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SamanSuttam

32. Atmavikasasutra (Gunasthana)

PRECEPTS ON SPIRITUAL PROGRESS (GUNASTHANAS) 关于精神的进步  

精神進捗に関する教訓

 

Jehim du lakkhijjamte, udayadisu sambhavehim bhavehim.

Jiva te gunasanna, niddittha savvadarisihim. (546)

 Those states resulting from the fruition etc. of Karmas, by which souls are distinguished

are given the name guna (spiritual stages) by the Omniscients. (546)  

先哲们说,达到圆满之后,灵霊魂就变得高贵,这样的灵霊魂称为guna  

円満を達成した後、霊魂がすばらしくなる。そういう霊魂はgunaと呼ぶと先哲達がいう。

 

Miccho sasana misso, aviradasammo ya desavirado ya.

Virado pamatta iyaro, apuvva aniyatti suhumo ya.

Uvasamta khinamoho, sajogikevalijino ajogi ya.

Coddasa gunatthanani ya, kamena siddha ya nayavva. (547 & 548)  

There are fourteen stages in the path of gradual spiritual development; (1) false belief, (2) failing from right faith, (3)

mixture of right faith and wrong faith, (4) vowless right faith, (5) partial observance of vows, (6) non-vigilant

observance of vows, (7) vigilant observance of vows, (8) unique condition of bliss, which has not been experienced

before, (9) constant thought-activity (that is meditation), (10) slightest attachment, (11) subsided delusion, (12)

destroyed delusion, (13) omniscient with activities, and (14) Omniscient without activity. It should be understood

that emancipation is attained in stages. (547 & 548)  

在精神进步的过程中,一共分为十四个阶段:1 错误的信仰,2 脱离错误的信仰,3 正确信

仰与错误信仰并存,4 无誓言的正确信仰,5 部分遵循誓言 6 不警醒的遵循誓言,7 警醒

的遵循誓言,8 特殊的福祉,以前从未经历过,9 持续的思考(冥思),10 轻微的爱恋,

11 消退的错觉,12 错觉完全消失,13 通过一定的行为达到无所不知,14 无所不知,在这

个阶段人们就达到了解脱。

 

精神進捗の過程は十四の段階に分けられる。1、間違った信仰、2、間違った信仰からの離脱、3、正しい信仰と間違った信仰が共存する、4、誓言のない正確な信仰、5、誓言の一部分の遂行、6、油断のあって誓言の遂行、7、油断のなくて誓言の遂行、8、経験したことのない特殊な無上の幸福、9.持続する思考(瞑想)10、もっとも軽い恋愛、11、消えた錯覚、12、完全に消えた錯覚、13、一定な行為によって、何でも知るような状態、14、何でも知る状態

 

Tam micchattam jamasaddahanam, taccana hodi atthanam.

Samsaidamabhiggahiyam, anabhiggahiyam tu tam tiviham. (549)  

Having faith in the things existing in a veritable fashion - that is called mithyatva. It is of three forms viz. that of the

form of entertaining a doubt, that of the form of something developed deliberately, that of the form of something not

developed deliberately. (549)  

Mithyatva就是对存在的事物具有信仰,它具有三种形式:怀有疑问;有意的来消除这种疑问;有意的保留这种疑问。  

Mithyatvaとは一切の存在を信仰する。それは三つの形式がある。疑問がある、わざとこの疑問を解く、わざと疑問を保留する。

 

Sammattarayanapavvaya-siharado micchabhavasamabhimuho.

Nisiyasammatto so, sasananamo muneyavvo. (550)  

The soul falls down from the peak of the mountain of right faith, with his face towards the plain of wrong faith, and

has his right-faith destroyed - this stage of soul is called sasvadana, i.e., having taste of right faith. (550)  

当灵霊魂从正确信仰的山峰跌落时,他就将要面对错误的信仰,并把正确的信仰摧毁了�灵霊魂

的这个阶段称为sasvadana  

正確な信仰の峰から落ちる時、霊魂は間違う信仰に対面し、正確な信仰を壊す。こういう段階はsasvadanaと呼ばれる。

 

Dahigudamiva vamissam, pihubhavam neva karidum sakkam.

