Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of 十大美德
与贡献 
     
   前言 
  绪论 
  五大神灵之圣歌
  引言 
  至上的宽恕
   至上的谦卑 
   至上的诚实 
  至上的纯洁 
  至上的善言 
   至上的自律
  至上的苦行 
  至上的舍弃 
  至上的情禁 
  至上的禁欲 
  结束语

TEN UNIVERSAL VIRTUES  十大美德 

5 SUPREME TRUTHFULNESS

(Uttama Satya Dharma)

5 至上的善言

(Uttama Satya Dharma)

 

Truth is the speech of inward purity.-Sir Edwin Arnold

The word 'satya' (truth) has been derived by the addition of the suffix 'yat' with the root 'sat' (satya) are prevalent in common use; e.g. truthful, real, genuine, honest, loyal, non-deceitful or truth speaking.

善言是内心纯洁的传声筒—阿诺德

'satya'(真相)一词是由后缀'yat'和词根'sat'组成,它使用非常广泛,例如,真实的,真的,诚实,善言等。

 

"Satsu prshastaishu janaishu saddhuvachnam satymituichate"-Sarvarthsiddhi

I.e., To speak saintly words with the noble souls are truth.

心怀高尚的灵魂并说一些圣洁的话就是善言。

 

"Satam sadhunam hitbhashnam satyam"-Bhg. Aara

I.e., To speak genuine words with monks and their devotees -the householders -is the virtue of truth.

对僧侣以及他们的皈依者说一些真实的话就是善言的美德。

 

To speak politely in accordance with scriptures for the uplifting of religion is called truth. Nothing on earth is as glorious as truthfulness; it brings in its wake all other virtues.

Every living soul should always speak with restraint only truthful words, which are sweet like nectar and beneficial to self and others as well. If perchance at any time a man feels hesitation in speaking truthful words, he should better keep mum.

为了提升自己的宗教信仰而根据宗教典籍说一些礼貌的话就是善言。世界上最伟大的美德就是善言,它能够唤醒其它所有美德。

所有的人们都应当善言,善言就像花蜜一样能够使双方都受益。如果人们不能够毫不犹豫地善言的话,他们就应当保持沉默。

 

A person who is truthful in his conduct and dealings leads a smooth and simple life. Even mere contact with truthful and good persons makes a man truthful. Sir Edwin Arnold has rightly said:

'Of all the pleasures given on earth. The company of good is best. For weariness has no birthIn such a company sweet and blest.'

Satam prasangain nirgunropi gunri bhavait"

I.e., 'He who treads the path of truth remains happy for ever.' Lord Jinendra has also affirmed the above idea thus:

"Idam jenaishvaram vakyam satypatham sukhpradam"

The Indian Government has also assigned the highest significance to truth by adopting the eternal motto 'Satyamev Jeyatai'-'Truth conquers all'. Indeed, Truth is the highest divine principle'. A renowned Hindi poet sings:

Satya brabar tap nhi, jhut braber papjiske hirday satya he, tis kai hirday aap

I.e., No austerity is equivalent to truth and no sin is equal to falsehood. God's abode is the soul who has truth in his heart.

即使只是同一个行为诚实、生活简单平和的人接触,人们也会变得诚实。阿诺德曾经说过:

Satam prasangain nirgunropi gunri bhavait"

沿着诚实之路走的人一生都会欢乐。Jinendra也说过同样的意思:

"Idam jenaishvaram vakyam satypatham sukhpradam"

印度政府也通过采纳了一条永恒的格言来强调诚实的重要性—'Satyamev Jeyatai'即诚实约束一切。事实上,诚实是神的最高宗旨。一位著名的印度诗人这样吟唱到:

Satya brabar tap nhi, jhut braber papjiske hirday satya he, tis kai hirday aap

即,没有任何苦修能够替代诚实。神灵的住所就在诚实的人们心中。

 

While walking on the road a poor Brahman found a diamond, which was worth one lakh rupees. He was going casually with the diamond in his hand. A jeweler was coming from the opposite direction as if searching for something on the road. He looked confused and uneasy. Meanwhile seeing him restless at the heart the Brahman asked him, "O brother jeweler! What makes you so restless? See; I have found this diamond. If it belongs to you, please take it." Saying this he handed over the diamond to the jeweler. Then the jeweler said, "I had lost two diamonds. You have given me only one. Give me the second one also. Only then I will let you go." So the Jeweler handed over the Brahman to the police, and filed a lawsuit against him. In the court the judge interrogated the Brahman, "Tell gentleman, what is the truth?" The Brahman replied, "My Lord! While walking on the road I found a diamond lying there. I was going straight in a carefree mood. Just then this man looking vexed at heart was coming from the opposite direction making a search for something lost. I asked him, "What are you searching for?" Then he replied that he had lost his two diamonds. I then handed over one diamond and said, "See, I have found this diamond. If it belongs to you, please take it." Then he took the diamond from me. But again he said that he had lost two diamonds." At this the judge made further inquiry from the Seth. Even then the Seth said, "I had lost two diamonds which I had dropped some where on the road. The Brahman has given me only one diamond but declines to give the second one." The judge realized that if the Brahman had not been truthful, why should he have given one diamond to the Seth, despite being poor himself.

