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SamanSuttam

28. Tapasutra

Precepts on Penance 关于修行

(A) Bahyatapa - External Penance 外在个修行

Jattha kasayaniroho, bambham jinapuyanam anasanam ca.

So savvo ceva tavo, visesao muddhaloyammi. (439)


Everything celibacy, worship of Jina and fasting done to check the passions is penance; specially according to the simple people. (439)

所有个独居、对Jina个膜拜以及为着阻止感情但係进行个禁食都係修行,特别係对
于个地刚刚开始修行个人。

So tavo duviho vutto, bahirabbhamtaro taha.

Bahiro chavviho vutto, evamabbhamtaro tavo. (440)


That penance is said to be of two types viz., external and internal. The external penance is again of six types, and so is internal penance. (440)

修行分为两种,外在个忏悔同内心个修行,佢地又分别分为六类。

Anasanamunoyariya, bhikkhayariya ya rasapariccao.

Kaakileso samlinaya ya, bajjho tavo hoi. (441)


(1) Fasting, (2) eating less than one's normal diet, (3) begging for alms (4) giving up of delicacies. (5) mortification of body, (6) lonely residence, these are the external penances. (441)

1、禁食,2、少食,3、乞讨,4、放弃对于美食个渴望,5、禁欲,6、独居,咧地
都係外在个修行。

Kammana nijjarattham, aharam pariharei lilae.

Egadinadipamanam, tassa tavam anasanam hodi. (442)


He who voluntarily gives up food for a day or so, for purging the soul from Karmas practises the external penance of fasting. (442)

如果一个人为着净化自己个灵魂但係唔食嘢,咁佢就係通过禁食而进行外在个修行。

Je payanubhattapana, suyaheu te tavassino samae.

Jo a tavo suyahino, bahirayo so chuhaharo. (443)


A monk who takes a little food for undertaking study of scriptures is said to be a tapasvi (i.e., one practising the penance), according to scriptures. The penance of fasting without scriptural study amounts only to starving. (443)

根据典籍个描述,如果一个僧侣为着学习典籍而少食,咁佢就係係修行。如果唔对
典籍进行研习但係只係禁食,只会导致饥饿。

So nama anasanatavo, jena mano'mamgulam na cittei.

Jena na imdiyahani, jena ya joga na hayamti. (444)


Fasting is penance when the person observing it does not entertain any inauspicious thoughts, when it does not result in bodily weakness, and when the activities of mind, speech and body remain unimpaired. (444)

当一个人冇任何不祥个思想时,佢个禁食就係一种修行,咁样个禁食唔会导致身体
个衰弱,而且佢个思想、言语以及身体都唔会受到损伤。

Balam thamam ca pehatye, saddhamaroggamappano.

Khettam kalam ca vinnaya, tahappanam nijumjae. (445)


A person should decide upon fasting after taking into consideration his physical strength, stamina, faith, state of health, place and time. (445)

人们係决定禁食前应当考虑佢个体力、毅力、信仰、健康状态、地点以及时间等。

Uvasamano akkhanam, uvavaso vannido samasena.

Tamha bhumjamta vi ya, jidimdiya homti uvavasa. (446)


In short, subjugation of senses is also described as fasting; therefore those who have conquered their senses are said to be fasting, though they maybe taking food. (446)

总个来讲,抑制自己个感官同样亦都係禁食,因此个地抑制着自己感官个人亦都係
係禁食,只管佢地可能会进食。


Chatthatthamadasamaduvalasehim, abahusuyassa ja sohi.

Tatto bahutaraguniya, havijja jimiyassa nanissa. (447)


The purity (of self) achieved by one who is well versed in scriptures, though regularly takes food, would be many times more than the purity of a person who is ignorant of scriptures, though he may fast for two, three, four or five days. (447)

如果一个人精通典籍,咁佢就係纯洁嘅,尽管佢会有规律咁进食。有好多人选择禁
食,但係佢地对典籍一无所知。

Jo jassa u aharo, tatto omam tu jo kare.