Evam missayabhavo, sammamiccho tti nayavvo. (551)  

The mixed stage of Samyaktva (Right faith) and mithyatva (wrong faith) which can, in no way, be split up into right

and wrong beliefs of just as a mixed taste of curd and treacle can not be referred to separately as sour or sweet,

is known as mistra-bhava. (551)  

正确的信仰和错误的信仰共存的时候会分裂成为正确的信念和错误的信念,就像炼乳和蜂蜜

混合时并不能够单独的区分出酸味或者甜味,这叫做mistrabhava  

正確な信仰と間違った信仰が共存するとき、正確な信念と間違った信念に分けることが絶対しない。それは練乳と蜂蜜と混ぜると、単の酢っぽい味と甘い味を弁別できない。それはmistrabhavaと呼ぶ。

 

No imdiesu virado, no jive thavare tase cavi.

Jo saddahai jinattum, sammaitthi avirado so. (552)  

He who has not vowed to abstain from indulgence in the senses and from hurting the mobile and immobile living

beings; although he has firm faith in the doctrines propounded by the Jina. This stage is said to be of a person of

right vision without abstinence (Avirata-Samyagdrsti). (552)  

如果一个人还没有脱离对感观的放纵和对生灵的伤害,但他已经坚信Jina的学说,这个阶段

称他为已经有了正确的观点却没有正确的行为(Avirata-Samyagdrsti)

 

感官の放任と生き物に対する傷つけから抜け出さなくて、Jinaの説を堅く信じた階段はAvirata-Samyagdrstiで、正確な見地があって、正確な行為がない状態を指す。

 

Jo tasavahauvirado, no virao ettha-thavaravahao.

Padisamayam so jivo, virayavirao jinekkamai. (553)  

One who desists from a killing of the mobile living beings but not from that of the immobile ones and yet who has

unwavering faith in Jinas is called (viratavirata or desavirata), i.e., partial observer of vows. (553)  

如果一个人对于Jina的学说具有坚定的信念,但是他仍然会杀害不会移动的生灵,那么这叫

(viratavirata 或者 desavirata),这是对于誓言的部分遵守。

Jinaの学説を堅く信じて、移動できない生き物を殺害する階段はviratavirata あるいは desavirataと読んで、誓言の一部分の遂行だ。

 

Vattavattapamae, jo vasai pamattasamjao hoi.

Sayalagunasilakalio, mahavvai cittalayarano. (554)  

One who has adopted the Great Vows, is enquipped with all virtuous qualities and good conduct, often exhibits

negligence in a manifest or a non-manifest form and hence whose conduct is bit defective is to be called

pramattasamyata i.e., non-vigilant observer of great vows. (554)  

如果一个具有正直的美的以及良好行为的人决定遵守誓言,会由于疏忽而不经意的违背誓言,

那么他的这种有缺陷的行为就称为pramattasamyata,不警醒的遵守誓言的人。  

率直で身持ちのいい人が誓言を遂行することを決めて、粗忽で誓言を違反する階段はpramattasamyataと呼んで、油断のあって誓言の遂行。

 

Natthasesapamao, vayagunasilolimamdio nani.

Anuvasamao akhavao, jhananilino hu appamatto so. (555)  

The wise man who is well equipped with all vows, whose negligence has disappeared entirely, who remains

absorbed in meditation, but who has started neither subsiding his delusive karmas nor annihilating his delusive

karmas is called apramattasamyata, i.e., vigilant observer of great vows. (555)  

一个智慧的人,遵守所有的誓言,他毫无疏忽,专注于冥思,但是他仍然会具有错觉,这称

apramattasamyata,警醒的遵守誓言的人。  

知恵のある人がすべての誓言を遂行して、油断のなく、瞑想にさけっても、錯覚がある。そういう段階はapramattasamyataと呼ばれて、油断のなくて誓言の遂行の人だ。

 

Eyammi gunatthane, visarisasamayatthiehim jivehim.

