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SamanSuttam

28. Tapasutra

PRECEPTS ON PENANCE 关于修行

(A) BAHYATAPA External Penance 外在的修行

Jattha kasayaniroho, bambham jinapuyanam anasanam ca.

So savvo ceva tavo, visesao muddhaloyammi. (439)

Everything celibacy, worship of Jina and fasting done to check the passions is penance;specially according to the simple people. (439)

所有的独居、对Jina的膜拜以及为了阻止感情而进行的禁食都是修行,特别是对于那些刚刚开始修行的人。

 

So tavo duviho vutto, bahirabbhamtaro taha.

Bahiro chavviho vutto, evamabbhamtaro tavo. (440)

That penance is said to be of two types viz., external and internal. The external penance is again of six types, and so is internal penance. (440)

修行分为两种,外在的忏悔和内心的修行,他们又都分别分为六类。

 

Anasanamunoyariya, bhikkhayariya ya rasapariccao.

Kaakileso samlinaya ya, bajjho tavo hoi. (441)

(1) Fasting, (2) eating less than one‘s normal diet, (3) begging for alms (4) giving up of delicacies. (5) mortification of body, (6) lonely residence, these are the external penances. (441)

1、禁食,2、少食,3、乞讨,4、放弃对于美食的渴望,5、禁欲,6、独居,这些都是外在的修行。

 

Kammana nijjarattham, aharam pariharei lilae.

Egadinadipamanam, tassa tavam anasanam hodi. (442)

He who voluntarily gives up food for a day or so, for purging the soul from Karmas practises the external penance of fasting. (442)

如果一个人为了净化自己的灵魂而不吃东西,那么他就是通过禁食而进行外在的修行。

 

Je payanubhattapana, suyaheu te tavassino samae.

Jo a tavo suyahino, bahirayo so chuhaharo. (443)

A monk who takes a little food for undertaking study of scriptures is said to be a tapasvi (i.e., one practising the penance), according to scriptures. The penance of fasting without scriptural study amounts only to starving. (443)

根据典籍的描述,如果一个僧侣为了学习典籍而少食,那么他就是在修行。如果不对典籍进行研习而只是禁食,只会导致饥饿。

 

So nama anasanatavo, jena mano‘mamgulam na cittei.

 Jena na imdiyahani, jena ya joga na hayamti. (444)

Fasting is penance when the person observing it does not entertain any inauspicious thoughts, when it does not result in bodily weakness, and when the activities of mind, speech and body remain unimpaired. (444)

当一个人没有任何不祥的思想时,他的禁食就是一种修行,这样的禁食不会导致身体的衰弱,而且他的思想、言语以及身体都不会受到损伤。

 

Balam thamam ca pehatye, saddhamaroggamappano.

Khettam kalam ca vinnaya, tahappanam nijumjae. (445)

A person should decide upon fasting after taking into consideration his physical strength, stamina, faith, state of health, place and time. (445)

人们在决定禁食前应当考虑他的体力、毅力、信仰、健康状态、地点以及时间等。

 

Uvasamano akkhanam, uvavaso vannido samasena.

Tamha bhumjamta vi ya, jidimdiya homti uvavasa. (446)

In short, subjugation of senses is also described as fasting; therefore those who have conquered their senses are said to be fasting, though they maybe taking food. (446)

总而言之,抑制自己的感官同样也是禁食,因此那些抑制了自己感官的人也是在禁食,尽管他们可能会进食。

 

Chatthatthamadasamaduvalasehim, abahusuyassa ja sohi.

Tatto bahutaraguniya, havijja jimiyassa nanissa. (447)

The purity (of self) achieved by one who is well versed in scriptures, though regularly takes food, would be many times more than the purity of a person who is ignorant of scriptures, though he may fast for two, three, four or five days. (447)

如果一个人精通典籍,那么他就是纯洁的,尽管他会有规律的进食。但是有许多人选择禁食,但是他们对典籍一无所知。

 

Jo jassa u aharo, tatto omam tu jo kare.

