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Jain World
Sub-Categories of Samansuttam
Mangalasutra
  Jinasasanasutra
  Sanghasutra
 

Nirupanasutra

  Samsaracakrasutra 
  Karmasutra
  Mithyatvasutra
 

Raga-pariharasutra

  Dharmasutra
  Samyamasutra
  Aparigrahasutra
  Ahimsasutra
 

Apramadasutra

  Siksasutra
  Atmasutra
  Moksamargasutra
  Ratnatrayasutra
  Samyag-Darsana-Sutra
  Samyagjnanasutra
  Samyakcaritrasutra
  Sadhanasutra
  Dvividha Dharmasutra
  Sravakadharmasutra
  Sramanadharmasutra
  Vratasutra
  Samiti-Guptisutra
  Avasyakasutra
  Tapasutra
  Dhyanasutra
  Anupreksasutra
  Lesyasutra
  Atmavikasasutra (Gunasthana)
  Samlekhanasutra
  Tattvasutra
  Dravysutra
  Srstisutra
  Anekantasutra
  Pramanasutra
  Nayasutra
  Syadvada Va Saptabhangisutra
  Samanvayasutra
  Niksepasutra
  Samapana
  Virastavana
 

SamanSuttam

4. Nirupanasutra

Precepts On Scriptural Exposition 关于经文个讲解

Jo na pamananayehim, nikkhevenam nirikkhade attham.

Tassajuttam juttam, juttamjuttam ca padihadi. (32)

To one, who does not ascertain the meaning (of a word) by Pramana, Naya and Niksepa, appears what is proper to be improper and what is improper to proper. (32)

对于Pramana, Naya 以及Niksepa个意思(或者语言)唔确定个人,係讲解经文
时会将合适嘅讲作唔合适嘅,唔合适嘅讲作合适嘅。


Nanam hodi pamanam, nao vi nadussa hidayabhavattho.

Nikkheo vi uvao, juttie atthapadigahanam. (33)

Knowledge is pramana : naya is view-point of the knower, the way of knowing is called Niksepa i.e. reasoning to understand the proper meaning of the text. (33)

知识就係pramana:naya就係理解者嘅观点,理解嘅方式就叫做Niksepa,比如推
理就係理解文章内在嘅意义。


Nicchayavavaharanaya, mulabheya nayana savvanam.

Nicchayasahanaheum, pajjayadavvatthiyam munaha. (34)


The real point of view (Niscaya-naya) and the empirical point of view (vyavahara-naya) are the two fundamental types of view-points (nayas). The dravyarthika naya (substantial point of view) and the paryayarthika-naya or the modal point of view are the two means for comprehending the real nature of a thing. (34)

亲身感受嘅认识同依据经验得到认识係认识事物个两种基本方法。跟形式上个理解
同跟表面上个理解係认识事物本质个两种方法。


Jo siya bheduvayaram, dhammanam kunai egavatthussa.

So vavaharo bhaniyo, vivario nicchayo hoi. (35)


The empirical point of view (or the Vyavahara-naya) is fragmentary i. e. it does take a thing as whole but concentrates on its units only. The opposite of it is called the real view-point which takes a comprehensive view and takes into consideration the thing as a whole. (35)

由经验获得个认识係片面嘅,比如,咧种认识嘅方法虽然将事物作为一个整体,但
係只关注佢某一个方面。咧种认识方法嘅对立面就係跟实际嘅角度来认识,咧种方
法将事物睇做一个整体,并对佢进行宏观嘅认识。


Vavharenuvadissai, nanissa carittam damsanam nanam.

Na vi nanam na carittam, na damsanam Janago suddho. (36)


From the stand-point of vyavahara-naya it is said that a knower is possessed of conduct, faith and knowledge, but in fact (that is, from the stand-point of niscaya-naya) he possesses neither knowledge nor conduct, nor faith but is purely of the form of a knower. (36)

跟经验主义嘅角度来讲,认识者对事物嘅认识就似有一种行为、信念以及知识一样,
但係实际上,认识者对事物个认识并唔似学习知识或者有某种行为一样,佢只係构
成认识者知识个一部分。


Evam vavaharanao, padisiddho jana nicchayanayena.