Puvvamapatta jamha, homti apuvva hu parinama. (556)  

In this (eighth) stage of spiritual development the soul experiences unique but frequently changing mental states

(of bliss) which have not been experienced ever before; hence the stage is called apurvakarna). (556)  

第八个思想修行的层次是灵霊魂经常经历独特的但是经常变化的、以前从未经历过的精神状态,这个阶段称为apurvakarna  

八番目の思想修行の段階は霊魂は特別でよく変化する精神状態を経験する。こういう段階はapurvakarnaと呼ぶ。

 

Tarisaparinamatthiyajiva, hu jinehim galiyatimirehim.

Mohassapuvvakarana, khavanuvasamanujjaya bhaniya. (557)  

The souls, eperiencing such mental states (of bliss), get ready either to subside or to annihilate their delusive

karmas, are given the designation apurvakarna by Jinas, free from all darkness, i.e., ignorance. (557)  

在这种阶段的灵霊魂已经能够摆脱因果报应。Jina称这种精神状态为apurvakarna,它已经从黑

暗中解脱出来了。  

この段階には霊魂は因果応報の束縛から抜けられる。Jinaはこのすべての暗黒から解放した(たとえば、無知。)精神状態をapurvakarnaと呼ぶ。

 

Homti aniyattino te, padisamayam jesimekkaparinama.

Vimalayarajhanahuyavaha-sihahim niddaddhakammavana. (558)  

The souls, occupying the ninth stage of spiritual development enjoy the constant mental state (of bliss) each

moment and burn down the forest of the karmas through the flames of the fire of a very pure meditation, are called

anivartin (anivrttikarana). (558)  

第九个层次就是灵霊魂时刻都能够享受到福祉,业报的森林已经被冥思的火焰彻底摧毁,这种

阶段称为anivartin (anivrttikarana)  

九番目の段階には、霊魂はいつでも無上な幸福を享受することができて、因果応報の森がすでに瞑想の火に焼かれつきた。そういう段階はanivartin (anivrttikarana)と呼ぶ。

 

Kosumbho jiha rao, abbhamtarado ya suhumaratto ya.

Evam suhumasarao, suhumakasao tti nayavvo. (559)  

Just as a Kusumbha flower has a slight tinge of reddish colour, similarly a monk who has reached this tenth stage

of spiritual development retains a slight tinge of attachment internally, Hence this stage is called suksma - Kasaya

or suksma-samparaya, i.e., the stage of slight attachment. (559)

就像略带红色的Kusumbha花具有淡淡的气味一样,达到第十个层次的僧侣由于内心的爱恋

而具有淡淡的香气,因此这个阶段称为suksma - Kasaya 或者 suksma-samparaya

 

軽く赤い花のKusumbhaが浅い匂いがあることと同様に、十番目の段階に達した僧侶は内心の情熱によって、あっさりした香りがする。そのため、その段階はsuksma - Kasaya 或いは suksma-samparayaと呼ぶ

 

Sakadakaphalajalam va, sarae saravaniyam va nimmalayam.

Sayalovasamtamoho, uvasamtakasayao hodi. (560)  

Just as the water mixed with kataka-fruit or a ponds water in the autumn season have their dirtiness subsided,

similarly a person whose all delusive karmas have subsided is called upasanta Kasaya. i.e., whose passions are subsided. (560)

 就像混有kataka的水或者秋天池塘里面的水一样,具有令人迷惑的业报的人的灵霊魂是污浊的,

这称为upasanta Kasaya  

Katakaの水と秋の池の中の水の混ぜように、紛らわしい因果応報のある人の霊魂は汚い。それはupasanta Kasayaと呼ぶ。

 

Nissesakhinamoho, phalihamalabhayanudaya-samacitto.