当走在路上时,一个贫穷的婆罗门弟子发现了一颗钻石,它价值十万卢比,他无意的手中拿着钻石走着,一个珠宝匠从对面方向走来,好象在路上找什么东西,他看起来迷惑又不安,此时,看见他心中的焦虑,婆罗门弟子问他:“喂兄弟!什么让你如此焦虑?看,我找到了这颗钻石,如果它属于你就拿走吧。”说着就把钻石递给了珠宝匠。然后珠宝匠说:“我丢了两颗钻石,你只给了我一颗,把第二颗也给我,这样我才能放你走。”因此珠宝匠将婆罗门笛子交给了警察,对他提起了诉讼,在法庭上法官审问这个婆罗门弟子:“说吧,先生,事实是什么?”婆罗门弟子答道:“主啊!当我在路上走时发现了这颗钻石躺在那里,我并不在意,径直走着,就在这个时候,这个看上去内心痛苦的人从对面方向走来,好象在找寻什么失物,我问他,你在找什么,他答道,他丢了两颗钻石,然后我把一颗交给他,说:看我找到了这颗钻石,如果它属于你,就拿走吧。”然后他从我手中把钻石拿走,但他又说他丢了两颗钻石。“这时法官对Seth做了进一步审问,尽管那样,Seth还说:”我在路上的某个地方丢了两颗钻石,这个婆罗门弟子只给了我一个并拒绝给我第二个。“法官意识到如果这个婆罗门弟子不诚实,为什么他还把一颗钻石还给Seth呢,尽管他自己很贫穷。

 

Therefore, after deep pondering he declared the judgement -"As the diamond found by the Brahman was only one, it could not belong to the Seth. So the diamond should be given to the Brahman. The Seth had dropped the two diamonds together at a time, so he might have dropped them else where." Then the Seth spoke, "Well, Your honor! Then let me have this single diamond." In reply the judge said, "Now you cannot get this one diamond as well." Right is the following statement:

因此经过深思熟虑后,他宣布了判决:“因为婆罗门弟子只发现了一颗钻石所以它应该不属于Seth,所以钻石判给了婆罗门弟子,Seth一次共丢了两颗钻石,所以他可能把它们丢在了别的地方。“然后Seth说道:”好吧,阁下,就给我那一颗钻石吧。“法官答道:”现在,这颗钻石你也得不到了。“正如下面的陈述:

The flame of truth may be put down by falsehood temporarily for a while, but it cannot be put out for ever by any attempt." Indeed:

事实的火焰可能被错误地暂时扑灭一阵,但它不会被任何企图永远熄灭。

 

Sataymaiv varo lokai, satyam Dharmai sadasrit

Satya sarvanri mulani, satyanasti pram padam

Truth grants happiness in this world. All living beings survive on the power of truth. The day when truth is fully annihilated or goes into oblivion, fire will leave its inherent burning property, which is impossible. Truth is eternal. Truth is God and God is truth. By sticking to truth a man becomes God; a human being becomes super human; by the force of truth an animal sheds its present state and becomes the almighty God; the soul changes into superb soul. All the great men born on this day became great by the force of truth. 'The wind blows for ever' is a universal truth. One, who adheres to truth, crosses the ocean of universe easily. He who kicks truth is also kicked in life and meets his doom. We can uplift ourselves by the help of truth. Truth alone is beautiful and good in this universe. The great poet Keats has sung:

这个世界,真理赋予快乐,一切生灵都在真理的力量下,当真理完全被绝灭或者消失的哪天,火将剩下的它固有的燃烧本质,这是不可能的,真理是永恒的真理是神灵,神灵是真理,坚持真理,人就是神灵常人成为圣人,借助真理的力量动物去掉了它目前的状态,变成了万能的神灵,灵魂变成了伟大的灵魂,所有出出生于这一天的伟人都借助真理的力量变的伟大。风永远在刮是一大真理,遵循真理的人很容易穿越宇宙的海洋,反抗真理的人也会在生活中被抗击,遇到他的劫数,我们可以在真理的帮助下提升自己,真理自身在宇宙中是美好的,伟大的诗人Keats歌颂到:

 

Beauty is truth, Truth beauty

That is all ye know on earth,

And all ye need to know.

That's why truth has been exalted in the axiom 'satyam shivam sundram' -The true, the Good and the Beautiful. The person who despite being himself incapable of following the moral code of conduct laid down by the Holy Lord Jinendra, advocates the holy message of the Lord, does not contradict it and does not tell a lie in daily dealings as well, is truthful indeed.

"Truthfulness is the basis of all the virtues that form good character. One who is true to himself is true to world."

美好是真理,真理是美好,这就是世界你所知道的一切,也是你需要明白的,这就是为何真理被格言:“satyam shivam sundram'—真善美歌颂,那些虽然自己不能遵守由圣主的神圣教义,不要反驳,在日常交往中也不撒谎,这才是实实在在的真实。

真实是一切美德的基础,这些美德形成了美好的特性,对自己真实的人对世界也真实。

 

To call a spade a spade is the first requisite of truthfulness. But in the spiritual sphere due to supremacy given to nonviolence over self and non-self, beneficial and sweet words are called truth, even if there is a bit of falsehood in them. Indeed, a statement, which does well to living beings is truth. On the contrary, a statement howsoever true it may be, but if it causes harm to somebody is untruth. In short, spreading false doctrines, revealing the secrets and deformities of others is falsehood. Likewise back biting, making false documents and breach of trust are all forms of falsehood. A man should abstain from such false truths.

直言不讳是善言的第一要素。但是由于非暴力的思想,因此有益的以及甜蜜的话语被称为善言,即使这些话里面可能会有一些错误。事实上,有益于生灵的话就是善言。反之,不论这话如何正确,只要它对人们造成了伤害,这就不是善言。总而言之,传播错误的教义,泄露他人的秘密或者揭露他人的残疾都是恶言。同样的,在背后说坏话,伪造文件以及辜负他人的信任也是恶言。人们应当远离恶言。

 

Jain Acharyas have divided truth into two categories on the basis of 'Anuvartas' (partial vows or small vows), 'Mahavaratas' (Absolute vows or great vows). One who does not speak hurtful, harsh and pinching words; who does not reveal the secrets of others but speaks benevolent and affectionate words; who uses pleasing and compassionate words for all living creatures; who speaks celestial words for spiritual uplift, observes 'Satyanuvarta' (partial vow of truth).

