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SamanSuttam

39. Nayasutra

PRECEPTS ON VIEW-POINT 关于看问题的角度

Jam nanina viyappam, suyabheyam vatthuamsasamgahanam.

Tam iha nayam pauttam, nani puna tena nanena. (690)

The thought activity which grasps only one aspect of an object with the aid of scriptures, is called Naya. He who possesses such knowledge is wise. (690)

如果一个人借助典籍能够通过思考了解到事物的一个方面,这叫做Naya,具有这种知识的人是智慧的。

 

Jamha na naena vina, hoi narassa siyavayapadivatti.

Tamha so bohavvo, eyamtam hamtukamena. (691)

Since without a (knowledge of) naya a man cannot have a knowledge of syadvada (the doctrine of conditional statement). A knowledge of naya can be had by one who is desirous of destroying all the extremes. (691)

如果一个人不具备Naya的能力,那么他就不能够syadvada(条件语言的教条)。如果一个人渴望破除所有的极端,那么他就能具备naya的能力。

 

Dhammavihino sokkham, tanhacheyam jalena jaha rahido.

Taha iha vamchai mudho, nayarahio davvanicchiti. (692)

Just as an irreligious person desired to attain bliss without practising religion or a thirsty person desires to quench his thirst without using water, similarly the fool desires to determine the nature of a substance without taking recourse to naya. (692)

就像一个没有信仰的人为了获得福祉而不去修行,一个口渴的人想要解渴却不去喝水一样,愚蠢的人想要了解事物的本质却不去Naya

 

Titthayaravayanasamgaha-visesapatthara-mulavagarani.

Davvatthio ya pajjavanao, ya sesa viyappa sim. (693)

The entire body of the teachings of Tirthankara taken in its entirely and taken in its particular details is to be explained with the help of two basic standpoints (nayas)-viz that substantial point of view (dravyarthikanaya) and that modificational point of view (paryayarthikanaya). The rest of them are the offshoots of these two. (693)

Tirthankara的教义是个整体,通常从两个基本的角度对他来进行解释。一个本质的角度(dravyarthikanaya)和一个形式的角度(paryayarthikanaya)。其余的都是这两种方法的支流。

 

Davvatthiyavattavvam, avatthu niyamena pajjavanayassa.

Taha pajjavavatthu, avatthumeva davvatthiyanayassa. (694)

What is said from the substantial view-point appears, as a rule, unreal from the modal view-point. Similarly what is said from the modal view-point appears unreal from the substantial view-point.

(694)

从本质的角度上看来是正确的,从形式的角度来看则是不真实的;反过来也是一样。

 

Uppajjamti viyamti ya, bhava niyamena pajjavanayassa.

Davvatthiyassa savvam, saya anuppannamavinattham. (695)

From the modal view-point, things necessarily originate and perish. But from the substantial viewpoint, there is neither origination nor destruction. (695)

从形式的角度来说,事物必然会产生与消亡。但是从本质的角度来说,根本没有产生和消亡。

 

Davvatthiena savvam, davvam tam pajjayatthiena puno.

Havadi ya annamanannam, takkale tammayattado. (696)

From substantial point of view, everything is of the form of substance (always remaining the same), but from modal view-point every thing differs from time to time. From each particular stand-point, a thing appears to its corresponding form. (696)

从本质的角度来说,所有事物都是由物质构成(通常是相同的),但是从形式的角度来说,事物与事物各不相同,从不同的角度来看,事物都有其特定的形式。

 

Pajjaya gaunam kicca, davvam pi ya jo hu ginhai loe.

So davvatthiya bhanio, vivario pajjayatthinao. (697)

The stand-point which gives secondary status to the modes and only grasps the substance, is called substantial view-point, while the opposite to it is called modal view-point. (697)

本质的角度就是指不考虑事物的状态而只抓住事物的本质的角度;相反地就是形式的角度。

 

Negama-samgaha-vavahara-ujjusue ceva hoi bodhavva.

Sadde ya samabhirudhe, evambhue ya mulanaya. (698)

Naigam, samgraha, vyavahara, rjusutra, sabda, samabhirudha and evambhuta-these are the seven basic stand-points. (698)

Naigam, samgraha, vyavahara, rjusutra, sabda, samabhirudha 以及 evambhuta-是七种看问题的基本角度。

 

Padhamatiya davvatthi, pajjayagahi ya iyara je bhaniya.

 Te cadu atthapahana, saddapahana hu tinni ya. (699)

The first three fall under the category of substantial view-point, while the remaining four come under the modal view-point. Among these seven, the first four give eminence to meaning, while the remaining three to the word. (699)

前三者属于本质的角度,后四者属于形式的角度。在这七个总,前四者着重在于意义,后三者着重在于字面。

 

Negaim manaim, samannobhayavisesananaham.

 Jam tehim minai to, negamo nao negamano tti. (700)

Naigam Naya deals with both the aspects of a thing, that is, generic as well as specific aspects, as the case might be, in order to know this, it knows the thing in its various forms. (700)

Naigam Naya涉及事物的两个方面,共性以及特性,它能够了解事物的多个方面。

 

Nivvitta davvakiriya, vattanakale du jam samacaranam.

 Tam bhuyanigamanayam, jaha ajjadinam nivvuo viro. (701)

Naigam Naya is of three kinds, according to the three tenses. The past, the present and the future.

(701)

根据时态,Naigam Naya 分为三类,过去、现在以及将来。

 

Paraddha ja kiriya, payanavihanadi kahai jo siddham.

