Jain World
Sub-Categories of 十大美德




(Uttama Mardava Dhama)


Compassion or supreme tenderness (Uttam Mardav) gets the second place amidst the

ten tenets of Jainism. In the book ‘Sarvartha Siddhi’ the reverend Acharya Pujya Pad

Swamy tells the meaning of compassion (Mardav);

至上的仁慈(Uttam Mardav)在耆那教主义十大教条中列第二位。在书《Sarvartha Siddhi》中,修道者Acharya Pujya Pad Swamy谈到了仁慈(Mardav)的意义。 

Mridorbhavi mardvam”


The feeling of humility or tenderness is compassion. In the sixth verse of the ninth chapter of this book compassion (Mardav) is explained to mean:


“Jatyadimadaveshadbhimanabhavo mardavam”


I.e., Absence of pride, born out of the arrogant feeling or boast of ancestry, clan and tribe etc.


Compassion (Mardava) means to put an end to vanity or egotism. The foundation of compassion is tenderness or humility. It is an inherent trait of the soul. Telling humility the root of religion in ‘Bodh Pahud’ Acharya Shri Kundkund Swamy states’ dhamo dyavisidho’ i.e. ‘Religion means to be adorned with pity’. In ‘Rayansar’ the same has been stated thus; ‘Dyai sadhamo’ i.e., Mercy is the true religion’. Just as the construction of a building in the absence of a foundation, the existence of a tree in the absence of roots, the rainfall in the absence of clouds is impossible. Likewise birth of the virtue of compassion (Mardava Dharma) and Right Belief (Samyak Darshan) is impossible for want of humility. The attainment of salvation (Moksha) lies in humility or compassion.

仁慈(Mardav)意味着终止虚荣或自我主义。仁慈的基础就是心软,谦逊,就是灵魂的固有特性,在Bodh Pahud Acharya谈到宗教核心 Shri Kundkund Swamy,陈述了“dhamo dyavisidho,即宗教意味着用怜悯来装饰。在Rayansar”中也有这样的陈述。Dyai sadhamo即仁慈,是真正的宗教,就像不可能存在没有基础建筑出来的大楼,没有树根生存的树木,没有乌云的降雨。同样,仁慈这个美德(Mardava Dharma)的出现和正确的信念(Samyak Darshan)不可能缺乏谦逊。完成拯救(Moksha)就在于谦逊和仁慈。


Where there are no gentle thoughts, no polite temperament, no humility; it is all futile to go on a pilgrimage, observing vows, taking holy pledges and performing meditation; for these cannot remain stable in a being lacking in compassion i.e., in one who is not free from pride and prejudice. In order to achieve the superb virtue of compassion, it is essential for us to root out pride and prejudice from our heart. Its easiest way is not to be vain.



Once some children were playing ‘Gulli-Danda’ on the seashore. In this game the players of one team throw the ‘Gulli’ from a cavity in the ground using a small wooden rod ‘Danda’ as distant as possible, and the players in the opposite team try to catch hold of the ‘Gulli’. The ‘gulli’ throwing team let off the gulli. When a child, player of the opposite team tried to catch hold of the gulli by jumping; instead he caught hold a crow flying very low in the sky. The children felt very happy on catching the crow. All the children flocked at a place leaving their game. They picked up a sparkling conch shell (seepi) from the seashore. They drilled a hole in it, threaded it and put it around the neck of the crow. The children felt very happy on adorning the crow. The crow also began to think, “Oh! There is no bird to match me in the world.” The crow said this very thing to the children as well. A child said, “Oh! You are puffed up with vanity at this petty adoration. Can you match the bird swan?” Overtaken by false pride the crow spoke, “Why not? Certainly I can.” A swan sat a little afar. The children said to it, “Oh Swan! So far you alone are the bird famous for flying across the sea, but see our this black crow can also fly across the sea.” The swan said, “Don’t be proud in vain.” But the children persisted. The swan said, “Well! It is all right. Get your crow ready to take a flight with me.” They both became ready and the two set on the flight. The swan fluttered its wings to take the flight and covered a long distance, whereas the crow was tired of fluttering its wings but could not overtake the swan. The swan said to the crow, “Why are you tired?” The crow replied with vanity, “No, how can I get tired so soon?” After flying some more distance, the swan again asked, “Have you got tired?” Out of pride the crow replied, “No, not in the least.” But in reality the crow was dead tired out of flying. No end of seashore was visible. Still he had to travel a long distance. The crow was finding it difficult to flutter its wings due to fatigue. It began to roll down. The swan questioned again, “Have you got tired now?” Even then the crow replied, “No, not tired as yet?” The crow began to drown in the seawater; only its beak was visible out of water. The swan understood that the crow was about to die due to false vanity. Hence, an ocean of mercy, the swan lifted it up and brought it on the seashore. The crow would have lost its life due to its false pride or vanity. We should always remember - “Society has this good at least, that it lessens our conceit, by teaching us our insignificance and making us acquainted with our betters.”