Acharyas曾经根据大誓与小誓的差别把善言分为两类。一种善言就是不说伤害人的、刺激人的、吝啬的话语;不泄露别人的秘密,说一些善良的和亲爱的话语;使用一些令人愉快的和富有同情心的话语;使用圣洁的语言来提升自己的灵魂,遵守小誓。

 

Not to speak false words being instigated by attachment, malice, greed and discord; and to avoid the use of truthful words causing anguish to others is 'Satya Mahavarta' i.e., great vow of truth. Not to utter at any time treacherous or agonizing words inspired with humor, fear, anger or greed; to avoid the use of words that cause mental injury to others in thought, speech, and action is also the great vow of truth -'Satya Mahavarta'.

不因自己的喜好、怨恨、贪婪等说一些错误的话语;避免一些真实的言语造成别人的痛苦就是遵守善言的大誓。在任何时候都不能出于幽默、恐惧、愤怒或者贪婪而说一些背叛或者激怒别人的话;避免使用会给别人带来伤害的思想、语言以及行为也是遵守善言的大誓。

 

Satyavachi prtishtata sarva gunsampda. Anritbhashinram bandhvopi avmanyate, mitrani ch prityjanti, jihvachhedansarvsahrnraadivysnbhagpi bhavti

The treasure of all virtues lies inherent in a truth speaking person. A liar is condemned even by his own kith and kin. No body likes to befriend him. He has to undergo severe punishments like cutting of the tongue and deprivation of all his wealth and property.

Satyavachi prtishtata sarva gunsampda. Anritbhashinram bandhvopi avmanyate, mitrani ch prityjanti, jihvachhedansarvsahrnraadivysnbhagpi bhavti

所有美德中最珍贵的就是善言。即使对自己的亲人撒谎也是一种犯罪,没有人会同他交往。他应当受到割掉舌头以及剥夺所有财产的惩罚。

 

A Brahman named Shivabhuti was reputed by the title Satyaghosh. He used to say that he would never tell a lie. If he ever told a lie, he would cut his tongue with a dagger. Being pleased and fully convinced with his honesty one day a Seth left his four precious diamonds in his custody and set out on his business errand. He had earned a huge amount of money abroad. After twelve years he was on his way back home. Unfortunately his ship sank in the sea and all his wealth was lost. The Seth came to Satyaghosh and demanded of him to return his four diamonds. At this the Brahman, known as Satyaghosh, turned the Seth out of his house declaring him to be a mad person. Now the Seth knocked the door of the king for justice. But the king paid no heed to his petition. However, the queen traced out the theft of Satyaghosh through her own spies. She recovered the diamonds from his house and placed them in front of Seth. The Seth picked up only his own diamonds out of them. Thus the king was convinced beyond doubt about the deceit of Satyaghosh.

一个名叫Shivabhuti的婆罗门被人们尊称为Satyaghosh。他曾经说过他永远不会说谎话,如果他说谎话的话,他就会割掉自己的舌头。Seth对他的这番话十分满意并完全相信了他,一天,Seth把他的四块贵重的钻石留给Shivabhuti保管,然后自己出去做生意。他在国外挣了一大笔钱,十二年后,他又回到了家乡。不幸的是,他的船在海里沉没了,他所有的财富全都损失了。于是,Seth就来找Satyaghosh要回他的四块钻石。SatyaghoshSeth赶出了家门,并说他是一个疯子。于是Seth就来到国王家来请求公正的判决。但是国王没有留意到Seth的请求。不过王后通过探子打听到了Satyaghosh这种偷盗的行径,她命人偷出了所有的钻石并还给了SethSeth从里面挑出了自己的钻石,国王因此相信Satyaghosh在撒谎。

 

The king sentenced Satyaghosh to undergo any one of the three punishments i.e., either he should eat three plates full of cow dung; or suffer thirty two blows of his wrestlers; or forfeit all his possessions. The sinful Satyaghosh was almost dead with humiliation. At first he preferred to eat cow dung but could not eat the whole of it. Then the king ordered a wrestler to give him hand blows. But just one stroke of the wrestler left him almost half-dead. Ultimately the helpless Satyaghosh had to surrender all his wealth to the king. In this way the wretched fellow had to suffer all the three punishments one after the other. This deep shock resulted in his death and thereafter he was reborn as a snake in the king's treasure house.

国王宣布Satyaghosh要承受三种惩罚中的一种,即吃掉三盘牛粪,忍受三十二次摔打或者交出自己所有的财产。在接受了惩罚之后,Satyaghosh几乎要死掉了。起初,他选择了吃掉牛粪,却没有吃光;然后国王命令一个摔跤手来摔打他,但是只是摔了一次,他就几乎昏死过去。最后,无助的Satyaghosh只得选择上交自己所有的财富。这个邪恶的人承受的所有的三种惩罚,这次沉重的打击之后,他就死掉了,转生成为国王库房中的一条蛇。

 

The persons who are not beset with crookedness, falsehood and deceit, alone are entitled to attain an unblemished soul.

Taisha maso birjo Brahamloko na yaishu jihmnritam na maya chaiti

Followers of all religions have applauded the virtue of truthfulness whole heartily. In 'Manu Smriti' the significance of truth has been stated as below:

Ekmaivadvitiam tu prbruvnachbudhatai

Satyam savargasya sopanam paravarsya nauriv

I.e., A truth speaking person is regarded as unique. Like a boat that peddles in the ocean and takes us ashore, truth is the ladder that leads to heaven.

