Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories  of ARVANTIGE

CHAPTER-1

CHAPTER-2
CHAPTER-3
CHAPTER-4

bw  Xw wSw NqwS oeYw yw xlOETu.

lv r®w rN Xlp v, NN SyS劮

XqQ vS Avǯw, ٺ®S OE wSw w Nruۊ.

wSl Bu®w qwmS Ǯuu. wSlw

oe E NqwS v ٺ®S , wٺ®u

Nlq. wSl, lNʅ qwmw q EuNl v

NOEqN Bu®wTu. Cu OE bw y¯w Sr y䇮qS

wlv. Cu Cu oeo yq, oeo wSyr, ¯oeo wqN

NlNu wlruۊ, Cq br wSxS Nمw

Azqي. lNʅ rw yp u. Cu Bu®N

bw q vN u®S y¯vu iԊoeuu u溚 vqي.

lNʅ wSlu mOES NNSu qOE Yqw

oe⇮wu Nu Nqoeu XTu. wSw oelw oe

BNr oev, oS ROESru. Cuw wqي D XwS

u®ww Nq yNS Nqw݅oeu. D u®u l..

OEOE bw A wSw S oe qw EOERoeu. "..,

wSu uq Bu®w By Su mÇq. bw

u® AS劮 qN ybvÇw xǵvÛ , wSuqS

Bu®ww Nq" Hwqي. D wOE bwq u®w

bqS, wSu®ww rNT BXq vuu, oe

qwmw bw y䅩uS wSl OE bw qu y¯

 

EgTN. ®qu®ww yrT N oeN wOE q

Nu bwu®, wSu®ww yrT Nu. bw yq

y ®qu®w CuS wlv Bu wSw ybw A

wqي. D Aw w ǮT SxN.

uuw ru Nqي. qu dwS As

us. rsN EyuSw Sou® uuSu S䟛u.

D oew݊l BSS q. NOEqu qu Avuq NqT

quTN. Hu u溚 Fqي. BN Pw ®T

Nru, Xq®bTuۡ NS bwu, u¯wu, AOE q

yNSq. "y dwu p r,u yo؊y

u®xuu" Hu yyws NS Hǵ԰ T oeu

qw r yu BvÚ yu, bw yuu

yYw Nvu u vu. DNw Nq N, ٰq, wS

yXu YqTu.

N, , ¯r, S, p, ¯ǯ, r, qu, Xw,

oe, ¯q, X uu oeS Au¯w Yqp

Nl qu. vS yy p, ycz, cQOE, bN,

cwu yǮuq, N, oeN, S Su¯, bOEx,w,

i, AXq oew, S oevw cw uuw oeOETu.

C  D uu BN, oew, Bu® uOEuSw

l..oeyw A Yq䚮q uۊ. bqS q yuu

u v rw Yuۊ.

 

 NNvw݇ uq yYw r Soew Qw 

Soeu S䟛uۊ. Cu O.. 132. Ku Am, oeq CX

HqيT D u Xq zju u. HlS yN,

S cyOEu. Fu Hl NS wT D u Hl

yu Hl yǮ SoeSw Nrيu oequ ATu. D Soeu

zju wu ".. N dSS Qw, qw xl D r

yrw oeyq ® oew އ uwxmuwu, Cuw

bwvu SOE zOEqu" u. CǮyYw NN

u r Soe H凮 Nlv. uSlu 19w

vu .N 1126N u r Soe ®Tuۊ, O..11w

qwN u v®c r Soe l ٚSoeuu.

Nw Syي NN u oe r SoeS Eqي ¯qu Nl

v. uo ¯qu Au NwhNu r SoeS oeYw

P㇮. u, yhuN, HOE尊 qu NlS劮

SoevS r ENqw w wloeu. Xqr

rsN v Kul qq䊮yu yuruۊ, Cwݺul

r Soequ. oe顮, cwS NN u r

SoeSw oS, lu uOEu bw NuS

wloeu. oe뇮 O..13-14w qwN u oezju Aqq

uu Ny OE r Soeu. lv Aw

v  Ju Am Hqيu OEyu r Soeu. Cu NN

u Cwݺu Soe SS v yNu劮 Xqr rsN

 

vu. Cu oe顮 SoeTu N NOE B®ow

u®u. oeYw HOE vSw bw q rOENu  NYw,

As qu E y®Nqu. Cuw qʺuu Nqي (Yq)

Cu NNqwS AN.

