Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of 十大美德
与贡献 
     
   前言 
  绪论 
  五大神灵之圣歌
  引言 
  至上的宽恕
   至上的谦卑 
   至上的诚实 
  至上的纯洁 
  至上的善言 
   至上的自律
  至上的苦行 
  至上的舍弃 
  至上的情禁 
  至上的禁欲 
  结束语

TEN UNIVERSAL VIRTUES  十大美德 

10 SUPREME CHASTITY 至高纯洁

(Uttama Brahmacarya Dharma)

'The ills of life are cured, if you root out lust from your heart.'

生命的疾病是可以治愈的,只要你从心中发现热情。

 

Brahmacarya is a word with a very wide scope. It means maintaining sexual purity by assuming the strict aspect of celibacy. (Brahma) means soul, which is chaste, enlightened, eternal and blissful. To become fully engrossed in soul is Brahmacarya -celibacy.

Brahmacarya是一个被广泛应用的词汇。指的是通过严格的禁欲来保持性的纯洁性。Brahma是灵魂的意思,它是纯洁、文明、永恒、有福的。全神贯注于灵魂就是Brahmacarya—禁欲。

 

The opposite of (Brahma) is (Abraham) -sexuality. It is of several forms -match-making (bringing about marriages as a hobby), unnatural gratification, indulging in voluptuous speech, and visiting immoral married and unmarried women, are all different forms of Unchastity or sexuality.

Brahma的另一面是Abraham—性欲。它有很多形式:做媒(将说亲作为一种爱好),过渡的满意,沉溺于华丽的言辞,以及拜访不道德的已婚或未婚女人,这些都是不贞或性欲的不同表现形式。

 

The vow of chastity is an ornament of a man and a woman both; it is a garland woven by auspicious virtues and is a gateway to heaven. Chastity is the most precious jewel of a lady. "The impenetrable fence which protects a woman is her virtue of celibacy; no other fence can safeguard her as well." Indeed, chastity thy name is woman.

贞节的誓盟是男人和女人的装饰,它是由吉祥的美德所编织的花环,也是通向天堂的必由之路。贞节是一个女人最宝贵的珍宝。一个女人为了保护自己所筑起的难以逾越的屏障就是其独身的优点,再没有比这更好的防护屏障了。的确,纯洁啊 ,你的名字是女人。

 

Observance of chastity keeps the body healthy and free from sickness; and it develops the mind i.e., sharpens the intelligence. All people honor a chaste man in this world and such a man become entitled to enter heaven or attain salvation. Non-observance of chastity makes one suffer many types of miseries in this world; also, he or she is destined to go to hell in the next births. An unchaste person always lives awe-stricken lest his/her immoral deeds should come to limelight, and on being caught red-handed he/she has to suffer great humiliation and undergo different types of punishments. In truth, 'Too much indulgence in sexual pleasures brings physical as well as spiritual ruin.'

禁欲就必须保持身体的健康和自由,而这也适用于精神方面,也就是指提升智力。世界上所有人都尊敬一个贞节的人,而只有这样的人才能够有资格进入天堂并得到救赎。不守贞节的人会遭受各种形式的苦难,同样,他或她将在来世下地狱。一个不守贞节的人往往生活在畏惧中,唯恐自己不道德的行为称为人们的关注中心,而事情败露后他们也将遭受巨大的羞辱和不同形式的惩罚。事实上,过度沉溺于性的欢愉会带来身体和精神上的双重崩溃。

 

The root of self-restraint or abstention from sensual pleasures is good conduct; and both self-restraint and good conduct are dependent on chastity. The persons who realize the need and glory of celibacy in human life come to know the significance of self-restraint and good conduct very well. The capability of sustaining the life force in the body is celibacy. It alone generates vitality, radiance and luster in the body. The American saint Thoray has said, "Chastity is the flower of life tree; genius, purity and velour are its numerous fruits." Self-restraint is attained only through good conduct and chastity.

能够根植不移的在肉体欢愉这一点上自我约束和节制是一种良好的操行,而自制和良好的操行都依赖贞节。一个人能够理解独身对于人生的重要和荣誉,那么他就能够很好的懂得自制和好操行的意义。禁欲是一种存在于人体的持续的生命力量。它会产生生命力和机体的光辉。美洲的圣徒Thoray曾经说过:贞节是开在生命之树上的花朵,天赋、纯洁、丝绒都是它众多的果实。自我约束只能通过良好的操行和贞节得以实现。

 

A monk came to take meals at the house of a Seth. After taking meals the holy saint dwelt upon the significance of chastity in his sermon. On hearing the importance and glory of celibacy, Jin Datt, the son of the Seth, took the vow to observe celibacy during the bright fortnight (Shukla Paksha) of every month. On the other hand, Jin Datta, the daughter of the Seth of Ujjain City, had taken a vow to observe celibacy during the dark fortnight (Krishna Paksha) of every month. Ignorant of each other's pledges, as the chance would have it, Jin Datt and Jin Datta were tied in wedlock. The wedding ceremonies were performed on the 13th day of the bright fortnight (Shukla Paksha). Thereafter, Jin Datt returned home with his newly wedded bride.

一个僧侣来到Seth的家里吃饭。饭后这个虔诚的圣徒开始宣讲禁欲的意义。在聆听了禁欲的重要和光荣后,Seth的儿子Jin Datt立誓每个月有两个星期的白昼禁欲。另一方面,乌贾因城的Seth 的女儿Jin Datta立誓每个月有两个星期的夜晚禁欲。就像巧合总会发生一样,在不知道彼此的誓愿的情况下,Jin DattJin Datta结婚了。结婚仪式在第十三天也就是两个星期白昼之后举行。从这以后,Jin Datt和他的新娘回到了家。

 

On the first night when all wedding ceremonies were over Jin Datta fully adorned with proper make-up entered her bedroom in the grand palatial building. During sweet conversation Jin Datt disclosed to her, "My darling! I have taken a vow of observing celibacy during the bright fortnight of every month. Therefore, we shall be able to celebrate the honeymoon night only after four days, not before that. Don't get worried and restless. It's a matter of only three or four days." In reply to the loving words of her husband, Jin Datta said, "My lord! What a strange contradiction! I have also taken a pledge to observe celibacy during the dark fortnight. So you enter into another wedlock and marry any other damsel. I shall now get initiated as a female ascetic and try for my spiritual uplift."