The following couplet 207/67 of the Maha Vana Parva states truth thus:

Vedasyoupanishat satyam satasyopnisad dama

Damasyopnishat tyaga shishtacharaishu nityasha

没有受到谎言以及欺骗困扰的人们能够拥有完美的灵魂。

Taisha maso birjo Brahamloko na yaishu jihmnritam na maya chaiti

所有信仰宗教的人都全心全意的赞赏善言的美德。下面这段话就阐明了善言的重要性:

Ekmaivadvitiam tu prbruvnachbudhatai

Satyam savargasya sopanam paravarsya nauriv

即,诚实的人是独一无二的。就像大海中的小舟带领我们上岸一样,诚实带领我们走向天堂。

Maha Vana Parva曾经说过下面的话:

Vedasyoupanishat satyam satasyopnisad dama

Damasyopnishat tyaga shishtacharaishu nityasha

 

The essence of the Vedas is truth; the essence of truth is self-restraint is abstinence is always present in the conduct of cultured persons. Even if we weigh thousands of horse sacrifices (Ashwamedha Yaga) on one scale, and truth on the other scale of a physical balance, we shall discover that truth is heavier i.e., superior to thousands of horse sacrifice ceremonies. This fact has been stated in the 'Adi Parva' of the 'Mahabharat'  

Ashwmedhsahastram ch satyam ch tulya dhritam

Ashwmedhasahastadhi satyamev vishishtai

-Maha. Adiparv 75/10

吠陀经的要旨就是善言,善言的要旨就是自律。即使天平的一边是1000匹马,而另一端是善言,我们也会发现善言更加重要。在'Mahabharat'中曾经这样说过:

Ashwmedhsahastram ch satyam ch tulya dhritam

Ashwmedhasahastadhi satyamev vishishtai

-Maha. Adiparv 75/10

 

The worldly people follow suit to the utterances of the great men who attain excellence by the acquisition of perfect speech and perfect spirituality. When the Tirthankaras attain absolute truth and all supreme virtues, human beings follow to the letter the nectar-like sweet sermon that has a spontaneous overflow from their lotus mouth. In daily routine of our practical life too we observe that people pay attention to the words of men with a lofty character, and listen with reverence to the words of ideal persons who always speak the truth as well as practice it in life. The sages and gods have acknowledged truth alone as superb. Only a truthful person attains supreme immortality in this world. 'Shukraniti' 3/257-58 states:

Ya sahayam sada kuryat prtipam na vadait vachchit

Satyam hitam vakti yati datai grihnrati mitrtam

I.e., He who is always helpful, never utters bitter and unpleasant words, talks only about truthful and beneficial things, believes in the policy of 'give and take' becomes a true friend. It has been said, "A friend in need, is a friend indeed."

世俗的人们听从具有完美的言语以及精神的伟人的话语。当Tirthankaras得到了至上的善言以及所有至上的美德,人们都听从他的教导,他的教导就像莲花一样清香。在日常生活中,我们听从品德高尚人的训诫。圣人和神灵具有至上的善言。只有善言的人才能够在这个世界中不朽。'Shukraniti'说到:

Ya sahayam sada kuryat prtipam na vadait vachchit

Satyam hitam vakti yati datai grihnrati mitrtam

即,一个经常说有益、诚实的话,不说怨恨以及令人不快的话,相信“付出和索取”的人能够成为真正的朋友。古语说过,患难见真交。

 

Sometimes some situations come when even truth turns into untruth e.g., to call blind a 'blind'. Though it may be a fact that a man is blind by birth, it is a bitter truth to call him a blind, because such a remark hurts his feelings and causes agony to his heart. Such words as inflict pain to somebody's heart are regarded untrue despite their being true. In the 'Vana Parva' of the 'Mahabharat' this fact has been expressed thus:

Yad bhuthitmatyatam, tat satyamitidharanra

Vipryakrito Dharma, pashya Dharmasya sukhsamtam

有的时候,说出实情反而会成为恶言,例如,称呼一个盲人为“瞎子”。或许这个人天生就失明,但是这样称呼会增加他心灵深处的苦楚。这样的话语尽管它说的是一种事实,但是它们仍然是恶言。在'Mahabharat'中,这样描述这种情况:

Yad bhuthitmatyatam, tat satyamitidharanra

Vipryakrito Dharma, pashya Dharmasya sukhsamtam

 

That indeed is the real truth, which contributes to the welfare of all living beings. On the contrary that which causes harm to somebody is untruth. Therefore, always speak the truth, speak affectionate and pleasant words; but never speak unpleasant words despite their being true and do not speak a bitter truth.

真正的善言,能够为所有的生灵带来福祉。反之,那些能够给人们带来伤害的就是恶言。因此,人们应当多说善言,避免说一些会给人们带来伤害的实情。

 

Once a sage sat in a forest. Just then some people came running after a cow to kill it. The sage at once understood that these people were none else but butchers and hunters. They were on their hunting mission. Seeing these hunters the sage stood up. All these people came to the saint and spoke, "O holy saint! Has any cow passed this way?" The saint was in a fix. If he said 'yes', all these butchers would chase and kill the cow; if he said, 'No', he would be branded a liar. To escape these two adverse situations the saint at once sat down and said, "No cow has passed this side since I have sat down." If he had said so in a standing position, it would have been falsehood. Therefore, to speak whatever is true as well as non-violent i.e., to safeguard and defend a life, is truth in the real sense. Thus even a lie takes on the garb of truth, if it brings good to others.