In this world many kings, emperors and Chakarvartis have lost their lives simply in order to safeguard their vanity. A man should possess self-esteem, not false pride in life. False pride leads a man to downfall, while self-esteem raises him to lofty heights. Rightly has it been said:

Pride goeth on horse back grand and gay

But cometh back on foot, begging its way.



Ravan was a mighty king and a great devotee of Lord Jinendra. In order to worship God, the great Ravan used to play on the lyre (Veena) manufactured by the veins carved out of his own body. Ravan was known as an ‘Ardh-chakari on this earth. Even such a renowned Ravan kidnapped Sita out of false vanity and brought her to Lanka. Overpowered with egotism he used to say, “No man like me has ever existed on this earth, nor ever will be.”



Na bhuto na bhavishayati


Ravan had to go to hell due to this false vanity. Then what can be said of an ordinary

living being?



Hitler was arrogant and given to false ride. Consequently he got innumerable people killed and also suffered his own downfall and ruin. Lord Bahubali failed to obtain enlightenment (Keval Gyan) due to being possessed with little vanity born out of Sanjivalan; and had to perform penance for many years. If someone boasts, “I have gone through so many scriptures (Shastras); I am very affluent and powerful; I have numerous weapons, a huge army and no body can cause me harm,” he is arrogant. Thus if someone prides in his vanity, he falls down into a deep well of ruin by his vanity. Remember, “Vanity is an inborn vice in man; it is often fed and fostered by his own fellow beings. It is therefore almost impossible for him to eradicate it. Though it is not infrequent that a man’s vanity is wounded, crushed or even smashed, but it grows again like the Phoenix from its own ashes.”



Some ideas must be remembered, pondered and ruminated again and again in order to practice compassion (Uttama Mardav). One has taken birth in this world, times without number in a low state. High births and low births both are not everlasting. Ultimately, even on taking birth in a higher state of being it is ruined again and we may get birth in a lower state. This world abounds in persons of so many special castes, clans and creeds. So it is useless for a person to be proud or vain. Secondly, man has passed through these castes and clans etc., many times in his previous lives in the past. Is it then worthwhile to be puffed up with pride in these? The man, who acts in an innocent manner discarding the faults causing disgrace, is the truly self-esteemed. But no body can be termed as self esteemed for being proud even when he is wanting in virtues. This pride and egotism gives rise to many evils in this birth and in the next births. Realizing this the gentle persons get rid of vanity. A man with false pride suffers disgrace everywhere. He can never cherish noble ideas. So, as long as the poisonous snake in the guise of pride and egotism remains hidden in the heart of a person, none can be friendly with him. He generates enmity with all wherever he goes. Seth lived poor man named Viney Kumar, who earned his bread and butter by making baskets. Viney Kumar was polite and diligent by nature. He had become very popular due to his humility. All praised him. Despite being poor Viney Kumar was content and happy. Seth Maan Mal had grown jealous of Viney Kumar at heart on seeing his happiness and popularity. The jealousy of Maan Mal assumed a furious shape. Out of jealousy he got the cottage of Viney Kumar set on fire. As a result Viney Kumar was totally ruined. The implements and raw materials like bamboo and twigs etc., used for making the baskets were also burnt to ashes along with the cottage. However, the life of Viney Kumar was saved. He appealed to the judge in the court for justice. In order to affirm whether Seth Maan Mal was really jealous of Viney Kumar, the judge sent them both to a far off unknown island.