在所有结婚仪式结束的第一个晚上,Jin Datta精心妆扮后进入她那豪宅中的卧室。在亲昵地交谈中,Jin Datt告诉她:亲爱的,我已经立誓每个月有两个星期的白昼禁欲。因此我们只能四天后欢度我们的蜜月,之前都不行。不要担心和忧虑。只有三四天的时间。在回应了丈夫爱的言语之后,Jin Datta说:我的上帝啊,我们奇特的矛盾啊。我也已经立誓每个月两个星期的夜晚禁欲。所以请你去和其他女人结婚吧。我从此将开始像一个女修士一般争取我灵魂的提升。

 

At this Jin Datt said to her, "My dear! When you are so eager for your spiritual uplift despite being a lady, why should I get indulged in the mud and mire of sensuous pleasures, being a man. We both shall observe the vow of life-long celibacy while living under one and the same roof in our home. But this decision should not leak out." Thus, taking a firm pledge of celibacy, which is as difficult to observe as walking on a sharp edged sword, they both began to live together happily and peacefully practicing rigorous celibacy.

这时Jin Datt对她说:我的天那,你作为一个女人,能够如此渴望提升你的精神境界,而我作为一个男人,怎能沉溺于感官愉悦的泥沼中呢?我们可以住在同一屋檐下遵守我们终身禁欲的誓言。但是这个决定不能够泄露出去。从此,他们坚守着禁欲的誓言,虽然这就像在刀刃上行走一样困难,而他们能够在严格的禁欲中愉快而宁静的生活在一起。 

Once a princess suffered from leprosy. All treatments to cure her failed. One day the princess chanced to see a monk. After paying homage to the monk with full reverence, the princess asked the holy sage to tell her a remedy to get rid of her incurable malady. The compassionate sage spoke, "My daughter! A happy newly wedded couple named Jin Datt and Jin Datta, who have been practicing the rigorous vow of celibacy for long, lives in your city. If you shower over your body water purified by the touch of their hands, you can get rid of your disease."

曾经有一位公主染上了麻风病。所有的治疗都失败了。有一天公主意外的碰到了一个僧侣。在满怀诚意的像僧侣致敬之后,公主请这个圣徒告诉她摆脱疾病的方法。这个负有同情心的圣徒告诉她说:我的女儿,在你得城池里有一对快乐的新婚夫妇Jin Datt Jin Datta,他们已经坚守禁欲的誓言很长时间了。如果你沐浴了用他们的双手触摸而净化的水后,你就可以摆脱疾病。” 

Soon after, in order to act on the advice of the saint, the princess went to Jin Datt's house. All the members of Jin Datt's family were taken aback on hearing the words of the princess. As soon as water touched with the hands of Jin Datt and Jin Datta was poured over the princess, her skin disease was cured in no time. Flowers rained from the sky at this miracle. Ultimately, the happy couple Jin Datt and his wife Jin Datta got initiated to Jain monkshood. This example shows without doubt that only practicing the vow of  celibacy attains self-restraint and good conduct.

不久之后,按照僧侣的建议,公主来到了Jin Datt的家。在听了公主说的话后Jin Datt一家所有的成员都大吃一惊。Jin Datt Jin Datta的手触碰过的水一被浇注在公主身上,她的皮肤疾病立刻就好了。奇迹发生时天空落下花瓣。最后,Jin DattJin Datta这对幸福的夫妻加入了耆那教。这个例子毫无疑问的说明只有通过遵守禁欲的誓言才能够达到自我约束和良好的操行。 

Shuchi bhumigatam toyim, shuchirnari pativrta

Shuchirdharmpro raja, brahmchari sada shuchi

I.e., The underground water is pure. A wife loyal to her husband is chaste. A king dedicated to religion is always just and merciful; above all a celibate's life is sacred forever.

即:地下水是纯净的。一个忠于丈夫的妻子是贞洁的。一个献身于宗教的君主也总是正义与慈悲的,最重要的是,一个禁欲的人生是永远神圣的。 

 

Supreme chastity is the last of the ten universal virtues. Just as when a temple is built, a golden canopy is installed on the cupola at its peak; likewise the virtue of celibacy is at the pinnacle of the ten supreme virtues. Stating celibacy as the true nature of the soul, the Acharyas have said:

至高的纯贞是十大美德之末。例如修建一座寺庙,在它顶端的炮塔上将修建一个金色的穹顶,同样的,禁欲就是十大至高美德的顶尖。将禁欲看作是精神层面的自然属性,Acharyas说:

"Brahmans atmni charti iti brahmcharya"

I.e., One who always remains engrossed in his holy soul only; one who practices celibacy free from transgression; in truth, he alone is a celibate. A monk who avoids company, jokes and foul bodily play with mean persons, renounces ten kind of 'Abraham' -sexual indulgence.

即:一个总是全神贯注于自己神圣的精神世界的人,一个挣脱于孽海的独身者,实际上,他就是一个禁欲者。一个孤独的僧侣,与那些低劣之人开着玩笑,进行着不公平的竞赛,他是与十种性放任完全隔绝的。 

Kinds of Celibates 禁欲者的种类

Q. How many kinds of celibates are there?

究竟有多少种禁欲者?

A.     There are five kinds of celibates:

有五种禁欲者。

(i) Upnaya -Donning the sacred threads

摸索到神迹

(ii) Avalumh -Sub-ordinate or dependent

服从或者依赖

(iii) Adiksha -Non-initiated

不被动

(iv) Goodh -Fully devoted

至少投入

(v) Naishthik -Dedicated or having perfect faith

全身投入或全然信仰。

Q. (i) Who are called 'upney' (sacred threads donned) celibates?

什么人被称为“Upney”式的禁欲者?

A.     The persons (apostles) who wear on their body the sacred threads in a manner ordained by the holy teachers and study the Jain scriptures; and thereafter observe the vows mean for the house-holders, are called 'God' (sacred threads donned) celibates.

那些将某种意义上由圣师颁定的神迹佩戴于身并学习耆那经文,其后遵守誓言想要为有家室的人,被称为“God”禁欲者。

(ii) Who are called avlamb celibates?

什么人被称为“Avlamb”式的禁欲者? 

