Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of 十大美德
与贡献 
     
   前言 
  绪论 
  五大神灵之圣歌
  引言 
  至上的宽恕
   至上的谦卑 
   至上的诚实 
  至上的纯洁 
  至上的善言 
   至上的自律
  至上的苦行 
  至上的舍弃 
  至上的情禁 
  至上的禁欲 
  结束语

TEN UNIVERSAL VIRTUES  十大美德 

7

SUPREME AUSTERITIES OR PENANCE

(Uttama Tapa Dharma)

7

至上的苦修

(Uttama Tapa Dharma)

 

'Penance is a cataract that washes away all blemish sand purges the soul of all karmic matter'

苦修就像瀑布一样,它能够洗刷灵魂深处罪恶的东西。

 

The word 'tap' (Penance or Austerity) is derived from the root 'tap' by the addition of the suffix 'ach'. The word austerity conveys the sense -to vanquish the enemies of soul; heating agent to purify the real self; that which burns and annihilates the karmic matter; penance; and rigorous religious meditation.

'tap'(苦行或者修行)一词源于词根'tap'和后缀'ach'。苦行一词的意思就是,征服所有灵魂的敌人,净化自我,摧毁并消除因果报应,修行以及严格的宗教冥思。

 

Penance is an easy medium to lead a living being towards spiritual uplift. All the great men born in the world so far became great only by practicing austerity. Penance is an extremely significant function of life. Those who adopt austerity in life sail across the ocean of the world smoothly i.e. get rid of the cycle of birth and death. Austerity is the only path to attain liberation.

苦修是一种很简单的自我提升的方法。所有伟人之所以伟大都是由于他们的苦修。苦修是生命中非常重要的一个部分。那些苦修的人,能够顺利的穿越世俗的海洋,摆脱生死的轮回。苦修是通向解脱的唯一的道路。

 

Nothing can be gain in life without austerity. The sun goes through heat and fire; that is why it supplies light and warmth to one and all. Likewise, the moon and the stars undergo austerity in their own way. No work is fulfilled in the world without penance. If the sun had not been hot, the land would not have become fertile; for in the absence of sunrays, no existence of any vegetation would have been possible on the earth. Every vegetation prepares its food itself from the soil by absorbing the sunrays. In 'Kurul Kavya' Acharya Kundkund Swami has also said, "The more heat the land gets, the more fertile it becomes. The seeds sown at that place become capable of germinating very soon and bearing fruits quickly. The sun's own heating is essential for it."

如果没有苦修,生命中则一事无成。由于太阳的热度以及燃烧,它能够发出光和热。同样地,月亮以及星辰也有它们自己苦修的方法。没有苦修的话,任何工作都无法完成。如果太阳没有热量,土地就不会肥沃,如果没有光线,蔬菜就不会在地球上生长。所有的蔬菜都从土壤中获取养料并吸收阳光。在Kurul Kavya一书中,Acharya Kundkund Swami说到,土地得到越多的阳光,它就会越肥沃,生长在那个地方的种子就会很快的长成并结果。太阳光对于它们来说是必不可少的。

 

Tapa (penance) is of two folds;  

(a) Bahya Tapa (external austerities), referring to food and physical activities. The 'Tattavartha Sutra' and 'Dash Bhakti' categorize the external penance thus;

Anshnavamodryvritiparisa nkhyanrsprityagviviktshyasankayklaisha bahim tapa

两重苦修:

(a)    外在的苦修,跟事物与身体行为有关。'Tattavartha Sutra''Dash Bhakti'是外在的苦修的两类:

Anshnavamodryvritiparisa nkhyanrsprityagviviktshyasankayklaisha bahim tapa

 

The Bahaya Tapa -six external austerities -are as follows;

Aikantai shyanopvaishan kriti santapnam tanvam Sankyo vriti nibhandana manshanam vishvanr madhodarm Tyagam chaindrya dantino madyata svado rasyanisham Shodha bahya maham stuvay shiv gati praptyabhiyupayam tapa