一天,一个圣人坐在森林里,这时,旁边跑过一些人要追杀一头牛。圣人发现,这些人是屠夫和猎户,他们正在打猎。看到这些,圣人站了起来,这些人对圣人说,圣人啊,有没有一头牛跑过去啊?圣人不知该怎样回答,如果他回答是,他们就会杀掉这头牛;如果他回答不是,他就撒了谎。为了解决这个难题,于是圣人马上坐下,并说,自从我坐下之后,就再也没有牛经过。如果他站着说这话,那门就是一种恶言。因此,利用非暴力的方法说一些实情,例如,保护生命,就是善言。即使是披着善言外表的谎言,也能给其他人带来好处。

 

The ascetics (Sharamans) regard truth as all-powerful. They are of the view that anyone who takes recourse to truth obtains infinite power, ineffable bliss and kindles in himself the flame of unrestricted knowledge latent in the human soul. In the absence of truth a person cannot march even a step forward. The worldly beings cannot realize the absolute truth with physical existence. Right it is: 'We can know only the partial truth, but not the absolute truth.'

苦行僧认为善言是万能的。他们认为,善言的人具有无穷的能量,无尽的福祉,并能够点燃心灵深处知识的火光。没有善言,人们寸步难行。世俗的人们不能够理解绝对的真相,就像有的话说的一样,我们能够理解部分的真相,却不能够理解绝对的真相。

 

The great scientist Einstein has questioned, "What is the absolute truth?" Einstein himself answers, "We can know only the relative truth i.e., partial truth. The real truth is known only to a universal observer." A universal observer in the opinion of Einstein is none else but the Almighty with infinite power of knowledge and bliss.

伟大的科学家爱因斯坦曾经说过,什么是绝对的真相?他自己回答到,我们只能认识相对真相,例如部分事实。真正的真相只有宇宙的统治者才知道。在爱因斯坦的思能中,宇宙的统治者就是具有无尽知识和福祉的万能的上帝。

 

We worldly people are non-omniscient; hence we cannot know matter in its infinite state or nature, but we can know its partial nature. The reason is that our knowing capacity is limited. But those who are omniscient and omnipotent souls, can know simultaneously at the same moment all objects of the whole universe that exist forever in all the three ages -past, present and future -in their complete form and vivid states.

我们世俗的人们不是无所不知的,因此我们不能够全面认识物质,但是我们能够认识它的部分特性。原因就是我们认识的能力是有限的。但是那些无所不知的人们和灵魂,能够认识过去、现在已经将来的所有事物的所有状态。

 

Up to the twelfth stage of spiritual advancement all creatures have imperfect knowledge. At this stage it is quite natural for a living being to commit a mistake due to his knowledge of only partial truth. Hence even by chance untrue words come out of his mouth now and then, he should get rid of this mistake by acknowledging the untruth; he should not conceal it. Just as if we wrap fire in a piece of cloth in our attempt to conceal it, burning the cloth it comes out taking a more fierce shape; likewise a lie cannot be concealed however much we may try to do so.

Astyam uktva na guhait guhmanai vivardhate

I.e., Truth is a concern not only of the mind, as the common men believe; but truth is related to the combination of all the three -mind, body and speech. Truth signifies:

'Right is might, but not might is right.'

直到精神修行的第十二个层次,人们还不能够具有完美的知识。在这个层次,由于人们知识的不完备,还会犯一些错误。因此,人们还会说一些恶言。为了摆脱这种情况,人们应当认识自己不了解的事物,而不应当去掩盖它。就像如果用纸或者布去包火的话,火焰就会更加旺盛的燃烧,同样地,无论如何,我们也不能够掩盖我们所不了解的事物。

Astyam uktva na guhait guhmanai vivardhate

即,真相不但同思想有关,而且同人们的思想、肢体以及言语密切相关。有谚语这样说:

   真理是正确的,但是正确的不一定是真理。

 

To see things in their right perspective i.e., to understand a person whatever he is; to speak a thing as it is; and to practice what we preach is truth. It is universally acknowledged that truth is the personal possession and real nature of soul. It is peace giving and blissful. When a worldly person thinks of acting contrary to truth, at first his conscience forbids him to do so. Still a person overrules the dictates of his conscience and practices untruth getting under the control of worldly allurements, deceit, greed and indulgence in sexual pleasures. He is worried all the time lest his falsehood should come to light. His mind remains in tension forever. Hence, if you want to attain peace of mind and body, stick to truth. Infinite is the glory of truth. Therefore, always speak the truth. Do not tell a lie. A lie has no legs. A great moralist has advised saying:

"Man should never tell a lie, which is always injurious to living beings, whether for his own sake or for the sake of others, or out of anger or fear. He should also not force others to speak a lie." The scriptures instruct.

从正确的角度来看待事物,例如,根据人们的本性来认识人,实话实说,按照正确的教义来做事情。人们普遍承认,真相属于个人财产,是灵魂的真相,它是平和的,有福祉的。当一个世俗的人所做同真相相抵触时,他的良心首先会阻止他。当一个人压抑着自己的良心去做一些不实的事情的话,他就受到世俗事物以及欺诈、贪婪和色诱的控制。因此,人们如果希望思想和身体平静,坚持真理,就应当经常说实话,不说谎。谎言不会长久。一个伟大的道德家曾经说过:

   不论是出于自己的利益还是其它人的利益抑或是出于愤怒或者恐惧,人们都不应当说谎,那会对其它生灵造成伤害。人们也不能强迫他人说谎。

 

The consequences of falsehood are very disastrous. A liar is deprived of his peace of mind.

Satyam vadait masatyam, satyam Dharma sanatnam

Harishchandra charit vai divi satayn chandravat

I.e., Speak the truth forever under all odds.

Truth is the eternal virtue. The immortal glory of the well renowned truthful King Harish Chandra pervades the vast sky like that of the moon, simply due to truth.

