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Jain World
Sub-Categories  of ARVANTIGE

CHAPTER-1

CHAPTER-2
CHAPTER-3
CHAPTER-4

SuS dOE凮 oe yYw oeS yQ bw NuS qS qiԩ. dOE oeuu Au C roe yqwuu. D Ǯ NSl qN u®u wwS oe oe AǮS Nl u. uxu ww Au®㇮wu oe yNwN u yiԊ No yXSu wwS ® . SuS dOE凮 yS® qllrيu ww SSpS xXϡq. QT  ١Sw yNw uww SoeT xzqٰw.

嚮u

dOENuvu Croe yu ̺u yho Su, Hh Oﱰ Aqu S F 嚮u. Q㊮ىu N oe Ku Oﱰ NﱚǮԊ F Squ. Fw whwl Cu oewq u Sm. Cu oeuT NiԊ Nhl. Cu uSl vS x囊 Nw wu. wu AȊS yrT A oeT. Bu wu OESu  ǮT Noqu. D Yq yiN  ANoS. (Yq 1)uw (qv) ANou Xu, ,Q, q (?) w w ,N q  NlS (Zqq䇮 ) C. Hlw oeS wlo XNiwS yu⚮wu Nq rsN Cuۊ; A vSl HlS Xu¯Suۊ. rsN qOE q q OE Cu AǮTuۊ y䇮 wSoel q Nlu qqu. oeTu۪, Cu y As yws rw oeu. w oeS Hlqv XNiwS oe q N Cu; oew uo ¯S NTu.

D u OESu OE qv bm SyNuu. Cu bw wu wu yj Ixqٺu rv. oe wN C bSu v Cvqu u¯T oeoeu. CuN yN Bu¯S Sq.

嚮u Su Cwݺu qvS, oewqw Sm v oevOE N w Am oeu, A Cl bw wS. wS yNu Lp oeq oeb oeOu AOEu yh v. KuNou B SmS  u dwS.  Aq ǮuǮ oeuu D Sm 10*10 Amu. Kum Hqيu vN OE D  dwSw yrǯz AS wl Hl oeSlNSw Ciuۊ. Cw ڡvu, y䇮 DS oe C oeoqu Sm Cu dwvu CS Tuq Noqu.

dw rS Ǯ you. CS Hl dwSS, NwhNu bw S Xq䇮, Ǯ wu. D  rS yYw Hu qq Smoeu. Aqq yYwquu A oelS yws Soe. wT A oelSuۊ Au y rsN rTqu, I oelSuۊ yws rTqu. Bu N Cuu yo As INN Bu®SOEu. B dw OEZww A wlNSqu. O..Bw qwu Aq¯SN u Joe q u¯ﱇ bw SS劮 yws qOE uSl A oel yu, Awq Cqoe rS Eh. DS ru q Cm

NwhNu A oelS yYwq yws dwu 嚮uu劮 D Soe®u Cu AwwqTu (Yq 2)

dwu Nh, u ow Bu® Cu N Hhw qwu Aqu oeoeu. y䇮 ǮNh u® As m Suw NN uۺu qqu. D dwu zju OEZw . NqS u¯wu䇮 xr r yuS ANyNu NǮ bSuۊ dww uu . XSS, Xu¯SS C. S l Nw oerيvu y䊮®T oew u  I q , dw NrS u oelw Yu. B oelS wlo oel ASTu. dw N Q, Euw OS, AqQqw q NoS, x S, wu qI, wNy, woyS, uǮyǮ  q qlS, qh, w ChNS ASS−H D Soeu oew oeq.

 dwS Nu uԉu, Sm yrǯz Nu凮 Hlwu whwlo r. Cu yu⚮wu S u䇮 Nr oeﰊ dw . oezju OE yNwu cwT oeﰊ lYu HlSw OE Sw AS OET Cuۊ. Au OE, Hl AS uh Au OE AS Ciuۊ. Hl AS Sw xT XXOETu. S u䇮 Sð wSru. wT gu ՊT h, w Hu, ®cSS  Ǯu. ul Q, vUNo, SSSu, qwɇ Qu h SwoeT.qOE u OENu y¯u. Au l Ku