Oo yrS

yuu Yoe݇ OEoeu w Sou® yuwqي. Sou®

rsN vu®xw As N dSS u®yuw xmu

u®yX Nu qlTu. u®w oeﰊ q Bqw

Eyuw Sq, u®, c, Ǯ, wvq, Bydq, Su®w

oew qNS uNl u. D BX ⊮nST

Ayuu Yoe݇w SOESqu.

oSu XuT hu OE wTNT Su

yuu Yoe݉u, ®u䄯oe ®gԊN yuu SOESqu. XuSyw

ASw ydruwu l֊u®w Ssu oeOETu. yuu Nqw

Tu oe NwhNu Nl yuu u Cu Aqq

yYwuu. Cu r OEQw yN xS uoeqS mu

ڡS yuu Yoe݇w A ⊮nST Y yu u vu.

yu bw NuS Cs yuu SqSw wloeuTu. EuoenS

BS oerيu Nuv hu OE NuNu Suۺu SrOEu

yuu Yoe݉u, HuSl yywx oew rs ()u.

O.. 7-8w qwN u rsN AwN SoeSw A wloeu,

 

lu, S, v, Sy, oel uOEu bw NuS

Cs yuu YoeSw wloeu.

rOEN yǮ bw yy yv ylu. C 24

cw rsN oeqT, 12 cw XNrS, 9 cw u, 9 cw

u, 9 cw yru Cuۊ. C SoeS NYqT

Nlq. oew݊l cw XNrS uwwu ®q XO䇮 (2.70

ﱰh) yYw Soeu oSu XuT OE Cu.

mu N¯S oeTu oeTu. Cu ShrTq vwuu

u溚 Ay䇮 ylqي. HOE尊u S v cSws ¯

hyu Aqq uu oe u bqS, ®q XNw 

Cu. bqS q uw Yr䚮OETu. Nǯo NN u

wwsw Soeuw s ٚSoeu (P 2507) Ciuۊ.

Cu ¯Su w Soew wloeu. Cw Xq®c

u¯T Ku N wT (oe) mvuw. qOE OE wSw oelu.

w wSw Aquw q D r Nqww

AmN. Hl¯Su uwu NǮw Soeu. NS Su, XN

uOEu Bu®S.  q NǮ؊ Cyqيlw rsN

wwsw Nu u q uu No D r w㚮w

Yuۊ. Au ٚSoeu Syي NN u qٺu

Soeu凮, , NǮ؊ w wloeu. Cwݺu

抮Nu yru qu (AN)u D yr bqS

N zju OE , Xu, S, u®, S, N, x D Hh

 

SoeSw(P . 65,66) qqT quۊ D Soe Syي Bwq

NvۊNu Fqي.

v ou yrNruw DSSOE EOEROETu. A

q brS u c, c, Adq, Aydq D w u

wu抮u xrqي. Cu r NS, Acw, w, yǮuq oew

w抮 yroeqي. Cw v yu抮u Cw u抮yN

yu qOESru. Cs Nqww OE vS rNT

Nooeu. EuoenS lv v ou

yrNruw DSSOE EOEROETu. v ou

yrNruw DSSOE EOEROETu. A qbrS u c,

c, Adq, Aydq D w u w u抮S xrqي.

Cu r Nu, Acw, w, yǮuq oew w抮 yroeqي.

Cw v y u抮u u抮yN yu qOESqu. Cs

Nqww OE vS rNT Nooeu. EuoenS

lv oev y u抮u  w Am Hqيu

u抮yN uu Soeu. Xq®cu¯STu N, XN, Su,

yuSw muۊ. C bqS Cw݊l uxN uu SoeSu

oe C quw yrxvÚrيN. q u -

yǮ Su bqS Ow݊, OyǮ, oeS, Su®, , ,

®q, zX Hh ¯SS C. Su w uqSw

h p®u,yo®u, ®u uOET oew݊l µuS. bqS

 

brǮ㊮, NOErq xN Cuۊ. Cs N S unqي

¯qu yYw vS uNǮ oeS oerS , N yYw

SoeqSq vS ANoS  v.

N XrN OS OEQw N muS A ⊮NSw qq

SoeS yu Nrيu Nlvu. EuoenS Syއ

pu Nʊ OEQwN Nr Ku u 

wSNu. w㚮w N BN u¯wN Nq ®T, qh Ǯ

®ǮoS BNǮNT. uﱇ Soev OEQwvu

Ooevu cN懮 u u. S bw ȳr w㚮S

Ǯԋr uNu vu Nqoeu ǮTu. D HOE

S Au®㇮w Cw yNT q NuT wl ASqu.