谎言的后果是灾难性的,撒谎的人内心不会平静。

Satyam vadait masatyam, satyam Dharma sanatnam

Harishchandra charit vai divi satayn chandravat

即,在所有的情况下都说实话。

善言是永恒的美德。正是由于善言,伟大的国王Harish Chandra的美德就像月亮一样照亮了整个天空。

 

All the great men who have existed on this earth to this day achieved greatness only due to harnessing truth to the core of their heart. Those who adhere to truth make their self-uplift. On the contrary, those who are addicted to falsehood meet a miserable lot and suffer downfall. These note worthy words deserve careful attention:

"The path of truth will lead you to your goal, if you only go straight forward, without moving this side or that."

所有美名流传至今的伟人他们都是由于在内心的深处怀有善言的美德。那些善言的人不断的自我升华。相反地,那些说谎之人遭遇痛苦和衰落。这句有意义的话可以引起人们的警示:

如果你心无旁骛的话,诚实之路能够带领你走向你的目标。

 

There lived a gentle natured and profound scholar Upadhaya (a teacher) named Ksheerkadamb in Swastikawati City. Many students, chief amongst whom were his own son Parvata, the Stha's son Narad and the royal Prince Vasu, received education from him. All three had great mutual love and affection for one another. One day the simple living, learned teacher Ksheerkadamb while engaged in teaching and discourse with his three main disciples sat on a crystal clear marble slab inside a cave of Swarangiri hill. At that time he was explaining to his disciples the intricate religious axioms defining them in a very lucid style. Just then two Gods named Amitmati and his disciple Anantmati accomplished in celestial virtues descended from the sky and to him. Seeing Ksheerkadamb busy in religious discourse with his pupils in a calm and serene mood, the God Anantmati spoke, "Hurrah! All these are decidedly noble souls and are likely to attain salvation in the near future." Hearing this Amitmati said, "O disciple! Your statement is correct to some extent; but out of them two will go to hell and two will enter heaven." This conversation between the two Gods made Ksheerkadamb, who enlightened the whole universe with the light of scriptures shudder at heart with fear. He at once dispatched his disciples home, and in no time himself he reached the God Amitmati. He paid homage at his feet with full reverence and inquired, "O celestial being! Who out of us will go to hell and who will enter heaven?" Amitmati replied, "O Ksheerkadamb! The untruthful Prince Vasu who is maddened with the pride of royal treasures and your son Parvata who misinterprets the Holy Scriptures will go to hell. The Seth's son Narad who honestly observes the vows of a householder and possesses the jewel of Right Belief, and you yourself shall enter heaven."

曾经有一位文雅的、有影响的学者Ksheerkadamb生活在Swastikawati城。许多学生,主要是他的儿子ParvataStha的儿子NaradVasu王子,跟随他学习。这三个人相互爱戴。一天,Ksheerkadamb坐在Swarangiri山的一个山洞里的洁净大理石板上给他的三个学生讲课并演讲,这时,他正在向他的弟子解释复杂的宗教真理。这时,两位神灵—Amitmati和他的弟子从天上而来赞扬他的美德。看到Ksheerkadamb正在忙着给他的弟子授课,Amitmati的弟子说到,这些都是高贵的灵魂,他们很快就会得到解脱。听到这话,Amitmati说,你这话只有部分是正确的,他们中间有两个人要去地狱,有两个人会上天堂。Ksheerkadamb能够洞悉事物的真相,他听到这话后内心充满了恐惧。他马上打发他的弟子回家,然后自己找到Amitmati。他满怀敬意的跪拜在Amitmati面前,问到,神啊,我们中谁会下地狱,谁会上天堂呢?Amitmati答到,不诚实的王子由于财富会变得颠狂,你的儿子错误的理解经文的意思,他们会下地狱。Seth的儿子Narad会坚守誓言并拥有正确的信仰,还有你,你们回去天堂。

 

On hearing these words from the mouth of the divine God, Ksheerkadamb out of aversion for the world and his own body developed the feeling of renunciation. So he got himself initiated into Jain monkshood in the presence of his teacher. He uprooted with his own hands his lustrous beautiful dark hair. In the end after a noble death -the Samadhi Maran of a saint -he entered his heavenly abode i.e., Paradise.

听到这话后,出于对世界的厌恶,他的身体开始有了解脱的感觉。他就在他导师的指引下成为了神仙,他拔光了自己所有的头发。最后,他高贵的死去,进入了天堂。

 

On the other hand, Parvata succeeded his teacher father. He became a teacher and started teaching the students. One day Narad taking a present of garments paid a visit to his teacher's widowed wife -the mother like Chitravali and met his classmate Parvata as well. After making proper inquiries from his teacher's wife about her well-being and giving her the present, he reached the school run by Parvata. By chance at that time Parvata made a blunder. He explained to his students that the word 'Ajairyasthavayam' means to 'perform Yajna by sacrificing a he-goat.' Narad objected to it and said, "O learned Parvata! Do not give this wrong explanation. 'Aja' means the paddy, which has lost the power of germination. Hence the phrase 'Ajairyasthavayam' means that a Yajna should be performed for health, peace and prosperity by offering three-year-old paddy. My friend! Only thus had our highly learned proficient teacher explained this word to us. It does not befit you to give a wrong interpretation of the right word after inheriting your father's high seat of a teacher. It seems your mind has gone astray and your wisdom has become extinct." On hearing his friend's words full of wisdom, Parvata said, "O Narad! The explanation given by me is fully true and correct. If you prove it untrue and inappropriate, let me be punished by chopping off my tongue." Narad said, "But who will decide our controversy?" At this Parvarta said, "The justice loving king Vasu will decide our controversy and we shall come to know his decision about the truth or untruth of your explanation by attending his court tomorrow."