Jahannenegastthai, evam davvena u bhave. (448)


A person, who takes food less even by a morsel than his usual diet, is said to practise penance called formal unodari (partial fasting). (448)

如果一个人每日个饮食比佢个正常量少地,咁佢就係係进行部分禁食个修行。

Goyarapamanadayaga-bhayanananavidhana jam gahanam.

Taha esanassa gahanam, vividhassa ya vuttiparisamkha. (449)


If one procures alms after having taken various sorts of decisions as to their amount, their donor, their containing-vessel or as to their various types of contents, one performs the penance called vittiparisankhyana i. e. limiting the things begged for. (449)

如果一个人係乞讨时考虑食物个多少、布施者、容器或者食物个成分,咁咧种修行
称为vittiparisankhyana,比如限制乞讨食物个种类。

Khiradahisappimai, paniyam panabhoyanam.

Parivajjanam rasanam tu, bhaniyam rasavivajjanam. (450)


A monk who avoids delicious food like milk, curds, butter and taking his food on leaf, practises the penance of rasaparityaga (renunciation of delicious dishes). (450)

如果一个僧侣唔食牛奶、炼乳、黄油之类个食物,而并係树叶上进食个话,咁佢就
係采用一种rasaparityaga个修行(戒除美味个食物)


Egamtamanavae, itthipasuvivajjie.

Sayanasanasevanaya, vivittasayanasanam. (451)


The penance of having his bed and seat in a solitary and unfrequented place, shunned by women and animals, is called Viviktasayyasana (i.e. solitary residence). (451)

如果一个修行个人将佢个床以及座位安置係一个孤独嘅、人迹罕至个地方,远离女
人同动物,就叫做Viviktasayyasana(比如独居)

Thana virasanaiya, jivassa u suhavaha.

Ugga jaha dharijjamti, kayakilesam tamahiyam. (452)


Adapting harsh bodily postures like virasana etc. which cause bliss in a soul, constitute the penance called kayaklesa (mortification of body). (452)

身体采取一种弯曲个姿势(如virasana)会比灵魂带来福祉,咧亦都係修行个一种
kayaklesa(身体禁欲)。

Suhena bhavidam nanam, duhe jade vinassadi.

Tamha jahabalam joi, appa dukkhehi bhavae. (453)


The knowledge acquired at a time when one experiences convenience vanishes away when one begins to experience inconvenience. Hence (at the time of acquiring knowledge) a yogin ought to put himself to inconvenience keeping in mind his capacity for tolerance. (453)

一个人係经历坎坷时,佢係一帆风顺时所获得个知识会消失。因此人们应当锻炼自
己个耐力,然后将自己置于逆境之中。

Na dukkham na sukham va vi, jahahetu tigicchiti.

Tigicchie sujuttassa, dukkham va jai va suham.

Mohakkhae u juttassa, dukkham va jai va suham.

Mohakkhae jahaheu, na dukkham na vi va suham. (454 & 455)


Neither an experience of pain nor an experience of pleasure is an appropriate cause for curing an ailment but one who conducts one's life well, gets cured either by way of pain or by way of pleasure. Likewise, one engaged in putting an end to one's delusion might experience either pain or pleasure but neither pain nor pleasure is what puts an end to one's delusion. (454 & 455)

无论係痛苦仲係欢乐个经历都唔係治疗疾病个方法,但係一个行为正确个人就可以
治愈疾病。同样,一个致力于结束幻觉个人可能会经历痛苦或者欢乐,但係无论痛
苦仲係欢乐都唔会结束人们个幻觉。

(B) Abhyantaratapa - Inward Penance 内心 个修行

Payacchittam vinao, veyavaccam taheva sajjhavo.

Jhanam ca viussaggo, eso abbhimtaro tao. (456)

Internal penance is (of six kinds) : (1) Atonement for sins, (2) humility, (3) serving his preceptor, (4) self-study of scriptures (5) meditation and (6) Steadiness of body while in meditation.

内心个修行分为:1、对于罪恶个救赎,2、谦卑,3、服侍自己个导师,4、自学典
籍,5、冥思,6、係沉思时保持身体个镇定。

Vada-samidi-sila-samjama-parinamo karananiggaho bhavo.