-Charitra bhakti

i)                    Vivikta-Shayyasana -sitting and sleeping in a secluded place devoid of animate beings;

ii)    Kayaklesha -mortification of the body so long as the mind is not disturbed;

ii)                  Vritti-Parisamkhyana -taking a mental vow to accept food from a house-holder only if certain conditions are fulfilled without letting anyone know about the vow;

iii)                Anashana -fasting, to give up all the four types of food for the sake of meditation.

iv)                Avamodarya -eating less than one's fill or less than one has appetite for; and,

vi)    Rasa-Parityaga -daily renunciation of one or more of six kinds of delicacies namely, ghee (clarified butter), milk, curd, sugar, salt and oil.

 

六种外部的苦修如下所示:

Aikantai shyanopvaishan kriti santapnam tanvam Sankyo vriti nibhandana manshanam vishvanr madhodarm Tyagam chaindrya dantino madyata svado rasyanisham Shodha bahya maham stuvay shiv gati praptyabhiyupayam tapa

-Charitra bhakti

i)                    Vivikta-Shayyasana —在一个隐蔽的地方独居;

ii)                  Vritti-Parisamkhyana —只要思想没有混乱,就要修炼自己的身体

iii)                Vritti-Parisamkhyana —发誓只从信徒那里获取食物,如果条件允许的话,不要让其他人知道这个誓言

iv)                Anashana —为了冥思,放弃其他四类饮食

v)                  Avamodarya —每天进食要少于自己的食量

vi)                Rasa-Parityaga —每天都要远离下面的一种或者几种美味,提炼的黄油,牛奶,奶酪,糖,盐以及油类。

 

(b) Abhyantara Tapa (internal austerities); referring to spiritual discipline. The internal penance has been categorized as below­

"Prayshchitvinyaveyavrityasvadhyayavyutsargdhyanantutram"

The Abhyantara Tapa -six kinds of internal austerities are:

Svadhiyeya shubhkarmnrshchyutvata samprtyavsthapanamDhyanam vyapritiramyavini guro vridhay ch balai yatoKayotsarjan satkriya vinay itayvam tapa shadvidhamVandayabhayantarmantrangbalvadhidvaishi vidhvasnam

-Charitra bhakti

i) Svadhyaya -study of scriptures for getting rid of the ambition for name and fame, for 'Fame is the last infirmity of noble minds.'  

ii) Prayashchit -expiation or confession and repentance of sins;

iii) Dhyana -concentration of mind and not to let the mind go astray.

iv) Vaiyavrtyaya -rendering service to other saints, who have been rendered helpless due to sickness or old age.

v) Vyutsarga -giving up attachment to the body; and,vi) Vinya -reverence or modest behavior -to practice four types of humility in conduct.

(b)    Abhyantara Tapa (内心的苦修),同精神自律有关。内新修行分类如下:

"Prayshchitvinyaveyavrityasvadhyayavyutsargdhyanantutram"

六种内心修行如下所示:

Svadhiyeya shubhkarmnrshchyutvata samprtyavsthapanamDhyanam vyapritiramyavini guro vridhay ch balai yatoKayotsarjan satkriya vinay itayvam tapa shadvidhamVandayabhayantarmantrangbalvadhidvaishi vidhvasnam

-Charitra bhakti

i) Svadhyay 努力研习经文典籍,放弃对于名望以及声誉的追求,因为名誉对于高贵的思想来说是可以忽略的

ii) Prayashchit 承认自己的罪孽,并为其赎罪忏悔。

iii) Dhyana 修行时集中自己的注意力

iv) Vaiyavrtyaya 为其它的圣人提供服务,因为圣人们已经为那些年老和无助的人提供了服务。

v) Vyutsarga 放弃对身体的爱恋,行为谦逊。

 

These external and internal penances form the code of conduct for the rigorous life of self-denial the ascetics have to lead. Again, penance is of two kinds;

1. Tamasa-tapasaya (kutap) -dark penance.

The dark penance involves the ghastly and terrible practices, as to sleep on the pointed iron nails, to walk on the burning fire, to get oneself suspended from a tree, to get oneself buried in the ground.