A. The persons, who assume the appearance of ascetics; donne clothes ordained for them by the holy teachers; study and follow the Jain scriptures in practical life and thereafter observe the vows meant for the house-holders, are called 'Avalumb' (sub-ordinate or dependent) celibates.

那些有修行表现,穿着由圣师为其颁定的服饰,在现实生活中能够学习并实践耆那经文,随后遵守誓言并想要成为有家室的人的人,被称为“Avalumb”(服从或依赖)式的禁欲者。 

(iii) Who are called 'Adiksha (non-initiated) celibates?

什么人被称为“Adiksha”(不被动)式的禁欲者? 

A. The persons who neither assume the appearance nor donne clothes ordained for celibates, but study and follow the Jain scriptures in practical life and thereafter observe the vows meant for the house-holders, are called 'ago' (non-initiated) celibates.

那些既没有修行表现,也不穿着禁欲者的服饰,但在现实生活中能够学习并实践耆那经文,随后遵守誓言并想要成为有家室的人的人,被称为“Ago”(不被动)式的禁欲者。 

(iv) Who are called 'gurh' (fully devoted) celibates?

什么人被称为“Gurh”(至少投入)式得禁欲者? 

A. Persons, who get initiated to monkshood in adolescence, study and follow Jain scriptures. But on the insistence of their kith and kin, or being incapable in bearing severe tortures, or forced by some special royal decree, or by their own sweet will, discard the nude state as that of Lord Jinendra and still observe the vows meant for the house-holders, are called 'by' (fully devoted) celibates.

那些在青春期就开始依附、学习和跟随耆那经文的人。但是或执著于亲朋好友,或在承受严酷折磨时无能为力,或屈服于一些特殊的官方法令,或受其自身的甜蜜愿望的影响,他们在这些因素下放弃了像耆那神那样的无遮国度,但是仍然坚守誓言并希望成为同道中人,而这些人被称之为“By”(至少投入)式禁欲者。

(v) Who are called the 'neshtik' (dedicated or having perfect faith in the omniscient lord, the scriptures and the holy teachers) celibates?

什么人被称为“Neshtik”(对全能的神、经义和先师全身投入或全心信仰) 

A. The persons, who can be distinguished by the tuft of hair on their head at the time of meditation. Their chest is adorned with the sacred threads. Their loincloth of red or white color is always tied round their waist. They always subsist on alms; which are learned in scriptures and observe all vows of ascetics; and who are always engaged in prayer and worship of Lord Jinendra, are called 'neshtik' (dedicated) celibates.

那些人以沉思时头上丛生的头发为特征,他们的胸膛被神迹装饰,他们红色或白色的腰带时常系在腰间,他们依靠别人的施舍而过活,他们学习经文并遵守一切禁欲者的誓约,他们参与针对耆那神的祈祷和膜拜。而这类人被称为“neshtik”式的禁欲者。 

Sukh Deva was a life long celibate by birth. It is said that as soon as he grew young he went away to the forest to perform penance. At the time of his departure, his father Vyas Deva gave him counsel and spoke, "My son! The name and fame of our grandfather has survived as a result of the noble deeds of our father, and our father's glory has survived due to our good deeds. Likewise, our fame and glory will remain immortal in the world owing to your virtuous deeds. But alas! The name of our family will be extinct on your becoming an ascetic. If you are bent upon doing penance, first enter into wed-lock like your ancestors and then perform penance in the company of your spouse."

Sukh Deva是一个天生的终身禁欲者。这就是说他一长大就去往森林中完成苦修。在他出发的时候,他的父亲Vyas Deva给予他忠告:我的儿子,祖辈的名字和名望能够得以存留是因为父辈的高尚行为,父辈的荣誉能够得以存留依靠的是我辈良好的行为。而我辈的名望和荣誉想要不朽的存留于世也只能因为你高尚的行为。但是啊!我们家庭的名字会因为你成为一名苦行者而湮灭。如果你倾向于要苦修,那么首先要向你的先辈一样结婚然后在你的妻子的陪伴下完成苦修。

But Sukh Deva turned a deaf ear to his father's appeal and spoke, "Dear father! You are mistaken to think that a son makes his father's name immortal. The name and fame of a person depends on his or her virtuous deeds. The fame and glory of the truthful, religious minded persons and celibates alone shines in the world for ever like that of the sun and the moon, even if they do not have sons and grandsons."

但是Sukh Deva对于他父亲的话置若罔闻:亲爱的父亲,您这种所谓儿子使父亲的名字不朽的想法是错误的。一个人的名字和声望依靠的是他良好的德行。思想虔诚的人和禁欲者们即使他们并没有儿孙,但他们真实的名望和荣誉也会像太阳和月亮一般在世间孤独的散发光芒。” 

Saying so Sukh Deva set out for the forest. The great sage Viase followed him to bring him back. On the way the queens, princesses and ladies of the royal family of the historic city were bathing in the river Narmada. These ladies did not put on veils and go in seclusion on seeing the young Sukh Deva. But later on when the old sage Viase passed by that side, all these ladies at once put on veils out of the feeling of shame. Seeing this sage Viase was amazed and he asked the ladies, "My daughters! What is the reason that on seeing me you covered yourselves, but went on bathing unperturbed naked in the river despite seeing the nude young Sukh Deva passing from here?" In reply the females said, "O great sage! You are fully aware of all secrets of a woman and you yourself were a victim to sexual desires. That is why on seeing you we covered ourselves. But Sukh Deva is totally ignorant about sexology. Therefore, we did not deem it proper to put on veils on seeing the innocent nude Sukh Deva." On hearing this eye opening word, sage Viase returned to his hermitage.