OEu yN Nlu, yru NlS m OEN xXϡTu. (Yq ) uw Nl wl NSlS Cv vlNl Hu Noqu.

oeﰊ w u Hl NS. AS OE HlNʅ Nʅ Xu¯Suۊ. A Ku N Xw, Cwu N cy y®w mu xruۊ. Xu® h, NrS, OS NqTu qOE OE Ohu, Qu uqu. Cw N, Nl uN, Xqu, Qu uqu. Cw N, Nl uN, Xq u Nq XN SS. rsN qlS HlS Pwu Nr v®cu dww u uuۊ. dw Sl qSw HlSl uۉx Noqي. l oegԇ qSw u N qS y®u, Hlu N u oeTu. (wSc, oey: : 1976; 116,142) uۉp ®u䚮wTu u N u u䇮 HlSl N yN Cq qqu. D H o q w A y䚮q oeﰊ dw Soe O.. Kqw qwu Aq¯SN, ǮNh BNS uw݅oeu.

oezju Sl y®Nur ¯Su Q dwu yru Nuiԇ uoe Nxه  mu H Ku w wu. Cuu AyNiq wTu D KNnS oeYS XrN oequ. C oe Qdw xuoeT ySA yu Qdw BTu (Sll. Vol. XX No. 3.C. 630 C.E .; IA Vol. Vll.p.106).D Q dwN I−Hhw qwvu AwN uwurS yyTuu

Cu u XN㊮ yhdw BTq(Sll. XX.No. 4 and 5 C. 683 C.E; ibid, No 6.C.E 730; ibid, No. 7,C.E 735; IA Vll p.110 C.E 723; oey wSc: wS bw rsS: 1998: 42) SS Cm oew D vS S q S̩SSw hNiuw (Sll. XX . No. 244, C.E 968; Nagarajaiah, Hampa: A History of the Early Ganga Monarchy and Jainishm: 1999) Au Qdw Pr cqS 嚮uN ﱰyTq,  Aq Oﱰ Aquq. NOE oeq Oﱰ oerيuu ̺uu vS yruSu, Aq Oﱰ uu ySA QdwN yruTuN Nou Qdw c oec oepu yrǯywSl oewTuu.

Ku Ku w D wOه Cw N 抮S. yru H  XYᚮqNu. yruuw C Bvðw zS BlqN Kyiu Hsu OETu. wS yru dwS y䚯yS. (Sll. Vol. Xl−I No. 52.C.E. 1007; EC.Vll (BLR) Sorab.233. C.E. 1139, pp.97−98 etc.). Bu Aqq yYwu y䇵Su 嚮uu D Ku w w BTu. HlwuT 'uoe' H q. Cu oe, yru uq, q ¯ǵu: uN Hu uoe. oeSu u Soe u yr Hus. uqr H su 'uoe' w Hlw So (yǮuq yo), oe ymq (u®ws yo), qNp (qN qN) uOEu bwNS uۊ. N, OEy, NX, , Yw, qSu uoe (u yr)Sw mu

uTqu qNp oeuw: OEOEyN㊮cqǯyu qݺS uoeS㩺S u (qN qN).

Ku w yuzj wu oeN yN D u oeﰊ Soew N Nw muw  H N. DqxS Nxه  Hu Aloe. Au Dqw Nr Ǯw, As Nr vw ylu wqwN uw BTuwu As yrqSqu. Bu  , Hq, BS Hu rv. Nxه  mu H NǮw Avw S, N Xw NN AwSoTu. EuoenT D w y䇵Sw wloeu−yOEN A....mu uS (EC. VII−I (1902) Shikaripura No. 10.C. 7th Cent.) D uq Soe (uoe) q 'Nui' H ڡN uTq; Nuiԇ uoe. D Nuiԇ DS oe oeﰊr C 嚮uN Cu Cwݺu oe As F Hu Yqx.

