INDRODUCTION

 

The prsent Volume contains the Culika of the first Khanda JivatthanaCulika means a supplement which contains matter that is connected with the main topics of the book, but which, for one reason or the other. was not or ould not be includ.d within the soul-positions, but which were not dealt with within the eight prarupanas.They are as follows:-

 

1 Prakriri Samutkirtana

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This Culika enumerates the eights Karmas and their subdivisions which amount to 148.The Karmas are eberghs that are forged by the contact of the soulwith matter under specified conditions and their nature is to hinder or obstructthe manifestation of the souls natural qualities, Soul,in its nature, is endowed withperfect Knowledge.Which is obscured in varying degrees by the five different kindsof jnanavarniya karma.Similarly the soulís naturual insight into things is hindere by nine diferent varieties of the Darsanavaraniya Karma.Soul by itself would be free from the feelings of pleasure or pain if there were not the two kinds of†† Vedaniya Karma operating upon it.Delusion and defective conduct are the results of the therea

kinds of Darsana Mohaniya and the twenty five varieties of the†† Caritra Mohaniya

respectively.One is kept bound as man for a beast, a hellish being or a god.by the

four kinds ofAyu Krmain whese absencethe soul would be absolved of the minatory process.All the physical conditions in which one finds hemself placed in the worldís right from his personal make up down to his external environments, are the result of the working of no less than ninety three varieties of the Kama Karma.One is plased high or low in society on account of the operation of the two kinds of Gotra Karmas, and one is hindered in the exercise of dispensation or acquisition as well as utility or enjoyment or exprossion of power by the five kinds of Antarya.These are the 5+9+2+28+4+93+2+5=148Varieties of Karmas explained in the Priakaritisamutkirtana Culika.

 

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

 

2 Sthana Samutkirtana Culika

 

††† Having understood the nature of the Karmas, it becomes necessary to know, but

of the many varietios of each main Karma, how many would be contracted simultaneously and under what conditions.This is the topic of the second Culika.All the five jnanavarnivas may be forred by any boiy right up to the 10th spiritual stage when

bondage stops.In the case of the Darsanavaranita, all the-time may be forged during

the first two spiritual stages and six or four as one progresses up.Both the Vedanayas ate contracted up to the 13th stage.Of the Mohaniya, one binds 22,21.17,13,9,5,4,3,2, or 1st different stages of spititual advancement- of the four Ayu karmas, only one may be bound at a time, while of the Nama Karma 31,30,29,28,26,25,23 or 1 are contracted simultaneously.The Low Gotra Karma is forged during the first two spirtitual stages, while the High one from the first up to the 10 th stage.During the same stages all the five Antarayas may also be forged.

 

††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††3-5. The three Maha-dandakas

 

††† In the first Maha dadaka the karmas are classified according as they are

contracted or not contracted by a soul when it is about to attain Right Faith.The

less as one advances in purity towards the Right Faith.

††† The second Maha+-dabdata enumerates those varieties of Karmas which a godly

or hellish being, exvept the one in the seventh hell, may contract when about to aquire

 

Right Faith.

†††

The Third Maha-dandaka evumerates the Karmas that a being in the seventh

hell might bind on the point of acquiring Samyaktva.

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6. Utkristha Sthiti Culika

 

††† This Culkia lays down the mazimum period of time with are karma once

bound may subsist.It deals with the corresoponding period of time wich must

elapse after each bondage,before the same beings to bear its fruit.The maximum duration is to be found in the case of the Darsana Mohaniya which may last for 70 koda

kodi sagaropamds.Rhe maximum period of the Caritra-mohaniya is 40, of

Jananavarniya, Darsanavarasniya, Asata Vedaniya and Antaraya 30, of Nice Gotra and a number of Nama Karmas 20, and of the last varying below twenty, till you come to a less than i Kodakodi sagaropoma in the case of Ahara Sarira and Tirthakara, 33Sagaropamas in the case of hellish and bavenly existence and only 3 Palyopamas in the case of a manís or a beatís life.The period which must elapse beofre a Karma ripes as up for fruition is calculated at the rato of one hundeted years for each Kodakodi sagar- opama, except in the case of Aya karmas where it is determained by the period of life which remains unexhausted at the time when it is determined by the peiod of life which remains unexhauseted at the time when the duration of the next life asdeteranined ( for the measure of different periods of time, sta Vol.3, intro. p.33)

 

7.†† JaghanyaSthiti Culika

 

As the forgone Culka deals with the maximum duration of the differentkarmas, so the minimum periods which vary from slightly less than one Sagaropama in the case of the Darsana Mohaniya to a few Avalikas(ksudra-bhava-grahana) in the case of the shortest lived man or lower animal.

 

8. Sanyaktvotpatti Culika

 

††††††††††† This Culika is so called because it doscribes how and by what steps Right Faith or the correct attitude of the mind is created.It is only when the burden of the Karmas is considerably lightened, firstly, by a gradual process of self-purification which may be almost unconscious, and lastly by a deliberate effort to improve the mind.that the whole layer of ignorance is transformed into three parts whichmay be called ignorance, semi-ignorance and enlightenment, and they are all laid at rest for a while and the true self reveals itself.When this happens for the first time.the purity is only temporary and the soul soon falls back into one of the three specified states.When a similar course of purification is attempted for a second time, it may be accompanied by right conduct with which the soul climbs considerably higher on the ladder of spiritual progress.And if the soul makes this start not merely with a process of allaying the Karmas (aupasamika samyktva), but of destroying them (Ksayika Samyaktva) then there is no falling back at all, and one continues to advance in purity within this life and the life beyond, till perfection is reached and the shackles of worldly existence are cast aside once for all,These processes are described in the commentary with extraordinary details and methematical precision.

 

9. Gati-agati Culika

 

††††††††††† This ninth Culika is called Gati-agati because it deals chiefly with the migratory processes of the soul.As these are affected to a large extent by the presence or absence of the right attitude of the mind (Samyaktva);the work first deals with the sources through which right attitude is generated in the beings in hell or heaven animal or men.These sources are four, namely, sight of the Jina image, listening to a righteous discourse, memory of the experiences of the past life and the present sufferings.These become available differently under different conditions of existence.

 

††††††††††† The next topic is treated in this Culika is with what spiritual grades one may enter any praticular state of existence or exit out of it.The one noteworthy feature of this topic is that a being with the right attitude of the mind will never enter any hell, lower than the first one, nor become a lower animal.The last topic in this Culika is, being what one is in his present life, what virtues or status can he acquire in the next birth.

 

With this volume the first Khanda Jivatthana (Soul-Positions) comes to an end.The next Volume will present to us the second Khanda called Khudda Bandha (Bondage in brief)