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SamanSuttam

24. Sramanadharmasutra

PRECEPTS ON RELIGION OF MONKS 关于僧侣的信仰

(A) SAMATA Equanimity 平静

Samano tti samjado tti ya, risi muni sadhu tti vidarago tti.

Namani suvihidanam, anagara bhadamta damto tti. (336)

Sramana, Samyata, Rsi, Muni, Sadhu, Vitaraga, Anagara, Bhadanta and Danta, these are designations used for monks with ideal behaviours. (336)

Sramana, Samyata, Rsi, Muni, Sadhu, Vitaraga, Anagara, Bhadanta 以及 Danta,这些都是具有完美行为僧侣的称呼。

Siha-gaya-vasaha-miya-pasu, maruda-suruvahi-mamdarimdu-mani. Khidi-uragamvarasarisa, parama-paya-vimaggaya sahu. (337)

Monks who are in search of the supreme path of liberation, resembel a lion (in fearlessness), an elephant (in dignity), a bull (in strength), a deer (in uprightness), a beast (in freedom from attachment), the wind (in being companionless), the sun (in brilliance), an ocean (in serenity), the Mandara Mountain (in firmness) the moon (in coolness), a diamond (in lustre), the earth (in patience), a serpent (in being houseless) and the sky (in not being dependent). (337)

一个寻求解脱之路的僧侣就像一头狮子(无畏)、大象(高贵)、公牛(力量)、鹿(正直)、野兽(没有爱恋之情)、风(独处)、太阳(光辉)、海洋(平静)、Mandara山(稳固)、月亮(冷静)、钻石(光彩)、大地(忍耐)、毒蛇(没有家)、天空(独立)。

 

Bahave ime asahu, loe vuccamti sahuno.

Na lave asahum sahu tti, sahum sahu tti alave. (338)

In this world, there are many ill-behaved monks who are called monks; a pseudo-monk should not be called a monk; but a true monk alone must be called a monk. (338)

在这个世界上,有许多僧侣举止不端,他们不应当被称为僧侣,但是一个品行高尚的僧侣是真正的僧侣。

 

Nanadamsanasampannam, samjame ya tave rayam.

Evamgunasamauttam, samjayam sahumalave. (339)

A person who is endowed with (Right) knowledge and (Right) Faith, is engaged in self-restraint and penance, and is endowed truly with all these virtues, should be called a monk. (339)

一个被赋予了知识和信仰的人,能够坚持自律和修行,并被赋予了所有其他的优点,这才能被称为真正的僧侣。

 

Na vi mundiena samano, na omkarena bambhano.

Na muni rannavasenam, kusairena na tavaso. (340)

A person does not become a monk by merely shaving his head, a Brahmin by repeating the Omkara mantra, a monk by residing in a forest, nor a hermit by wearing garments woven of darbha grass.

(340)

如果一个人只是剃度不会成为僧侣,同样的,Brahmin只是反复诵读Omkara的咒语,一个僧侣只是住在森林中,或者隐士只是穿着darbha草编织的衣服,都不会成为僧侣。

 

Samayae samano hoi, bambhacerena bambhano.

Nanena ya muni hoi, tavena hoi tavaso. (341)

A person becomes a Stramana by equanimity, a Brahmin by his celibacy, a Muni by his knowledge and an ascetic by his austerities. (341)

一个平静的人能够成为Stramana,同样的,Brahmin通过独身生活,Muni通过他的知识,禁欲主义者通过简朴的生活都能成为Stramana

 

Gunehi sahu agunehisahu, ginhahi sahuguna mumcasahu.

Viyaniya appagamappaenam, jo ragadosehim samo sa pujjo. (342)

A person becomes a monk by his virtues and a pseudo-monk by absence of virtues; therefore master all the virutes of a monk and be free from all the vices of a pseudo-monk; conquer your self through the self. He who possesses equanimity in the face of attachments and hatred is worthy of veneration. (342)

一个人通过发扬美德能够成为僧侣,如果他缺少美德就是一个假冒的僧侣;因此,人们要掌握成为僧侣的所有美德,摒弃假冒僧侣的所有恶习;通过自我来控制自己。一个面对爱恋和仇恨时都能够保持平静的人是值得崇拜的。

 

Dehadisu anuratta, visayasatta kasayasamjutta.