Jahannenegastthai, evam davvena u bhave. (448)

A person, who takes food less even by a morsel than his usual diet, is said to practise penance called formal unodari (partial fasting). (448)

如果一个人每天的饮食比他的正常量少一些,那么他就是在进行部分禁食的修行。

 

Goyarapamanadayaga-bhayanananavidhana jam gahanam.

Taha esanassa gahanam, vividhassa ya vuttiparisamkha. (449)

If one procures alms after having taken various sorts of decisions as to their amount, their donor, their containing-vessel or as to their various types of contents, one performs the penance called vittiparisankhyana i. e. limiting the things begged for. (449)

如果一个人在乞讨时考虑食物的多寡、布施者、容器或者食物的成分,那么这种修行称为vittiparisankhyana,例如限制乞讨食物的种类。

 

Khiradahisappimai, paniyam panabhoyanam.

Parivajjanam rasanam tu, bhaniyam rasavivajjanam. (450)

A monk who avoids delicious food like milk, curds, butter and taking his food on leaf, practises the penance of rasaparityaga (renunciation of delicious dishes). (450)

如果一个僧侣不食用牛奶、炼乳、黄油之类的食物,并在树叶上进食的话,那么他就是采用一种rasaparityaga的修行(戒除美味的食物)

 

Egamtamanavae, itthipasuvivajjie.

Sayanasanasevanaya, vivittasayanasanam. (451)

The penance of having his bed and seat in a solitary and unfrequented place, shunned by women and animals, is called Viviktasayyasana (i.e. solitary residence). (451)

如果一个修行的人将他的床以及座位安置在一个孤独的、人迹罕至的地方,远离女人和动物,就叫做Viviktasayyasana(例如独居)

 

Thana virasanaiya, jivassa u suhavaha.

Ugga jaha dharijjamti, kayakilesam tamahiyam. (452)

Adapting harsh bodily postures like virasana etc. which cause bliss in a soul, constitute the penance called kayaklesa (mortification of body). (452)

身体采取一种弯曲的姿势(如virasana)会给灵魂带来福祉,这也是修行的一种kayaklesa(身体禁欲)。

 

Suhena bhavidam nanam, duhe jade vinassadi.

Tamha jahabalam joi, appa dukkhehi bhavae. (453)

The knowledge acquired at a time when one experiences convenience vanishes away when one begins to experience inconvenience. Hence (at the time of acquiring knowledge) a yogin ought to put himself to inconvenience keeping in mind his capacity for tolerance. (453)

一个人在经历坎坷时,他在一帆风顺时所获得的知识会消失。因此人们应当锻炼自己的耐力,然后将自己置于逆境之中。

 

Na dukkham na sukham va vi, jahahetu tigicchiti.

Tigicchie sujuttassa, dukkham va jai va suham.

Mohakkhae u juttassa, dukkham va jai va suham.

Mohakkhae jahaheu, na dukkham na vi va suham. (454 & 455)

Neither an experience of pain nor an experience of pleasure is an appropriate cause for curing an ailment but one who conducts one‘s life well, gets cured either by way of pain or by way of pleasure. Likewise, one engaged in putting an end to one‘s delusion might experience either pain or pleasure but neither pain nor pleasure is what puts an end to one‘s delusion. (454 & 455)

不论是痛苦还是欢乐的经历都不是治疗疾病的方法,但是一个行为正确的人却可以治愈疾病。同样,一个致力于结束幻觉的人可能会经历痛苦或者欢乐,但是不论痛苦还是欢乐都不会结束人们的幻觉。

 

(B) ABHYANTARATAPA Inward Penance 内心的修行

Payacchittam vinao, veyavaccam taheva sajjhavo.

 Jhanam ca viussaggo, eso abbhimtaro tao. (456)

Internal penance is (of six kinds) : (1) Atonement for sins, (2) humility, (3) serving his preceptor, (4) self-study of scriptures (5) meditation and (6) Steadiness of body while in meditation.

内心的修行分为:1、对于罪恶的救赎,2、谦卑,3、服侍自己的导师,4、自学典籍,5、冥思,6、在沉思时保持身体的入定。

 

Vada-samidi-sila-samjama-parinamo karananiggaho bhavo.

