Precepts On The Substance 关于物质
Dhammo ahammo agasam, kalo puggala jantavo.
Esa logo tti pannatto, kinehim varadamsihim. (624)
The supreme visioned Jinas have described the universe to be constituted of
six substances viz.
Dharma (medium of motion), Adharma (medium of rest), Akasa (space), kala
(time), Pudgala (matter) and Jiva (soul). (624)
有无上先知个Jina讲，世界係由六种要素构成嘅，Dharma (运动个介质), Adharma
(静止个介质), Akasa (空间), kala (时间), Pudgala (物质) 以及Jiva (灵魂).
Agasakalapuggala-dhammadhammesu natthi jivaguna.
Tesim acedanattam, bhanidam jivassa cedanada. (625)
The substances, Akasa, kala, Pudgala, Dharma and Adharma, do not possess the
attributes of the
Jiva (i.e. devoid of life) and they therefore have been called Ajivas
(non-living). The attribute
of Jiva is consciousness. (625)
Akasa, kala, Pudgala, Dharma 以及Adharma同灵魂截然唔同，佢地係冇生命嘅，
Agasakalajiva, dhammadhamma ya muttiparihina.
Muttam puggaladavvam, jivo khalu cedano tesu. (626)
Aksa, Kala, Jiva, Dharma and Adharma are incorporeal, where as Pudgala
(matter) is corporeal. Of
these, only the soul substance is conscious. (626)
Aksa, Kala, Jiva, Dharma 以及Adharma係抽象嘅，但係物质係具体嘅，只有灵魂
Jiva puggalakaya, saha sakkiriya havamti na ya
Puggalakarana jiva, khamdha khalu kalakarana du. (627)
The Jiva (soul), the Pudgala (matter), these two substances are active, while
the rest are
inactive. The external cause of the activity of soul is Karmic matter and of
the activity of
matter is the substance kala (time). (627)
Dhammo ahammo agasam, davvam ikkikkamahiyam.
Anamtani ya davvani, kalo puggala jamtavo. (628)
Dharma, Adharma and Akasa are singular in number, Kala, Pudgala and Jiva-these
three are infinite in number. (628)
Dhammadhamme ya do'vee, logamitta viyahiya.
Logaloge ya agase, samae samayakhettie. (629)
Dharma and Adharma-bothe these substances have their extension throughout the
Akasa (space) pervades the universe and beyond the universe. Kala pervades
only the time region.
Annonnam pavisamta, dimta ogasamannamannassa.
Melamta vi ya niccam, sagam sabhavam na vijahanti. (630)
These six substances (dravyas) are co-extensive in the same space and
accommodate one-another, they are mixed up with one another from the time
infinite. However, they maintain their identity without loosing their
respective nature. (630)
Logogadham puttham, pihulamasamkhadiya-padesam. (631)
Dharmastikaya is devoid of the attributes like taste, colour, smell, sound and
touch. It pervades
universe, it is independent, huge and has innumberable pradesas, i.e.,
Udayam jaha macchanam, gamananuggahayaram havadi
Taha jivapuggalanam, dhammam davvam viyanehi. (632)
Just as water is helpful in the movement of fishes so is the Dharma in the
movement of souls and
Na ya gacchadi dhammatthi, gamanam na karedi
Havadi gati sa ppasaro, jivanam puggalanam ca. (633)
Dharmastikaya does not move itself nor cause other things to move; but it is
an all pervading
medium of motion for the living and non-living bodies. (633)
Jaha havadi dhammadavvam, taha tam janeha
Thidikiriyajuttanam, karanabhudam tu pudhaviva. (634)
Know that just as Dharma is substance, so is the Adharma. It is helpful in
bringing about the
rest of the Jivas and Pudgalas capable of being static. (634)
Ceyanarahiyamamuttam, avagahanalakkhanam ca
Loyaloyavibheyam, tam nahadavvam jinuddittham. (635)
The substance space is devoid of consciousness, is incorporeal, accommodating
and all-pervading. It is of two types one is lokakasa i.e., (space
within the universe) and Alokakasa i.e., space beyond the universe. (635)
Jiva ceva ajiva ya, esa loe viyahie.