2. Satvika-tapasya (sutap) -real or true penance.

The true penance involves the genuine or natural ways of practicing penance. This real or true penance gives prominence to the practice of ‘Dhayana’ (meditation) and 'Upavasa' (fasting). Dark penance is the cause of migration of soul in the universe. True penance results in the liberation of the soul. Penance is practiced for eternal bliss. It has been said:

"Karmkshyarth tapayat iti tap"

Sarv sid.

内心的和外在的苦修都会让人们过一种禁欲的生活。苦修有两种类型:

1.      Tamasa-tapasaya (kutap) –黑暗的苦修

黑暗的修行是一种恐怖而且可怕的修行,例如睡在铁钉上,在火堆上行走,悬挂在树上,将自己埋在土中。

2. Satvika-tapasya (sutap) –真正的修行

真正的修行遵循修行的本质。这种修行强调冥思与禁食。黑暗的修行会使灵魂走向宇宙,真正的修行能使灵魂得到解脱。修行能够带来无尽的福祉。有文为证:

"Karmkshyarth tapayat iti tap"

Sarv sid.

 

The penance performed to annihilate the karmic matter is the real penance. Without annihilation of the karmas, the final goal i.e., liberation cannot be attained. Therefore, penance is a must for a living being aspiring for salvation. It has been stated in 'Rajvartika'-'karmdahnatapa': that which results in the burning or annihilation of the karmas is called penance. Acharya Padam Nandi in the holy book ‘Panchvinshati’ has stated the same thing as follows:

"Karmmlbilyahetobordhdrisha tapayatai tapa proktam"

能够消除因果报应的修行是真正的修行。不消除因果报应,就不能够实现解脱。因此,希望得到解脱的人们就必须进行苦修。在'Rajvartika'-'karmdahnatapa'一书中曾经这样说过,能够消除因果报应的行为称为苦修。在Panchvinshati’一书中,Acharya Padam Nandi也说到了同样的事情:

"Karmmlbilyahetobordhdrisha tapayatai tapa proktam"

 

The penance performed by a monk endowed with the vision of Right Knowledge (samyakgyanddsss) to wash off the dirt of karmas from the soul, is called true penance. He who on subjugating five senses and four passions aroused by the abundance of semen is called penance. The author of the sacred book 'Dhawal' has also defined penance as followed:

"Tinram ryanranrmavidhbhadthmichhanriroho"

具有正确知识的僧侣在苦修时能够洗净内心灵魂的因果报应,这叫做真正的修行。他已经征服了五官和由于色欲而引发的四种感情。在'Dhawal'一书中也是这样来定义苦修:

"Tinram ryanranrmavidhbhadthmichhanriroho"

 

Suppression of desires to attain the three jewels -Right faith, Right knowledge, and Right conduct -is called penance. To discard all desires at heart and become absorbed in the real self in order to conquer the karmas is known as penance. The word penance means to shun the sensual pleasures. Therefore, one who desires to perform penance will have to first overcome the lust for sensual pleasures; only then penance can be called successful. The abstention of ambition for legitimate and illegitimate, right and wrong sensuous pleasures in order to attain the three jewels, viz. Right faith, Right knowledge, and Right conduct is termed penance. In Bhagwati Aradhana penance has been defined as strict observance of the rules of moral conduct:

Chranrami tasmi jo ujamo ya aunjanra ya jo hoi

So chaiv jinraihin tavo bhanrido asadam charantas

通过抑制自己的欲望来获得正确的信仰,正确的知识以及正确的行为,称为修行。摒弃心中所有的欲望并关注与自我以征服因缘报应叫做修行。修行一词的意思就是摒弃感官的欢愉。因此,人们应当进行苦修以征服对感官欢愉的向往;只有这时的苦修才是成功的。人们节制自己合理或者不合理的野心以及正确或不正确的感官欢愉能够获得正确的信仰,正确的知识以及正确的行为,这就叫做苦修。在Bhagwati Aradhana一书中,苦修被定义为严格遵守道德准则的行为。

Chranrami tasmi jo ujamo ya aunjanra ya jo hoi

So chaiv jinraihin tavo bhanrido asadam charantas

 

The holy Lord Jinendra has declared the dedication to the moral code of conduct and the observance of these rules of morality in practical life penance.