Seth住着一个名叫Viney Kumar的穷人,他靠编篮子糊口,Viney Kumar性情上礼貌、勤奋,由于他的谦逊而变得很受欢迎,所有人都夸奖他,尽管穷,Viney Kumar还是很满足,很快乐,看到Viney Kumar的幸福与受欢迎,Seth Maan心中生起了嫉妒,他的嫉妒产生了疯狂的表现,出于嫉妒他到Viney Kumar的小屋放火,结果Viney Kumar的工具以及一些未用的材料如竹子小树都沿着被烧的小屋烧成了灰烬,然而Viney Kumar的生命被挽救了,他为了正义想法官提起诉讼,为了证实Seth Maan是否真的嫉妒Viney Kumar,法官将他们两个人都送到了一个很远的不为人知的岛上。


On reaching the distant and new island they both set to work to arrange for means of livelihood afresh. Viney labored hard and charmed the inhabitants of the island by his service and good conduct. All began to show him honor and respect. On the contrary maddened with pride of wealth, the cruel hearted Maan Mal did not bring a change in his vain nature and behavior. Consequently Maan Mal received hatred and disgrace from the islanders.

在到达这个遥远的新岛后,他俩都为新的生活安排而开始工作,Viney Kumar辛勤的工作,以他的服务和良好的行为得到了岛上居民的青睐,所有人都对他表示尊敬,相反,为财富疯狂、骄傲,有着残酷心肠的Seth Maan并没有对他的虚荣的本性和行为做出改正,结果Seth Maan遭到了岛上居民的憎恶和鄙视。


Maan barahi karne jo dhan kharche murh

Mar kar hathi ho gye neeche latke sund

I.e., the fools who spend money to earn honor and glory will after death be born as elephants with their trunks hanging down to the earth.



Faced with loneliness, disgrace and helplessness Maan Mal became unhappy in life.He now realized that his arrogant nature and bad conduct were the cause of his misery.Being sad and ashamed Maan Mal apologized to Viney Kumar. Pleading guilty Maan Malpledged to follow good conduct and politeness in the future. It shows that in order tobecome popular and get peace and happiness in life a man should follow the rules of goodconduct getting rid of egotism and vanity. It has been well said, “The heat of the sunscorches the moon, but the moon smiles sweet and sheds her cool luster to delight theworld. The truly noble man bears all sorts of troubles with a smiling face, and showers peace and happiness to please mankind.”

面对孤独、羞辱和无助,Seth Maan的生活变的很不快乐,他现在的意识到了他的虚荣本性和恶劣行径是造成他痛苦的原因,伤心、羞愧的Seth Maan跑去向Viney Kumar道歉,表示了内疚之情后,Seth Maan发誓以后做好事,懂礼貌,这表明为了以后变得受欢迎得到生活的平静与快乐,人应该摆脱自我主义和虚荣,遵守善良的行为的准则,人们常说:太阳的热量灼烧了月亮,但月亮甜甜的微笑,播洒冷冷的月光给地球带来快乐,一个真正的圣人总微笑着忍受一切困难,展示出平静与快乐来愉悦人类。


A man indulges in eight types of false pride or vanity. While stating the ways and means to attain Right Belief (Samayika Darshan), Acharya Samant Bhadra Swamy tells:

一个沉溺于八种错误的傲慢与虚荣中,当说到获得正确信仰的方法和途径时Acharya Samant Bhadra Swamy说:

Gyanam pujam kulam jatim, balmridham tapo vapu

Ashtavashritya manitvam samymahurgrtsmya


To take pride in eight things viz. knowledge, fame, ancestry, tribe, power, affluence, penance and body is known as vanity. This vanity defiles the virtues of our soul. As soon as a living being gets rid of all these eight types of vanity, he is crowned with the virtue of compassion (Mardava Dharma). The same thing has been stated in ‘Bhagwati Aradhana’also:

ko ith majh mano, bahuso nichtanam pi satas

uchate yanriche uchtide chavi nrichte

Adhigesu bahusu santesu mamadu aeth ko maham mano

Ko vibhyo vi bahuso pate puvammi uchate

八种事物产生骄傲之情,即知识、名誉、祖先、家族、权利、富裕、苦行和身体被以为是虚荣,这种虚荣玷污了我们灵魂的美德,一个生灵摆脱这八种虚荣,他就被戴上了仁慈(Mardava Dharma)这一美德的王冠,同样的事Bhagwati Aradhana中也有阐述:

