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SamanSuttam

16. Moksamargasutra

PRECEPTS ON THE PATH OF LIBERATION 关于解脱之路

Maggo maggaphalam ti ya, duviham jinasasane samakkhadam.

Maggo khalu sammattam maggaphalam hoi nivvanam. (192)

—The path" and the —result of (follwing) the path" these two things have been proclaimed in the discipline preached by the Jinas. Really "right faith‘ is the path and liberation is the result. (192)

Jina在他的学说中已经提到过解脱之路和解脱的结果这两个名词。实际上,正确的信仰就是解脱之路,而解脱就是其最终的结果。

 

Damsanananacarittani, mokkhamaggo tti sevidavvani.

Sadhuhi idam bhanidam, tehim du bandho va mokkho va. (193)

The faith, the knowledge and the conduct together constitute the path of liberation; this is

the path to be followed. The saints have said that if it is followed in the right way it will lead to liberation and otherwise it will lead to bondage. (193)

信仰、知识、以及行为共同构成了解脱之路;人们应当沿着这条路走下去。圣人们曾经说过,如果人们沿着正确的道路走下去,就能得到解脱,否则就会得到束缚。

 

Annanado nani, jadi mannadi suddhasampaogado.

Aavadi tti dukkhamokkham, parasamayarado havadi jivo. (194)

If a wise person ignorantly considers that by doing pure (i.e., religious) performance he will be free from sorrow then he is the follower of an alien view, i.e., wrong faith. (194)

如果一个智慧的人认为只是通过一些宗教的仪式他就能够从悲伤之中解脱,那么他的这种想法是错误的。

 

Avdasamidiguttio, silatavam jinavarehi pannattam.

Kuvvanto vi abhavvo, annani micchaditthi du. 195)

An abhavya Jiva (a soul inherently incapable of attaining liberation), even if he observes the five vows, the five types of vigilance, the three fold self-control, the code of morality and the various modes of austerities as laid down by the Jina, lacks right understanding and possesses wrong faith.

(195)

abhavya Jiva(一个天生不能够得到解脱的灵魂),即使他按照Jina的要求遵守五大誓言,三种警醒,三重自律,遵循道德的要求并过着简朴的生活,也不会有对教义正确的理解并一直有一种错误的信仰。

 

Nicchayavavaharasaruvam, jo rayanattayam na janai so.

Je kirai tam miccha-ruvam savvam jinuddittham. (196)

It is preached by the Jina that all the actions of a person who does not know the three jewels from the empirical and real points of view, are wrong. (196)

Jina说,凡是不能够从经验主义与实验主义的角度来了解三大要旨的人的行为都是错误的。

 

Saddahadi ya pattedi ya, rocedi ya taha puno ya phasedi.

Dhammam bhoganimittam, na du so kammakkhayanimittam. (197)

An abhavya Jiva, even if he develops faith in the religion, has confidence in it has a liking for it and performs it, does all this for the sake of attaining some worldly enjoyment and not for the sake of annihilating his karmas. (197)

abhavya Jiva,即使他遵照佛教的信仰,相信它、喜欢它、实现它,也只是为了得到世间的欢愉而不是为了毁灭因果报应。

 

Suhaparinamo punnam, asuho pava tti bhaniyamannesu.

Parinamo nanagado, dukkhakkhayakaranam samaye. (198)

An auspicious disposition towards worldly gain secures merit (punya) while an inauspicious disposition towards worldly gain acquires sin (papa) but one, who remains undisturbed by alien things and enjoys one‘s own pure nature, can put an end to one‘s misery. (198)

对世间财物的一种吉祥的态度能够获得美德,而对世间财物的不幸的态度则会带来罪恶。一

个不会被他的对手所扰乱并能够沉浸于自己纯洁的品质中的人,能够从痛苦中解脱。

 

Punnam pi jo samicchadi, samsaro tena ighido hodi.

Punnam sugaihedum, punnakhaeneva nivvanam. (199)

He who aspires for merit, i.e. worldly well being, aspires for life in this mundane world; merit (punya) is capable of securing a pleasant state of existence; but it is cessation of merits (punya Karma) only that leads to liberation. (199)

一个对于价值热切渴望的人,例如在世间舒适的生活,对世俗世界中的生命热切渴望的人,能够得到一种舒适的生存状态;但是他却丧失了能够通向解脱的优良品质。

 

Kammamasuham kusilam, suhakammam cavi jana va susilam.

