Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Prayer (Prarthana)
Mangalasutra
  Jinasasanasutra
  Sanghasutra
 

Nirupanasutra

  Samsaracakrasutra 
  Karmasutra
  Mithyatvasutra
 

Raga-pariharasutra

  Dharmasutra
  Samyamasutra
  Aparigrahasutra
  Ahimsasutra
 

Apramadasutra

  Siksasutra
  Atmasutra
  Moksamargasutra
  Ratnatrayasutra
  Samyag-Darsana-Sutra
  Samyagjnanasutra
  Samyakcaritrasutra
  Sadhanasutra
  Dvividha Dharmasutra
  Sravakadharmasutra
  Sramanadharmasutra
  Vratasutra
  Samiti-Guptisutra
  Avasyakasutra
  Tapasutra
  Dhyanasutra
  Anupreksasutra
  Lesyasutra
  Atmavikasasutra (Gunasthana)
  Samlekhanasutra
  Tattvasutra
  Dravysutra
  Srstisutra
  Anekantasutra
  Pramanasutra
  Nayasutra
  Syadvada Va Saptabhangisutra
  Samanvayasutra
  Niksepasutra
  Samapana
  Virastavana
 

SamanSuttam

23. Sravakadharmasutra

PRECEPTS ON HOUSEHOLDERS‘S RELIGION 关于百姓的宗教

Sampattadamsanai, paidiyaham jaijana sunei ya.

Samayarim paramam jo, khalu tam savagam bimti. (301)

He is called a Sravaka (householder) who, being endowed with right faith, listens every day to the preachings of the monks about right conduct. (301)

一个拥有正确的信仰、每日聆听僧侣关于正确行为的教导的百姓就是Sravaka

 

Pamcumvarasahiyam, satta vi visanai jo vivajjei.

Sammattavisuddhamai, so damsanasavao bhanio. (302)

A pious householder is one who has given up (eating) five udumbar-fruits (like banyan, Pipala, fig (Anjeer), kathumara and pakar), is free from seven vices and is called Darsana Sravaka, a man whose intellect is purified by right faith.(302)

一个虔诚的百姓不食用五种食品-(banyan, Pipala, fig (Anjeer), kathumara 以及 pakar),一个脱离了七种罪恶的人称为Darsana Sravaka。一个人的智慧能够由正确的信仰得以净化。

 

Itthi juyam majjam, migavva vayane taha farusaya ya.

Dandafarusattamatthassa dusanam satta vasanaim. (303)

The seven vices are: (1) sexual intercourse with other than one‘s own wife, (2) gambling, (3) drinking liquou (4) hunting, (5) harshness in speech, (6) harsh in punishment and (7) misappropriation of other‘s property. (303)

七种罪恶是:1、同其他人的妻子交媾,2、赌博,3、饮酒,4、捕猎,5、秽言,6、体罚,7、非法占有他人财产。

 

Mamsasanena vaddhai dappo dappena majjamahilasai.

Juyam pi ramai to tam, pi vannie paunai dose. (304)

Meat-eating increases pride, pride creates a desire for intoxicating drinks and pleasure in gambling; and thus springs up all aforesaid vices. (304)

食肉会引发傲慢,傲慢就会使人产生饮酒和赌博的欲望,这样就会渐渐引发前面所述的罪恶。

 

Loiyasatthammi vi, vanniyam jaha gayanagamino vippa.

Bhuvi mamsasanena padiya, tamha na paumjae mamsam. (305)

Scriptures of other religions have described that sages moving in air have fallen to the ground on eating meat; therefore meat-eating should be avoided. (305)

其他宗教的典籍曾经描述过圣人因为食肉而在空中飞行时跌落在地,因此,人们不应当食肉。

 

Mijjena naro avaso, kunai kammani nimdanijjam.

Ihaloe paraloe, anuhavai anamtayam dukkham. (306)

A person loses control over himself by drinking intoxicating liquors and commits many censurable deeds. He experiences endless miseries both in this world and in the next. (306)

人们饮酒后就会失去对自己的控制并会犯下错事。这样他就会在此生和来生承受无尽的痛苦。

 

Samvegajanidakarana, nissalla mamdaro vva nikkampa.

Jassa dadha jinabhatti, tassa bhayam natthi samsare. (307)

A person who has firm devotion towards Jina like the steady mountain Meru, inclination for renunciation and is free from defects of character (salya) will have no fear in this world. (307)

一个对Jina的虔诚像坚固的Meru山一样的人,向往同世俗世界脱离关系的人能够远离性格的缺陷,并在这个世界上毫无畏惧。

 

Sattu vi mittabhavam, jamha uvayai vinayasilassa.