AmiypS

l..OE bw Aw. An؊ d: ¯r ȳrS bw u®u

NlS, yh 365,1971 bw ȳr N U, OEy.

Au

y. y¯N H. (): qSu. yh.102,1982, u®ڡ oe

yrǯyw oeq r, u®ڡ.

qNwl: 31w Nwl q wu ⊮o YN, yh 62. 1947

Sqr, Nwl q w, NSl.

Au.

S.l.l.Vol Vll, No.202

 

NwhN q bw ȳr: B Eyw㚮S, l..u. NwhNu bw

, yh 193. 1975, NwhN u㩇, u¯l.

K.l.Vol l, No. 65 of 1934-40, O.. 1484

w yu c, yh 313

NwhN q bw ȳr: yN yh 156

Au " " yh 155

v lSl - vy ǯN, 1994, yh 17 wm 'Aqu

oeuSm' H.m. i Ed.

Au

l..OEOE bw. yN, yh 370-377

Au " " yh 374

Au " " yh 375

Au " " yh 376

K.l.Vol No. l, No.66

oeﰊ cq oeq ⊮oYN. OEQw: H.m.hԊ v N

XrN AS - yh.10. 1993, ں® oeﰊ U, lu.

q yw D u®ڡu ccws ٚSoeuu.

q yw

q yw

N®u l 5 Oo 6 w 1937 yh 1 'wuqS'

OEQw wm.

Au.

 

oey. wSc: - yh. 17 1976 Xu䚯Sp SsOE

1079, 5w N bdwS, S-10.

Au " " " yh 18.

Au " " " yh 20.

Au " " " yh 28.

Au " " " yh 28.

l. OEOE bw: ¯r ȳrS bw u®u NlS yh 371

yN

Au " " " yh 371.

Au " " " yh 362.

NwhN q bw ȳr yh 177 yN

l. OEOE bw: ®r ȳrS bw u®u NlS yh 361

yN

q yw

q yw

l.. N..() qwmw wS yh 12, w P. 3 1978

ǮN Su y ⊮N u®w Nu, Elz

OENws () q q Soe yh 146 ﰊp ®w,

lu

XuQ (): Xuw Sg抮 Xq yh 159. 1953 u䚮.

cp BSǮ 10 1996 yh wm wSu®w Nw.

l..N.Nj.

 

cSy N.  (): q BXn NOErl yh 13 wm

wSl lN - H.. wl 1989 S.

l..OEOE bw ¯r ȳr bw u®u NlS yh 6,

yN

oey. wSc - yh. 53 yN

Au " yh 53 "

Au " yh 55-71 "

l..OEOE bw ¯r ȳrS bw u®u NlS, yh. 447

yN

Au " " "

BX wv Nq NX

l.Hw.N

vS bw-yy Nu®w  oeǮ NrS

uNq AqoeS BX wv Y NX

Ss KuTu. Cu  oe Ec҇o Hu. D Nr

yNq ¯ǵ XwSmu. y䇮 yNqu oew EXϊ lu

Nko HuNS As oe NX NrSuu AS

u Kuw BNS Ssww Yu NkoSqu

Hu Nq wwݰ oe AuvS NX Hu oe m

vvۊN. ST B wv NrEcчoN wv-

NX H w mSqTN. D Nr oe

 

ǮSw oev Eq Nr BTu. y䇮 yNq ¯ǵ凵

XwSms NX NrS INN Nr CuTu.

bw yy BXS uOEu uuS BSS.

AS Iw ASq Ec҇o BTu. D H BSS

¯ǵ BǮ yNqTu. Bu, B oew݊l ASqS Cu w

Ev Hu yy oeNS. Bu yNq wv v

Nrw SxuS Nr yyNu BS CNu qqu.

Cuw yǮS AS Nr凵 uNq.

n ®o bo uL u® |

oFo q dpu u® y || 1 ||

S oeS AwS u®w ®S Eyu Aqoe dwuww

wʋ Nu®w oeqٰ.