DTw 嚮u S ﱰyu ̺uuǵ԰ yYw bw Nu. −300 ( . u® Ǯ)N u ̺u Iw qwu S oeTq(IA VII.No220 C.E.658) ̺u 12 H uu SUhN ǮNh Blqu Tq. (EI.XXVI No. 4. C.E. 906.).oeqw qwu Cuw u Bruۊ. (EC XI (BLR) Davangere No. 114 C.E. 992; SII. XI−I No. 47 C.E. 994 Housur (Gadag Dt)p. 33). ̺u yhou wS Ku wu FS oeS 'S' H Sw u.(EI. Vol. XIII. No. 15 C.E. 902−03.pp.190−94).

Xu䇮 H pcyqwu YN Hqw ̺uu yws dww, y䇮 O.. Kqw qwu wlSu muw. u D YNw Swu Aw O.. 902−03 vS Ku  HOE 뇮 qhw Cq oeSw urهu hNhԊ.  oeS Ku 'S q'N qٺu wNTu (El. Vol. XIII. No. 15. C.E. 902−03 p. 193. lines: 11−12). S Hu cw Bu® ڡY. S Hu Fw Nw Yqu. N H N BNr Bv劮 AUǮ 'N'N X UǮw 'S'NTu.

S H Fw oew劮 Eqيu® N Hu Ǯu OE, yu®u '' Hu Iww oequ BOEXw u oec. D y䇵ST wu凵 q Cu vw w凵 'N' H oeo u EOEQu (ibid,p. 193, lines: 12−13). oe N Hu S − S HuToeu; Cu Ku ¯ oeq Jry. Bu S H u  ȳrNoSl 嚮u Huu xχ. ۊy q Aswu¯ww Sxu Cu oe OESqu. N Hu AqS oeS − u Hu AqS Fw oeS w. Cl wsNu Nwl (N), ȳq (u) S. C uu يu S, Nl Hus. yru oe뇮 yS B Fw N uu oeS. u Hu u −p؛u y 'u'. u, ðu H ڡY u, ðu BSqu. D wOE S

嚮u HuTu oec. N N INxu E®Ǯ oSu D rzS yNl w n. N Nq µu: H XwS AwSoT Auu BSqu.

w XX u AlN qhSu Nmu Avw S Bsq Cvw 嚮u −300 NyoN Kyh Kqw qwu S SoTq. Buۋu Ku w wN Nuiԇ Cvw 嚮u. Au FTq. yqN Su Nuiԉu oeﰊ uoe (Soe)w 嚮uN qvlNu y Ixqٺu QYqT ru, Bu N Foeuu Sr.

嚮uu bwSmT w r yws rsNu. NqS(Ql̚w−®S)u u¯wS݊T ydw yuzju OE xruۊ. Nw HlN Xq®b yur u N Xq®c u®nuw Pwu Nruۊ. dww u−u qOE OE  oelS yu oelu. yur y, AN, yu q y®w mvuۡ. u®nuw oe y, AN, yu q y®(?)w mvuw.

yws dw S yNu yu y䊮®T dwu v Bq qOE oerي I oelSw Y mvu. oel ANyNS m Hl XS. oel Sl Ku OEu ypuq Nlu Au No Kuuu YNuT. yu HlNʺu Nʺu NS u oeh 뇮 ANT ESNru. rY (y¯) whwl Or Qu. N qnN ydw ®cS yNu hvu y䊮®Tu, ٺ®S

N¯S N芮S xNqTu. D Soe (Yq : w) NOEo XN㊮ NN, O.. oewݺuw qwN uTu. rsN Soeu yNu CiԊ ulu SlNw oeSl Hu Nu AuN Xuow OETu. Au NN u ru.