Vinao tivihena tao, kayavvo desaviraena. (308)

Since even an enemy approaches a man of humility with friendliness, a house-holder must cultivate humility of three kinds: (in thought, speech and action). (308)

即使是敌人在接近平静之人时也会心怀友善,因此百姓必须培养三种平静(在思想中,言语中和行为上)。

 

Panivahamusavae, adattaparadaraniyamanehim ca.

Aparimiicchao vi ya, anuvvauyaim viramanaim. (309)

Injury to living beings (himsa), speaking falsehood, taking away a thing which is not given (theft), secual enjoyment with other than one‘s own wife (incontinence) and limitless desire for possession (parigraha)-abstinence from these acts are called (five) small vows. (309)

伤害生灵,说谎,偷窃,同他人妻子交媾,对财富无止境的追求-对这些行为的节制成为五小誓言。

 

Bandhavahacchavicchee, aibhare bhattapanavucchee.

Kohaidusiyamano, gomanuyaina no kujja. (310)

One should not tie, injure, mutilate, load heavy burdens and deprive from food and drink any animal or human being with a polluted mind by anger or other passions (these five) are the transgration (aticara) of the vow of Ahimsa. (310)

一个人不应当说谎、伤害、毁坏、给别人施加重压,心怀愤怒或者爱慕的夺取其他动物或者人类的食物和水,这些都违背了Ahimsa的誓言。

 

Thulamusavayassa u, virai duccam, sa pamcaha hoi.

Kannagobhu alliya-nasaharana-kudasakkhijje. (311)

Refraining from major type of falsefood is the second vow; this major type of falsehood is of five kinds; speaking untruth about unmarried girls, animals and land, repudiating debts or pledges and giving false evidence. (311)

不说谎话是第二个誓言;谎言主要分为五类;说关于未婚女子、动物与土地的谎话,掩饰债

务或者抵押品,作伪证。

 

Sahasa abbhakkhanam, rahasa ya sadaramamtabheyam ca.

Mosovaesayam, kudalehakaranam ca vajjijja. (312)

making a false charge rashly (or without consideration), divulging any one‘s secret, disclosing the secrets confided to by one‘s own wife, giving false advice and preparation of a false document or writing these should be avoided. (312)

轻易的责怪他人,泄漏他人的秘密,揭露他人的秘密,给出虚假的建议,伪造文书和作品,这些都应当避免。

 

Vajjijja tenahada-takkarajogam viruddharajjam ca.

Kudatulakudamanam, tappadiruvam ca vavaharam. (313)

One should desist from: buying stolen property, inciting another to commit theft, avoiding the rules of government, use of false weights and measures adulteration and preparation to counterfeit coins and notes. (313)

人们应当避免:购买偷窃而来的财产,鼓动他人偷盗,违背政府法令,采用不准确的度量衡和使用伪造的硬币和票据。

 

ittariyapariggahiya parigahiyagamananangakidam ca.

Paravivahakkaranam, kame tivvabhilasam ca. (314)

One should refrain from having intercourse with a woman kept by a vagabond or with one looked after by none, from committin unnatural sexual act, from arranging another‘s marriage (alternatively from marrying twice) and from intense desire for sexual act. (314)

人们应当避免同流浪的或者无人照料的女人交往,这样就能避免不必要的交媾,人们也应当避免安排他人的婚姻以及对交媾的向往。

 

Viraya pariggahao, aparimiao anamtatanhao.

Bahudosasamkulao, narayagaigamanapamthao.

Khittai hirannai dhanai dupayai kuviyagassa taha.

Sammam visuddhacitto, na pamanaikkamam kujja. (315 & 316)

Persons should refrain from accumulation of unlimited property due to unquenchable thirst (i.e. greed) as it becomes a pathway to hell and results in numerous faults. A righteous and pure-minded person should not exceed the self-imposed limit in the acquisition of lands, gold, wealth, servants, cattle, vessels and pieces of furniture. (315 & 316)

人们不应当因为自己的贪婪而不断的积累财务,这将通向地狱并带来无尽的过失。一个正直、纯粹的人应当限制自己对土地、黄金、财富、牲畜、船只以及财富的向往。

 

Bhavijja ya santosam, gahiyamiyanim ajanamanenam.

 Thovam puno na evan, gihinassamo tti cintijja. (317)

A person who has accepted the vow to limit the possessions should remain contented (with what he has). He should not think for himself, —This time I have resolved to possess a little (amount of property) unknowingly but in future I will not do that i. e. if it will be necessary I will accumulate more.

(317)

一个遵守誓言的人应当满足于自己目前的财富。他不应当只考虑他自己-我已经不知不觉地放弃了当前的财产,但是将来如果有可能的话我会积累更多。

Jam ca disaveramanam, anatthadandau jam ca veramanam.

