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Jain World
Sub-Categories of Prayer (Prarthana)
Mangalasutra
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Nirupanasutra

  Samsaracakrasutra 
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  Siksasutra
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  Samyag-Darsana-Sutra
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  Atmavikasasutra (Gunasthana)
  Samlekhanasutra
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  Dravysutra
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  Syadvada Va Saptabhangisutra
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SamanSuttam

4. Nirupanasutra

PRECEPTS ON SCRIPTURAL EXPOSITION 关于经文的讲解

Jo na pamananayehim, nikkhevenam nirikkhade attham.

Tassajuttam juttam, juttamjuttam ca padihadi. (32)

To one, who does not ascertain the meaning (of a word) by Pramana, Naya and Niksepa, appears what is proper to be improper and what is improper to proper. (32)

对于Pramana, Naya 以及 Niksepa的意思(或者语言)不确定的人,在讲解经文时会把合适的讲作不合适的,不合适的讲作合适的。

 

Nanam hodi pamanam, nao vi nadussa hidayabhavattho.

Nikkheo vi uvao, juttie atthapadigahanam. (33)

Knowledge is pramana : naya is view-point of the knower, the way of knowing is called Niksepa i.e. reasoning to understand the proper meaning of the text. (33)

知识就是pramananaya就是理解者的观点,理解的方式就叫做Niksepa,例如推理就是理解文章内在的意义。

 

Nicchayavavaharanaya, mulabheya nayana savvanam.

Nicchayasahanaheum, pajjayadavvatthiyam munaha. (34)

The real point of view (Niscaya-naya) and the empirical point of view (vyavahara-naya) are the two fundamental types of view-points (nayas). The dravyarthika naya (substantial point of view) and the paryayarthika-naya or the modal point of view are the two means for

comprehending the real nature of a thing. (34)

亲身感受的认识与依据经验得到认识是认识事物的两种基本方法。从形式上的理解和从表面上的理解是认识事物本质的两种方法。

 

Jo siya bheduvayaram, dhammanam kunai egavatthussa.

So vavaharo bhaniyo, vivario nicchayo hoi. (35)

The empirical point of view (or the Vyavahara-naya) is fragmentary i. e. it does take a thing as whole but concentrates on its units only. The opposite of it is called the real view-point which takes a comprehensive view and takes into consideration the thing as a whole. (35)

由经验获得的认识是片面的,例如,这种认识的方法虽然将事物作为一个整体,但却只关注其某一个方面。这种认识方法的对立面就是从实际的角度来认识,这种方法将事物视为一个整体,并对其进行宏观的认识。

 

Vavharenuvadissai, nanissa carittam damsanam nanam.

Na vi nanam na carittam, na damsanam Janago suddho. (36)

From the stand-point of vyavahara-naya it is said that a knower is possessed of conduct, faith and knowledge, but in fact (that is, from the stand-point of niscaya-naya) he possesses neither knowledge nor conduct, nor faith but is purely of the form of a knower. (36)

从经验主义的角度来说,认识者对事物的认识就像具有一种行为、信念以及知识一样,但是实际上,认识者对事物的认识并不像学习知识或者具有某种行为一样,它只是构成认识者知识的一部分。

 

Evam vavaharanao, padisiddho jana nicchayanayena.

Nicchayanayasida puna, munino pavanti nivvanam. (37)

Know that the empirical point of view is contradicted by the real point of view. The saints who take recourse to the real point of view (Niscaya-Naya) attain salvation. (37)

经验主义的观点会同实验主义观点相抵触。那些求助于实验主义观点的智者能够获得拯救。

 

Jaha na vi sakkamanajjo, anajjabhasam vina u gaheum.

Taha vavaharena vina, paramatthuvaesanamasakkam. (38)

Just as it is impossible to explain things to a non-Aryan without taking recourse to a non-Aryan language, similarly it is impossible to explain the ultimate truth without taking recourse to vyavaharanaya. (38)

就像一个人不可能不用非印欧语向一个非印欧人来解释一件事情一样,同样,如果不借助于经验的方法的话,一个人也不能够解释清楚最终的真理。

 

Vavaharo‘bhuyattho, bhuyattho desido du suddhanao.

Bhuyatthamassido khalu, sammaitthi havai jivo. (39)

It is said that the empirical point of view does not explain reality as it is, while the real point of view explains it as it is. He‘ who takes recourse to the reality as it is, attains the right faith. (39)

经验的方法不能够解释清楚事物的真相,然而实验的方法则能够阐释事物的真相。谁能够认

识到事物的真相,谁就能获得正确的认识。

 

Nicchayamavalambanta, nicchayato nicchayam ajananta.

Nisanti caranakaranam, bahirakaranalasa kei. (40)

Those who have recourse to the real point of view only and does not know it correctly, being negligent regarding to the minor rule of external conduct spoil the whole discipline i,. e. major and minor code of conduct. (40)

那些只相信亲身感受的人,并不能够正确地认识事物,因为那样会因为外在的行为(例如主要和次要的行为规则),而破坏了整体的自律。

 

Suddho suddhadeso, nayavvo paramabhavadarisihim.

Vavaharadesida puna, je du aparame tthida bhave. (41)

Reality can be understood properly by those who have realized the highest truth: but for those who are in a lower state it is proper to expound the reality through the empirical point of view. (41)

对于已经认识到最高层次真理的人来说,他们能够通过实验主义的方法来认识事物的本质;但是对于认识层次较低的人们来说,就应该从经验的方法去认识事物的本质。

 

Nicchayao dunneyam, ko bhave kammi vattai samano.

Vavaharao ya kirai, jo puvvatthio crittammi. (42)

Verily, it is very difficult to know the mental states of monks; therefore the criterion of senionrity in the order of monks should be decided by practical vie-point i.e. standing monkhood. (42)

事实上,很难了解僧侣们的精神状态;因此对僧侣的评判应当由他们现实中的观点来决定,例如一种标准的僧侣评判制度。

 

Tamha savve vi naya, micchaditthi sapakkhapadibaddha.

Annonnanissiya una, havanti sammattasabbava. (43)

Hence all the nayas (view-points), so long as they remain confined to their own respective standpoints, are perverted, but when they are mutually dependent on one another, they verily become true.

(43)

这样,所有的观点,只要是从他们自己的角度出发的,就是不正确的;但是当这些观点是相互依存的,它们就是十分正确的。

 

Kajjam nanadiyam, ussaggavavayao bhave saccam.

Tam taha samayaramto, tam saphalam hoi savvam pi. (44)

Conduct, knowledge etc. are right one when they satisfy general rules as well as the exceptional conditions. They should be practised in such a manner that they become fruitful. (44)

当行为、知识等能符合普遍的规律以及特殊的情况时,就是正确的。它们应当按照一定方式来实行以保证其效果。