说完这些之后Sukh Deva就出发去往森林。大贤人Viase跟随着他并把他带了回来。此时王后、公主和城邦贵族家族的妇女正在Narmada河中沐浴。当看到年轻的Sukh Deva时,这些女人没有戴面纱也并没有走到隔离物里。但是稍后当年老的圣人Viase走过河边时,所有的女人都立刻戴上面纱来掩盖羞愧之意。看到这些Viase很惊讶,他问这些女人:为什么你们看见我就要遮蔽自己,而看见赤裸的小Sukh Deva走过却依然泰然自若的裸露在河中沐浴呢?女人们回答道:哦伟大的圣者,您完全了解女人所有的秘密,而您自己就是性欲的牺牲者。这就是为什么看见您我们就要遮蔽自己。但是Sukh Deva对于性是完全无知的。因此我们认为看见天真而赤裸的他是不必戴上面纱的。听到这些令人打开眼界的话,圣人Viase回到了自己的寺院。 

Bhartrahari writes about celibacy in the following lines:

Bhartrahari写下了有关禁欲的下列条款:

Krishna kanr khaj shrawanrahit puchvikli

 

Vrinr puti kiln krimikul shteravritnu

Koshuha Kshama jinro ptharjakpalarpit gala

Shunimanvaiti shva hatmapi ch hastaiv bhavan

-Bharatrihari

A very old lean and thin dog, starving for two days; whose wounded body was bleeding and covered with pus; who was blind of one eye; who was lame and crippled; whose ugly face with fattened throat was hanging down, lay in the road in this miserable plight. The pedestrians in the road suspecting an immediate end of the dog, which was in the last stage of life, thought if the dog died in the mid-road, the environment would be filled with pestilence (foul smell). Therefore, the dog must be shifted elsewhere, before it breathed its last. Meanwhile a bitch passed by that side. On seeing her, the almost dead dog got up overpowered with a passionate desire of lust and began to chase her.

有一只老瘦的狗,已经饿了两天,它受伤的身体在流血并且被脓水覆盖,它瞎了一只眼睛,又跛又残,它耷拉着长着肥厚喉咙的丑陋面孔,就这样可怜的躺在路上。路人们都猜想这只狗已经走到了生命的最后阶段,很快就会死亡。他们想着如果这只狗死在路中间,那么环境中将会充满瘟疫(臭气)。因此,在狗无声的死去之前,它必须被移到别处。当时有一只母狗路过旁边。看到母狗之后,这只几乎死掉了的公狗突然以充满欲望的力量跳了起来开始追逐母狗。 

In fact, celibacy is the only superb vow in all the three worlds. He who observes this vow attains a sacred state of existence. It has been said:

事实上,禁欲是三界中最庄严的誓约。遵守这些誓约的人会达到现实中的神圣境界。据说:

Samudra tarnai yadvad, upao no pakirtit

Sansar tarne tadvat, brahmcharne prakittat

I.e., Just as a boat or ship proves a helpful means in going across the sea, likewise celibacy is a very fine and easy means to cross the ocean of the world. The lustful desire for sex exists in the heart of a living being only so long as he/she does not realize the real motif of life and does not understand his/her real self, or does not grasp the real nature of the soul. The day when one begins to see one's own soul face to face, one gives up one's lustful desires for sex and sensual pleasures and observes celibacy.

即:就像船只对于飘洋过海是一种有效的手段,同样,禁欲就是渡过世俗海洋最有效也最容易的手段。世人的贪图性欲仅仅是因为他们没有正确理解生命的真正主旨,也没有明白他们本身,更没有抓住灵魂的真实本性。如果有天一个人可以同自己的灵魂面对面,他就会放弃对于性欲的贪婪和肉体的欢愉,开始恪守禁欲。 

There is an incident of the times of Lord Ram. Two princes -Mesh Bhushan and Kul Bhushan went to a Gurakul (boarding, school) for study. When they set out from home on this noble mission to receive education, no other child was left behind in the family. On completing their education, when they returned home they saw a fairy-like, beautiful damsel also standing at the door beside their mother taking burning earthen lamps in her hands to welcome them home. At the sight of her matchless beauty, both the princes were bewitched. Instantly an idea flashed in their mind to marry her. Both the brokers gave vent to the feelings of their heart unhesitatingly.

Ram君主时代发生过这样一件事情。两个王子——Mesh BhushanKul Bhushan到一个叫做Gurakul的学校去学习。他们为了这次高尚的任务从家里出发去接受教育,家中没有其他的孩子被留下。他们完成了学业回家的时候,他们看到了一个仙女一般美丽的女孩子同他们的母亲站在门前,她手拿点燃的陶灯欢迎他们回家。看见她美丽无比的容颜时,两个王子都被迷住了。他们的脑海中立即就闪现出要和她结婚的念头。而双方的门人也都将两人心中坚定的感觉泄露了出来。 

Soon the two brothers who were anxious to marry the same girl entered into hot exchange of words. Seeing her two sons quarreling at the door, their mother who was eager to greet and welcome them inquired of them the reason behind their dispute. On knowing the reality, the mother reproached them saying, "My sons! What evil thought has entered your mind! She is your sister." Hearing this the two brothers were filled with remorse and repentance. An overwhelming feeling of self-reproach possessed them. They determined to renounce the world then and there and turned back for the forest from their doorstep. They got initiated as nude Jain monks and performed severe penance in the hills of Kunthalgiri and attained liberation i.e., salvation from there.

不久,这两个急于渴望与同一女孩结婚的兄弟发生了激烈的争吵。看到两个儿子在屋里争吵,热切盼望他们归来的母亲在他们争执后询问他们原因。在知道了真相之后,母亲责备他们说:我的孩子们,你们的脑海中是多么可怕的想法啊。她是你们的姐姐。听到这些两兄弟心中充满了后悔与自责。一种无法抗拒的自责之情占据了他们的内心。后来他们决定退隐出世,后来他们又回到了森林里。他们作为耆那教的修行者在Kunthalgiri山开始履行严格的苦修并得到解放,即从此岸得到救赎。Brahmcharya tapsa raja rashtram rakshti

 

I.e., A king defends his nation, her culture and her people only by observing the vow of self-restraint, penance i.e., austerity and celibacy.

即:一个国王想要保护他的国家、他的文化和他的人民就只能通过遵守自制的誓言,苦修即朴素及禁欲。

 

The mind of a person who is indulgent in lustful desires always roams in the wilderness of sensual pleasures. Just as when a forest elephant is separated from its partner -a female elephant, it becomes mad with lust and the helpless and poor animal has to suffer untold miseries viz. bondage, torture and even death. Exactly same is the condition of a lustful person. Being overpowered with a passionate desire for sensual pleasures in the garb and illusion of love, he fails to distinguish between what is worth doing or not worth doing, just or unjust; and thus the poor fellow blinded by lust takes to the evil path which leads him to his doom.