ko ith majh mano, bahuso nichtanam pi satas

uchate yanriche uchtide chavi nrichte

Adhigesu bahusu santesu mamadu aeth ko maham mano

Ko vibhyo vi bahuso pate puvammi uchate


Even if I am at a higher level in knowledge, ancestry, beauty, penance, riches and power, why to take pride in them because many times I have possessed a lower rank as well in these. A higher rank or a lower rank both are mortal, unstable and perishable. Many in this world are superior to me in knowledge and power etc., then why to be proud in them? Besides, I was granted this higher state of life many times in my previous births, then why to be veining glorious at achieving them? Knowing this we should give up the above mentioned forms of vanity. Therein lies the well being of a living being. All wise men say, “Humble origin is no bar to the attainment of greatness, while pride of birth is afrequent cause of humiliation.”



To take false pride in one’s mental accomplishments is knowledge pride (Gyan Mada). In the‘Mahapurana’ of Acharya Jinsain at one place it is mentioned -“To take pride in knowledge is putting a veil on the knowledge.” Bharatra Hari writes:

Yada kinchijhoham, dwip iv madandh sambhavam

Tada sarvagyosmitybhvdvliptam mam mana

yada kinchit, budhjanskashadvgtam

如果一个人对自己精神上的成就而妄自尊大的话,那么他就对自己的知识感到骄傲(Gyan Mada)。在Acharya Jinsain的书中曾经提到—“对自己知识的妄自尊大就是对知识的一种蒙蔽。” Bharatra Hari写道:

Yada kinchijhoham, dwip iv madandh sambhavam

Tada sarvagyosmitybhvdvliptam mam mana

yada kinchit, budhjanskashadvgtam


I.e., When I possessed shallow knowledge, I walked puffed up with egotism like an elephant. When I came out of my home and by and by came in contact with the scholars and learned men and started acquiring more and more knowledge in their company, I began to walk like an ant. Then my pride in knowledge subsided like a fever. One who attains the real knowledge never becomes proud or vain. He walks with a bowed head and is polite to all.

It has been said: vidya vineyam ddati


这样通常称为:vidya vineyam ddati


I.e., knowledge brings humility. When a tree is overloaded with fruits, its branches bend down. Likewise a learned man bows down with humility on the acquisition of knowledge; he becomes devoid of vanity. In this context the poet Pump writes:

‘Kundkundachyanandnvne shukoham’


‘Kundkundachyanandnvne shukoham’


I.e., I, poet Pump, am the parrot of Acharya Kundkund’s spiritual vernal wood (Nandana Vana) ‘Samay Saar’, etc. Therefore, having tasted their fruits in original I convey them as they are.

即,我,一位诗人,是Acharya Kundkund的代言人。因此已经领会了他的精神。


Thus, the learned are polite towards the Acharyas and it is in the nature of the learned men to admire their talent and scholarship. Only such are the truly learned; they alone are gifted with the virtue of compassion (Mardava Dharma).



To take pride in one’s fame and glory, worldly dignity is known as Dignity Pride (Puja Mada). Father’s lineage is called ancestry and Mother’s lineage is called tribe. To take pride in these comes under the category ‘Ancestral Pride’ and ‘Tribe Pride’. The bodily powers are called strength. Hence to take pride in them is ‘Strength Pride’. The monetary achievements or the possession of household riches is known as affluence and pride in it is called ‘Affluence Pride’. Fasting is called penance and pride in it is known as ‘Penance Pride’. Taking pride in healthy and beautiful body is ‘body pride’. One who is aspirant for the virtue of compassion (Mardava Dharma) will have to discard all the above mentioned eight types of vanity; only then one will be capable of attaining unblemished compassion.