So havadi payacchittam, anavarayam ceva kayavvo. (457)


The effects of observance of a vow, carefulness, continence, self-control and subjugation of the senses, these bring about atonement; they are to be practised incessantly. (457)

遵守誓言、慎重、节欲、自律、抑制自己个感官,咧地都可以带来救赎,人们应当
唔断咁咁样做。

Kohadi-sagabbhava-kkhayapahudi-bhavanae niggahanam.

Payacchittam bhanidam, niyagunacimta ya nicchayado. (458)


Thinking of controlling anger and other thoughts, passification of intense thoughts, contemplation of one's own virtues, these constitute atonement from the real view-point. (458)

控制自己个愤怒以及类似个想法,平抑自己强烈个思想、对自己个美德进行冥思,
咧地都係跟一个现实个角度来进行赎罪。

Namtanamtabhavena, samajjia-suhaasuhakammasamdoho.

Tavacaranena vinassadi, payacchittam tavam tamha. (459)


The multitude of auspicious and in-auspicious Karmas accumulated during endless transmigration can be destroyed by practice of penances; so, the atonement (expiation) is called the penance. (459)

通过修行可以消除对于吉祥以及不祥个因果报应个累积;因此修行就係救赎。

Aloyana padikamanam, ubhayavivego taha viussaggo.

Tava chedo mulam vi ya, pariharo ceva saddahana. (460)


Confession, repentance, both confession and repentance, judicious discrimination, renunciation, penance, partial reduction of seniority, absolute exclusion for a particular time from sangh and reiteration of faith (i.e. absolute exclusion) (these ten constitute atonement). (460)

救赎就係坦白,忏悔,坦白同忏悔,明智个辨别,放弃,修行,减少自己个资历以
及唔断强化自己个信仰。

Anabhogakidam kammam, jaam kim pi manasa kadam.

Tam savvam aloccejja hu, avvakhittena cedasa. (461)


An evil act done unintentionally or intentionally all this has to be confessed with an unperturbed mind. (461)

人们应当平静咁承认自己有意或者无意所犯下个罪行。

Jaha balo jampanto, kajjamakajjam ca ujjuyam bhanai.

Tam taha aloijja, mayamayavippamukko vi. (462)


Just as a child speaks of its good and bad acts in a straight-forward manner, similarly one ought to confess one's guilt with a mind free from deceit and pride. (462)

就似细佬哥咁,佢地能够好坦诚咁谈论自己好嘅同坏嘅行为,人们亦都应当心无欺
瞒同傲慢咁坦白自己个罪行。

Jaha kamtaena viddho, savvamge veyanaddio hoi.

Taha ceva uddhiyammi u, nissallo nivvuo hoi.

Evamanuddhiyadoso, maillo tenam dukkhio hoi.

So ceva cattadoso, suvisuddho nivvuo hoi. (463 & 464)


He who is pricked by a thorn feels the pain all over his body (but) becomes free from such pain when the thorn is removed. Similarly, he who hides his faults fraudulently, becomes miserable; he who confesses his faults honestly becomes pure and free from mental affliction. (463 & 464)

就似人们比刺戳着下之后会周身感到疼痛,当将刺拔除之后,佢就感觉唔到疼痛;
同样嘅,当一个人故意隐瞒佢个过失时,佢会感到痛苦,当佢能够坦诚自己个过失
后就变得纯洁并摆脱咧种精神上个折磨。

Jo passadi appanam, samabhave samthavittu parinamam.

Aloyanamidi janaha, paramajinamdassa uvaesam. (465)


He who realises his own soul after attaining mental equanimity achieves confession, know this to be the advice of the supreme Jina. (465)

崇高个Jina告诫我地,当一个觉悟个人係达到平静后就係坦白嘅。

Abbhutthanam amjalikaranam, tahevasanadayanam.

Gujnbhattibhavasussusa, vinao esa viyahio. (466)


To get up at the arrival of an elder to welcome him with folded hands, to offer him (an honoured) seat, to serve him with feeling of devotedness, these constitute humility. (466)

谦卑就係係长者到来时双手合十欢迎佢,为佢提供座位,满怀热情咁来服侍佢。

Damsananane vinao, carittatava-ovacario vinao.