Appasahave sutta, te sahu sammaparicatta. (343)

Those monks who are attached to their body, addicted to sensual pleasures, possessed of passions, and asleep in respect of their own nature are certainly devoid of righteousness. (343)

那些热衷于自己的身体,沉溺于色欲,具有爱恋之情,漠视他们自己本质的僧侣必定缺乏正直。

 

Bahum sunei kannehim, bahum acchihim pecchai.

Na ya dittham suyam savvam, bhikkhu akkhaumarihai. (344)

A monk hears much through his ears and sees much with his eyes; but everything that he has seen and heard does not deserve to be narrated. (344)

一个僧侣通过他的耳朵和眼睛获取了很多信息,但是并不是所有的信息都是值得叙述的。

 

Sajjhayajjhanajutta, rattim na suyamti te payamam tu.

Suttattham cimtamita, niddaya vasam na gacchamti. (345)

The monks do not sleep long at night as they are engaged in studying of scriptures and

meditation. They do not fall asleep as they are always reflecting on the meaning of precepts. (345)

僧侣在夜间不会睡得太久,因为他们专注于研习典籍和冥思。他们不会沉睡过去因为他们经常会思考教义的内涵。

 

Nimmamo nirahamkaro, nissamgo cattagaravo.

Samo ya savvabhuesu, tasesu thavaresu a. (346)

The (real) monks are free from attachment, self-conceit, companionship and egotism, they treat impartially and equally all living beings, whether mobile or immobile. (346)

真正的僧侣没有爱恋,自大,友情或者个人主义,他们平等的对待众生。

 

Labhalabhe suhe dukkhe, jivie marane taha.

Samo nindapasamsasu, taha manavamanao. (347)

A real monk maintains his equanimity, in success and failure, happiness and misery, life and death, censure and praise and honour and disnhonour. (347)

真正的僧侣会始终保持平静,不论成功还是失败,欢乐还是痛苦,生或死,非难还是赞扬,荣誉还是不敬。

 

Garavesu kasaesu, dandasallabhaesu ya.

Niyatto hasasogao, aniyano abandhano. (348)

He is thoroughly unaffected by honour, passions, punishment, affliction and fear; he is undisturbed and unbound and free from laughter and sorrow.(348)

他完全不受荣誉、热情、惩罚、痛苦以及恐惧的影响,他不受任何事物的扰乱与约束,并从欢笑与伤心中解脱。

 

Anissio iham boe, paraloe anissio.

Vasicandanakappo ya, asane anasane taha. (349)

He is neither interested in this world nor in the next. He is indifferent to food or fasts. He does not mind whether his limb is smeared with Sandal paste or cut off with an axe. (349)

他对今生与来生都不感兴趣。他也不关心食物或者斋戒。他也不介意他的四肢是被檀香弄脏或者被斧子切断。

 

Appasatthehim darehim, savvao pihiyasavo.

Ajjhappajjhanajogehim, pasatthadamasasane. (350)

In this way, a monk prevents the influx of Karmas through inauspicious doors (i.e., ways) of every king and becomes engrossed in his rigorous self-contorl and discipline through his spiritual meditaion.

(350)

这样,僧侣就能够摆脱因果报应的束缚,并通过沉思,完全专注于他们严格的自律中。

 

Khuham pivasam dussejjam, siunham araim bhayam.

Ahiyase avvahio, dehe dukkham maha halam. (351)

He must bear without any pang hunger, thirst, uncomfortable ground for sleep, cold, heat, uneasiness and fear. Motification of body is most fruitful. (351)

他们必须忍受饥饿、干渴、不舒服的睡眠场所、寒冷、炎热、不安与恐惧。禁欲就是最大的

成果。

 

Aho niccam tavokammam, savvabuddhehim vanniyam.

Jaya lajjasama vitti, egabhattam ca bhoyanam. (352)

Oh: all learned men have said that in order to observe penance constantly, it is necessary always to maintain self-restraint and to take food only once a day. (352)

哦,所有有学识的人都说过,为了持续的修行,应当不断的自律,每天只进一餐。

 

Kim kahadi vanavaso, kayakaleso vicitta uvavaso.

Ajjhayanamonapahudi, samadarahiyassa samanassa. (353)

What is the use of residing in a lonely place, mortification of body, different types of fasting, study of scriptures, keeping silence etc., to a monk who is devoid of equanimity? (353)

对于一个缺乏平静的僧侣来说,独居、禁欲、禁食、研习典籍、保持沉默又有什么意义呢?

 

Buddhe parinivvude care, gama gae nagare va samjae.