ETyI o Cu®Cn p coe hպ |

qoe SymI ®pco poe || 2 ||

yTyqu Cu®r oeS pNxS Eyuuۊ oeS

Syyu v Cuw N - SymI ®pco

poe.

y氚 Crښ AoOl cѺq |

sl® dn ®pL yo || 212 ||

c yo OC u®o-u®o-o NXnDo |

q bo yX pvhcчn || 213 ||

 

yvwS w, AwSOlSw xqT qvu

کq-oeX Hu dwuu yXwu oeuۊ.

u®w-uw--Yw quSw Nq w rSqw Au

Juw q Hu EyNu®㇮wu oeu.

Boeoe qڄ®µL c XEoe uo |

q XC u pvhc҇n || 233 ||

EyNu®㇮wu oe Boe-MǮu®--A® Hu w

u®u uwTu, Au uqTu.

Snu Ec҇o qtvܰ |

I Sn yCgCL don ®pL || 386 ||

Nw SoSu Nmu EyNu®㇮w u ڊv qoe, D

yNu SoSww dwSu yrǯX Hu oeu.

q yIo I BC yyS qں |

XЩ凮I C ®oc҇o || 544 ||

A AwSoevu ww BX yyu vs

Ec҇o (EyNu®㇮w)w ®cw OEw qvu

Yuw.

D w EOEQS BX wv ǮT qw S

yyiu, dwu oe yXwvu EyNu®㇮ww

oeu Hvuۊ. D No Nr BX wv qq

XwT. S yy v Ec҇o (233)w

 

Rqyu v Hu vqSuu vS yy

BSu Ǯylu.

Nr uS dwS wʋ  xuw mu-

uo- - C-yoe-Yq C®qٰ |

¯®-ySoe- Aon-Evh u || 4 ||

Hu N oewݺu yrSw oeu. BX NuNu

Xq-y®qu oeS NrNwy䰣u Y N-yrS

BX wv NXu Yqu N-yrS凮

wqS. BX wv uwyrw oeS,

AqS qXo c uoeo p⩺ oeC

NC u q qٺ n || 6 ||

By (u), BS (), qqSw NvuǮSuq xu

¯vu wu Nvuۊ. Cw oeN oeS Awq u-

SS wN H oeNS u q㚮 uT qqu.

BSu凵 qqS AlNSq. Buuu, Alw ysNT oe

ASq Hw݅oeu. Bu qqsquw qqs uw

Sw Huw ǮT oeu. A u-S Hlw NlOETu.

Au qN Au u NswwOESu. qqsSw rNu

BSw B䉱OEN, BSu dwu A 抮y NswS C.

Buuu u-SSw ysNT oevuۊ yvu oeuq BTu.

Au r BX wv Sw Nq oevuۊ qqSw

rNu Nw Sw B䉱OEN. Bu No Sw B䇮

 

qqu NoNTu. qqu uwu N BSu. Buuu Ni

Sw wu qqNʰ oeqw xmvۊN. uw yrw

S dvqqSw uܺrN Xwu pu. Nu Hh

ASS oeS AS yuۊu w Yw oeu.

wv NXu qٺu Ǯu Cu Nw AǮ

SoSw r. uOET NњywwS Nw Ju Eu

y®Sw oeS y㚮wSw qdN HwOETu.

yXC q nC bbѰC |

q uD uoL ®pL ||57||

y㚮wS u--u®S uu Auw ysNT

oe ASq. oeS Nw oeuNu xSw

oeOETu AS y㚮w qSu oeN Cu۰ Cu. C Nw

rNw N uxN Asq By-BS-qqSw wwTqw.

Bu oeqN Aw NX NrS  Nq䇮qS, Ju AoqS

yww Nw So Hu oeu. Bu wv BX

Nw So Hu H凮 Ǯym. Bu uxN

NwSNu Ju Eu y®Sw q y㚮wSw qdOEN

Hu ǮTu. CSbqS Nq䇮S q. C

NwS  ASqq Huw BX yT oeuۊ. CǮ

q NN Hh ASSw oe Nqw S, xS, xu,

Soe, Ey, ®O, q, AwNy (S-49) H SoSN Hu

Ǯyluۊ. S Nr NN oeYw yu¯wq xlOETu q uw

 

yr Kuwݰ 206 SoeS OETu. qyrw  65

SoeS OETu. C凮 Nu ǮqS Nlq.

r Huw ynCD Hu AySoeqw

CXI Ssyo Hvu. vNqw v-v Hu

µSyµSyo Huw µS-r oeS EyµSxr

Hu ysNʋ oeu. C qu N - yǮuµySw

oe. uOET, µSr, yµSr, Art ¯S q

OEQw Hvu.