D  yYw SoeS uxu A DS C Nl Cu, A u Cu v oequ roeu H y HuSqu. qzNT Eqًu NǮ. Bu oeiw u®q Cu Aw Nlu qvOETu Hu r N XwS Sq. QT A劮  rS Ku NUhN . u XN, ǮNh oeS NOEn XN S  cS BN AvS D SoeS . DS rS Nhl N 50−60 ǮuǮ oeu. Au Au yYw v AǮ oSw KSm. Fw uµ C oeoq u Sm v bww OE yYw AǮTu. Au dwv oeT NOEqu DT Abw l vN. 嚮uu  dwSvۊ u®qw y¯N. ®T  rSw Ch rNh v Cvۊoeu. D Xu oeX Foew luOʺq ur SoeSw − Ǯw y䚯zǮ N. Bu, X D ¯Su uSw oe mu XrNT rvuu, 嚮uu vS Au wToeuxqu. Auw Cuۊ, 嚮uu Su q݄®lur D  SoeS Fw ®Sq Croe q.

NwhN bw yy Xq䇮 D SoeSS ǮԚwu. CSw qT u qqT BSNu N.

2.Ny

SuS oevu Ju OﱰS C Cwݺu yYw bw q Ny. C yX COEP Nyl y䇮rݛ bw AǮS oequTu qNw wlS wwS wN Bq. Fw yNu YNu oewu Bu Slu. Au oSlTqٺu Fw Ao. A Auu bw SoeS DS FS qviԊ rSwqي. oe Ku vNw Ni Au wl  Hh Am dw w xuۊ. Cm Eqي NwhNu ur bw SoeSS vq D SoeN ®r ygԇw wS youw Hh oeq Nl oeYuۊ (Yq:Ju)

NqSu xr D wSdw qw cw oeSg抮 Hu Nqي. oeqʇw wm Shw CNu ¯oeu. Cu oe ru QYqT Sr oe, DT r, NoeS C. yuS ANyNS oequ, oew, NNS u u®ﰩq − D XwS C. uoeu HqيN AwSoT Kh yo ǮN qN N, N, h, oeg, Hu Nlqu. ul Q, SSNu, SwS qu qi, S u KyTu. Nw B Nl D Nl dww u u. y¯, Xu¯SS XSS C. Nl C. ST Cu rsN Soe oeu A H NlTu. Ku  ®q XNr rTu.

Cu cqT Nlvu oe  oeTvۊoeu. Fw Slu u®w oevuu oe (Sh) u u®qS Kq qu. As u® q oeSw Cu u Cw mvu Cu Ayo  H Aww EgSqu.

D NqSu ul Soeu NS oerي KT B YNyh S (Yq:B) AS Hl XN xvS. Ku yu⚮wu oezju OE Nr dw SlS N Tu Nr OEQw qu¯ oeSuۡ. Hl oe0qu YqS. dw yuS HlSl Cqoeu you Cwݺu xvN Cu. Hl xvS u oeq wS, Cu w yOS yoT AoeT. Hl wS−wTp NS. Cxq w NS NT u AǮS.

NqSu劮 ul Soeu SlS wm Aqu Cwݺu yYw Soeu. yNw (ﰊw, yu⚮w)u yu zju OE Nr rsN u, OEZw w No, rv. wrه oerي v Hn؇ oen, Hl¯Su Q, NrSu Cu oeNʡS Ny yg uq NOE vu. (Yq:I). N, N, ql, q, oeg, Hu, ®c q oen oerي ®r ygԇw Hvuۊ. dw xS qo, N®S. NS Q¯S r vu. dw q Cmu ¯S As  yu vu. ST dw Qu h NTu. qOE vS OENu y¯u. Au N ul you Nl SyNu Boeouq OuSqu, qvu u Aoeouq uSqu.  NlS oeq q Aqw mT XwT qOETu. NlS

Su OEN oeT Auۊ Au ®Tvqu Noqu. dw ®cS oerيvu qlT Nl uw UhuS Hl Nl Xu¯Suۊ. B®oSw uT h, NrS, OS qh, bӰyq q x Nhu® Xu¯S oenS sXT ®r vu DTw NpN.  SS oelqvu cıqT Nl q mOETu rY S NouqTu. Kh u ow mu D dw O.. oeqw qwu Bv¯SN uۺu oeoeu. Aq Cu Hlw oequ ǮNh BlqNu Soeu QYq.