Ajivadesamagase, aloe se viyahie. (636)
It is explained that the loka, i.e., universe consists of living and
whereas Aloka consista of only a part of one non-living substance i.e.,
Vattanalakkhanakaliyam, kalasaruvam imam hodi. (637)
The substance time is devoid of attributes like touch, tast, smell and colour
and properties like
heaviness and lightness. It is characterized by mutation. (636)
Jivanam puggalanam, huvamti pariyattanai vivihai.
Edanam pajjaya, vattamte mukkhakalaadhare. (638)
The multiple mutations and various modes of the soul and matter are mainly due
to time substance. (638)
Samayavaliussasa, pana thova ya adia bheda.
Vavaharakalanama, nidittha viyaraehim. (639)
From practical view-point the time is meansured by diverse units like avali
(closing and opening
of eye-lids) Ucchvasa (time taken in an exhalation), Prana (taken in one
respiration) and stoka
(second). It is asserted by the Jinas. (639)
Anukhamdhaviyappena du, poggaladavvam havei
Khamdha hu chappayara, paramanu ceva duviyappo. (640)
The substance matter is of two kinds-in the form of an atom (paramanu) and in
the form of
molecules. Molecules are of six kinds, while the atoms are of two kinds. (640)
Aithulathula thulam, thulasuhumam ca suhumathulam
Suhumam aisuhumam idi, dharadiyam hodi chabbheyam. (641)
Gross-gross, gross, gross-fine, fine-gross, fine and fine-fine, these are the
six kinds of the
aggregate matter (skandha Pudgal). The earth etc. are its six examples. (641)
Pudhavi jalam ca chaya, caurimdiyavisaya-kammaparamanu.
Chavvihabheyam bhaniyam, poggaladavvam jinavarehim. (642)
The earth, the water, the shadow, the objects of four senses, (except sight),
the Karmic matter
and the atoms, these are the six different forms of matter. (642)
Antadimajjahinam, apadesam imdiehim na hu gejjham.
Jam davvam avibhattam, tam paramanum kahamti jina. (643)
Such a substance, as is devoid of dimensions, i.e., two extremes and the
middle, unextended, not
to be perceived by the sense-organs and indivisible, has been called atom by
the Jinas. (643)
Vannarasagamdhaphase, puranagalanai savvakalamhi.
Khamdam iva kunamana, paramanu puggala tamha. (644)
Like the molecules, the atoms also possess the attributes of colour, taste,
smell and touch, they
remain ever changing by getting conjoined and disjoint. They therefore are
called Pudgala. (644)
Panehim caduhim jivadi, jivadi, jivassadi jo hu
So jivo, pana puna balamimdiyamau ussaso. (645)
That which lives, will live and has lived through the instrumentality of the
four types of
vitalities (prana) is called soul (Jiva) and the four types of vitality are
life-span and respiration. (645)
Anugurudehapamano, uvasamharappasappado ceda.
Asamuhado vavahara, nicchayanayado asamkhadeso va. (646)
From practical point of view, a soul has a small or big size according to the
size of the body,
on account of its undergoing expansion and contraction. But from real view
point, it is possessed
of innumerable space-points (Pradesas). (646)
Jaha paumarayarayanam, khittam khire pabhasayadi
Taha dehi dehattho, sadehamattam pabhasayadi. (647)
Just as a ruby thrown into milk illuminates the whole milk only, so also an
illuminates its own body only. (647)
Ada nanapamanam, nanam neyappamanamuddittham.
Neyam loyaloyam, tamha nanam tu savvagayam. (648)
The soul is co-extensive with cognition, cognition is co-extensive with what
is to be congnised,
loka and aloka are cognizable, therefore cognition is all-pervasive. (648)
Jiva samsarattha, nivvada cedanappaga duviha.
Uvaogalakkhana vi ya, dehadehappavicara. (649)
Jiva is of two kinds: mundane and emancipated; both of them are sentient and
consciousness; even then the mundane souls have bodies while the emancipated
ones do not.(649)
Bigatigacadupamcakkha, tasajiva homti samkhadi. (650)
The earth, the water, the fire, the air and the plants are various kinds of
immobile beings with
one sense organ. The mobile beings like conches etc. are possessed of two,
three, four and five