沉溺性欲之人的头脑总是徘徊在肉欲欢愉的荒野。就像一只野象与他的伴侣分离后,它开始着迷于性欲,而这无助而可怜的动物要遭受说不清的痛苦即束缚、折磨甚至死亡。沉溺性欲之人的情况与此完全一致。当人在装扮和爱的幻想中被沉溺肉体欢愉的激情征服时,他无法分辨什么值得什么不值得,什么正确什么不正确,因此那些被欲望蒙住双眼的可怜人走上了一条引领他走上毁灭的邪恶之路。 

One who has infatuation for ladies other than his wife and maintains illegitimate relations with them has to suffer uncalled for miseries in the world. Ever growing bitterness and enmity, chopping off his sex organ, public disgrace by being fettered and imprisoned, forfeiture of all his possessions and even the terror of murder are possible. He is humiliated and condemned to live as an outcast in society. Such an ill-fated person gets birth in an inauspicious state of being in the next world. Therefore, to subdue lust and observe celibacy by discarding sexuality ultimately proves beneficial to the human soul.

一个人如果醉心其他的女人甚至多过自己的妻子,并且与他们一直保持非法的关系,那么这个人就必须为这些本不必要的事情承担痛苦。他在成长中会有苦痛和仇恨,性器官被砍掉,由于束缚监禁而得到的众人的羞辱,被没收了所有财产,甚至可怕的谋杀,这些都是有可能发生的事情。他像一个被社会驱逐的人一般在羞辱和责难中生存。这样一个倒霉蛋到了阴间依然生于一个不幸的国度。因此,制伏欲望并丢弃肉体欢愉遵守禁欲可以证明对人的灵魂有益。 

An aged man in Greece used to impart lessons in spirituality to the youngsters. He would impress upon the youth the importance of celibacy time and again'. The youngsters began to ridicule his teaching. The old teacher was in a fix as how to make the youth realize the great value of celibacy. He hit upon a plan. The next day when his young disciples assembled in a garden to receive lessons as usual, they were astonished to see a beautiful damsel sitting on the back of their teacher and making him move to and fro like a horse.

一位希腊老人常常对青少年传授灵性知识。他多次向这些年轻人强调禁欲的重要性。这些年轻人开始嘲笑的教导。这位长者为了怎样使年轻人明白禁欲的伟大意义而感到束手无策。他偶然发现了一个方法。第二天当他的门徒们像往常一样在园中集合接受教导时,他们惊讶的发现除了他们的老师之外还有一位漂亮的女孩子在座,而这个女孩子支使老师像马一样的跑来跑去。 

Being enraged the pupils got ready to beat the young lady rider black and blue. The teacher checked them from their hasty foul deed. He instructed them saying, "My pupils! Behold. When for want of self-restraint, the mind of such an aged man as I am, got distracted by the amorous looks of this bewitching beauty in my extreme old age, the youth are inevitably likely to fall victims of such a calamity. If no reins are put to the mind, and it is given a long rope to loiter in the wilderness of sensual pleasures, one may have to face many such ugly situations, where one will have to suffer disgrace and humiliation."

被激怒的学生们准备将这个年轻的女骑手打得遍体鳞伤。老师阻止了他们草率而恶劣的行为。他教导他们说:我的学生们,看吧,当人缺乏自制力的时候,就算像我这样年纪的老人的思想,也会因着迷于美色而搞得心烦意乱,而年轻人更难免成为这种灾难得堕落牺牲品。如果无情可以根植于心,那么它就是一根可以挽救徘徊于肉欲荒原之人的长绳,因为他可能会面临很多难堪的环境,而在那里的人将要遭受玷污和羞辱。” 

Celibacy is of two kinds, based on 'Mahavratas' (great vows) and 'Anuoratas' (small vows). He who for fear of committing a sin neither himself indulges in sexual relationship with any other lady, nor instigates others for such immoral traffic, observes the small vow of abstention from sexual relations with other ladies but his own wife. When a house-holder discards sexual indulgence even with his own legal wife or shuns illegitimate relationship with another's wife, he practices the fourth small vow -Anavrata called 'Parstri tyaga' i.e., discarding illegitimate sex with so called beloved or illegal co-wives.

禁欲有两种形式,基于Mahavratas(伟大誓言)和 Anuoratas(微小誓言)。一个为了避免犯罪的人自己既不会和任何女人沉溺于性欲关系中,也不会鼓动其他人做这种不道德的交易,除了对自己的妻子之外,他谨守对其他女人节制性欲的微小誓言。当一个有家室之人丢弃性欲甚至对待他的合法妻子或者非法妻子也是这样的时候,他就实践了Anavrata的第四个小誓约—“Parstri tyaga”,即放弃了与那些被称为爱人或者情妇之人的不合理的性欲。 

Similarly, the house-holder who regards the body of a lady as unholy, unchaste and foul smelling skin bag containing blood, excrete and urine, takes her physical beauty and charm, which excite evil passions in the mind as transitory illusions. He who accepts all ladies other than his own wife as mothers, sisters and daughters in thought, speech and action i.e., who believes in the axiom matrivat padraraishu -'look at other's wife as your mother'; observes the great vow of staunch celibates. Sir Edwin Arnold also counsels:

同样的,有家室的人将女人身体看作是不洁、不贞、包裹血液、排泄物和尿液的臭皮囊,他无视她的美丽和迷人,而这些美丽和迷人能够在脑海中由短时间的幻想刺激产生恶欲。他在思想、言语、行动中将除了他妻子意外的所有女性看作是母亲、姐妹和女儿们,即他信仰matrivat padraraishu的真理——将其他人的妻子看作母亲,他坚守着禁欲的大誓言。Edwin Arnold先生也说过: 

'Touch not thy neighbor’s wife; neither commit

Sins of the flesh, both unlawful and unfit.'

不要碰你邻居的妻子,也不干坏事。肉欲的罪孽,都是非法和不合适的。

 

Long ago there lived a highly religious minded and benevolent wealthy person named Sudarshan Seth in Bharat Kshetra i.e., India. One day he went with his wife to his pleasure garden for merry making. By chance the king also happened to come there for picnic accompanied by his queen. On seeing Seth Sudarshan -a living image of beauty, the queen was enamoured by him and fell in love at first sight. She began to think in her mind, "Hurrah! Who is this handsome fellow? Is he Kam Deva -the god of love; or a Nag Kumar -a royal prince of the Naga dynasty; or a Vidhya Dhar -a celestial being endowed with divine powers? I have never seen such a handsome man in all my life so far."