To suffer calmly without murmur, the good or bad results of karmas that have become effective and not to commit any type of violence towards any living being is the essence of penance. In the critical appreciation of 'Sarvartha Siddhi' it has been said:

"Aniguhitviryasamargvirodhikayekaleshstapa"

To mortify the body as much as possible according to the rules laid for the path of salvation without letting your spiritual power lie dormant is penance. A wise thinker has said, "The path of the brave is thorny; it involves mortification of the flesh'.

神圣的Jinendra宣布自己遵守道德准则,并且遵循苦修的戒律。

平静的承受而没有抱怨, 不论因缘报应的结果是好是坏,不对任何生物使用暴力是苦行的要素。在'Sarvartha Siddhi'一书中曾经这样赞赏到:

"Aniguhitviryasamargvirodhikayekaleshstapa"

努力根据解脱道路上的规则来修炼自己的身体,而不让精神力量主宰自己是苦修。一个智慧的思想家说, 勇敢之路充满了荆棘;它需要肉体上痛苦的修炼。

 

The same thing has been stated in the Rajvartika as below:

"Dehsyaindryanram ch tapam karoti ityanshanadi tap ichauchaytai"

To keep fast and observe austerities by restraining man's tendency of indulging in the pleasures of the body and senses is penance. In Kartikeyanupreksha it has been said:

Ih par loye suhanram nrirvaikho jo karaidi sam bhavoViviham kaya kalaisham tavdhammo nrimaalo tas

同样的事情在Rajvartika一书中也有讲述:

"Dehsyaindryanram ch tapam karoti ityanshanadi tap ichauchaytai"

苦修就是禁食以及抑制人们自己的感官欢愉而进行的禁欲。在Kartikeyanupreksha中曾经说到过:

Ih par loye suhanram nrirvaikho jo karaidi sam bhavoViviham kaya kalaisham tavdhammo nrimaalo tas

 

The equanimity soul, who tortures his body in various ways in the hope of getting happiness in this world and the other world, performs the unblemished penance. In order to attain this virtue of austerity the monks perform penance on the riverbanks in extreme winter; on the mountain peaks in the scorching summer heat and under a tree in heavy down pour in the rainy season. So long as we don't let our body pass through severe penance well performed, this body will not prove helpful in annihilating the karmas attached to our soul. Iron has to pass through many ordeals under heating process, before it can be finally molded into different shapes and sizes to manufacture precious implements and other objects. Likewise only the living being, who mortifies his body through various types of penance and tortures, attains the invaluable and invisible three -fold jewels of Right faith, Right knowledge and Right conduct, all of which lie dormant in the human body. Rightly has it been questioned: 'Has not being purged in fire gold wrought a crown?'

一个镇静的灵魂,通过各种各样的方法来折磨自己的身体以期获得今生和来生欢乐,就要奉行纯粹的苦修。为了获得朴素的美德,僧侣在严寒中的河岸边进行苦修;在夏日的山顶忍受炙烤,在雨季的树下忍受大雨的浸淋。如果我们没有很好的奉行苦修,那门我们的身体在消除因果报应的时候就会变得十分无助。钢铁在制造成零件或者器具之前要经过多次高温处理的考验。同样地,人们只有通过苦修来折磨自己的身体,才能够得到正确的信仰,正确的知识以及正确的行为,所有的这些都存在于人们的身体中。曾经有过这样一句话,不经历烈火的锤炼,金子怎么能够成为皇冠呢?

 

Self-torture or mortification of self is undoubtedly the surest way of purging both body and soul."