Kaha tam hodi susilam, jam samsaram pavesedi. (200)

Know that an inauspicious Karma (results in) misery while an auspicious Karma in (worldly) happiness; but how can it be said that auspicious Karma results in happiness when it leads to mundane existence? (200)

不幸的因果报应来自于痛苦,幸福的因果报应来自于欢乐。但是虽然幸福的因果报应来自于欢乐,但它却将人们带向世俗的生活。

 

Sovanniyam pi niyalam, bandhadi kalayasam pi jaha purisam.

Bandhadi evam jivam, suhamasuham va kadam kammam. (201)

Just as fetter whether made of iron or gold binds a person similarly Karma whether auspicious (punya) or inauspicious (Papa) binds the soul. (201)

就像脚镣一样,不论它是铁制的还是黄金制的,都会束缚一个人;同样,不论是幸福的因果报应还是不幸的因果报应都会束缚灵魂。

 

Tamha du kusilehim ya, rayam ma kunah ma va samsaggam.

Sahino hi vinaso, kusilasamsaggarayena. (202)

Therefore, do not develop attachment for or association with either of them. One loses one‘s freedom by attachment to or association with what is evil. (202)

因此,不要受到因果报应的影响。一个人一旦受到罪恶事物的影响后就会失去他的自由。

 

Varam vayatavehi saggo, ma dukkham hou nirai iyarehim.

Chayatavatthiyanam, labbhai bohi na bhavvanua. (203)

Though it is better to attain heaven by observing vows and penances than to suffer misery in hell by doing evil. There is great difference between one who stands in shade and the other standing in the sun. (203)

尽管通过遵守誓言和苦修达到天堂要远好于因为犯下罪恶而在地狱中承受痛苦。但是就像站在太阳下的不同位置一样(阴影中或者其他位置),这里面还是有很大的差别。

 

Khayaramaramanuya-karanjali-malahim ca santhuya viula.

Cakkahararayalacchi, labbhai bohi na bhavvanua. (204)

Through merit (punya karma) one may attain cakravarti-hood (i.e. supreme kingship) where great honour is bestowed on one by the Vidyadharas (demigods), gods and men through praising with folded hands and offering of garlands, but certainly he will not attain the right understanding braised by a bhavya (i.e., soul fit for salvation) (204)

通过吉祥的因果报应,通过赞美时合十的双手以及人们所敬献的花环,一个人能够获得至上

的权利,无尽的尊敬;但是他肯定不会领悟到对灵魂的拯救。

 

Tattha thicca jahathanam, jakkha aukkhae cuya.

Uventi manusam jonim, sedasamge‘bhijayae. (205)

The men of merit (punyatma) after enjoying his divine status in heaven at the end of his life span will be born as a human being with ten types of worldly enjoyment. (205)

具有吉祥的因果报应的人在享受了天堂中神一样的礼遇后,在他生命最后的阶段,他会带着十种世间的欢乐降生在人间。

 

Bhocca manussae bhoe, appadiruve ahauyam.

Puvvam visuddhasaddhamme, kevalam bohi bujjhiya.

Caurangam dullajham matta, samjamam padivajjiya.

Tavasa dhuyakammamse, siddhe havai sasae. (206 & 207)

After having experienced for the entire life incomparable enjoyments appropriate to human beings one attains the ritght-understanding that leads to emancipation on account of the religious perfor-mances undertaken by one in one‘s earlier births. Having realized that four things (viz.human birth, listening to scriptures, having faith in scriptures, appropriate practical endeavour) are difficult to at-tain, one observes self-restraint and having annihilated one‘s past karmans through penance, one becomes for ever a soul emancipated. (206 & 207)

经历了世间无尽的欢愉之后,由于在刚出生时的宗教的行为,人们能够得到对解脱的正确的领悟。在参透了人的出生、聆听典籍、信仰典籍以及合适的修行是难以实现的之后,人们就开始了自律并通过修行来破除往昔的因果报应,这样他就会成为一个永远解脱的灵魂。