很久以前在Bharat Kshetra也就是印度居住着一位非常虔诚且慈悲富有的人,他的名字叫做Sudarshan Seth。有一天,他和他的妻子来到一所他很喜爱的专门用来种樱桃的园子里。刚好国王也恰巧在王后的陪伴下来到那里野餐。在看到Sudarshan Seth生动而典型的美丽之后,王后被他迷住了,并且第一眼就爱上了他。她开始想他:哦,这个英俊的人是谁啊?他是Kam Deva——爱之神吗?还是Nag Kumar——Naga王朝的宫廷王子吗?还是Vidhya Dhar——一个被赋予神秘力量的天人?在我的有生之年还从来没有见到过一个如此英俊的男人呢。

 

The queen was overpowered with a sexual desire seeing Sudarshan's face and figure, and well built charming body. She at once summoned her trustworthy maid and questioned her, "Do you know who is this stranger in the company of the king? Where does he live?" In reply the maid asked, "O Queen! Do you not know the renowned Seth Sudarshan, the richest man of your kingdom?" Then the queen said, "Oh! Then he is the crown person of our city. Look at him. What a charming personality and attractive features he possesses! I have never come across with a matchless man like him, endowed with such charm and beauty to this day. He is more charming than even the gods in heaven. Have you ever seen a man with such a blooming face?" Hearing this the maid said, "O Queen! No human being in all the three worlds can match him."

王后背一种强烈的欲望所支配了,她想看见Sudarshan的脸、轮廓和健康迷人的身体。她立即召见她的心腹女仆并询问她说:你知道在国王园子里的游荡者是谁吗?他住在哪里?女仆回答说:噢王后,难道您不知道有名的Seth Sudarshan吗?他是您的国家里最富有的人啊。王后又说:噢,他是我们这个城市的明星啊。看看他吧。他有着多么迷人的个性和吸引人的特质啊。我还从来没有遇见过像他这样无比且被赋予如此美丽和魅力的男人。他甚至比天堂中的神还要迷人。你曾经看到过一个男人能够拥有如此灿烂的面孔吗?听到这里女仆说道:哦王后,三界中也没有任何一个人能够与之相比。

 

The queen became restless to hold Seth Sudarshan in sweet embrace and make him her illegal spouse. Therefore, shedding all sense of shame and royal dignity the queen said to her maid unhesitatingly, "O sister! My life is useless without enjoying the sweet company of this jewel among men. My mind is wavering and has lost peace ever since the onslaught of his bewitching beauty on my heart. I cannot live without him. Therefore, try with all your might to fetch Sudarshan Seth by hook or crook into my chamber to meet me."

王后开始变得蠢蠢欲动,想要得到Seth Sudarshan甜蜜的拥抱并且与之保持非法的关系。因此,剥掉了所有羞愧和贵族尊严的王后对女仆坚定的说:噢妹妹,如果没有这男人中的珍宝与我甜蜜相伴,我的人生就是毫无价值的。我的心在摇摆,而且我的心被他那迷人的魅力冲击的失去平静。没有他我不能生活。因此,请你想尽一切办法引诱Seth Sudarshan到我的房间来与我见面。

 

The words of the queen left the maid puzzled and amazed. She cried, "Condemned be this sexual instinct, overpowered with which a person fails to distinguish between morality and immorality, and forgets loyalty to his/her spouse."

王后的话让女仆迷惑和吃惊。她哭道:该死的性欲,压倒一个人,使得她无法区分道德河不道德,使她忘记了要忠于她的配偶。” 

Of all the physical and mental ailments and sicknesses, sexual desire is the worst disease. This disease ruins the life of a person. So long as a person is not a prey to this disease, he makes attempt for self-uplift through diligence; but for a mentally sick person, who is a slave to sexuality, it is impossible to get enlightenment. With this thought the maid humbly offered her pious advice to the queen, so that good sense might prevail on her. She said, "O noble Queen! This lack of chastity in you will spoil the reputation of the royal family and bring disgrace to you as well. Like fire your sexual instinct will burn the orchard of your humane virtues to ashes."

在所有的身体和心理疾病中,性欲是最严重的。这种疾病毁灭了一个人的生活。只要这个人不是此疾的牺牲者,他可以通过勤奋来尝试自我提升,但是对于一个精神病人来说,他是性欲的奴隶,而想要启迪是不可能的。正是在这样的考虑下,这个女仆谦恭的向王后提出了她尽责的建议,想要以正确的态度来说服她。她说:噢尊敬的王后,您的不贞将损坏王室家庭的荣誉也会给您带来羞辱。很快您的性欲会将您仁慈美德之树化为灰烬。” 

The maid tried her level best to make the queen understand the pros and cons of her action; but the queen blinded by the intense sexual urge in her heart turned a deaf ear to her wise counsel. On the contrary she commanded the maid to bring Seth Sudarshan into her palace at any cost. In obedience to the queen's command, the maid began to make every possible effort to arrange a secret meeting between Seth Sudarshan and the queen in the royal palace.

女仆竭尽全力想要让王后明白对于她行为赞成和反对的理由,但是王后背心中强烈的欲望蒙住了眼睛,对于她明智的忠告置若罔闻。相反地她命令女仆无论如何都要将Seth Sudarshan带到她的宫殿。依照王后的命令,女仆开始竭尽所能安排Seth Sudarshan和王后在皇家宫殿进行秘密的约会。 

Seth Sudarshan was a highly religious minded and God-fearing soul. He had renounced all worldly enjoyments and sensuous pleasures. He used to become deeply engrossed in self-meditation and perform severe penance at night going into a dreadful cremation ground on the 8th and 14th day of every fortnight of the month.

Seth Sudarshan是一个非常虔诚而又灵魂洁净的人。他早已经与世间享乐和感官愉悦相隔绝。他常常会深深地陷入自我冥想中,并且他在履行严酷的苦修,每个月前两个星期的第八和第十四个夜晚他都要开始一种可怕的燃烧修行。 

The maid was well acquainted with all these characteristics and virtues of Seth Sudarshan. She thought out a plan to bring Seth Sudarshan into the royal palace at night. She got a clay image of a man made by a potter. One night clothing the clay image and putting it on her head she began to enter the palace. When the guards at the gate checked her, she intentionally shuddered and shook her whole body. As a result the clay image fell down and broke down into pieces. Instantly threatening the guards of severe consequences, she spoke in a harsh voice, "O sinful persons! You have committed a great crime. Today the queen had kept a vow of human worship. So she could take food only after worshipping this clay idol. Now I will go to the queen and complain against you. I will tell her how all of you made the clay image fall to the ground, as a result of which it broke down to pieces. The queen will award all of you severe punishment for it."