So havadi payacchittam, anavarayam ceva kayavvo. (457)

The effects of observance of a vow, carefulness, continence, self-control and subjugation of the senses, these bring about atonement; they are to be practised incessantly. (457)

遵守誓言、慎重、节欲、自律、抑制自己的感官,这些都可以带来救赎,人们应当不断地这样做。

 

Kohadi-sagabbhava-kkhayapahudi-bhavanae niggahanam.

Payacchittam bhanidam, niyagunacimta ya nicchayado. (458)

Thinking of controlling anger and other thoughts, passification of intense thoughts, contemplation of ones own virtues, these constitute atonement from the real view-point. (458)

控制自己的愤怒以及类似的想法,平抑自己强烈的思想、对自己的美德进行冥思,这些都是从一个现实的角度来进行赎罪。

 

Namtanamtabhavena, samajjia-suhaasuhakammasamdoho.

Tavacaranena vinassadi, payacchittam tavam tamha. (459)

The multitude of auspicious and in-auspicious Karmas accumulated during endless transmigration can be destroyed by practice of penances; so, the atonement (expiation) is called the penance. (459)

通过修行可以消除对于吉祥以及不祥的因果报应的累积;因此修行就是救赎。

 

Aloyana padikamanam, ubhayavivego taha viussaggo.

Tava chedo mulam vi ya, pariharo ceva saddahana. (460)

Confession, repentance, both confession and repentance, judicious discrimination, renunciation, penance, partial reduction of seniority, absolute exclusion for a particular time from sangh and reiteration of faith (i.e. absolute exclusion) (these ten constitute atonement). (460)

救赎就是坦白,忏悔,坦白和忏悔,明智的辨别,放弃,修行,减少自己的资历以及不断强化自己的信仰。

 

Anabhogakidam kammam, jaam kim pi manasa kadam.

Tam savvam aloccejja hu, avvakhittena cedasa. (461)

An evil act done unintentionally or intentionally all this has to be confessed with an unperturbed mind.

(461)

人们应当平静的承认自己有意或者无意所犯下的罪行。

 

Jaha balo jampanto, kajjamakajjam ca ujjuyam bhanai.

Tam taha aloijja, mayamayavippamukko vi. (462)

Just as a child speaks of its good and bad acts in a straight-forward manner, similarly one ought to confess one‘s guilt with a mind free from deceit and pride. (462)

就像小孩子一样,他们能够很坦诚的谈论自己好的和坏的行为,人们也应当心无欺瞒和傲慢的坦白自己的罪行。

 

Jaha kamtaena viddho, savvamge veyanaddio hoi.

Taha ceva uddhiyammi u, nissallo nivvuo hoi.

Evamanuddhiyadoso, maillo tenam dukkhio hoi.

So ceva cattadoso, suvisuddho nivvuo hoi. (463 & 464)

He who is pricked by a thorn feels the pain all over his body (but) becomes free from such pain when the thorn is removed. Similarly, he who hides his faults fraudulently, becomes miserable; he who confesses his faults honestly becomes pure and free from mental affliction. (463 & 464)

就像人们被刺戳了一下之后会周身感到疼痛,当把刺拔除之后,他就感觉不到疼痛了;同样的,当一个人故意隐瞒他的过失时,他会感到痛苦,当他能够坦诚自己的过失后就变得纯洁并摆脱这种精神上的折磨。

 

Jo passadi appanam, samabhave samthavittu parinamam.

 Aloyanamidi janaha, paramajinamdassa uvaesam. (465)

He who realises his own soul after attaining mental equanimity achieves confession, know this to be the advice of the supreme Jina. (465)

崇高的Jina告诫我们,当一个觉悟的人在达到平静后就是坦白的。

 

Abbhutthanam amjalikaranam, tahevasanadayanam.

Gujnbhattibhavasussusa, vinao esa viyahio. (466)

To get up at the arrival of an elder to welcome him with folded hands, to offer him (an honoured) seat, to serve him with feeling of devotedness, these constitute humility. (466)

谦卑就是在长者到来时双手合十欢迎他,为他提供座位,满怀热情的来服侍他。

 

Damsananane vinao, carittatava-ovacario vinao.

