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SamanSuttam

41. Samanvayasutra

PRECEPTS ON RECONCILIATION 关于顺从  

服従に関する教訓

 

Savvam pi aneyamtam, parokkharuvena jam payasedi.Tam suyananam bhannadi,

samsaya-pahudihi paricattam. (722)  

That (knowledge) which reveals the multiple aspects of the things in an indirect form and is free from any doubt etc. is

designated as scriptural knowledge. (722)  

能够以间接的形式来揭示事情的多个方面并且不会造成疑惑的知识成为典籍知识。  

典籍の知識は間接な形式で物事の各面を掲示できて、それに疑いのない知識だ。

 

Loyanam vavaharam,dhamma-vivakkhai jo pasahedi.

Suyananassa viyappo, so vi nao limgasambhudo. (723)  

That (knowledge) which makes possible the transactions of the people and illuminates the desired property of the thing, is

a naya which is subtype of srutajnana and born of a probans. (723)  

知识能够使人们交易成功,并使人们看到想要了解的事物的特性,这就是Nayasrutajnana

的一种,由probans演变而来。  

その知識を得てからこそ、人々が成功に業務が処理できて、物事の特性をよく分かる。それがsrutajnana の一種類であるNayaで、probansから生まれた。

 

Nanadhammajudam pi ya, eyam dhammam pi vuccade attham.

Tasseyavivakkhado, natthi vivakkha hu sesanam. (724)  

Although a thing is possessed of so many properties, yet it is referred to by only one of these properties, because at that

time exposition of only that property is required and not the remaining others. (724)  

尽管一个事物具有多种特性,但是只需要涉及它的一个属性,因为只需要了解它的一个特性,

而不需要了解其他的。  

物が多くの属性があっても、一つ属性だけに触れる必要がある。他の属性を分かる必要がないから。

 

Te savekkha sunaya, niravekkha te vi dunnaya homti.

Sayala-vavahara-siddhi, sunayado hodi nayamena. (725)

The view, which accepts the relativity or mutual dependence of these properties, is a case of naya proper (Sunaya) while

the view that does not, is a case of naya-improper (Durnaya). It is the rule that all the transactions become successful

when based on a naya proper. (725)

承认事物特性的相对性以及相互依存性的观点叫做Sunaya;与其相对的就是Durnaya

 

).如果按照Sunaya的办法来处理事情的话,所有的事务都成成功的解决。

 

物事の特性の相対性及び相互依存性を認める見地とはSunayaである。それに対立する見地がDurnayaだ。Sunayaに基づいて業務を処理すれば、すべての事務は順調に解決できる。

 

Javamto vayanapadha, tavamto va naya vi saddao.

Te ceva ya parasamaya, sammattam samudiya savve. (726)  

There are as many points of view as their are modes of expression, In case the word also is employed every statement

or expression represents Jaina position. The same provides an aliedn position, in case the word is not employed.

Certainly right understanding demands a synthetic approach to all the statements about the thing. (726)

由于事物有不同的状态,因此还存在许多观点。有一点可以肯定地是,对事物正确的理解需

要对事物有全面的认识。  

物事が違う状態があるので、多くの視点が存在する。しかし、物事を正確に理解するために、物事に対する全面的な認識が必要だということが確かだ。

 

Parasamaeganayamayam, tappadivakkhanayao nivattejja.

Samae va pariggahiyam, parena jam dosabuddhie. (727)  

Any specific extremistic view point adopted by rival, should be refuted by pointing out its rival viewpoint. The same should

be our process, in case same person, following our own religious traditions adopts out of same faulty understanding any

extremistic view. (727)  

任何对手所采取的极端的观点,都应当被批判。我们也是一样,在某些情况下,人们可能会

因为他们的宗教习惯而从极端的角度而得到错误的观点。

 

いかなる競争相手による特別で極端な視点は批判されなければならない。我々も同様だ。ある場合に、人々は自分の宗教習慣のせいで、極端的な角度から間違った視点を得るかもしれない。

 

Niyayavayanijjasacca, savvanaya paraviyalane moha. Te

una na ditthasamao, vibhayai sacce va alie va. (728)  

All view-point (nayas) are true in respect of what they have themselves to say but they are false so far as they refute a rival

view-point (naya). One who is well-versed in the scriptures, should not divide the view-points (nayas) into true and false ones. (728)  

任何角度都是正确的,就像他们自己所宣称的一样。但是一个精通于典籍的人应当把他看问

题的角度分为正确的和错误的。  

いかなる視点はその自身が揚言したように正確だ。しかし、典籍に詳しい人はそれらの視点を正しいものと間違ったものに分けるべきではない。

 

Na samenti na ya sameya, sammattam nava vatthuno gamaga.