ArT qyr qu µuT OEQww oeu.

Ku uԉu D xyn cxqu. INu Nw oewݺu

yrS yqN yu N q yǮuµy H N

yrS Cuu ASw yw N yr d

ASq Hu ǮX. Bu Awq qu uNN, N,

yǮuµy, qSw oe OEQww ysNʋ oeu. u

Kuu yrSw ysNT OETu. Nr yǮuµy oeS

N EvǮqS yrSw ǮT OETu. Eu yrSw

yT u.

Nr rµcwuǮw q AwNqSw yqNT u.

Nw Cq NqSw oe N wu.

oL bXϺ NOOE yco oeo |

rٰI coebS̺ N uI ||319||

 

urSu q OهwT w, q, NN,

ycwu¯w H w NqSw lN.

C oe N Nq oeS NXu AwNrS oe

N NqS oe Aq Nlqu. uyb, Syw,

u¯㇮, , qy, uw C B N Nq Hu Cq NX

NrS oeu. C oe w- qSOE u yb, Syw,

vS Squۋu BX wv Nr

D w NqS Ǯ ow Cu. ybu¯w yr, yrǯu¯w, u,

q, N ¯ yu ycw u¯wSw يT oeu. ArT

ybvS y®Sw oe, q S yyw BX wv

ruۊ.

vS: BtN 

l. NOE oeyw

®qT uS, A u u®N , y䅩

oeS y¯ NuS. D q yYw NN oeS oeS Bu®xN

SN qu. u uq, Au oeoN h Siԇu

oeSOE, Auu 懮q ڇSqu. ASS AiNl SjS

oehq. A BtNT ǮuqOE cO BSoeSSw

xr䚮 u xqNS BSq. Ch uu  oewS

u C iNw Hu qwS qw qq qqT u¯N

Nu , Avu cSrw wwmSw xr䚮 Ǯ wOE. ¯qu

NwhNu N uS jS dN rN u¯N

yQ wOES. AS h NiShOE劮u cO Su

OE mqw oevu Swoe. D wOE vS BtN

ه Ku ywh y䚮q y䅺u®.

Hl Bu®xN pN q N uµnSw uǯqT D

y䅺u®w u Nu qqu. oe NOEc oeS u®w

¯SSw (N) y䊮ÚNu Nu u㩇u

ywrw ylN. CrٰXS S ywr Nl Ku

Ǯq Cqu. Auu, BuǮ EuSy u®wSSTNu; Au

b Lgl NSw qSN S Xw. u Nq OE

xuS  Nluu Cu B.

 ǮS vxv EuSy XhiNTuu

uS xo. u u®u uSS xou Au

w cwS Nw KuTqu; qqʪNu Ku xq

yO䇵T D xoN urيS Au oeq

wNSqu.

Hlw uǯԺqu:

d  COEP yuS oequ x Sw w

wmNqٰ - S oeoe Hu. uS ®N

uu Sw ¯Nq hu Nyl ®lS.

S Cu N vS y݇ǵ԰ A. A u®S u

xo yO䇵 Cu KSqu. uwSw mu

N N, oeRT Sqoeu. Cu u®S yNT.

 

Auq Cm cw qwݪ S XhiNS vS

C.

D vOw YqwS qlTuS B®u oequ凵 wS qhw wwzS

u uwYqp Ar oeu u®wS oeo yyXu .

Kul, ww݊, 1501 vSw BN Niԛuu u Oه

dq Nu Auq u®w:

B r mu

u݊ vTu Nw

OEᚮ dwu

 qS o Nwr ..

( South Indian Inscriptions, Vol. XI-Part 1.No.52, C.E.

1007)

D ASu® u®w KSm BtN ڇ BSw BOEY

u C凵 CuiS Nm oeNu SrS. ww Adq

you oeu:

Bw݄®㇮ dw

w vzNx pNwN

u dwyrS

uwwr mu ..(1-57)

ߋquwp UgS pqw pS o¯

vyS OE vw y䊮 ®u®b

 

qʊuq q qoS muuu

uwwrSn Nu uxS ..(1-58)

N yXqv

NS  oeNh oe

 OES

u w uw Yqp .. (1-59)

Ǯ: y䚮q y䅺u®N vÛuq; Ar q YwSu Nm

oe 1500 dwSw zru mu. S pUgS

p qw (h) pS oe Su vyOES yqu

gSu mu hSu Hu No yNwu

qqoSu mu qOE 1500 P㇮ uw mu. qw

u®N, N q Jw oeXT 1500 oeNhw (AQ QS

C yr) oe䊮w (NS C yr) D uwYqp

mu.