如果以自己的名誉和荣誉为荣的话,从字面上来说,尊贵就是对于自己的一种自豪感。(Puja Mada)。父亲家的血统成为祖先,母亲家的血统称为部落。对于这些引以为傲就称为以祖先为荣以部落为荣。身体上的能量成为力量。因此,对自己的力量引以为傲就称为以力量为荣。如果对自己富足的家境的引以为傲就称为以家境为荣。如果把禁食这种修行的行为引以为傲的话,就称为以修行为荣。如果对自己健康漂亮的身体引以为荣的话,就称为以身体为荣。如果一个人能够具有仁慈的美德的话,他就能够摒弃上述所有的空虚;只有这样他才能够达到真正的仁慈。


Once Sukh Deva went to King Janak at Rajgrahi to receive education. On the completion of his education he expressed his desire to offer a present (Guru dakshina) to his teacher. King Janak said, “I don’t want any present. However, if you insist, offer me something seemingly without utility.” Sukh Deva set out in search of some worthless looking thing. The soil, the leaves, all things seemed to have their own utility. No material appeared to be with no utility. He began to ponder over the whole matter. He felt that pride in body alone is of no use. He said to King Janak, “I want to offer you my pride in body.” King Janak said, “Now you are blessed. People regard bodily pride the most dear to them in the world and stick to it. You found it totally worthless; he alone who gets this vision by God’s mercy is really blessed.” The noble minded person who is not the least proud of ancestry, beauty, tribe and clan, learning or education, penance, knowledge of scriptures and chastity is gifted with compassion or supreme tenderness (Uttama Mardava Dharma).

Kulrujadibhudhisu tvsudsilesu garvam kinchi

jo nrvi kuchdi samanro madvdhamm haave tsya

有一次,Sukh DevaJanak国王去求教。当他求学完成时,他向他的老师说,希望送给他一份礼物(Guru dakshina)。Janak国王说,我不需要任何礼物。但是,如果你坚持要给我礼物的话,你就给我一些毫无用处的东西吧。Sukh Deva就开始四处寻找没有用处的东西。土壤、树叶,好像所有的东西看起来都有它们的用途,没有什么看起来没有用处。Sukh Deva就开始思考整件事情。他发现,自己思想中的傲慢是什么用处也没有的。他就对Janak国王说,我想把我的傲慢送给你。Janak国王对他说:祝福你啊!世上的人们都把傲慢当做对他们最好的东西,并不断去追逐它。你已经发现了他完全没有用处,你在神灵的指导下得到了这种观点,你会得到祝福。如果一个高贵的、有思想的人丝毫不因为他的祖先、美丽、部落和氏族、学识、修行、知识和贞节而感到傲慢的话,那么他就具有至上的仁慈(Uttama Mardava Dharma)

Kulrujadibhudhisu tvsudsilesu garvam kinchi

jo nrvi kuchdi samanro madvdhamm haave tsya


He, who is not proud or vain in spite of being highly learned and a supreme ascetic, possesses the jewel of compassion or tenderness (Mardav). A person regards himself superior to others as a result of the mental outlook developed due to the extreme feeling of family pride created by karma, which is of no use; for sometimes his own vanity is shattered by his own children. It has been said:

Dharma vasenmamsi yavdalam sa tabadhanta n hanturapi pashya gataith tasmin

Drishta prasparhatirjankatmajanam, raksha tatosya jagta kharlu dharm ev.


Dharma vasenmamsi yavdalam sa tabadhanta n hanturapi pashya gataith tasmin

Drishta prasparhatirjankatmajanam, raksha tatosya jagta kharlu dharm ev.


I.e., So long as this feeling of compassion or tenderness (Mardava Dharma) persists in human mind, a person does not hurt even his own persecutor; and when his mind deserts this feeling of compassion, even father and son have been seen killing each other. Hence this world can be saved only when we possess the virtue of compassion (Mardava Dharma).



A man, failing to make a distinction between right or wrong and what is worth doing or not, is enveloped by the darkness of vanity and takes recourse to the evil path leaving the wanted right path. When good luck (Punya Karma) comes into existence, he becomes highly puffed up with pride forgetting that as an outcome of this vanity he will have to suffer disgrace in the lower state of births.

如果一个人不能够区分正确或错误以及正确的行为和错误的行为,那么他就深深的湮没在空虚的黑暗中,并走向错误的方向而放弃正确的方向。当好运气(Punya Karma)来临时,他的傲慢就会迅速膨胀,他就会忘记由于他的空虚,他将不得不承受出生于一个较低的家庭的耻辱。


A mad person stood in the middle of the road. A car came from behind and the car owner began to sound the horn. When the man did not budge from the road, the Seth cried, “O blind man! Can’t you see? Move aside from the middle of the road.” The mad man spoke, “O Seth! Sitting in this tin box, your car, you are filled with so much vanity. I stand on this earth which is full of precious jewels. Still I am not proud in the least. Go away keeping this tin box on your head.”