Desavagasiyam pi ya, gunavvayaim bhave taim. (318)

Resolving not to ravel beyond the self-determined limits of ten directions (digvrata), refraining from purposeless activities (Anarthadandaviramanavrata) and resolving not to cross the fixed regional boundaries for the purpose of sensuous enjoyments (desavakasika) these are three gunavratas (i. e., the three meritorious vows). (318)

Gunavratas(三条有价值的誓言)是:不超出自己划定的界限;不做一些无目的的行为;不为了自己感观上的快乐而去跨越制定的界限

 

Uddhamahe tiriyam pi ya, disasu parimanakaranamiha padhamam.

Bhaniyam gunavvayam khalu, savagadhammammi virena. (319)

Lord Mahavira has said that the first Gunavrata in the religion of a householder is digvrata, accoring to which one should limit his activities (for the purpose of business and enjoyment of the senses, etc.) to certain regional boundaries in the upward, lower and oblique direction. (319)

Mahavira曾经说过,百姓的宗教中首要的Gunavrata就是digvrata,根据他的教义,人们应当在一定的区域内限制自己的行为。

 

Vayabhangakaranam hoi, jammi desammi tattha niyamena.

Kirai gamananiyatti, tam jano gunavvayam vidiyam. (320)

Know that the second Gunavrata (desavakasika gunavrata) is not to visit any particular geographical region where there is possibility of voilation of an accepted vow (i. e. to cross the fixed regional boundaries for the purpose of sensuous enjoyment). (320)

第二个Gunavrata就是不要去访问任何有可能发生暴力的地方(例如,穿越国界以获取感官上的愉悦)

 

Virai anatthadande, taccam, sa cauvviho avajjhano.

Pamayayariya himsappayana pavovaese ya. (321)

The third gunavrata consists in refraining from a futile voilent act which might be one of the four-types, viz. (1) entertaining evil thought, (2) negligent behaviour, (3) lending to someone an instrument of violence and (4) advising someone to commit a sinful act. (321)

第三个gunavrata在于戒除细微的暴力行为,这些暴力的行为可能有四种形态,1、邪恶的想法,2、大意的行为,3、借给别人施暴的器械,4、建议别人实施罪恶的行为。

 

Atthena tam na bamdhai, jamanatthenam tu thovabahubhava.

 Atthe kalaiya, niyamaga na u anatthae. (322)

Meaningful activities (of himsa etc.) do not cause so much bondage as useless activities, The meaningful activities (of himsa etc.) are only performed under some circumstances (i.e. the needs of time etc.) but it is not the case of useless activities. (322)

有意义的行为不会像无用的行为一样造成太多的束缚。有意义的行为只会在特定的情况下产生,但是这些并不适用于无用的行为。

 

Kandappam kukkuiyam, mohariyam samjuyahigaranam ca.

Uvabhogaparibhoga-ireyagayam cittha vijjai. (323)

A person observing the vow of (Anarthanda viramana) should refrain from amorous activities, mimicry, abusive talk, garrulity, keeping instruments and weapons of violence, excessive sexual enjoyment and possessing in excess the things of daily requirement.

(323)

能够遵循誓言的人应当戒除过多的动作、模仿、辱骂、饶舌、持有施暴的器械或者武器,过多的色欲以及占有过多的财物。

 

Bhoganam parisamkha, samaiya-atihisamvibhago ya.

Posahavihi ya savvo, cauro sikkhau vuttao. (324)

Setting limit to the consumable and unconsumable objects of sensuous enjoyment, practising the mental equanimity (Samayika), offering food etc. to the monks, guests and other needy persons and performing fast along with the religious set called pausadha, all these are known as four disciplinary vows. (324)

限制使用各种满足色欲物品,保持精神上的平静,向僧侣、客人以及其他需要的人提供食物,迅速的效法宗教行为,所有的这些都称为四大戒律誓言。

 

Vajjinamanamtagumbari, accamganam ca bhogao manam.