S qT SS D P㇮ oeq you uwu X

oeT, D yN OENu Sw qNu, vSw

mNu AuǮ cw D NNu qlTuۊu NqoeNTu.

Cuu oeq NSN Sh y. D NS w㊮ NS.

C NNS NhS q lNu r.

Ar du N Cu Nh uµܰwQ cqه N q

y. qS  Hu buu oe¯S w xoenS

 

xSSu DS Ax. uR wSw ȳrN

OENulS oe, oeS N Ku ul֚u®w. Ar I

ylSw HTuu Sru. Bu Ngq y u D

uwN Hhw . oSN bu uu NwhN

Tqv qNOES, vS oeq Nq N qouw

xu, C ASu® BtN yww wmw NOEu®N u¯N

yrS yǮnS xTu Cu Cvw Nwl-ȳr COEP

xrي Nw wwzqoeu.

H Nu xuSu Ǯu ul zlS. Nu cwu

uN ww AyS. NNOEu, OEQN, TqS, S

As Cwu qu qcӊ NN yqoeu Tu, NTu B

wǮ ȳrN qu uq. AuuOE vxu Cw 暮ښcNT

y y䇮qS wlvu q vSS uwurهw xlq

vu D ASw NNǮT yu Cu sNq, N

ru qu. uw v oeS E®uw v Hu vRT

wluu Cu B rqu. OSS EYqT

uwNluOʺq NN m ¯w Nlu Su¯w cwS

q yN qN yʊ ylu qz. S u wyo

Cqu Aw Au凵 qlTu uS N u.

u-u®u N Bq, N ¯w u Bq, NOE

AXqT Eq. OEON vqT BS u®T INNu Hl

N KiS wu qzىuu. Cqoe uuԉu vSw

 

NiԊ u¯N-ȳrN Xw yN. BtN Klqww

tNuN sNymNuN q S uN

NuSS S oeNqu. cO OENw ®uS BlqS

jvSS Tqu. Auq uN NuSS q

q Nu oeN

uoequ. oecT yފ LOEu AvqT wlqu.

By securing popular support, they (jains)had among their

followers the most important section of the middle

class, the Vira-Bangajigas and the commercial class,

whose financial help went a long way in the cause of

Jainism. It enabled them to construct magnificent

jainalayas, and images [pusalkar: The History and culture

of in dain people Vol. IV Age of Imperial Kanuaji: P

289]. A A,wN, yho iS oeS Cq qN q

Buu ¯SSw vSS hNlruۊu Nw w

uQOESu ru qu. Slvqw Nu NOEy wu,

⚵iԇ uOEu N qN qqS BuSw vS

hNhu n Squ (Mirashi, V.V., Inscriptions of

the Silaharas, Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol. VI

(ASI. 1977) No. 49. 1136 C.E. pp.229-35)

 

vSS Cm SSw, oe w xwSw, SoqhSw

hNlru Sr oe wS vu. uǯԺqT C Nw

oeu:

ǮNh y®qǮ cw (814-78) uw yqu, wyu OESu

dwvu EySNT bS Sw uwT hNlOEq

(HN. XII S 61 O..813)

AUǮw Nw vS Suw uw muw (El.Vol.Vl.

y. 25-38 O.. 860)

Nyu uµ dwu Xwy® ®g ypև A®wي

v܇rي wSySoֺ Sow N㥺 yxqN So

hԺ (Sll. Xl-I No. 34. O.. 925. Am. y. 20)

u XN㊮ wvqw yS QdwN w

oelTOE Sw uwqw (Sll.XX. N. 4.683 C.E.) Cu QdwN

Sw (Au No. 5. 723 C.E.) q Nu Sw

uww uwNlOETu (Au, No. 6.730 C.E.)