女仆非常熟悉Seth Sudarshan的这些特性和优点。她想了一个办法带Seth Sudarshan夜里进入皇家宫殿。她用陶土捏造了一个人像。一天晚上她给人像穿上衣服并扛着它走进宫殿。当门口的卫士检查她的时候,她故意发抖并抖动整个身子。结果陶人掉落在地被摔碎了。她立即用严厉的结果威胁卫士,用一种刺耳的声音说道:噢罪人,你已经翻犯了大罪。今天王后要还愿。所以她只有在膜拜了陶像之后才会吃饭。现在我要去王后那里控诉你。我要告诉她你怎样把陶像摔到地上,而结果是它被摔成了碎片。王后将给予你严厉的惩罚。” 

On hearing the words of the maid, the guards were badly terrified and turned almost lifeless. They apologized the maidservant in a very humble voice, "O gentle lady! You alone can save us from punishment. In future, we shall never do such behavior with you. Please pardon us this time." At this she said, "All right! In future never come in my way and create hindrance in my religious activities." So saying, she went away from there and brought the meditating Sudarshan from the cremation ground into the palace loading him on her shoulders. This time the guards did not check the maid. Thus, she succeeded to fetch Sudarshan into the queen's royal room.

听了女仆的话,卫士感到非常恐惧也变得无精打采。他们用一种卑微的声音向女仆致歉:噢文雅的女士。只有您能够使我们免于惩罚。将来我们不会再对你这样作了。这次请您宽恕我吧。这时她说:好的。以后不要挡住我的道路也不要给我虔诚的行为造成障碍。说完,她离开那里并带着经由她负责装扮后的Seth Sudarshan进入宫廷,Sudarshan从燃烧苦修中来并正在冥想。这一次卫士没有检查女仆。所以,她成功地将Sudarshan带进了王后的王室房间。 

On seeing Sudarshan the queen's joy knew no bounds. The lustful queen who was fully under the spell of a passionate desire to derive sexual gratification from Seth Sudarshan, made a humble appeal to him saying, "O jewel among men! You excel even Kam Deva -the god of love in beauty. You have captivated my heart. Now cool down my body burning with a passionate desire of sexual gratification by holding me in your sweet embrace." But the pious hearted noble Seth Sudarshan stood there firm and unmoved by her entreaties and amorous glances. Then the queen tried to rouse his passion and distract him from his firm stand by immoral and sexual motions and gestures.

看到了Sudarshan 王后欣喜若狂。这个淫荡且完全被魅力所征服的女人想要从Seth这里得到性的满足,她卑贱的说道:噢钻石男人!你的魅力甚至超过了爱之神明Kam Deva。你已经迷住了我的心。现在请给我您甜蜜的拥抱,以此平复我由于深陷性满足的狂热欲望而滚烫燃烧的身体。但是虔诚的贵族Sudarshan在她多情的目光和祈求下坚定地站在那里没有移动。王后试图唤醒他的热情,想用放荡和充满性欲的动作和姿势分散他的坚定专注。 

 

But the holy Seth who was deeply lost in the meditation of Lord Jinendra did not budge in the least. Just as the mount Sumeru does not shake by the cyclic winds and storms that invade the earth on the dooms day; likewise great men never dwindle from their firm determination at any cost. Meanwhile, Seth Sudarshan took a pledge that if he came out successfully from this great calamity and trial of his moral strength, he would get initiated into nude Jain monkshood.

但是虔诚的Seth深深地沉醉在对于耆那教义的冥想中完全没有移动。就像Sumeru在世界末日不被侵蚀地球的风雨所动摇,同样的一个伟大的人无论如何都不会动摇其坚定的决心。其间,Sudarshan起誓如果他能够从这巨大的灾难中成功脱离,并验证他精神的坚定,他将会成为一个完全的耆那教徒。 

The queen badly failed to degrade the noble soul Seth Sudarshan from his lofty moral character by all her insane gestures arid tricks. She was fully disappointed and perturbed. She now thought of seeking revenge on him for her disgrace. She scratched her whole body, broke down her precious jewelry and tore down her clothes with her own hands. Then she started wailing and crying loudly, "Alas! The wicked Sudarshan tried to molest me and criminally assault me. What a shame! This devil has turned me to such condition. O inmates and guards of the palace! Run quickly and save my honor. Defend me! Protect me from this brute. I had summoned him into my palace taking him for my brother. How could I presume that this lusty fellow aspired to play with my body and spoil my chastity."

王后用尽所有愚蠢的动作和诡计都没有能够使虔诚的Sudarshan从他高尚的德行中堕落。她感到非常的失望与不安。她现在想为了她的耻辱向他报复。她刮花自己的身体,摔碎自己的珠宝,自己了脱掉衣服。然后她开始哀号并大声哭泣:唉!邪恶的Sudarshan想要非礼和殴打我。多么无耻啊。这个魔鬼已经让我出于这样的境地。哦,宫殿里的卫士们啊。快来拯救我的荣誉吧。保护我。保护我离开这个畜牲。我是将他看作我的兄长所以才将唤入宫中。我怎么能够想到这个强悍的人想要蹂躏我的身体玷污我的贞节呢?

On hearing the lamentation and shrieks of the queen, the attendants and guards came running to the help of the queen and rescued her. They arrested Sudarshan and presented him before the king in the royal court. The king, ignorant of the reality, believed the statement of the queen. The enraged king sentenced Seth Sudarshan to death.

听到了王后的哀号和尖叫,服务员和卫士都跑来帮助和解救王后。他们在国王回到城堡之前逮捕并瞄准了Sudarshan。不知真相的国王相信了王后的话。愤怒的国王判处Seth Sudarshan死刑。 

At the command of the king, the hangmen took Sudarshan to the prosecution ground and struck a blow with a sword on his neck to kill him. But lo! By the touch of his body the steel sword turned into a delicate and fragrant flower garland. Flowers began to rain from the sky. The Gods descended from the sky and began to sing hymns in praise of the celibacy of Sudarshan. They spoke, "O Seth Sudarshan! You are blessed. You are a true devotee of Lord Jinendra and a perfect householder. Your celibacy is unbreakable."