Pamcaviho khalu vinao, pamcamagainaigo bhanio. (467)


Humility is of five kinds; humility in faith, in knowledge, in conduct, in penance and in decorum or etiquette, these lead to liberation, i.e. the fifth state. (467)

谦卑分为五种:信仰谦卑,知识谦卑,行为谦卑,修行谦卑以及係礼貌同礼节上谦
卑,咧地都会带来解脱。

Ekammi hiliyammi, hiliya humti te savve.

Ekammi puiyammi, puiya humti savve. (468)


If one (elder) is insulted, it amounts to an insult to all; if one is venerated, all of them are venerated. (468)

如果一个长者比侮辱着,咁咧就係对所有人个侮辱;如果一个人受到着礼遇,咧就
係对所有人个礼遇。

Vinao sasane mulam, vinio samjao bhave.

Vinayao vippamukkassa, kao dhammo kao tavo? (469)


Humility is the basic (virtue) according to Jaina scripture; a person of humility acquires self-restratint. Where is religion and where is penance to one who has lost humility? (469)

Jina讲,谦卑係最基本个美德,一个谦卑个人能够自律。一个唔谦卑个人唔会有信
仰同修行。

Vinao mokkhaddaram, vinayado samjamo tavo nanam.

Vinaenarahijjadi, airio savvasamgho ya. (470)


Humility is the gateway to liberation; through humility one acquires self-restraint, penance and knowledge. By humility one honours the Acarya and the Sangh (i.e. the entire community of religious people). (470)

谦卑係解脱之路,通过谦卑人们可以得到自律,修行同知识。通过谦卑,人们尊重 Acarya 以及Sangh(信徒个团体)。

Vinayahiya vijja, demti phalam iha pare ya logammi.

Na phalamti vinayahina sassani va toyahinaim. (471)


Learning acquied with humility proves fruitful in this world and in the other world; just as a plant cannot grow without water, learning will not be fruitful without humility. (471)

係咧个世界同其他个世界中,心怀谦卑所学到个知识係有效嘅;就似植物冇水就无
法生存一样,如果心中冇谦卑,学到个知识就冇用处。

Tamha savvapayatte, viniyattam ma kadai chamdejja.

Appasudo vi ya puriso, khavedi kammani vinaena. (472)


Therefore, one should not abandon humility at any cost. Even a person with less scriptural knowledge can annihilate his Karmas, if he has humility. (472)

因此,人们无论如何亦都唔能丢弃谦卑。只要一个人谦卑,即使佢只有好少个知识,
佢亦都能破除因果报应。

Sejjogasanisejjo, tahovahipadilehanahi uvaggahide.

Aharosahavayana-vikimcanam vamdanadihim. (473)


The service to a monk (vaiyavrttya) consists in providing him bed, residence, seat, proper cleaning of his implements etc. and then arranging for his food, medicine, a reading of scriptural text, a proper disposal of refuse with propers respect. (473)

为一个僧侣提供服务包括为佢提供床铺、住处、座位、为佢提供清洁设施以及安排
佢个饮食、药品、诵读经书、用一种合理个方式来处理佢个废弃物。

Addhanatenasavada-rayanadirodhanasive ome.

Vejjavaccam uttam samgahasarakkhanovedam. (474)


Offering protection to and taking care of a monk who becomes fatigued on his way, is threatened by a thief, a wild animal, a king or obstructed by river or gets afflicted by a contagious disease or famine, is service to a monk (vaiyavrttya). (474)

为僧侣提供服务就係为道路上疲劳个僧侣,受到窃贼、野兽或者当权者威胁个僧侣,
为河流所阻断个僧侣,受到疾病同饥饿所折磨得僧侣提供保护同照顾。

Pariyattana ya vayana, padicchananuvehana ya dhammakaha.