Loe ya pucchamane, tam bhannai vattamananayam. (702)

To describe the work as —has been done" when asked, the moment it has been started, is known as the Vartamana Naigam Naya, for, example the food is said to have been cooked when the coooking has just been started. (702)

Vartamana Naigam Naya用来描述完成时,例如,当烹饪开始时,我们就说食物已经在做了。

 

Nippannamiva payampadi, bhavipadattham naro anipannam.

 Appatthe jaha pattham, bhannai so bhavi naigamo tti nao. (703)

To say that an act, which is to be performed in future has been completed, though incomplete is an example of Bhavisya Naigam Naya e.e. when a person is about to start, we say —he has gone". (703)

Bhavisya Naigam Naya用来描述将来完成时,例如一个人正要出发时,我们就说他出发了。

 

Avaropparamavirohe, savvam atthi tti suddhasamgahane.

Hoi tameva asuddham, igajaivisesagahanena. (704)

There are two kinds of samgrahanaya-suddhasam-grahanaya and asuddhasamgrahanaya. In suddhasamgraha-naya, we accept only one common characteristic of things existence, ignoring all the mutual conflicting characteristics, while in Asuddhasamgrahanaya, we accept the generic class characteristic of things. (704)

Samgrahanaya分为两类:suddhasamgrahanayaasuddhasamgrahanaya。在

suddhasamgrahanaya中,我们只承认事物共同的存在特点而忽略其相互矛盾的特点;但是在asuddhasamgrahanaya中,我们接受事物普遍的特点。

 

Jam samgahena gahiyam, bheyai attham asuddhari suddham.

So vavaharo duviho, asuddhasuddhatthabheyakaro. (705)

That which distinguishes between the pure synthetic approach and impure synthetic approach about the thing is called Vyavaharanaya. This Vyavaharanaya is further of two gypes complete distinguishing and incomplete distinguishing. (705)

将综合的观点以及分离的观点区分的方法叫做VyavaharanayaVyavaharanaya又进一步可以分为两类。

 

Jo eyasamayavatti, gihnai davve dhuvattapajjayam.

So riusutto suhumo, savvam pi saddam jaha khaniyam. (706)

The naya which grasps the evanescent modes of an enternal substance, is called Rjusutra naya, for example "to say that‘ all the sound is momentary‘. (706)

掌握永恒物质的瞬时状态的方法叫做Rjusutra naya,例如,所有的声音都是瞬间的

 

Manuyaiyapajjao, manuso tti sagatthidisu vattamto.

Jo bhanai tavakalam, so thulo hoi riusutto. (707)

On the other hand that naya which attritubes a mode like man-ness etc. to a being, throughout the course of that period during which this being continues to exhibit that mode is the sub-type of Rjusutranaya, called Sthularjusutranaya. (707)

另外一种方法掌握事物在某一段时间内持续出现的一种状态,这种方法是Rjusutranaya的一个分支,叫Sthularjusutranaya

 

Savanam sapai sa tenam, va sappae vatthu jam tao saddo.

 Tassatthapariggahao, nao vi saddo tti heu vva. (708)

Sapana, i.e. —calling", is a word, or that which calls is word, or through which an object is reffered to is also a word. It is called —Sabdanaya" because it graspes the meaning of the word. (708)

Sapananaya 则是通过词汇的意义来掌握事物。

 

Jo vattanam na mannai, eyatthe bhinnalimgaainam.

So saddanao bhanio, neo pussaiana jaha. (709)

The naya that differentiates the meaning of the words according to their use, as gender etc., in a sentence is called sabda naya, for example, the word "pusya‘ denotes a particular Naksatra, while the word "Pusya‘ denotes a particular "Tarika‘. (709)

这种方法通过词汇的使用(如词性)来区分它们的使用。例如,"pusya‘代表Naksatra,而"Pusya‘ 代表 "Tarika‘

 

Ahava siddhe sadde, kirai jam kim pi atthavavaharanam.

Tam khalu sadde visayam, "devo‘ saddena jaha devo. (710)

The naya which grasps the meaning of the word according to its etymology, is also clled "Sabdanaya‘, for example, the word "deva‘ generally means God. (710)

根据单词的词源来掌握它的意思的方法也叫做Sabdanaya,例如deva的意思通常是指神灵。

 

Saddarudho attho, attharudho taheva puna saddo.

Bhanai iha samabhirudho, jaha imda puramdaro sakko. (711)

Every word is followed by a specific meaning and vice-versa. The different synonymous words have their respective connotations even if the same object is referred to by them. For example, the word, Indra, Purandar and Sakra connote the same object, yet they have their respective meaning to. This is known as Samabhirudhanaya. (711)

每个字都有一个确定的意思,反过来也是一样。不同的同义词具有各自的内涵,尽管他们用来形容同一事物。例如,Indra, Purandar 以及 Sakra具有同样的意思,但是他们也还具有各自的含义。

 

Evam jaha saddattho, samto bhuo tadannaha‘bhuo.

Tenevambhuyanao, saddatthaparo visesena. (712)

A word only applies to an object in case it behaves in the manner suggested by the (etymological) meaning of the word, denoting it and not in case it does not behave in that —Evambhutanaya". Hence this particular naya cling to the particular meaning of the word. (712)

有些词语在一些特殊语境中使用,因此,这些词语就用来表示这些特殊的意思

 

Jam jam karei kammam, dehi manavayanakayacetthado.

Tam tam khu namajutto, evambhuo have sa nao. (713)

Whatever an act a person is now performing, through the instrumentality of his mind, speech or body, a name corresponding to that act is to be applied to this person, this is what is maintained by the naya called Evambhutanaya (e.g. A person is called teacher only while he is teaching). (713)

不论一个人正在做什么,总会有一个相应的动作可以来形容这个人,这叫做Evambhutanaya(例如,当一个人在教书时,我们才称呼他为老师)