"Penance vanquishes karmas and annihilates all sins. What to speak of obtaining ordinary things as royal happiness and the high rank of Indra, the mundane soul can attain even Godly hood by penance. Human life is futile without penance?" -Lokantic Deva (Vardhman Puran, pg. 68)

The penance performed in a perfect way alone is real penance. Only such penance can be helpful to the monks to attain salvation -Moksha. Any other penance contrary to it is Bal tapa (ignorant penance). This ignorant penance is the cause of migration in the world. Acharya Kundkund Swami states the characteristics of 'Bal Tapa' in Samaysaau as follows;

Parmathmimhi du athido jo kunrdi tavam band ch dharyadi

Tam sacham baltavam balvandam vinti savanrhu

Samaysar gatha 152

自我折磨以及对身体的修炼无疑都是能够锻炼人的身体和心灵。

如果一个普通的人进行修行的话,他就能够毁灭因果报应并消除所有的罪孽,更不用说获得皇家的欢愉以及因陀罗的地位这种寻常的事情了。如果没有苦修,人类的生命就是没有意义的。-Lokantic Deva (Vardhman Puran,68)

完美的修行才是真正的修行。只有这样的修行才能够帮助僧侣实现解脱。与之相对的修行称为无知的修行,这种修行将会把灵魂带入普通的世界。Acharya Kundkund Swami曾经这样描述过普通的修行:

Parmathmimhi du athido jo kunrdi tavam band ch dharyadi

Tam sacham baltavam balvandam vinti savanrhu

 

The omniscient lord has termed all such penance and observance of vows that a living being attached to the worldly allurements performs, as 'Bal Tapa' or Bal Vrata (ignorant vow). The bodily torture and observance of vows deceitfully for pubic show; that which cannot prove helpful in treading the path of liberation i.e., salvation due to wrong belief is Bal Tapa (ignorant penance). Because such penance does not become helpful in relieving the soul from karmas, rather it becomes the cause of the bondage of soul by karmas.

Penance has been regarded a part and parcel of self-restraint. Those who adore moral conduct i.e., self-restraint, as a rule adore penance as well; and those who worship penance inevitably get the benefit of character worship. Penance is performed by the observation of vows discarding indolence and passions; and through study of scriptures and by meditation. It has been said:  

"Svadhyaya parmam tap"

无所不知的神灵把受到世间外物诱惑的人们所奉行的修行以及遵循的誓言称为无知的誓言。他们对身体的折磨以及对誓言的遵守只是一种做秀,这根本无益于他们的解脱。这样的修行不但不能帮助灵魂摆脱因缘报应,而且它还会使灵魂受到因缘的束缚。

 

On this ground also penance implies character. Hence, all the penances are included in character worship. A full and perfect dedication to the thirteen types of characters is self-restraint. This self-restraint is achieved only when one is made purified by external and internal penance, otherwise not. Therefore, on account of being purified by external and internal penance, self-restraint has been counted as part of penance. The self-restrained wise monks, after proper deliberation over all the six things, e.g. matter (dravya), age (kal), place (kshetra), thoughts (bhav), power (bal), and virility (virya), should engage themselves in penance in different posture, viz. Sarvasan, Vidhasan, and Suddhasan; in order to enjoy the bliss of perfect good health and real self. A man should not aspire for worldly rewards in exchange for the above said penances while performing them. In the performing of penances it is essential to be indifferent to their results. Indeed, to practice life long penance is as difficult as to walk on the edge of sword.

在这种情况下,苦修就意味着性格。所有的苦修都包括性格上的敬重。完全的和完美的尊敬十三种性格就是自律。一个人只有内心和身体都苦修的时候才能够变得纯洁。因此,由于苦修能够使人们变得纯洁,自律也就是苦修的一部分。一个聪明的、自律的僧侣,在对物质、年龄、地点、思想、能力以及男子气概沉思之后,就应当以不同的姿势进行沉思,这样,他们就能够得到福祉、健康以及真正的自我。人们在苦修的时候则不应当考虑这些回报。在苦修之时,人们不应当过于在意苦修的结果。事实上,长时间的苦修就像在剑锋上走路一样困难。

 

Penance has been assigned an insignificant place in this 'Pancham Kala' i.e., materialistic age. While telling the interpretation of the dreams of the sovereign king Bharat, Lord Rishabh Deva said, "The sight of a horse with bent back due to being over loaded with a burden fit to be carried by an elephant indicates that in the 'Pancham Kala' (materialistic age) the monks will not be capable to adhere to all the characteristics of penance." Due to this very reason declaring the study of scriptures as the superb type of penance, the Lord emphasized the study of scriptures both by monks and householders.

