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SamanSuttam

42. Niksepasutra

PRECEPTS OF INSTALLATION 关于分类

分類に関する教訓

 

Juttisujuttamagge, jam caubheena hoi khalu thavanam.

Kajje sadi namadisu, tam nikkhevam have samae. (737)  

There is a description of four types of Niksepas (ascriptions) as naming etc. in the

scriptures to understand the right meaning of a proposition. (737)  

在典籍中,Niksepas(归属),如名字等,分为四类以便了解建议的正确的含义。  

典籍の中、Niksepas(帰属で、例えば名前など)は物事の正確な意味を理解させるために四種類に分ける。

 

Davvam vivihasahavam, jena sahavena hoi tam jheyam.

Tassa nimittam kirai, ekkam pi ya davva caubheyam. (738)  

A substance is possessed of various characteristics and for the sake of that characteristic, which is presently

under consideration, one and the same thing is described in four ways. (738)  

一个物质具有多种特点,为了其目前被考虑到的某种特点,使用四种方法对它进行描述。  

物質は多くの特性が所有する。今考えたある特性のために、四種類の方法でそれを描写する。

 

Nama tthavana davvam, bhavam taha jana hoi nikkhevam.

Davve sanna namam, duviham pi ya tam pi vikkhayam. (739)  

Nama, Sthapana, Dravya, Bhava-these four ways provide the concept of niksepa. Of these nama stands for the

name of the thing concerned and is of two types. (739)  

Nama, Sthapana, Dravya, Bhava-these 是四种定义niksepa的方法。在这几者中,nama表物体的名字,又可以分为两类。  

Nama, Sthapana, Dravya, Bhava-theseniksepaを定義する四つの方法だ。それらの中に、namaは物事の名前をを示し、また二種類にかけられる。

 

Sayara iyara thavana, kittima iyara du bimbaja padhama.

Iyara iyara bhaniya, thavana ariho ya nayavvo. (740)  

Sthapana is of two types-that which resembles the real shape of that for which is stands, and that which does not.

When there is a supposition of one object in the other, it is called sthapana Niksepa, for example, supposing an

idol of an arhat as an arhat. (740)  

Sthapana分为两类,它用来描述物体实际的形状。当对一个物体进行猜测时,这就叫做sthapana Niksepa 

Sthapanaは二種類に分けられる。物の実際の形状を描写することに用いられる。物に対する推測を行うことはsthapana Niksepaと呼ばれる。例えば、羅漢として羅漢のアイドルを推測すること。

 

 

Davvam khu hoi duviham, agama-noagamena jah bhaniyam.

Arahamta-sattha-jano, anajutto davva-arihamto. Noagamam pi

tiviham, deham nanissa bhavikammam ca. Nanisariram

tiviham cuda cattam cavidam ceti. (741 & 742)  

Dravya (= potency) is of two types-viz. agamato (=that in respect of an authentic text) and noagamato (=that not in

respect of an authentic text). Thus the person who knows an authentic text pertaining to an Arhat and yet is not

making use of this knowledge of his is agamato-dravya Arhat. Similary, no-agamato dravya is of three types-viz. the

knowers body, the would be knower, one acting in a manner appropriate to the thing concerned. And the knowers

body is of three types-viz. one fallen, one given up, one make to fall. (741 & 742)

Dravya(力量)分为两类,agamatonagamato。因此,能够理解契约正本的人就属于Arhat

同样的,noagamato dravya分为三类:认识者的身体,未来的认识者,准备者。认识者的身体又分为三类:降落的、放弃的、将要降落的。  

Dravya(力)はagamato(本物の原文を尊敬すること)とnagamato(本物の原文を尊敬しないこと)という二種類に分けられる。noagamato dravyaはまた三種類に分けられる:認識者の身体、未来の認識者と準備者だ。Apprehender 認識者の身体はまたまた三種類に分けられる:すでに落ちたもの、放棄したものと落ちるもの

 

Agama-noagamado, taheva bhavo vi hodi davvam va.Arahamtasatthajano, agamabhavo

du arahamto.Taggunae ya parinado, noagamabhava hoi arahamto.Taggunaei jhada,

kevalanani hu parinado bhanio. (743 & 744)  

Like dravya bhava (=reality) too is of two types-viz. agamato (=that in respect of an authentic text) and no-agamato

(=that not in respect of an authentic text). Thus the person who knows an authentic text pertaining to an Arhat and

is also making use ofthis knowledge is agamato-bhava Arhat. On the other hand, the person who has developed the

virtuous qualities appropriate to an Arhat or one who while equipped with those qualities, undertakes meditation and

so is considered to have become a Kevalajnanin (=Arhat) is no-agamatobhava Arhat. (743 & 744)  

就像dravya bhava(事实)也分为两类,agamatonoagamato。因此,能够理解契约正

本的人就属于Arhat。另一方面,一个具有这些美德,进行冥思的人则能够成为Kevalajnanin  

dravya bhava(事実)も二種類に分けられる:agamatonoagamatoだ。そのため、正確に原文を理解する人は羅漢に属する。一方、それらの美徳をもって、瞑想を行う人はKevalajnaninになれる。