PRECEPTS ON VIEW-POINT
Jam nanina viyappam, suyabheyam vatthuamsasamgahanam.
Tam iha nayam pauttam, nani puna tena nanena. (690)
The thought activity which grasps only one aspect of an
object with the aid of scriptures, is called Naya. He who possesses such
knowledge is wise. (690)
Jamha na naena vina, hoi narassa siyavayapadivatti.
so bohavvo, eyamtam hamtukamena. (691)
Since without a (knowledge of) naya a man cannot have a
knowledge of syadvada (the doctrine of conditional statement). A knowledge of
naya can be had by one who is desirous of destroying all the extremes. (691)
Dhammavihino sokkham, tanhacheyam jalena jaha rahido.
iha vamchai mudho, nayarahio davvanicchiti. (692)
Just as an irreligious person desired to attain bliss
without practising religion or a thirsty person desires to quench his thirst
without using water, similarly the fool desires to determine the nature of a
substance without taking recourse to naya. (692)
Davvatthio ya pajjavanao, ya sesa viyappa sim. (693)
The entire body of the teachings of Tirthankara taken in
its entirely and taken in its particular details is to be explained with the
help of two basic standpoints (nayas)-viz that substantial point of view (dravyarthikanaya)
and that modificational point of view (paryayarthikanaya). The rest of them
are the offshoots of these two. (693)
Davvatthiyavattavvam, avatthu niyamena pajjavanayassa.
pajjavavatthu, avatthumeva davvatthiyanayassa. (694)
What is said from the substantial view-point appears, as a
rule, unreal from the modal view-point. Similarly what is said from the modal
view-point appears unreal from the substantial view-point.
Uppajjamti viyamti ya, bhava niyamena pajjavanayassa.
Davvatthiyassa savvam, saya anuppannamavinattham. (695)
From the modal view-point, things necessarily originate and
perish. But from the substantial viewpoint, there is neither origination nor
Davvatthiena savvam, davvam tam pajjayatthiena puno.
ya annamanannam, takkale tammayattado. (696)
From substantial point of view, everything is of the form of
substance (always remaining the same), but from modal view-point every thing
differs from time to time. From each particular stand-point, a thing appears
to its corresponding form. (696)
Pajjaya gaunam kicca, davvam pi ya jo hu ginhai loe.
So davvatthiya bhanio, vivario pajjayatthinao. (697)
The stand-point which gives secondary status to the modes and
only grasps the substance, is called substantial view-point, while the
opposite to it is called modal view-point. (697)
Negama-samgaha-vavahara-ujjusue ceva hoi bodhavva.
samabhirudhe, evambhue ya mulanaya. (698)
Naigam, samgraha, vyavahara, rjusutra, sabda, samabhirudha and
evambhuta-these are the seven basic stand-points. (698)
Naigam, samgraha, vyavahara, rjusutra, sabda, samabhirudha
Padhamatiya davvatthi, pajjayagahi ya iyara je bhaniya.
Te cadu atthapahana, saddapahana hu tinni ya. (699)
The first three fall under the category of substantial
view-point, while the remaining four come under the modal view-point. Among
these seven, the first four give eminence to meaning, while the remaining
three to the word. (699)
Negaim manaim, samannobhayavisesananaham.
Jam tehim minai to,
negamo nao negamano tti. (700)
Naigam Naya deals with both the aspects of a thing, that is,
generic as well as specific aspects, as the case might be, in order to know
this, it knows the thing in its various forms. (700)
Nivvitta davvakiriya, vattanakale du jam samacaranam.
Tam bhuyanigamanayam, jaha ajjadinam nivvuo viro. (701)
Naigam Naya is of three kinds, according to the three tenses.
The past, the present and the future.
Paraddha ja kiriya, payanavihanadi kahai jo siddham.
pucchamane, tam bhannai vattamananayam. (702)
To describe the work as —has been done" when asked, the moment
it has been started, is known as the Vartamana Naigam Naya, for, example the
food is said to have been cooked when the coooking has just been started.
Vartamana Naigam Naya用来描述完成时，例如，当烹饪开始时，我们就说食物已经在做了。
Nippannamiva payampadi, bhavipadattham naro anipannam.