在物质的世界中,苦修被置于一个不重要的位置。当给伟大的国王Bharat解梦时,Rishabh Deva说到,看到了一匹马被大量的货物压弯了脊背意味着:在物质的世界中,僧侣们就不能够进行完全的苦修。由于这个原因,学习经文典籍就是修行的最高境界。他还强调了僧侣和信徒同时学习典籍的重要性。

 

We should know that one, who does not perform penance or practice austerities in life to one's utmost power, deceives one's real self. Besides, all powers of such a man lie dormant. By being engrossed in worldly pleasures a living being is held by the shackles of severe bondage of sins due to the influx of evil karmas which bring him untold misery and bitter agonies in the several births to come.

我们应当知道,不进行苦修的人就是欺骗真我,这样,他的所有的能量就都被隐藏起来。由于罪恶的因缘进入人们的灵魂,沉溺于世间欢愉的人们就会受到罪恶的束缚,这将会给人们在几时后带来无言的悲伤与痛苦。

 

If a living being performs penance within his power, he reaps its fruits beyond imagination. Just as the high temperature of a person's body scorched by the fierce rays of the sun subsides by a shower bath, likewise penance works as a tranquilizer for the noble souls burnt by the great worldly fire of passions. Penance possesses the infinite power of undoing of the worldly miseries. The glory of penance beggars description i.e., its significance is unlimited. He, who does not perform penance observing as much self-restraint as possible, is worthless like a straw.

如果人们依照能力进行苦修,那么他就会有意想不到的收获。就像在淋浴之后,由于阳光照射所导致的高温就会降下来,同样地,苦修就像一剂镇静剂,平静受到世间热情感染的高贵的灵魂。苦修具有无限的能量,苦修的重要性难以描述。不进行苦修和自律的人就像稻草一样没有价值。

 

The great poet Reidhu has described the supreme virtue of austerity or penance as below:

Tam tau jhin parigahu chandijyi, tam tau jhin Myrna jikhandijyiTam tau jhin nrgtnru disei tam tau jhin gir kandri nrivsyi

Tam tau jhin uvsagg sahijyi tam tau jhin rayain jinrijyi

 

Tam tau bhivkhyi munrijyi savay gaih kalinrivam sijyi

Tam tau jath samidi paripalnru tam tau gutityam nrihalnru

Tam tau janhi apaparu bujhiu tam tau jhin bhav manru ji ujhayu

Tam tau jhin sasruv munrijau, tam tau jhin kamaham gnru khijyi

Tam tau jhin sur mati pyasyi, pvynrth bhaviynrham pabhasyi

Jainr tavain kaivlu upjyi sasye sukhu nrich sampjyi

Varah vihu tau viru gugyi pariharu, tam pujyi thir ganrinra

Machhru mau chhandivi karnryim dandivi, tam vi dharijyi gau ravinra

1        He who has abstained himself from greed or worldly possessions; who has got rid of mental impurities; who has adopted nude monkshood; who resides in mountain caves, observes the supreme penance.

2        Penance is that in which calamities are suffered without murmur; that in which feelings of attachment are conquered and that in which food is accepted as alms at an appropriate time from the householders.

To

1        Penance is that in, which the five samities -regulation of the movements of the body are observed. That in which full attention is paid to the three Guptis -regulation for self-control. That in, which a man ponders and meditates over his self and non-self; and that in, which a man sheds the feeling of vanity in his present state of birth.

2        Penance is that in, which a man ponders over the purpose of his real life; that in which the karmas are vanquished; that in which the Gods give expression to their devotion; and that in which the sermons are delivered for the well-being of mundane souls.