Cqoe w EuqSu wS SqSq vSS ®q Hn qh

So AmN  oeqh oeS gS Yw wqS qu

AwNwN NlSS uw u® ur yvu u ru. Cu

wSu yu凮 yw-oew, oeo, Suo, vw-u, oeS - C

ru. Au OEN q Blq xoen uu Ku oenSN

BTq. bwSS N oelOEX㊮ Cruۊ. Au B

vSS vÛu BX Cruۊ. EuoenS -

 

B upN rqv Xq㩇NX l Xxu

yuwx uܺqu (HN. Vll (1902) . 262.1077 Nyh (S

d)

wlXy¯Xu uܺq u (HN.ll(R) 175 (142)

O..1139)

vS抮 rqu vX u Xu®gԊN u (Sll. XV

598. 12. qu®m (byd/u۰oe q))

Qdwvyr NuX (l۰, w. 128. O.. 1124

YNoevS (SuS d/q))

cwy yrq rws u vX

lOEX lXy ®Xu ®gԊN u (JBBRAS.

X-XXX (1874) :No.V. O..1204 ur (S d) y. 225 53)

u䇮 cS lOEX oeuv抮 v zqoe

N ucw XNrSy u® Xu uܺq u (EC.Vlll(1902)

. 329. O.. 1465 y.154)

Aqq yPqu vU lOEXu ¯w Oruܺr u

EC.Vlll-ii . 233 O.. 1139,Au,. 345 O.. 1121, Au,

S 140 O.. 1198- Cqv)

CS xvǮ v Klqwu xvǮ BX㊮ A凮 BtN

ڇw wmNruۊ. oelNww Blq zS uq

C ¯Su bw c q vS Xnw BqrNT

xr䚮 lOEXxu Cruۊ. NlNww懮

 

uSo yNSXu vNox uw u bǮSSy uwx

®gԊN v D ywS XS rquOE vS

v q wln v qqu Q [ EC. V ( R

) NǮ؊cwS 26 (IV 27) YNoewS. O.. 11-12- . y. 17].

Cqoe yQBlq zS oe vS BtN ڇ

Kylrq.u wxS vS Nl uwSw

Kzޚruۊ;yw懮N Sou Sl No, Xo C

dwu܊ mu v AuwsS AǮu¯XwS,

Adч Boe uwN, B ڡu AqNʩ cu¯x wu䊮

N vX oe u Ǯr cr Nxه N NY

BXuNq u¯yNS hԊ (u¯l qN wS,

P 45. 12 . wTN. y. 83).

D r c- p yu¯x-r-oe lN- oe

q oeSl wl Sm w݇ xmu uw urSu

xq Buw S䟚u, qu - C BtN S u

N. D Buw w yu¯w qSS xTOESrq.

u®oe oeh dwxS A vS Eu Nruۊ. A

IN oeSToeu, xUuvS voeu, xSS Au

Nr ql BToeu. A B vS CǮ N AS

Boe ڇSN.

v wNS dwwuqSS xqyb, AXw, AǵNvS

IygSN.

 

BSS v dnu܊ N BSN. o oeXu, o u,

n- Nn qu n N wlN.

yb Nw x BXNS (yb, Cu䊮, Eyu®㊮,

ymq - H oeS CS yuNT Nu) yr

ǮN⇵ N⇵ xSvq ¯w 儵N.

D w rw BtN 暵ڇu Ǯu wl BSS Eq, q,

Ǯyb, wzS, Euyw, yXNOEo AǵN yS AǯԟNvS

wlS AS oeoN iw E Cqu. vS

hNh oeqh qmNSu NNN uu¯wu OE

BtN oen oeq lS u. uu凵 Ch SN -

oemu u wSu yu oeo rq. S u Buw Yq

jpT Ow Cl oeS v OESrq. vS

NS BT N xru. wSu oeow qNS Nl

muw xSv ym Nlruۊ. vS S m oew

AXNgT wlruu uQOET Ku w ¯Sw Euoeqٰw

(SII. XX.w. 55 O.. 1082 抮. (u¯d/oei q) y. 67-69).

XN r®w u ym ®® Nvq XNr

(1076-1126) qwu AowNN q qȶN ﰊw -

y ywm coeuw yS w w w

yxX Nwݚ  KST N ®qSSwruw. Cw

B䇮u yNy y抮wT EcOrS ql

ǮNhwT wS cuN wyw Blq wlruw. D AvÇ q

wS ® u® xqu SOE Sw (SOE=SN, oem)

ylvuw Awq No iԇ Auw T ylu oeq Suo oe

oeww mևTquu mև yu cwS xw AwNNT Ku

 

Iqw mNhw. i Now S r iԇ mևw yw

uuw: