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Sub-Categories of Samansuttam
Mangalasutra
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Nirupanasutra

  Samsaracakrasutra 
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Raga-pariharasutra

  Dharmasutra
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  Aparigrahasutra
  Ahimsasutra
 

Apramadasutra

  Siksasutra
  Atmasutra
  Moksamargasutra
  Ratnatrayasutra
  Samyag-Darsana-Sutra
  Samyagjnanasutra
  Samyakcaritrasutra
  Sadhanasutra
  Dvividha Dharmasutra
  Sravakadharmasutra
  Sramanadharmasutra
  Vratasutra
  Samiti-Guptisutra
  Avasyakasutra
  Tapasutra
  Dhyanasutra
  Anupreksasutra
  Lesyasutra
  Atmavikasasutra (Gunasthana)
  Samlekhanasutra
  Tattvasutra
  Dravysutra
  Srstisutra
  Anekantasutra
  Pramanasutra
  Nayasutra
  Syadvada Va Saptabhangisutra
  Samanvayasutra
  Niksepasutra
  Samapana
  Virastavana
 

SamanSuttam

42. Niksepasutra

Precepts Of Installation 关于分类

Juttisujuttamagge, jam caubheena hoi khalu thavanam.

Kajje sadi namadisu, tam nikkhevam have samae. (737)

There is a description of four types of Niksepas (ascriptions) as naming etc. in the scriptures to understand the right meaning of a proposition. (737)

係典籍中,Niksepas(归属),如名字等,分为四类以便了解建议个正确个含义。

Davvam vivihasahavam, jena sahavena hoi tam jheyam.

Tassa nimittam kirai, ekkam pi ya davva caubheyam. (738)


A substance is possessed of various characteristics and for the sake of that characteristic, which is presently under consideration, one and the same thing is described in four ways. (738)

一个物质有多种特点,为着佢目前比考虑到个某种特点,使用四种方法对佢进行描
述。

Nama tthavana davvam, bhavam taha jana hoi nikkhevam.

Davve sanna namam, duviham pi ya tam pi vikkhayam. (739)


Nama, Sthapana, Dravya, Bhava-these four ways provide the concept of niksepa. Of these nama stands for the name of the thing concerned and is of two types. (739)

Nama, Sthapana, Dravya, Bhava-these 係四种定义niksepa个方法。係咧几者中,
nama代表物体个名字,又可以分为两类。


Sayara iyara thavana, kittima iyara du bimbaja padhama.

Iyara iyara bhaniya, thavana ariho ya nayavvo. (740)


Sthapana is of two types-that which resembles the real shape of that for which is stands, and that which does not. When there is a supposition of one object in the other, it is called sthapana Niksepa, for example, supposing an idol of an arhat as an arhat. (740)

Sthapana分为两类,佢用来描述物体实际个形状。当对一个物体进行猜测时,咧就
叫做sthapana Niksepa。


Davvam khu hoi duviham, agama-noagamena jah bhaniyam.

Arahamta-sattha-jano, anajutto davva-arihamto.

Noagamam pi tiviham, deham nanissa bhavikammam ca.

Nanisariram tiviham cuda cattam cavidam ceti. (741 & 742)


Dravya (= potency) is of two types-viz. agamato (=that in respect of an authentic text) and no-agamato (=that not in respect of an authentic text). Thus the person who knows an authentic text pertaining to an Arhat and yet is not making use of this knowledge of his is agamato-dravya Arhat. Similary, no-agamato dravya is of three types-viz. the knower's body, the would be knower, one acting in a manner appropriate to the thing concerned. And the knower's body is of three types-viz. one fallen, one given up, one make to fall. (741 & 742)

Dravya(力量)分为两类,agamato同nagamato。因此,能够理解契约正本个人
就属于Arhat。同样嘅,noagamato dravya分为三类:认识者个身体,未来个认识
者,准备者。认识者个身体又分为三类:降落嘅、放弃嘅、将要降落嘅。


Agama-noagamado, taheva bhavo vi hodi davvam va.

Arahamtasatthajano, agamabhavo du arahamto.

Taggunae ya parinado, noagamabhava hoi arahamto.

Taggunaei jhada, kevalanani hu parinado bhanio. (743 & 744)


Like dravya bhava (=reality) too is of two types-viz. agamato (=that in respect of an authentic text) and no-agamato (=that not in respect of an authentic text). Thus the person who knows an authentic text pertaining to an Arhat and is also making use ofthis knowledge is agamato-bhava Arhat. On the other hand, the person who ahas developed the virtuous qualities appropriate to an Arhat or one who while equipped with those qualities, undertakes meditation and so is considered
to have become a Kevalajnanin (=Arhat) is no-agamatobhava Arhat. (743 & 744)

就似dravya,bhava(事实)亦都分为两类,agamato同noagamato。因此,能够
理解契约正本个人就属于Arhat。另一方面,一个有咧地美德,进行冥思个人则能够
成为Kevalajnanin。