3        Penance is that by the performance of which, as a rule one attains salvation and obtains eternal bliss.

4        These are the twelve types of supreme penance. Penance rids one of a miserable state of existence. We should pay homage to it with a stable mind; and discarding vanity and malice with full pride, the living beings should subjugate all the five senses.

伟大的诗人Reidhu这样描述苦修的美德:

Tam tau jhin parigahu chandijyi, tam tau jhin Myrna jikhandijyiTam tau jhin nrgtnru disei tam tau jhin gir kandri nrivsyi

Tam tau jhin uvsagg sahijyi tam tau jhin rayain jinrijyi

Tam tau bhivkhyi munrijyi savay gaih kalinrivam sijyi

Tam tau jath samidi paripalnru tam tau gutityam nrihalnru

Tam tau janhi apaparu bujhiu tam tau jhin bhav manru ji ujhayu

Tam tau jhin sasruv munrijau, tam tau jhin kamaham gnru khijyi

Tam tau jhin sur mati pyasyi, pvynrth bhaviynrham pabhasyi

Jainr tavain kaivlu upjyi sasye sukhu nrich sampjyi

Varah vihu tau viru gugyi pariharu, tam pujyi thir ganrinra

Machhru mau chhandivi karnryim dandivi, tam vi dharijyi gau ravinra

 

1                        能够脱离贪婪以及世俗事物的人们,能够脱离思想的不纯洁的人们,他们成为了僧侣,居住在山洞中,进行至上的苦修。

2                        苦修就是身遭不幸却没有抱怨,征服了自己对外物的爱恋,所食用的食物都是有信徒捐赠而来。

1                                    苦修就是遵循五种身体的行为准则。他的所有精力都用在了自律上。苦修就是人们冥思自我与非我,就是脱离了今生的浮华。

2                                    苦修就是人们冥思自己生命的意义,征服因果报应,神灵向人们表述的信仰,为了世俗的人们能够生活得更好而进行的布教。

3                                    苦修就是人们获得解脱以及永恒福祉的一种方法。

4                                    这些都是苦修的十二种类别。苦修使人们摆脱痛苦的生存状态。我们应当怀着一种平静的思想来向它致敬,摒弃满怀傲慢的虚荣与怨恨,人们应当征服自己的五官感受。

 

Hence, O Mortal Man! 'Mortify yourself, mortify yourself and mortify yourself. Give up the feeling of tenderness for the body. Conquer desires and then you will realize that you have conquered all sorrow and misery; cut off all types of attachments, suppress hatred, and thus you will be happy in this worldly existence and reap a rich spiritual harvest.'

 

'Self-torture is not a curse, but a boon and a way to eternal peace.' Indeed, sweet are the uses of penance i.e., self-torture.

To sum up, penance teaches us to surmount hardships and difficulties willingly and cheerfully. In truth, difficulties, which are part and parcel of penance, are the ladders that lead us to heaven.

因此,平凡的人们啊,开始苦修吧。放弃怜惜自己身体的念头。征服自己的欲望,这样你就会发现你已经征服了所有的悲伤与痛苦。断绝所有的爱恋,压制自己的憎恨,这样你就能够在这个世界中获得欢乐,并在将来获得精神上的丰收。

自我折磨并不是诅咒,而是一种欢乐,一种通向永恒和平的道路。事实上,苦修是一件幸福的事情。

总而言之,苦修能够教给我们如何勇敢地、微笑地克服艰难与困苦。事实上,困难只是苦修的一部分,是带领我们通向天堂的阶梯。

 

************************************************************************

Be there thorns or flowersWhat difference they make for soul; Be it a palace or a cottageThey shelter the body not soul;

Be it a clod of clay or goldThe real wealth lies in soul;

Who can excel a person? Enlightened is whose soul?

***********************************************************************

************************************************************************

不论路上是荆棘还是鲜花,这对灵魂来说又有什么区别呢?不论是宫殿还是茅舍,他们所庇佑的是身体而不是灵魂;

不论是泥土还是金子,真正的财富在于灵魂。

人们应当追求什么?受到启迪的灵魂。