 

另一方面,Parvata接过了他父亲的教鞭,成为一个老师开始教授学生。一天,Narad带着一件衣服作为礼物去看望她寡居的师母,并遇见了他的同学Parvata。在询问了一下他的师母的生活情况并给了她这份礼物后,他就去了Parvata的学校。碰巧,Parvata犯了一个错误。他把'Ajairyasthavayam'解释为使用公山羊来进行YajnaI仪式。Narad说,这样的解释是错误的,'Aja'的意思是不能发芽的谷物,因此'Ajairyasthavayam'的意思就是通过已经三年陈的谷物来祈祷健康、和平和繁荣,我的朋友啊!我们的导师曾经这样给我们解释过。你已经继承了你父亲的位置,你就不能够这样错误的解释。好像你的思想已经走入了歧途,你的智慧也耗光了。听到了他的朋友这番充满智慧的话,Parvata说,我解释的完全正确,如果你能够证明它是错误的,就让我切掉我的舌头作为惩罚吧。Narad说,那谁来给我们做裁决呢?Parvata说,公正的国王Vasu来做我们的裁判吧,我们明天到法庭上去,让他来决定我们谁的解释正确。

 

When Chitrawali, the widow of Ksheerkadamb and mother of Parvata heard this, she sent for Parvata and counseling him said, "My son! To give such wrong explanation is a cause of downfall and leads to hell. Therefore, give up your obstinacy in sticking to your wrong interpretation, otherwise you will have to go to hell." But Parvata declined to follow the advice of his mother. He was adamant on his own version. It has been rightly said: 'vinash kalai viprit budhi' 'A man loses his wisdom in adversity'. 

Parvata 的母亲Chitrawali听到这件事情后,他找到Parvata并对他说,你这样错误的解释会让你下地狱的,因此,放弃你的这种对错误解释的坚持吧,否则你会下地狱的。但是Parvata拒绝这样做,他固执地坚持自己的理解。就像谚语所说的一样,人们由于固执而丢掉了自己的智慧。

 

Parvata's mother knew well that her own son was wrong and talking rot, and to favor him would signify moral degradation. Even then infatuated with affection for her son, she went to king Vasu to plead for him. She spoke, "O, king! Once you had promised to grant me a boon. Today I have come to you to ask for the boon."

Parvata的母亲知道自己的儿子错了,而且在胡言乱语,而且他这样做会让他思想堕落。处于对自己儿子的爱,她去找到了国王,并对他说,国王啊,你曾经说过可以满足我一个愿望,今天我就向你说出我的愿望。

 

The just and truthful king Vasu said, "Mother! Demand whatever boon you like. Your boon shall be granted at all costs. I am ready to offer you every thing that I possess." At this the lady said, "Tomorrow Parvata and Narad will come in your court to seek your decision over a controversy. Although Parvata's view point is weak, it supports sin and is a gateway to moral downfall, yet you will have to defend my son Parvata and give your decision in his favor."

公正而又正直的国王说,你有什么愿望就尽管说出来吧,无论如何,你的愿望都回被满足。Parvata的母亲说,明天ParvataNarad会来法庭请求你裁决一件事情。尽管Parvata的观点是错误的,但是请求你原谅我的儿子,帮他一把。

 

Hearing this king Vasu trembled at heart. He was in a great fix. He pondered in his mind, "What should I do now? If I do not keep my word, I will have to suffer great disgrace; and if in order to fulfill my promise I favor Parvata, my fall into the pit of hell is inevitable. If there is a deep well on one side, there is a deep ditch on the other. I fail to decide what to do in such a critical situation." But he opted for hell; so at last he bid farewell to his teacher's wife with a promise to defend her son Parvarta.

听到这话后,国王内心十分困惑,他想,我应当怎么做呢?如果我坚守我的誓言,我就要忍受莫大的痛苦;我如果偏袒Parvata,我就会坠入地狱。如果一边是深井,一边是深壑,我应当选择哪一边呢?最终,他选择了地狱,他答应了他师母的请求,并帮助她的儿子Parvarta

 

The next day Narad and Parvarta appeared in the royal court. Each one of them presented his case before the king giving forceful arguments. They both waited for the king's judgement with a heavy heart. Parvata was somewhat doubtful at heart, but Narad was fully confident that the just king Vasu would certainly deliver his verdict in his favor. But the promise-bound king Vasu delivered his judgement in favor of Parvata. As soon as he declared his judgement in favor of untruth, his throne sank into the earth and there was an uproar all around. Narad burst out, "O wicked king! Why did you prefer to go to hell by favoring untruth? Take side of the truth." But the helpless king remained adamant on his decision and ultimately went to hell after death.

第二天,ParvataNarad来到法庭,他们在国王判决之前都给出了自己的理由。他们怀着沉重的心情等待着国王的宣判。Parvata心中有些焦虑,而Narad却非常有信心,他相信国王会站在他这一边。但是,由于诺言,国王最后做出了有利于Parvata的判决。在做出这不公正的判决之后,国王的王座掉落在地上,周围一阵骚动。Narad叫喊到,可恶的国王,你选择了谎言,你会下地狱的,你应当选择真相。但是无助的国王仍然坚持了他的选择,并在死后下了地狱。

 

By the above example it becomes obvious that "Truth always conquers in the long run" 'satya maiv jeytai'. Therefore, a living being aspiring for his own spiritual welfare should never favor falsehood, otherwise he has to meet a miserable plight.

In his last sermon before his ideal death i.e. Samadhi Maran His Holiness Shri Shanti Sagar Maharaj, a prince among ascetics laid stress upon the need of truth for a believer in non-violence. By truth he meant the adoption of right perspective and correct apprehension of spiritual values.