Pamcaviho khalu vinao, pamcamagainaigo bhanio. (467)

Humility is of five kinds; humility in faith, in knowledge, in conduct, in penance and in decorum or etiquette, these lead to liberation, i.e. the fifth state. (467)

谦卑分为五种:信仰谦卑,知识谦卑,行为谦卑,修行谦卑以及在礼貌和礼节上谦卑,这些都会带来解脱。

 

Ekammi hiliyammi, hiliya humti te savve.

Ekammi puiyammi, puiya humti savve. (468)

If one (elder) is insulted, it amounts to an insult to all; if one is venerated, all of them are venerated.

(468)

如果一个长者被侮辱了,那么这就是对所有人的侮辱;如果一个人受到了礼遇,这就是对所有人的礼遇。

 

Vinao sasane mulam, vinio samjao bhave.

Vinayao vippamukkassa, kao dhammo kao tavo? (469)

Humility is the basic (virtue) according to Jaina scripture; a person of humility acquires self-restratint. Where is religion and where is penance to one who has lost humility? (469)

Jina说,谦卑是最基本的美德,一个谦卑的人能够自律。一个不谦卑的人不会有信仰和修行。

 

Vinao mokkhaddaram, vinayado samjamo tavo nanam.

Vinaenarahijjadi, airio savvasamgho ya. (470)

Humility is the gateway to liberation; through humility one acquires self-restraint, penance and knowledge. By humility one honours the Acarya and the Sangh (i.e. the entire community of religious people). (470)

谦卑是解脱之路,通过谦卑人们可以得到自律,修行和知识。通过谦卑,人们尊重Acarya 以及 Sangh(信徒的团体)。

 

Vinayahiya vijja, demti phalam iha pare ya logammi.

Na phalamti vinayahina sassani va toyahinaim. (471)

Learning acquied with humility proves fruitful in this world and in the other world; just as a

plant cannot grow without water, learning will not be fruitful without humility. (471)

在这个世界和其他的世界中,心怀谦卑所学到的知识是有效的;就像植物没有水就无法生存一样,如果心中没有谦卑,学到的知识就没有用处。

 

Tamha savvapayatte, viniyattam ma kadai chamdejja.

Appasudo vi ya puriso, khavedi kammani vinaena. (472)

Therefore, one should not abandon humility at any cost. Even a person with less scriptural knowledge can annihilate his Karmas, if he has humility. (472)

因此,人们无论如何也不能丢弃谦卑。只要一个人谦卑,即使他只有很少的知识,他也能破除因果报应。

 

Sejjogasanisejjo, tahovahipadilehanahi uvaggahide.

Aharosahavayana-vikimcanam vamdanadihim. (473)

The service to a monk (vaiyavrttya) consists in providing him bed, residence, seat, proper cleaning of his implements etc. and then arranging for his food, medicine, a reading of scriptural text, a proper disposal of refuse with propers respect. (473)

为一个僧侣提供服务包括为他提供床铺、住处、座位、为他提供清洁设施以及安排他的饮食、药品、诵读经书、用一种合理的方式来处理他的废弃物。

 

Addhanatenasavada-rayanadirodhanasive ome.

Vejjavaccam uttam samgahasarakkhanovedam. (474)

Offering protection to and taking care of a monk who becomes fatigued on his way, is threatened by a thief, a wild animal, a king or obstructed by river or gets afflicted by a contagious disease or famine, is service to a monk (vaiyavrttya). (474)

为僧侣提供服务就是为道路上疲劳的僧侣,受到窃贼、野兽或者当权者威胁的僧侣,为河流所阻断的僧侣,受到疾病和饥饿所折磨得僧侣提供保护和照顾。

 

Pariyattana ya vayana, padicchananuvehana ya dhammakaha.

