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SamanSuttam

25. Vratasutra

THE PRECEPTS ON VOWS 关于誓言

Ahimsa saccam ca atenagam ca, tatto ya bambham apariggaham ca.

Padivajjiya pamca mahavvayani, carijja dhammam jinadesiyam viu. (364)

A wise monk, after adopting the five great vows of non-voilence, truthfulness, non-stealing, celibacy and non-possessiveness, should practise the religion preached by the Jina. (364)

一个智慧的僧侣在信奉了五大誓言(非暴力、坦率、不偷窃、独居、无财产)之后,就应当遵循Jina的教义。

 

Nissallasseva puno, mahavvadaim havamti savvam.

Vadamuvahammadi tihim du, nidanmicchattamayahim. (365)

A monk, who is free from the thorns of character (salya) really observes (five) great vows; the vows become ineffective due to three thorns of character, i. e., desire for worldly return for ones good acts, wrong faith and deceit. (365)

能够摆脱性格弱点的僧侣才能够遵守五大誓言。由于人格的弱点(例如渴望善行的回报、错误的信仰和谎言),誓言会变得毫无效果。

 

Agania jo mukkhasuham, kunai nianam asarasuhaheum.

So kayamanikaenam, veruliyamanim panasei. (366)

He, who harbours desire for worthless worldly pleasures and disregard for bliss of emancipation, is like a person who destroys a (real) gem for a (glittering) piece of glass. (366)

一个对世间欢愉怀有渴望而不在乎解脱的人就像一个打碎宝物而只取其中一块发光的玻璃一样。

 

Kulajonijivamaggana-thanaisu janiuna jivanam.

Tassarambhaniyattana, parinamo hoi padhamavadam. (367)

Mental state of the form of refrainment from killing living beings after having knowledge of them in respect of their species-of-birth, place-of-birth, peculiarities and (marganasthana) this is called the first vow (viz, non-killing). (367)

第一个誓言就是在认识到他们的种族、出生地和特点之后不杀生。

 

Savvesimasamanam, hidayam gabbho va savvasatthanam.

Savvesim vadagunanam, pimdo saro ahimsa hu. (368)

Ahimsa is the heart of all stages of like, the core of all sacred texts, and the sun (pinda) and substance (sara) of all vows and virtues. (368)

不杀生是所有喜爱的核心,所有圣文的宗旨,所有誓言和美德最光辉、最本质的地方。

 

Appanattha parattha va, koha va jai va bhaya.

Himsagam na musam buya, no vi annam vayavae. (369)

One should not speak or excite others to speak harmful false words, either in the interest of oneself or of another, through anger or fear. (369)

一个人不能说或者鼓动他人说有害的、虚假的言语,不论是为了自己还是为了他人,心怀愤怒还是恐惧。

 

Game va nayare va, ranne va pecchiuna paramattham.

Jo mumcadi gahanabhavam, tidiyavadam hodi tasseva. (370)

He, who desists from a desire to take anything belonging to others, on seeing it lying in a village or town or forest, observes the third vow of non-stealing. (370)

一个能够不拿取他人物品(不论是在农村、乡镇还是森林中)的人,就是遵守第三条誓言(不偷窃)。

 

Cittamamtamacittam va, appam va jai va bahum.

Damtasohanamettam pi, oggahamsi ajaiya. (371)

Nothing whether animate or inanimate, whether cheap or dear, nay, not even a tooth-brushing piece-of-stick (is to be taken) without being asked for, while staying at a place fixed for residence. (371)

当在一个地方居住时,在没有得到允许的情况下不应当拿取任何物品,不论他是有生命的还是没生命的,贵或者贱,即使它是一个牙刷或者一根木棒。

 

Aibhumim na gacchejja, goyaraggagao muni.

Kulassa bhumim janitta, miyam bhumim parakkame. (372)

A monk set out on a begging-tour should not go beyond the prescribed limit of land; thus having prior monks to beg for alms, he should wander around in a limited area of land. (372)

一个苦行僧不应当走出已经指定的土地的界限,因此他应当在一个有限土地区域内请求布施。

 

Mulameamahammassa, mahadosasamussayam.

Tamha mehunasamsaggim, niggamtha vajjayamti nam. (373)

Since sexual intercourse is the root of all irreligiosity and is of the form of a massive accumulation of great defects, the monks invariably refrain there from. (373)

色欲违背宗教的根源,也是所有过失积累的根源,因此僧侣应当远离它。

 

Madusudabhagini viya, datthunitthittiyam ya padiruvam.