Vatthuvighayaya naya, virohao verino ceva. (729)  

Every absolute point of view is independent of the other, they cannot be united together and their union is not conducive to

the right approach. They are independent of each other like the opposing enemies. (729)  

任何绝对的观点都是独立的,它不能够同其他的观点相联系,因此无助于人们获得正确的认识。他们就像对立的敌人一样相互独立。  

いかなる絶対の視点は独立だ。他の見地と結びつけないので、人々が正確な認識を得ることに役立たない。それらの視点は対抗する敵のように対立する。

 

Savve samayanti sammam, cegavasao naya viruddha vi.

Bhicca-vavaharino iva, raodasina-vasavatti. (730)  

Even though a single view-point (naya) taken, be itself may appear to be opposed to the other (naya), yet when they are

considered mutually dependent to others, they would be conducive to the right understanding. Like the servants who act in

harmony when they come under common control, even though they may be differing when they are separated. (730)  

即使是只有一个观点,也可能会出现矛盾,但是当它同其他观点相联系时,它就可能有助于

获得正确的认识。就像仆人一样,尽管各不相同,却能够和谐的在一起工作。  

一つの視点だけがあっても、矛盾する可能性がある。しかし、他の視点と結びつける時、正確な認識を得ることをたすけるかもしれない。それは召使いがそれぞれ違っても、調和がとれって一緒に仕事がやれることと同じだ。

 

Jamanegadhammano vatthuno, aadamse ca savvapadivatti.

Amdha vva gayavayave to, micchadditthino visu. (731)  

Those, who treat some one portion or aspect of a thing as a whole thing, have a wrong understanding like those blind

persons who treated some one particular part of an elephant as a whole elephant. (731)  

那些把事情的部分或者一个方面当作整个事情来认识的人将会得到一个错误的认识,这就像盲人摸象一样。  

物事の一部分或いは一面を物事の全体として認める人は間違った認識を得る。それは群盲象をなでることと同じだ。

 

Jam puna samattapajjaya-vatthugamaga tti samudiya tenam.

Sammattam cakkhumao, savvagayavayavagahane vva. (732)  

Those, who take together all the stand-points and thus grasp all the aspects of a thing, have a right understanding just as

those with eyes, are able be grasp an elephant as a whole. (732)  

那些能够从所有的角度来看问题的人,能够得到正确的认识;就像一个健康的人能够看清整个大象一样。  

すべての角度から物事を見る人は正確な認識を得ることができる。それは健康な人が象の全体をはっきり見えることと同様だ。

 

Pannavanijja bhava, anamtabhago tu anabhilappanam.

Pannavanijjanam puna, anamtabhago sudanibaddho. (733)  

The properties of the things, capable of being described are infinite times less than those not capable of being described,

while the properties described in the scriptures are infinite times less than those who are describable (In view of such

problems, how can it be said that the statement of such a scripture of person is absolutely true). (733)  

物体的特性,不能够描述出来的要远远多于能够描述出来的,而在典籍中所描述的又远远少

于能够描述出来的(这样的话,又怎么能说典籍中的叙述都是完全正确的的呢?)。  

物事の特性の中に、描写できないのが描写できるのより遠く多い。それに、典籍に描写したのが描写できるのより遠くすくない。(そうすれば、典籍の描写が全部正確だとは言えるか。)

 

Sayam sayam pasamsamta, garhamta param vayam.

Je u tattha viussamti, samsaram te viussiya. (734)  

Those, who go on praising their own view and condemning those of their rival, simply make a show of their learning and

are variously in the grip of transmigratory cycle. (734)  

那些知识鼓吹自己的观点而诋毁对手观点的人的知识和见识都十分狭窄。  

自分の見地だけを鼓吹して、相手の見地をけなす人の知識と見聞は非常に足りない。

 

Nanajiva nanakammam, nanaviham have laddhi.

Tamha vayanavivadam, sagaparasamaehim vajjijja. (735)  

There are various types of people, various types of their activities, various types of (their) capabilities. Hence one ought to

give up quarrelling either with the people of ones own faith and also with that of the others. (735) 

世界上有各式各样的人,各式各样的行为,各式各样的能力。因此人们应当放弃同别人关于信仰问题的争吵。  

世界には各種の人がいって、各種の行為と各種な能力がある。その故、他人と信仰問題に関する口論をやめるべきだ。

 

Bhaddam micchadamsana-samuhamaiyassa amayasarassa.

Jinavayanassa bhagavao, samviggasuhahigammassa. (736)  

Let glory be to the holy teaching of Jinas which is of the form of conglommeration of all false views; which is possessed of

a nectar and is easy of comprehenstion by those who are desirous to attain emancipation. (736)  

把荣誉赐给Jina的学说吧,他摒弃了所有错误的观点,容易为可望获得解脱的人们所理解。  

Jinasの聖なる教育には栄光をありなさいよ。彼の理論はすべての間違った見地を捨て去って、解脱を切望する人々に理解しなすい。