Thudimamgalasamjutto, pamcaviho hoi sajjhao. (475)

Study of scriptures (svadhyaya) is of five kinds : (1) reading of scriptural text (2) questioning (3) repitition (4) pondering over and (5) narration of religious discourses opening with auspicious praise (of Jina). (475)

对典籍的研习分为五类:1、诵读典籍,2、提出疑问,3、复述典籍,4、思考,5、从吉祥赞美开始进行宗教演讲。

 

Puyadisu niravekkho, jina-sattham jo padhei bhattie.

Kammamala-sohanattham, suyalaho suhayaro tassa. (476)

He who studies scriptures with devotion without any desire for personal praise and honour or purging of his Karmic pollution, will have the benefit of scriptural knowledge conducive to his happiness.

(476)

如果一个人在研习典籍时不怀有任何对个人赞美与荣誉或者破除因果报应的渴望,那么他将会从宗教知识中受益,并有助于他得到欢乐。

 

Sajjhayam janamto, pamcimdiyasamvudo tigutto ya.

Hoi ya ekaggamano, vinaena samahio sahu. (477)

A monk who has studied the scriptures keeps his five sense organs under control,

practises the three guptis i.e. the control over one‘s speech and body, concentrates his mind and observes humility.

(477)

一个僧侣在研习了典籍之后能够控制其五官的感受,并遵守三种自律。

 

Nanena jjhanasijjhi, jhanado savvakammanijjaranam.

Nijjaranaphalam mokkham, nanabbhasam tado kujja. (478)

Perfect meditation is attained through knowledge and destruction of Karmas by meditation; liberation is the fruit of destruction of Karmas; hence; one should be engaged constantly in acquisition of knowledge. (478)

通过沉思破坏了因果报应以及知识就能够获得完美的冥思;破除了因果报应就能够得到解脱,因此一个人应当不断的学习知识。

 

Barasavihammi vi tave, abbhimtarabahire kusaladitthe.

Na vi atthi na vi ya hohi, sajjhayasamam tavokammam. (479)

Among the twelve penances, internal and external which are experienced by one wise person, there si no penance, that equals or will be equal to the study of scriptures. (479)

在十二种修行中,智慧的人会进行内心和外在的修行;没有任何修行能够代替对典籍的研习。

 

Sayanasanathane va, je u bhikkhu na vavare.

Kayassa viussaggo, chattho so parikittio. (480)

A monk who makes no movements of his body while sleeping, sitting or standing and checkes all activities of his body is said to observe the sixth penance of bodily steadines. (480)

如果一个僧侣在睡眠、坐立时,他的身体没有其他动作,那么这个僧侣就遵守了第六条入定的要求。

 

Dehamaijaddasuddhi, suhadukkhatitikkhaya anuppeha.

Jhayai ya suham jhanam, egaggo kausaggommi. (481)

The benefits of practising meditation with bodily steadiness are: removal of bodily and mental lethargy, development of capacity to bear pain as well as pleasure, aacquisition of deep reflection, and enhanced power of concentration in pure meditation. (481)

冥思时入定的好处有:消除身体上与精神上的懒散,提高承受痛苦与欢乐的能力,进行深入的思考,加强冥思时注意力的集中。

 

Tesim tu tavo na suddho, nikkhamta je mahakula.

Jam nevanne viyanamti, na silogam pavejjai. (482)

The penance of those who are born in noble families and have renounced their homes will not be pure, if they practise it for praise and honour; those who desire to attain purity must practise penance unnoticed and without any desire for praise. (482)

那些出生在贵族家庭中的人,如果他们修行的目的就是为了称赞与荣誉,那么他们同家庭的脱离就是不纯洁的。那些希望得到纯洁的人们应当进行低调的修行,而且不应当希望得到称赞。

 

Nanamayavayasahio, silujjalio tavo mao aggi.

Samsarakaranabiyam, dahai davaggi va tanarasim. (483)

The fire of penance which is set ablaze by righteous character when combined with the wind of Right knowledge, will burn the seed of karma which is the cause of mundane existence, like a forest-fire which burns heap of grass. (483)

修行之火由正义的人们点燃,又被知识之风助燃,将会像森林里面的大火烧光草堆一样,将世俗存在的根源因果报应的种子烧光。