Appatthe jaha pattham, bhannai so bhavi naigamo tti nao. (703)
To say that an act, which is to be performed in future has
been completed, though incomplete is an example of Bhavisya Naigam Naya e.e.
when a person is about to start, we say —he has gone". (703)
Bhavisya Naigam Naya用来描述将来完成时，例如一个人正要出发时，我们就说他出发了。
Avaropparamavirohe, savvam atthi tti suddhasamgahane.
Hoi tameva asuddham, igajaivisesagahanena. (704)
There are two kinds of samgrahanaya-suddhasam-grahanaya and
asuddhasamgrahanaya. In suddhasamgraha-naya, we accept only one common
characteristic of things existence, ignoring all the mutual conflicting
characteristics, while in Asuddhasamgrahanaya, we accept the generic class
characteristic of things. (704)
Jam samgahena gahiyam, bheyai attham asuddhari suddham.
So vavaharo duviho, asuddhasuddhatthabheyakaro. (705)
That which distinguishes between the pure synthetic
approach and impure synthetic approach about the thing is called Vyavaharanaya.
This Vyavaharanaya is further of two gypes complete distinguishing and
incomplete distinguishing. (705)
Jo eyasamayavatti, gihnai davve dhuvattapajjayam.
suhumo, savvam pi saddam jaha khaniyam. (706)
The naya which grasps the evanescent modes of an enternal
substance, is called Rjusutra naya, for example "to say that‘ all the sound is
Manuyaiyapajjao, manuso tti sagatthidisu vattamto.
Jo bhanai tavakalam, so thulo hoi riusutto. (707)
On the other hand that naya which attritubes a mode like
man-ness etc. to a being, throughout the course of that period during which
this being continues to exhibit that mode is the sub-type of Rjusutranaya,
called Sthularjusutranaya. (707)
Savanam sapai sa tenam, va sappae vatthu jam tao saddo.
Tassatthapariggahao, nao vi saddo tti heu vva. (708)
Sapana, i.e. —calling", is a word, or that which calls is
word, or through which an object is reffered to is also a word. It is called —Sabdanaya"
because it graspes the meaning of the word. (708)
Jo vattanam na mannai, eyatthe bhinnalimgaainam.
So saddanao bhanio, neo pussaiana jaha. (709)
The naya that differentiates the meaning of the words
according to their use, as gender etc., in a sentence is called sabda naya,
for example, the word "pusya‘ denotes a particular Naksatra, while the word "Pusya‘
denotes a particular "Tarika‘. (709)
Ahava siddhe sadde, kirai jam kim pi atthavavaharanam.
Tam khalu sadde visayam, "devo‘ saddena jaha devo. (710)
The naya which grasps the meaning of the word according to
its etymology, is also clled "Sabdanaya‘, for example, the word "deva‘
generally means God. (710)
Saddarudho attho, attharudho taheva puna saddo.
samabhirudho, jaha imda puramdaro sakko. (711)
Every word is followed by a specific meaning and
vice-versa. The different synonymous words have their respective connotations
even if the same object is referred to by them. For example, the word, Indra,
Purandar and Sakra connote the same object, yet they have their respective
meaning to. This is known as Samabhirudhanaya. (711)
Purandar 以及 Sakra具有同样的意思，但是他们也还具有各自的含义。
Evam jaha saddattho, samto bhuo tadannaha‘bhuo.
Tenevambhuyanao, saddatthaparo visesena. (712)
A word only applies to an object in case it behaves in the
manner suggested by the (etymological) meaning of the word, denoting it and
not in case it does not behave in that —Evambhutanaya". Hence this particular
naya cling to the particular meaning of the word. (712)
Jam jam karei kammam, dehi manavayanakayacetthado.
Tam tam khu namajutto, evambhuo have sa nao. (713)
Whatever an act a person is now performing, through the
instrumentality of his mind, speech or body, a name corresponding to that act
is to be applied to this person, this is what is maintained by the naya called
Evambhutanaya (e.g. A person is called teacher only while he is teaching).