Cu Nyu FSl yw®oSrي yYw dwu uSl ه OE NT N S AǮS XOEz凮T v. D bw rS . AS yu⚮wu Nq yN q dw Soe, llS q Au hvu w ¯S q C dwwu u q vu uo wٺ®u qvu XqQ dw yQT. C 10−11w qwN u Su qq. (Yq:Hh)

Ey bw S AǮw yuۋu qoeuu rwS: 1) Ny yQ bw rsڡTq 2) O.. Kqw qwu S Cu bwNuTq 3) C Nm Hu  dwSoeSu 4) wٺ®u OE XqQ dww zOETq 5) Fv Sl oyw hTq.

Joe, u (. qz), yhuN CSǵ԰ yYwqu bw rsڡ yS. O.. Iw qwu y䊮®vu bw wS C O. ApS − 300 N cu¯xu, oerيu yS yS−300 N wOEl. Bw bч v, SS Nuy dw, SṪ v, XqQ Xq㩇, dwݰcw v, u® dw, yX, 嚵iԇ v, Sowv, ym v − uOEu vS lTq ySwl. O.. oewݺuw qwu凵 XN XNr ®wN 抮w (1068−76) oelOE抮 ⊮w oexuT yS 抮q. yS − Bw yuu w uS yrN y䰋qT BNo mu X Eyh EySvu u NNuu wS uQu. NQ  Awq Auu dwSw u®溚mu. D S u¯u® yS vS N wu.

Byqʩu ST u®Nي q Bu®SoeSw EN멱 wS qm SoeSw C, Au OE  o q Ylruۊ. 抮u oeS Yiu Hl yYw dw Sw DXS qSOETu Aw y亚 COEP SuS 㛇S qvuۊ. Aw N㊵hu l. OEXw N. yrݰ yrN oeN N cxN Sw u EyNuۊ.

D Hl dwS u uԉu yQ ylv. CS Ku (Yq: Kq) 103 iﱰh Hqي, 62 ﱰ AS Cu. oezju OE yNwu Nr dw oeﰊu NT oeOEZwvu

ruqu. dw xS KSOEl (v) Cu. q NQ, Euw OS (oeyǮ o), quw, SSSu qv E r, OENu y¯, Au OE Nl, Nl u Xqu Nq, Hl yNu ANooel Xu®S − C sNu. Bu D u q q yYwuu, ǮNh B®Nu. Nl , Xq㚮Nq, dw qOESu E − C u oe yNS. NN u mu Bwb v wN CuT oeu y¯wS ANu. Kqw qwN vwuToeuu D dwu zju yiԇ U uSo H KNnu; Cuw xχT oewݺuw qwu oeuT OETu. w dwrSu Ǯu Sr S moeu.

抮u oeuT Oʊ Cwݺu dw wǮ yYwvuۊ wuOʺq dw Q NTu (Yq: oeq). rsN uoe¯S Q q Xu¯ QS q NX u S T Sq SuqTu. oezju yu⚮wu劮 dw uw Sr OEZwv Bu¯S Nov 100 ﱰ Hqي oeS 72 ﱰ AS C D bw Soeu Cq N oS XwT Noq. dw uOʊ KSv, Au v Bw yiN NNu Nqw S, HlS qvS S rxr oeu h, Au OE ASu N, qlu N qOE OhuS Nlu oe AN u® Xu®, Au® XuNr y¯  ANq Zqq䇮, Nl NSl wl Cvۊ q TwN,

Nl yNʢu qT Nw Xqu SX − CǮ xXϡT. D dw oewݺuw qwu B® NN uTu.

w Hl dwSw O.. 1046−50 AvÇ X mu BNo Nu dwSw Nl, h oe lqlTuS A rSu Nzl wuS ArlOETqٺu qqu. 抮u wu  D S xv xuwxyw Cw oeN qSNTu.