Thudimamgalasamjutto, pamcaviho hoi sajjhao. (475)


Study of scriptures (svadhyaya) is of five kinds : (1) reading of scriptural text (2) questioning (3) repitition (4) pondering over and (5) narration of religious discourses opening with auspicious praise (of Jina). (475)

对典籍个研习分为五类:1、诵读典籍,2、提出疑问,3、复述典籍,4、思考,5、
跟吉祥赞美开始进行宗教演讲。

Puyadisu niravekkho, jina-sattham jo padhei bhattie.

Kammamala-sohanattham, suyalaho suhayaro tassa. (476)


He who studies scriptures with devotion without any desire for personal praise and honour or purging of his Karmic pollution, will have the benefit of scriptural knowledge conducive to his happiness. (476)

如果一个人係研习典籍时唔怀有任何对个人赞美同荣誉或者破除因果报应个渴望,
咁佢将会跟宗教知识中受益,并有助于佢得到欢乐。

Sajjhayam janamto, pamcimdiyasamvudo tigutto ya.

Hoi ya ekaggamano, vinaena samahio sahu. (477)


A monk who has studied the scriptures keeps his five sense organs under control, practises the three guptis i.e. the control over one's speech and body, concentrates his mind and observes humility. (477)

一个僧侣係研习着典籍之后能够控制佢五官个感受,并遵守三种自律。

Nanena jjhanasijjhi, jhanado savvakammanijjaranam.

Nijjaranaphalam mokkham, nanabbhasam tado kujja. (478)


Perfect meditation is attained through knowledge and destruction of Karmas by meditation; liberation is the fruit of destruction of Karmas; hence; one should be engaged constantly in acquisition of knowledge. (478)

通过沉思破坏着因果报应以及知识就能够获得完美个冥思;破除着因果报应就能够
得到解脱,因此一个人应当唔断咁学习知识。

Barasavihammi vi tave, abbhimtarabahire kusaladitthe.

Na vi atthi na vi ya hohi, sajjhayasamam tavokammam. (479)


Among the twelve penances, internal and external which are experienced by one wise person, there si no penance, that equals or will be equal to the study of scriptures. (479)

係十二种修行中,智慧个人会进行内心同外在个修行;冇任何修行能够代替对典籍
个研习。

Sayanasanathane va, je u bhikkhu na vavare.

Kayassa viussaggo, chattho so parikittio. (480)


A monk who makes no movements of his body while sleeping, sitting or standing and checkes all activities of his body is said to observe the sixth penance of bodily steadines. (480)

如果一个僧侣係睡眠、坐立时,佢个身体冇其他动作,咁咧个僧侣就遵守着第六条
入定个要求。

Dehamaijaddasuddhi, suhadukkhatitikkhaya anuppeha.

Jhayai ya suham jhanam, egaggo kausaggommi. (481)

The benefits of practising meditation with bodily steadiness are: removal of bodily and mental lethargy, development of capacity to bear pain as well as pleasure, acquisition of deep reflection, and enhanced power of concentration in pure meditation. (481)

冥思时入定个好处有:消除身体上同精神上个懒散,提高承受痛苦同欢乐个能力,
进行深入个思考,加强冥思时注意力个集中。

Tesim tu tavo na suddho, nikkhamta je mahakula.

Jam nevanne viyanamti, na silogam pavejjai. (482)


The penance of those who are born in noble families and have renounced their homes will not be pure, if they practise it for praise and honour; those who desire to attain purity must practise penance unnoticed and without any desire for praise. (482)

个地出生係贵族家庭中个人,如果佢地修行个目的就係为着称赞同荣誉,咁佢地同
家庭个脱离就係唔纯洁嘅。个地希望得到纯洁个人们应当进行低调个修行,而且唔
应当希望得到称赞。

Nanamayavayasahio, silujjalio tavo mao aggi.

Samsarakaranabiyam, dahai davaggi va tanarasim. (483)


The fire of penance which is set ablaze by righteous character when combined with the wind of Right knowledge, will burn the seed of karma which is the cause of mundane existence, like a forest-fire which burns heap of grass. (483)

修行之火由正义个人们点燃,又比知识之风助燃,将会似森林里面个大火烧光草堆
咁,将世俗存在个根源因果报应个种子烧光。