在国王的命令下,刽子手将Sudarshan带到公决地点拔剑往他脖子上砍要杀了他。但是看那!碰到他身体的钢剑竟然变成了一个精致的木樨花环。花瓣从天空中落下。空中的众神开始吟唱歌颂Seth Sudarhan禁欲的赞美诗。他们说道:Seth Sudarshan,你是被庇佑的。你是耆那神真正的皈依者,也是一个很好的有家室之人。你的禁欲是牢不可破的。” 

The news of the miraculous incident that occurred at the prosecution ground astonished the king highly. He at once went on the spot and apologized to Sudarshan lying at his feet. All the city people began to praise the celibacy of Seth Sudarshan.

这个发生在公决地点的神奇事件震惊了国王。他立即来到现场伏在Seth Sudarshan的脚下向他道歉。城里的人们也开始赞扬Seth Sudarshan的禁欲。 

The great poet Reidhu explains the supreme virtue of celibacy or chastity as below:

以下是伟大的诗人Reidhu对禁欲和贞节伟大优点的描述:

Banbhcahau dudhru dharijyi varu phaidijyi visyas nriruTiye sukhayim ratau mnr kari matau tam ji bhav rakhaiu thiru

 

Chitbhumi mynru ji upjyi, tainr ji pidiu karyi akajyiTivahm sriryim nrindyim saivyi , nriy parnrari nr mudhu yaiyi

Nrivjyi nriryi mhaduyi bhunjyi, jo hinru ji vambhau bhanjyiIye janraipinru manr vye kaen, bhamchairu palhu anruragam

Tainr sahu ji labhei bhavparu banbhey vinru vautau jji asarauBhambau vinru kayekalaisyi , vihal sayal bhaseyi jinraisi

Bahir pharsindayi suh rakhau , param banbhu abhitari paikhauAinram ubaem labheyi siv haru, im ryidhu bahu bhanryi vinryru

Jinrnrah bhijyi munri panrmijyi dahlkhanru paliyinriruBhi khaimsinh suy bhav vinryjuy holav manr ih karhu thiru

1        A man should adopt the difficult to perform superb vow of celibacy; and discard the lustful ambitions for sexual pleasures. This living being is running amuck like an elephant whose mind is always engrossed in thoughts of sexual gratification. Therefore, O grand souls! Safeguard the vow of celibacy with a firm mind.

一个人必定需要艰难的履行其禁欲的誓言,并丢弃其对于性欲的贪婪野心。这种生活就像一只心中总是全神贯注于性欲满足的大象在横行。因此,伟大的精神啊。坚定的意志才能够确保禁欲的誓言。 

2        Kam Deva -the god of love and sex, as a rule takes birth in the soil of the unchaste mind. By its onslaught the living beings perform improper deeds. They take delight in the embrace of the disdain bodies of the ladies, and the fools fail to make any distinction between their legally married wife and other's wife.

爱与性的Kam Deva神,常常降生在不贞意识的土壤中。在它的冲击下在生活中出现了不正确的行为。他们陶醉于女人卑贱身体的拥抱,这些愚蠢之人无法在合法妻子和其他女人之间做出区分。 

3        The mean fellow, who breaks the vow of celibacy ultimately goes to hell, and suffers untold miseries there. Knowing this truth, one should observe the vow of celibacy in thought, speech and action whole-heartedly.

一个违背了禁欲誓言的卑贱之人最终要走向地狱,在那里他将遭受难以名状的苦痛。知道了这些事实,一个人必须在思想、语言和行为上都有遵守禁欲誓言之心。 

4        A living being is relieved from the world by celibacy. All penances and vows are worthless without it. All bodily tortures in the absence of celibacy are of no avail; such is the opinion of Lord Jinendra.

通过禁欲可以把生活从世界解放出来。没有了它,所有的誓言都是没有意义的。在无禁欲中所有身体的痛苦都是无效的,这就是耆那教义的看法。 

5        Defend your soul from the outward sensual pleasures derived through the sense of touch and maintain the superb virtue of celibacy in the inner self -soul. The abode of celibacy is attained through this plan. Such is the humble prayer of the great poet Reidhu.

使自己的精神抵御住源自感官外部的性欲愉悦,使自己的内心保持神圣的禁欲优点。禁欲可以通过这样的方式达到。这是伟大诗人Reidhu多么卑微的祈祷阿。 

6        Observe in a noble way the ten supreme universal virtues, which have been glorified by the omniscient Lord Jinendra and to which the holy monks pay homage and bow in reverence.

从一个神圣角度观察十大美德,这些已经被全能的耆那神赋予了美名,而神圣的僧侣也对这些充满了恭顺和敬意。 

Hence, O Mortal Man! Observe celibacy, observe celibacy and under all odds observe celibacy, which is the Supreme virtue, highly adulated by all religious philosophies of the world. Violation of chastity of any woman by way of criminal assault on her or otherwise, is a cognizable offence in all legal systems of the world, punishable even to the extent of severe bodily torture and hanging to death. Indeed, sweet are the fruits of celibacy.

因此,平凡的人啊。遵守禁欲,遵守禁欲,争取一切机会禁欲,这是最大的美德,这也是被世界上所有的宗教哲学体系所高度推崇的。通过暴力或其他手段对女性进行强奸,这是在全世界所有法律体系中都必须审理的情况,而对于这种行为的审判甚至可以达到严厉的肉体折磨和绞刑。的确,甜蜜是禁欲的果实。 

To sum up, men of chastity are men of character; and character is the supreme and unique possession of a man. This is why the scholars assign the highest value to character in human life. The great poet writes:

总而言之,贞节的人是有品质的人,而品质是一个人最至高无上和独一无二的财富。这就是为什么学者们赋予品质以人生最高价值。有一首伟大的诗歌写道: 

If wealth is lost, nothing is lost;

如果丢失了财富,什么也没有丢失。

 

If health is lost, something is lost;

如果丢失了健康,有些东西就丢失了。

 

If character is lost, everything is lost.

如果丢失了品质,什么都失去了。