从上面的例子可以看出,真理才能永远。因此,如果希望得到精神福祉的人们就不能够说谎,否则他将得到一个痛苦的结局。

在生前最后一次布教的时候,Shri Shanti Sagar Maharaj强调了对于一个非暴力的信奉者来说,诚实的重要性。通过真理,人们能够得到正确的观点以及正确的理解。

 

The great poet Reidhu has defined the supreme virtue of truth as under:

De dhamhr karanru dos nribarnru ih bhavi skhrhru Sachyu ji vynrulu bhavnri atalu oljyi visasadhru Sachu ji savam thamaham phanru, sachu ji nhiyligreu vihanru

Sachenr ji sohi namruv jammu, sachainr pavtau punr kam

Sachnr sal gnr ganr mahanti, sachainr tias saiva vahanti

Par baha yaru bhasahuma bhabu, sachu ji tam chhandhu vigeh gachu Sachu ji Parmapau athi so bhavun bhavtam dalanr iku  

Rundhije munrinra vyanr guti, jam khanri fitaii sansar ati

sachu ji dham Phainr kaivalnranru lahair janru

Tam palhu bhi bhav bhanru ma aliyu deh venru

1        The virtue of truth is the originator of the virtue of compassion, it banishes all faults and is bestower of bliss in this world and the divine world. A truthful speech is unique in the universe, i.e., nothing in the world can match it. We should speak truth with confidence.

2        The virtue of truth is the main among all virtues. Truth is the most sacred injunction on the earth' surface. Truth is like a bridge to take us across the ocean of the world. Truth is the guiding force to bring mental happiness to all creatures.

3        Human life is glorified by truth. Truth alone diverts men from evil to do holy deeds. All virtues together achieve nobility and grandeur through truth alone, and the Gods fulfill the vow of service due to truth only.

4        The small vows and big vows are attained through truth, and truth puts an end to all human miseries. We should always speak generous and affectionate words. We should never utter such words as hurt the feelings of others.

5        O noble soul! Never speak a word, which creates obstacles for others; even if it may be true, give it up with pride. Truth is the only God. Truth is like the radiant sun to vanquish the darkness of the world. Always worship it.

6        The nude monks observe Vachan Gupti i.e., follow regulations of speech. They put an end to the worldly agony and sorrows in the twinkling of an eye.

7        A man automatically attains enlightenment as a result of the virtue of truth. O noble soul! Practice truth and do not speak unpleasant words in the world.

伟大的诗人Reidhu曾这样定义之上的善言:

De dhamhr karanru dos nribarnru ih bhavi skhrhru Sachyu ji vynrulu bhavnri atalu oljyi visasadhru Sachu ji savam thamaham phanru, sachu ji nhiyligreu vihanru

Sachenr ji sohi namruv jammu, sachainr pavtau punr kam

Sachnr sal gnr ganr mahanti, sachainr tias saiva vahanti

Par baha yaru bhasahuma bhabu, sachu ji tam chhandhu vigeh gachu Sachu ji Parmapau athi so bhavun bhavtam dalanr iku  

Rundhije munrinra vyanr guti, jam khanri fitaii sansar ati

sachu ji dham Phainr kaivalnranru lahair janru

Tam palhu bhi bhav bhanru ma aliyu deh venru

1                        善言是怜悯的开始,它去除了所有的过失以及赐予人类的世界和天堂以福祉。诚实的语言在宇宙中是独一无二的,没有东西可以比得上它。我们应当自信的说出真相;

2                        善言的美德在所有美德中居于首位。真相是地球上最神圣的指令。真相就像一座桥一样,带领我们穿越世俗的世界。善言能够给所有生灵带来精神上的快乐;

3                        人们因为善言而变得荣耀。真相使人们从罪恶走向神圣。由于善言,所有的美德都变得高贵,由于善言,神灵也会实现自己的誓言;

4                        小誓和大誓都能够通过善言来实现,善言能够结束人类所有的痛苦。我们应当说慷慨挚爱之言,而决不说伤害别人感情的话;

5                        高贵的灵魂啊,从来不说会对别人造成障碍的话,即使说的可能是事实。善言是唯一的神灵,它就像太阳一样驱除了世界上的黑暗,敬拜善言;

6                        僧侣遵守Vachan Gupti,即遵守对言语的约束。他们在瞬间结束了世间的痛苦;

7                        由于善言的美德,人们能够自然而然的获得启迪。神圣的灵魂啊,善言吧,不要再说出令人不快的话语了。

 

Hence, O Mortal Man! Be truthful; and be truthful. O man! Know that truth is the fundamental principle. The wise man that always abides by the commandment of truth goes beyond death; for truth is the food of soul and falsehood cannot have a long lease of life. Know thou the truth. He, who abides by the precept of truth, attains the deathless state.

A truthful person is honored every where. Therefore, we must:

Honor to those whose words are deedsThus help us in our daily needs;And by their overflowRaise us from what is low.

 

因此,平凡的人们啊,善言吧!人们啊,真理是永远的准则。聪明的人能够遵守真理的戒律来远离死亡;因为真理是灵魂的食粮,谎言则不会长久。知道了真理并去遵守它,人们就能够永生。

诚实的人们在任何地方都会得到尊重,因此,我们应当:

尊敬那些确实能够在日常生活中对我们有益的言语,它们将我们从浅薄的地方升华。

 

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The principal materials for character building are -truth and honesty, energy and devotion, patience and perseverance, but the steady foundation upon which character can stand is firm faith in the infinite mercy and wisdom of God; without this character, however high it may be, trembles down in a moment.

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人们的性格主要由下面几个方面构成:善言、诚实、活力以及信仰、耐心和坚持,但是性格中最坚定的基础就是相信神灵无尽的仁慈以及智慧,没有这一点,无论他的灵魂多么高尚,都会在瞬间坍塌。