As a result of good actions of previous births a man gets a bit of material prosperity and worldly wealth in life. If one or two cars stand in front of his door, the man becomes so vain and proud that he begins to think that others are no matches to him. Regarding other persons insignificant and worthless due to this feeling of vanity brings ruin in his life. As a result of this sin he is thrown into the deadly hell. An easy way of escape from it is not to be proud or vain. This virtue of compassion or humility, which annihilates vanity root and branch, is really commendable.



What to speak of a man in the street, when bad luck dominates, even Kings are born as germs in the excrete, as a result of this pride and vanity. This egotism or vanity, which causes great hurt to the soul, is a deadly enemy of man. The saintly persons should always destroy vanity through this virtue of compassion or humility (Mardava); or if they have to be proud, they should take pride in their vows and holy pledges so that the enemies of religion may be annihilated. Even the mountain of vanity crumbles by compassion. Aark Kirti, the son of Emperor Bharat Chakarvarti, had to suffer so much disgrace, and the God Maya Mani Ketu burnt to ashes the sixty thousand sons of Emperor Sagar Chakarvarti in the twinkling of an eye due to this vanity. Therefore, just as king Bharat tried to uproot vanity of the royal prince, his brother Bahubali, likewise the saintly persons always try to flee the ghost of vanity from the heart of would-be enlightened souls.

当坏运气主宰人们时,即使是国王,由于傲慢与虚荣,也会转生成为排泄物中的细菌。自负与虚荣将对灵魂造成极大的伤害,是人类致命的敌人。高尚的人们应当时刻通过怜悯与谦卑来破坏虚荣;如果人们不得不傲慢的话,那么就以自己的誓言为荣,这样信仰的敌人就会被消灭。怜悯能够毁灭虚荣之山。Aark Kirti ,是Bharat Chakarvarti的儿子,他承受了许多侮辱,由于他们的虚荣,Maya Mani Ketu 眨眼间就把Sagar Chakarvarti的六万个儿子烧成了灰烬。因此,高尚的人们总是通过摆脱内心的虚荣来启发自己的灵魂。


The holy teachers have great affection for the persons gifted with the virtue of compassion or tenderness (Mardav). These saintly persons take them also for saints. Such persons attain Right Knowledge (Samayak Gyan) by the blessings of their spiritual teachers and thereby they enjoy pleasures of paradise.

神圣的上师偏爱那些具有仁慈或慈善(Mardav)美德的人,他们同样也把这些人当作圣人。通过上师的祝福,这些仁慈的人能够获得正确的知识(Samayak Gyan),因此他们就能够享受到天堂中的快乐。


To be vain or proud is extremely harmful for a person. When Ravan disgraced Vibhishan out of vanity, Vibhishan joined the camp of Ram accompanied with his four battalions of cavalry (char akshohany sena) and thus got his own brother Ravan killed. Hence, we should not nourish malice or ill will for any one to satisfy our feeling of vanity or egotism. Despite being an extremely mighty king, Ravan is condemned and defamed to this day only due to his egotism. In truth, true greatness is free from pride. Little carries pride to its extreme limits. It has been said:

barhe barhaii na karen, barhe na bolain bole

hira mukh se na kahe, barha hamara mole

虚荣和傲慢对于一个人十分有害。当Ravan出于虚荣心来侮辱Vibhishan的时候,Vibhishan率领他的四队骑兵(char akshohany sena)加入了Ram的军队,并杀死了他的兄弟Ravan。因此,我们不能够不能因为满足我们自身的虚荣心和自大而对他人心生恶意。尽管Ravan是一个强大的君主,直到今天,他也受到了诅咒和非议。事实上,伟大与傲慢无关。傲慢不能使人长久。有经文为证:

barhe barhaii na karen, barhe na bolain bole

hira mukh se na kahe, barha hamara mole


Two trees stood side by side in a forest. One was Banyan tree and the other Cane tree. Due to being big size, wide spread and strong the Banyan tree developed vanity and egotism at heart. So it became proud. It said to the Cane tree, “What use is your life? You can provide neither shadow nor fruits nor flowers to anybody. Look at me. I provide shadow to so many creatures and even if somebody cuts me down beautiful coaches can be manufactured with my wood for sitting.” In a short while the weather took such an ugly turn that the storm and rain both started together all of a sudden. In an instant the Cane tree bent down and lay straight on the ground. But the storm saw that the Banyan tree stood erect and adamant. The storm uprooted this egotist tree and cast it away turning turtle. As a result the vanity of the tree was shattered to pieces. Therefore, we should never be vain or proud about our safety. Just as sometimes our own weapon becomes the cause of self-destruction, likewise our vanity or egotism becomes the cause of our own ruin. Nobody likes to look with reverence at a person who is self-conceited and prides in his beauty, knowledge, strength and affluence. All persons love gold because it is more soft and full of luster than iron; they wear different types of ornaments molded from it and safeguard it. But no body likes to wear ornaments of iron for they being hard and without luster. Iron lies outside in the open bearing both the winter and cold and summer heat and ultimately destroyed by rust. Likewise, all people love those who are sweet tempered and they alone are safeguarded forever; but nobody likes the hard hearted and harsh nature persons for they are of no avail. That is why they are ridiculed and condemned everywhere. A man should always be tender by nature, sweet in speech and humble in conduct. Only then a man will be termed a man in right earnest.

两棵大树在森林中比邻生长。一棵是菩提树,另一株是棵藤。由于榕树长得枝繁叶茂,十分茂盛,因此心生虚荣自负之情,并变得越来越傲慢。他对藤说,你的生命有什么意义呢?你既没有树荫也没有果实和花朵。看看我,我能够为众生提供树荫,即使人们把我砍下,我也能做成漂亮的马车来供人们使用。突然间,天气突变,狂风暴雨骤然而至。藤马上把他的枝条弯下来并摊在地上。风暴看到了笔直坚挺的榕树,将这棵骄傲的树连根拔起丢在了一边。由于这棵树的傲慢,他被撕碎成了一片片。因此,我们绝对不能够因为我们暂时的安全而感到虚荣与傲慢。就像有的时候我们手中的武器却成为毁灭自己的原因。没有人喜欢尊敬一个自负的人。所有的人们都喜欢金子,因为它质地柔软而且比铁更有光泽,人们佩带各式各样的金饰品并且来保护它;没有人喜欢铁饰品,因为它质地坚硬而且没有光泽。铁被放置在空气中经历了冬寒夏暑,因此光泽就逐渐褪去。同样,人们都喜欢性格温和的人,他们也会受到人们的保护;没有人喜欢铁石心肠之人,因为同他们相处人们不能够受益。因此,铁石心肠之人就会到处受到奚落和谴责。一个人应当总是内心温和,言语得体,行为谦卑。只有 这样的人才能够被称为一个真诚的人。


We should learn politeness in words and speech also. Sometimes there lies possibility of clash or bitterness due to words spoken abruptly without proper thinking.



Once an Indian gentleman went to America. He had to address a conference there. When his turn came, he stood up and started delivering his speech. Meanwhile, seeing the Indian speaker, the American members of the conference started laughing. The Indian speaker felt insulted and got a bit enraged. In anger he spoke, “Fifty percent Americans are fools.” As soon as the American members heard these words, a commotion prevailed in the conference hall and the Americans got out of control. “No, No, Sorry gentlemen, pardon me. Fifty percent Americans are wise.” On hearing these changed words, also conveying the same sense, the American members became calm again. It clearly proves sane words of advice; “Treat everybody with politeness, even those who are rude to you. For, remember that you show courtesy to others not because they are gentlemen, but because you are one.” Hence every person should speak beneficial, friendly, affectionate and sweet words. The wise seers have said, ‘Sweet words cost nothing, but buy everything’. Given below are some wise definitions of the virtue of compassion or tenderness in the words of the great poet Reidhu:

Madu bhav madnru manr nrikndnru, dya dhamhu bhool ji vimlu Savham hiyaru gunr gunrsaru, tishun vyun sanjam sehlu Madu manr kashay vihamhnru madu panchidiy manr danhnru Madu dhamay karunra valli pasrayi chitr mahihin nravalli Madu jinrvar bhati pyasi madu kumarh pasru nrinrasand Madvenr bahu vinray pavtii madvenr janr badru uhtayi Madvenr parinram vishudhi, madvenr thuliy ham siddhi madvenr do vihu tau sohi, madvenr nrru tijgu vimohi madav jinr sasnr janrijeyi, appa par saruv bhavijyi

madau dos asais nrivaryi, madu jam uahin utaryi

samdansnr angu sadu parinramu ji munrhu

iya pariyanrivichitr madu dhamu amal dhunrhu


Madu bhav madnru manr nrikndnru, dya dhamhu bhool ji vimlu Savham hiyaru gunr gunrsaru, tishun vyun sanjam sehlu Madu manr kashay vihamhnru madu panchidiy manr danhnru Madu dhamay karunra valli pasrayi chitr mahihin nravalli Madu jinrvar bhati pyasi madu kumarh pasru nrinrasand Madvenr bahu vinray pavtii madvenr janr badru uhtayi Madvenr parinram vishudhi, madvenr thuliy ham siddhi madvenr do vihu tau sohi, madvenr nrru tijgu vimohi madav jinr sasnr janrijeyi, appa par saruv bhavijyi

madau dos asais nrivaryi, madu jam uahin utaryi

samdansnr angu sadu parinramu ji munrhu

iya pariyanrivichitr madu dhamu amal dhunrhu


1        This virtue of compassion or tenderness (Mardav Dharma) overcomes the world i.e., conquers everyone in the world. It subdues vanity. This compassion or humility is at the root of mercy. It is the cause of unblemished conduct and is beneficial to all. It is superb amongst all the virtues; and vows and self-control are fulfilled and exercised only with compassion or humility.

1 这种仁慈或和善的美德(Mardav Dharma)能够征服整个世界,它能够征服虚荣。仁慈或者谦卑是宽恕之源。它是一切完美行为之源,能够使所有人受益。这种美德凌驾于所有其他美德之上。只有仁慈或者谦卑的人才能够遵守自己的誓言和自律。


2        Compassion destroys vanity and egotism; puts a check on all the five senses and mind. By the blessing of this virtue of humility, the creeper of mercy expands on the ground of mind.

2 仁慈能够毁灭虚荣和自负,对自己的五官以及思想进行反省。在这种美德的辅佑下,仁慈之水能够遍布人的整个思想。


3        The virtue of compassion exhibits devotion to Lord Jinendra; compassion restraints the growth of evil thoughts. Compassion gives rise to the feeling of humility and puts an end to the feeling of bitterness.

3 仁慈的美德展示了人们对于Jinendra的忠诚,仁慈限制了罪恶想法的滋生。仁慈能够产生谦卑并且结束痛苦。


4        Compassion brings purity in outlook; it helps in the attainment of both the worlds ­the earthly and the heavenly world (ubhay lok); it glorifies both types of penances and by it a man can charm the creatures of all the three worlds.

4 仁慈使人思想纯洁,它能够帮助人们在世俗的世界中和神的世界(ubhay lok)中都有所收获。仁慈有助于各种各样的修行,仁慈的人们能够吸引所有三界中的生灵。


5        The virtue of compassion makes one aware of the Jain discipline and it gives clear perception of the real shape of self and non-self (par). Humility removes all evils and it takes us across the ocean of the world.

5 仁慈的美德能够使一个人心中时常牢记耆那教的教义,使他能够清楚地认识到自我和外物。谦卑能够消除所有的罪恶,并且能够带领我们穿越世俗的海洋。


6        The feeling of compassion or tenderness is a part and parcel of Right Belief. Knowing this, pay homage to the wonderful and unblemished virtue of compassion (mardav Dharma).

6 仁慈和温和的感觉是正确信仰中的不可或缺的一部分。知道了这一点,我们要向仁慈的美德表示无上的敬意。


Look at a genuine nude Jain saint, who is a living image of extreme humility treading this earth. Indeed, humility is the strength of perfection; it will bring down all enemies.



Hence, O Mortal Man! Be compassionate, be compassionate, and be compassionate to one and all -men, birds and beasts.


Impartiality or equanimity towards all living beings in the world, whether friends or foes, and life long abstention from injury to living beings, is a vow difficult to observe.

公正和平和的对待世界上的一切生物,不论他们是朋友还是敌人,永远不要去伤害他们 这是一条很难做到的誓言。