Khinakasao bhannai, niggamtho viyaraehim. (561)  

The monk whose all delusive karmas are annihilated and whose mind is (clean) like the water placed in a crystal-

made vessel is designated ksinamoha and destroys passions by the worthy soul, free from all attachment. (561)  

已经脱离了令人迷惑的业报以及思想纯洁的人僧侣称为ksinamoha,他们已经消灭了所有强

烈的情感,摆脱了爱恋。  

紛らわしい因果応報の束縛から抜けだして、思想が純潔な僧侶はksinamohaで、すべての強烈な情感をを消滅させて、愛着から脱却した。

 

 

Kevalananadivayara-kiranakalavappanasiannanao.

Navakevalaladdhuggama-paviyaparamappavvavaeso.

Asahayananadamsana-sahio vi hu kevali hu joena. Jutto

tti sajoijino, anainihanarise vutto. (562 & 563)  

It is stated in the enternal holy scriptures that a monk who has destroyed the darkness of his ignorance by an

assemblage of the rays of the sun of Omniscience, has obtained knowledge of the supreme soul on account of

having acquired nine super ordinary and is equipped with deternimate and indeterminate types of cognition

requiring no help of external instruments, i.e., senses is called sayogi-kevalin. Though he is a Kevalin

(Omniscient) yet undertakes mental, vocal and bodily activities. (562 & 563)  

在永恒的、神圣的典籍中叙述,利用先知之光而摧毁了无知的人们已经达到了第九个层次,

具有多种认识,因此不需要借助外物的辅助,他们能够得到至上灵霊魂的知识。尽管他是先知,

他也要进行思想、语言以及身体上的修行。

 

永遠で神聖な典籍によって、先知の光で無知の状態から抜け出した人々は第九の段階に達した。多種の知識を持って、その故、外部の物の力を借りなくて至上な霊魂の知識を得られる。先知であっても、思想、言語及び身体上の修行を行う必要がある。

 

Selesim sampatto, niruddhanissesa-asao jivo.

Kammarayavippamukko, gayajogo kevali hoi. (564)  

The personage who has assumed the state called sailesi (i.e. state of utterfreedom from all activity whatsoever). In

whom the entire karmic inflow has been put to a stop, who is free from the dirt of karma is called kevalin, devoid-of

activities. (564)  

已经达到sailesi层次的人,已经不再会有业报的积累,他们已经脱离了业报,叫做kevalin

 

Sailesiの段階に達した人は因果応報の累積がなくて、因果応報から抜け出た。彼らはkevalinと呼ばれる

 

So tammi ceva samaye, loyagge uddhagamanasabbhao.

Samcitthai asariro, pavarattha gunappao niccam. (565)  

The moment, the pure soul reaches this stage, it goes upward straight to the top of the universe according to its

natural attribute, remains there forever in a disembodied form and endowed with the eight supreme attributes. (565)

纯净的灵霊魂一旦达到这个层次,由于它的本性,它马上就要达到宇宙的顶端并永远停留在那

里,并被赋予了八个至上的特点。

 

純潔な霊魂は一旦この段階に達すれば、本性によって、宇宙の最高点に達して、永遠にそこに住む。それに、八の至上な特質を与えられる。

 

Atthavihakammaviyada, sidibhuda niramjana nicca.

Atthaguna kayakicca, loyagganivasino siddha. (566)  

The emancipated souls are ones who are devoid of the eight types of karmas, having attained peace, are devoid of

all thought of blemish, are enternal, are equipped with eight auspicious qualifications, are such as have already

accomplished whatever had to be accomplished and are residing at the top of the universe. (566)  

解脱的灵霊魂就是已经从八种业报中解脱的灵霊魂,他们拥有和平,思想纯洁,永恒的、具有八

种吉祥的特点、得到了一切可以得到的赞美,居住在宇宙的顶端。  

解脱した霊魂は八種の因果応報から解脱した霊魂だ。平和を持ち、思想が純潔で、永遠で、八種の吉祥な特質をもって、あらゆる得られる賛美を得て、宇宙の最高点に住んでいる。