Itthikahadiniyatti, tiloyapujjam have bambham.(374)

When you come across the three forms of women, see in them the reflections of a mother, a daughter and sister (according to their age) and refrain from telling the stories about women; celibacy becomes worthy of veneration in all the three worlds. (374)

当你从一群女人中走过时,依据他们的年龄把她想象成你的母亲、女儿或者姐妹,避免谈论关于女人的故事。独居在三个世界中都会得到尊重。

 

Savvesim gamthanam, tago niravekkhabhavanapuvvam.

Pamcamavadamidi bhanidam, carittabharam vahamtassa. (375)

The fifth great vow for monks who are the followers of right conduct, is renunciation of attachments for all things with a dispassionate mind. (375)

第五条誓言就是说,作为具有正确行为的僧侣,他们应当平静的放弃对所有事物的爱恋。

 

Kim kimcantti takkam, apunabbhavakaminodha dehe vi.

Samga tti jinavarimda, nippadikammattamuddittha. (376)

What is the use of further argument to those who do not desire to be reborn? The supreme Jina has advised that they should not have attachment even for their body and should refrain from beautifying their bodies. (376)

对于不希望获得重生的人来说,跟他们争论又有什么意义呢?Jina说,他们应当摆脱爱恋,即使是对自己的身体,也不应当装扮自己的身体。

 

Appadikuttham uyvadhim, apatthanijjam asamjadajanehim.

Mucchadijananarahidam, genhadu samano jadi vi appam. (377)

A monk can keep only such things which are necessary for the observance of vratas and are not desired by worldly people and are incapable of creating any attachment; anything that may create even a slight attachment is unacceptable to a monk. (377)

僧侣只能携带有助于遵守誓言的必需品,这些物品不会被世间众人所喜欢,也不会产生爱恋。任何可能产生些许爱恋的物品对僧侣来说都是不适宜的。

 

Ahare va vihare, desam kalam samam khamam uvadhim.

Janitta te samano, vattadi jadi appalevi so. (378)

If in connection with his eating and touring, a monk acts taking into consideration the place, time, needed labour, his own capacity, requisite implements; there would be little bondage of karmas.

(378)

如果一个僧侣应当他吃饭以及苦行的地点、时间、需要的劳力、必须的器皿,这不会受到因果报应的束缚。

 

Na so pariggaho vutto, nayaputtena taina.

Muccha pariggaho vutto, ii vuttam mahesina. (379)

Jnataputra (Bhagavan Mahavira) has said that an object itself is not possessiveness; what that great saint has said is that attachment to an object is possessiveness. (379)

Jnataputra说,一个物品本身并不会产生占有欲,圣人说,对物品的喜爱就是占有欲。

 

Sannihim ca na kuvvajja, levamayae samjae.

Pakkhi pattam samadaya, niravekkho parivvae. (380)

A monk should not collect anything, not even as little as a particle of food sticking to his alms-bowl, as a bird flies away only with its wings so he should wander alone without having any means. (380)

一个僧侣不应当收集任何物品,即便是粘在他碗上的饭粒也不例外,就像一只小鸟只是利用它的翅膀来逃遁一样,这样他就会独自进行思考。

 

Samtharasejjasanabhattapane, appicchaya ailabhe vi samte.

Evapmapanabhitosaejja, samtosapahannarae sa pujjo. (381)

Even when blankets, beds, seats, food and drink are abailable in plenty, a monk who desires only a little and remains self-contented is worthy of adoration. (381)

即使有足够的毯子、床、座位、食物和水,一个只是需要很少量的,坚持修行的僧侣是值得尊敬的。

 

Atthamgayammi aicce, purattha a anuggae.

Aharamaiyam savvam, manasa vi na patthae. (382)

A monk should not desire enen in his mind for food, after sun-set and before sun-rise. (382)

在太阳升起之前和太阳落下之后,在僧侣的思想中不应当出现食物。

 

Samtime suhuma pana, tasa aduva thavara.

Jaim rao apasamto, kahamesaniyam care? (383)

There are innumerable subtle living beings, mobile as well as immobile, which are invisible in night; how can a monk move around for food at such time? (383)

世间有无数微小的生物,能移动的和不能移动的,他们在晚间都是看不见的,一个僧侣怎么能够在这段时间寻找食物呢?