Samtimaggam ca buhae, samayam Goyama! ma pamayae. (354)

The enlightened and desisted monk should control himself; whether he be in a village or a town, and he should preach to all the road of peace; O‘Gautama!, be careful all the while. (354)

一个受到启发的、自律的僧侣应当控制自己;不论他是在乡村还是在城镇,他应当告诫所有通向和平的道路- 哦,Gautama,永远要保持清醒。

 

Na hu jine ajja dissai, bahumae dissai magadesie.

Sampai neyaue pahe, samayam Goyama! ma pamayae. (355)

In future people will say —No Jinas are seen these days, while those proclaiming the path of spiritual progress hold divergent views; now being on the right path, O‘Gautama! be careful all the while?

(355)

将来,当僧侣们宣称的解脱之路发生分歧时,人们会说- 我们现在已经看不到Jina了;现在就走到正确的道路上吧,哦,Gautama,永远要保持清醒。

 

(B) VESA-LINGA External Appearance Or Distinguishing Marks 外表或者有区别的标记

Veso vi appamano, asanjamapaesu vattamanassa.

Kim pariyattiyavesam, visam na marei khajjamtam. (356)

Apparel is no proof of a person‘s being self-controlled; for, does not a person without self-control wear the same dress? Does not poison kill a person who swallows it, even if he changes his dress?

(356)

服饰并不能够说明一个人的自律,因为没有自律的人们也可以同自律的人们穿着相同的衣服。如果一个人更换了他的衣服,他就不会被毒死了吗?

 

Paccayattham ca logassa, nanavihavigappanam.

Jattattham gahanattham ca, loge limgapaoyanam. (357)

 

People wear various kinds of dresses to win the confidence of others. A distinguishing

mark is useful to a person who is self-restrained to show the people that he is a monk. (357)

人们穿着各式各样的衣服是为了赢得他人的尊重。对于自律的人的最有特点的标记就是- 他是一个僧侣。

 

Pasandilimgani va, gihilimgani va bahuppayarani.

Ghittum vadamti mudha, limgaminam mokkhamaggo tti. (358)

Fools put on various types of insignia of false ascetics or householders and maintain that this outer mark provides the path to liberation. (358)

愚蠢的人为自己戴上各式各样的禁欲的徽章,然后声称,这些能够为他提供解脱之路。

 

Pulleva mutthi jaha se asare ayantie kudakahavane va.

Radhamani veruliyappagase, amahagghae hoi ya janaesu. (359)

He, who is devoid of strength like a hollow fist, is untested like a false coin and a bead of glass shining like a diamond, will have no respect from the wise who know the truth. (359)

一个没有力量的人就像一个空的拳头,就像一枚伪造的硬币,就像一颗闪着钻石光芒的玻璃,他永远不会从了解真相的智者那里得到尊重。

 

Bhavo hi padhamalimgam, na davvalimgam ca jana paramattham.

Bhavo karanabhudo, gunadosanam jina bimti. (360)

Know that it is the mental state and not the dress that is the first distinguishing mark of spirituality. Jinas state that it is the mental state that is the cause of virtues and vices. (360)

精神状态,而不是衣着,是对人精神最重要的标记。Jina说,人的精神状态是美德与罪恶的根源。

 

Bhavavisuddhinimittam, bahiragamthassa kirae cao.

Bahiracao vihalo, abbhamtaragamthajuttassa. (361)

Renunciation of external possessions is the cause of mental purity. Renunciation of external possessions is futile if it is not combined with internal resolve of non-attachment. (361)

精神的纯洁源于同外界财物的脱离,但如果内心还有爱恋的话,那么同外界财物的脱离是没有意义的。

 

Parinamammi asuddhe, gamthe mumcei bahire ya jai.

bahiragamthaccao, bhavavihunassa kim kunai? (362)

If a monk who is of impure mentality renounces all external possessions, what can such renunciation do to one who is devoid of appropriate mental condition? (362)

如果一个精神不纯洁的僧侣同外界的财物脱离关系,那么这对一个精神不纯洁的僧侣来说有什么意义呢?

 

Dehadisamgarahio, manakasaehim sayalaparicatto.

Appa appammi rao, sa bhavalimgi have sahu. (363)

One, who is unattached to his body, is entirely free from passions like pride etc. and possessed of a soul which is engrossed in itself, is a real monk. (363)

一个脱离了自己身体的人,就完全能够从傲慢中解脱,他就有一颗完全专注的心灵,他是一个真正的僧侣。