Nicchayanayasida puna, munino pavanti nivvanam. (37)

Know that the empirical point of view is contradicted by the real point of view. The saints who take recourse to the real point of view (Niscaya-Naya) attain salvation. (37)

经验主义个观点会同实验主义观点相抵触。个地求助于实验主义观点个智者能够获
得拯救。


Jaha na vi sakkamanajjo, anajjabhasam vina u gaheum.

Taha vavaharena vina, paramatthuvaesanamasakkam. (38)

Just as it is impossible to explain things to a non-Arya without taking recourse to a non-Aryan language, similarly it is impossible to explain the ultimate truth without taking recourse to vyavahara-naya. (38)

就似一个人唔可能唔用非印欧语同一个非印欧人来解释一件事情一样,同样,如果
唔借助于经验个方法个话,一个人亦都唔能够解释清楚最终个真理。


Vavaharo'bhuyattho, bhuyattho desido du suddhanao.

Bhuyatthamassido khalu, sammaitthi havai jivo. (39)

It is said that the empirical point of view does not explain reality as it is, while the real point of view explains it as it is. He' who takes recourse to the reality as it is, attains the right faith. (39)

经验个方法唔能够解释清楚事物个真相,然但係实验个方法就能够阐释事物个真相。
边个能够认
识到事物个真相,边个就可以获得正确个认识。


Nicchayamavalambanta, nicchayato nicchayam ajananta.

Nisanti caranakaranam, bahirakaranalasa kei. (40)

Those who have recourse to the real point of view only and does not know it correctly, being negligent regarding to the minor rule of external conduct spoil the whole discipline i,. e. major and minor code of conduct. (40)

个地只相信亲身感受个人,并唔能够正确咁认识事物,因为咁样会因为外在个行为
(比如主要同次要个行为规则),但係破坏着整体个自律。


Suddho suddhadeso, nayavvo paramabhavadarisihim.

Vavaharadesida puna, je du aparame tthida bhave. (41)


Reality can be understood properly by those who have realized the highest truth: but for those who are in a lower state it is proper to expound the reality through the empirical point of view. (41)

对于已经认识到最高层次真理个人来讲,佢地能够通过实验主义个方法来认识事物
个本质;但係对于认识层次比较低个人来讲,就应该跟经验个方法去认识事物个本
质。


Nicchayao dunneyam, ko bhave kammi vattai samano.

Vavaharao ya kirai, jo puvvatthio crittammi. (42)


Verily, it is very difficult to know the mental states of monks; therefore the criterion of senionrity in the order of monks should be decided by practical vie-point i.e. standing monkhood. (42)

事实上,好难了解僧侣个精神状态;因此对僧侣个评判应当由佢地现实中个观点来
决定,好比一种标准个僧侣评判制度。

Tamha savve vi naya, micchaditthi sapakkhapadibaddha.

Annonnanissiya una, havanti sammattasabbava. (43)

Hence all the nayas (view-points), so long as they remain confined to their own respective stand-points, are perverted, but when they are mutually dependent on one another, they verily become true. (43)

咁样,所有个观点,只要係跟佢地自己个角度出发嘅,就係唔正确嘅;但係当咧地
观点係相互依存嘅,佢地就係十分正确嘎。


Kajjam nanadiyam, ussaggavavayao bhave saccam.

Tam taha samayaramto, tam saphalam hoi savvam pi. (44)


Conduct, knowledge atc. are right one when they satisfy general rules as well as the exceptional conditions. They should be practised in such a manner that they become fruitful. (44)

当行为、知识等能符合普遍嘅规律以及特殊嘅情况时,就係正确嘅。佢地应当按照
一定方式来实行以保证佢嘅效果。