Kammayao kharakamma-iyana avaram imam bhaniyam. (325)

The first disciplinary vow (i. e. bhogapabhoga viramana) is of two types, viz., that in respect of enjoyment and that in respect of occupation. The former consists in refrainment from eating the infinite souled vegetables (i.e. bulbous roots), fruit containing microscopic organism which are called udumbaras and flesh etc., the second is refrainment from such trades and industries which involves violence and other sinful acts. (325)

第一个戒律誓言分为两类,一个是关于享乐,一个关于财产。前者在于不能食用太多有灵魂的蔬菜(例如,球状根的蔬菜)以及带有微生物的水果;第二个戒律誓言是应当戒除会导致暴力以及其他罪恶行为的贸易以及产业。

 

Savajjajogaparirakkhanattha, samaiyam kevaliyam pasattham, Gihatthadhamma paraqmam ti nacca, kujja buho ayahiyam parattha. (326)

Aimed at refrainment from sinful acts, the only auspicious religious act is samayika. Hence consider-ing it to be something superior to a householder‘s ordinary acts, an intelligent person ought to per-form samayika for the sake of one‘s own welfare.(326)

为了戒除罪恶的行为,唯一吉祥的宗教活动就是samayika。因此,考虑到这是高于一般百姓寻常行为的活动,因此普通人为了自己的福祉应当samayika

 

Samaiyammi u kae, samano iva savao havai jamha.

Eena karanenam, bahuso samaiyam kujja. (327)

While observing the vow of Samayika (i. e., refraining from sinful acts and practice for mental equanimity) a householder becomes equal to a saint; for reason, he should observe it many times (in a day). (327)

当遵守samayika的誓言的时候(例如戒除罪恶的行为,实现精神上的平静),寻常人就会跟圣人一样;正因为如此,人们应当每天多次samayika

 

Samaiyam ti kaum, paricimtam jo u cimtai saddho.

 Attavasattovagao, niratthayam tassa samaiyam. (328)

If a householder thinks of other worldly matters (than his self) while practising samayika, he will become engrossed in distressful concentration; his samayika will be fruitless. (328)

如果一个在履行samayika时想到世间的事物,那么他就会陷入苦恼,他的samayika也会毫无

意义。

 

Aharadehasakkara-bambha vavaraposaho ya nam.

Dese savve ya imam, carame samaiyam niyama. (329)

Posadhopavas involves abstinence from food, from embellishment of the body, from sexual union and from violence. It is of two types, viz., partial and total and performing posadha of the latter type one must necessarily perform samayika. (329)

Posadhopavas需要节食,不化妆,不性交,不施暴。它分为两类,部分的和完全的,后者需要履行samayika

 

Annainam suddhanam, kappanijjana desakalajuttam.

Danam jainamuciyam, gihina sikkhavayam bhaniyam. (330)

A householder who offers pure food etc. to the monks in a proper manner and according to the rules and the needs of place and time, observes the fourth disciplinary vow (called Atithisamvibhaga).

(330)

为僧侣有礼貌地提供干净的食物,在规定的时间和地点遵守教条的百姓就遵守了第四条戒律誓言。

 

Aharosaha-satthabhaya-bheo jam cauvviham danam.

Tam vuccai dayavvam, nidditthamuvasayajjhayane. (331)

Donation is of four types, viz., that of food, that of medicine, that of scriptural teaching, that of assurance against fear. And in the scriptural text "Upasakadhyayana‘ this fourfold donation is declared worthy of performance. (331)

捐赠分为四类:捐赠食品,捐赠药品,捐赠典籍,提供担保。在"Upasakadhyayana"的经文中,这四类捐赠是高尚的行为。

 

Danam bhoyanamettam, dijjai dhanno havei sayaro.

pattapattavisesam, samdamsane kim viyarena. (332)

A householder, who gives food in charity becomes praise-worthy, what is the good of inquiring about the fitness or unfitness of the person receiving the charity? (332)

一个老百姓,能够心怀慈悲的提供食物就是值得称颂的,一个能得到怜悯的人是多么的幸福啊。

 

Sahunam kappanijjam, jam na vi dinnam kahim pi kimci tahim.

Dhira jahuttakari, susavaya tam na bhumjamti. (333)

The pious householders who are prudent and have good conduct as per scriptures, do not take food in a house where no charity of any kind is ever given to a monk. (333)

虔诚的百姓是谨慎的,而且具有典籍上所描述的良好的行为,他们不会在从来不向僧侣布施的房子中取食。

 

Jo munibhuttavisesam, bhumjai so bhumjae jinuvadittham.

Samsarasarasokkham, kamaso nivvanvarasokkham. (334)

He, who eats which is left after a monk has taken food, enjoys the best worldly happiness and will gradually obtain the bliss of emancipation. This is the preaching of the Jina. (334)

Jina说,如果一个人能够吃到僧侣剩下的食物,就能够得到时间最大的欢乐,并会逐渐得到

解脱的祝福。

 

Jam kirai parirakkha, niccam marana-bhayabhiru-jivanam.

Tam jana abhayadanam, sihamanim savvadananam. (335)

Know that giving protection always to living beings who are in fear of death is known as abhayadana, supreme amongst all charities. (335)

向受到死亡恐惧的生物提供保护就是abhayadana,它是最高级别的慈悲。