavejja puttho savajjam, na nirattham na
Appanattha parattha va, ubhayassantarena va. (399)
Even when enquired, a monk ought not to utter a sinful word, a senseless word,
a heart-rending word either for the sake of oneself, or for the sake of
another one, or for the sake of both. (399)
Taheva pharusa bhasa, gurubhuvaghani.
Sacca-vi sa na vattavva, jao pavassa agamo. (400)
The monk should not use harsh words or speak what is harmful to other living
beings; even if it is true, because it is sinful. (400)
Taheva kanam kane tti, pamdagam pamdage tti va.
Vahiyam va vi rogi tti, tenam core tti no vae. (401)
Similarly, he should not call an one-eyed person as one-eyed, and eunuch as
eunuch, a diseased person as diseased or a thief a thief. (401)
vajjitta saparahiyam, bhasasamidi have kahanam. (402)
Carefulness in speech (bhasasamiti) consists in avoiding slanderous,
ridiculous and speeches blaming others, self-praise or incredible stories.
Such speeches conduce neither to the good of oneself nor that of others. (402)
Dittham miyam asamdiddham, padipunnam viyamjiyam.
Ayampiramanuvviggam, bhasam nisira attavam. (403)
A wise monk would speak what he has seen; his speech should be brief, free
from ambiguity, clearly expressed, free from prattle and incapable of causing
Dullaha u muhadai, muhajivi vi dullaha.
Muhadai muhajivi, dovi gacchamti soggaim. (404)
It is difficult to find faultless alms-givers; it is more difficult to find
one who lives on faultless begging; one who gives faultless alms and the one
who lives one faultless begging, both will attain happy state in the next
Uggama-uppadana-esanehim, pimdam ca uvadhi sajjam
Sodhamtassa ya munino, parisujjhai esana samidi. (405)
The monk, who begs for a meal, an implement or a bedding in a manner not
vitiated by the defects pertaining to their sources, preparation and
receiving, practises in a true sense the carefulness (samiti) in respect of
begging for alms. (405)
Na balausauattham, na sarirassuvacayattha
nanatthasamjamattham, jhanttham ceva bhumjejja. (406)
A monk should not take food for the sake of (physical) strength, taste, bodily
improvement or lustre; but only for acquisition of knowledge, self-restraint
and meditation. (406)
Jaha dumassa pupphesu, bhamaro aviyai rasam.
Na ya puppham kilamei, so ya pinei appayam.
Emee samana mutta, je loe samti sahuno.
Vihamgama va pupphesu, danabhattesaneraya. (407 & 408)
Just as a bee sips the sap of a tree flowers without injuring the flowers and
pleases itself, similarly in this world the monks who properly observe the
monstic code of conduct and are free from all possessions are engaged in
begging for meal and other things heeded (from householders without being
burden on them) as the bees procure nourishment from flowers. (407 & 408)
Ahakamma-parinao, phasuyabhoi vi bamdhao hoi.
Suddham gavesamano, ahakamme vi so suddho. (409)
A monk who entertains in his mind the idea of having a violently prepared
meal; binds down karmas even if he is actually having a non-violently prepared
meal. On the other hand, a monk who always looks for a pure (non-violently
prepared) meal is pure (blameless) even if perchance he gets a violently
prepared meal. (409)
Cakkhusa padilehitta, pamajjejja jayam jai.
Aie nikkhivejja va, duhaovi samie saya. (410)
If a monk attentively undertakes the required visual inspection and cleaning
while receiving or placing down things, he always practises the concerned
two-fold samiti (i.e., samiti in respect of receiving and placing things).
Egamte accitte dure, gudhe visalamavirohe.
Uccaradiccao, padithavaniya have samidi. (411)
A monk should answer his calls of nature at a place which is solitary, free
from insects and grass, concealed, spacious, free from objection, this is
observance of Utsarga Samiti. (411)
(I) Gupti - Self-Control 自律
Samrambhasamaramhe, arambhe ya taheva ya.
Manam pavattamanam tu, niyattejja jayam jai. (412)
An attentive monk should prevent his mind from indulging in evil thoughts (samrambha),
collection of impliments which cause harm to others (samarambha) and evil
actions (arambha). (412)
Samrambhasamarambhe, arambhe ya taheva ya.
Vayam pavattamanam tu, niyattejja jayam jai. (413)
An attentive monk should control his speech as soon as it is inclined towards
the thought of evil expression efforts for evil expression and evil
Samrambhasamarambhe, arambhammi taheva ya.
Kayam pavattamanam tu, niyattejja jayam jai. (414)
An attentive monk should bring under control his body as soon as it is
inclined towards a mental plan for causing misery, collection of impliments to
others to cause misery to others and action causing misery to others. (414)
Khettassa vai nayarassa, khaiya ahava hoi payaro.
Taha pavassa niroho, tao guttio sahussa. (415)
As a fence protects a field, a ditch or a rempart protects a city, so the
guptis (i.e., control of mind, speech and body) protect a monk from sins.
Eya pavayanamaya, je sammam ayare muni.
Se khippam savvasamsara, vippamuccai pandie. (416)
A monk who practises these eight mother-precepts by his righteous conduct is a
wise person who will be liberated quickly from all bondages of mundane