wr (wr)

uoS dOE oewݢ qOw劮 wr yho wr H oexu 1200 ǮSu yv ylvu. ¯dǮ N (. 800) l֊u®w NsNwu (yuN: oey. wSc: 1993) D Fw AlN Ǯu oeOETu. l SS oelOE抮wu r®w wx݇SS ymu − 1 (1070−86) BrيS Bqw oer ySl wNʇw qw Sw y wsT wr (wr) ®u vw Niԛuw (EC.Vol.VII−I (BLR) Shimoga. 10. C.E. 1085;pp. 19−21; Nagarajaiah, Hampa: The Later Gangas Mandali Thousand : 1999: 55−57) SSlOE抮 wx݇ SS ymuw ySl wNʇw NOEo XN㊮ XNr r®w Nvq − BruS Bqw Avðwu Blq wl, bwu®u y¯wS Nou () wNʇw Gqwuq NS r wr (wr) FS mu v NOEqu qqSl ﰊ m DS Nj H oexu ybSru. bwOEZwS

ǮT Euvuۊ rNh v  S®SmS u dwS, uOET SSw COETu.

NuǮ oewݢ, ®ur, S, XwT qNS NSl vU oeS yN qNu  wr Njw uu. BS NjuT HlSl Bu u抮 ٺ®S OE C w oeu oeS AyNiqu Sru. D w yjuw Ǯu Suw vu. Tlu NSl HlSl − Sl D wu. Ku Nl Cyq (20) S (Yq: oewݺu), Cwݺu Nl oevw (14) S C (Yq:oew݊l). S wʋu HhS AS, Kh 34 yh yOS. Cu Aqv w, wu qv wuT. z 抮yu Bu¯vu Cu oew݊lw qwu B®NN uۺu oeoeuTu. CuS AyNiqT D bw wu yjw Cu u C Nlru۰w.

wr Nju HlSl Bu u抮ٺ®S OE

1

HlSl

yqq q

q dwy(u) XO uO

q ®q

q Tbq

q ®wq

⇮q

qwSr

q N

xq pq

qwr* uX

wSw u

u¯r䇵

wSwS S

c S

Sﰣox

o Su®w

qS QN

rX rSp

uuxw y

u

2.

F uyu

vwr

m r

wl u¯p

(H)wS NyoNʰ

()S muwu

() xv DXw

(D) Xw uwS

(o) N DXw u

wSo yI

yqxXNw 

bw DX y

bw 

u¯w ||

(D w ymXw uyluN wu BrⰇ l. HX. H. wSc A oew NqcqyN ⋚qٰw).

D wu Ku XyNOE q  Nu yuS NT. w DX q u H uyrS u¯N yr q A dwu® xǵՇw uQu.

q yuu : DXw oelr u. DN q oeS yrq, uO oeS dw NSw yd. yr oeS yr cqOE (Au®w抮 r) C, ⇮ oeS ®x, oeq Ar oeS K뇮 qSw yu, r oeS (XqǮ) NOESu Nmu − Hu OENu Orq.

Nu yu 1: u y Ayyuu. DN wS wSw, Q qw, Npw wh oeow Qu N Xuww rʋ u

X yh oeXωq.

Nu yu 2: EuqS Bu¯T DXw, Fw lu, Ku w vSw muw. Cuu Srه wl ®ﱇ oeq NyoN oevNq muw

Nu yu 3: DXw uwSoN DXw uwSo w. Cqoe DXw Ǯ bwu®N Bu¯ 抮ywTuw.

D DXw , (c) N uw, Nuw H S y䚮q wu oe. ru XrN ASǮ:

uw uwYqp ArS oeu. CuS  38 wS Ar y䚯yw SrOETq (Kamala Hampana: Attimabbe and Chalukyas: 1995: 51−52; wSc. OEy: N Nuµw: 1996: 61−73). D oe wvu qٺu EOEQ uqqTu.

D dw®N uyrS Sr wmS u.

DXw Sr wmw AwN FS vSw xuw.

Ay vSu qw Sr wlw, yu bwNuu NyoN LSSq muw. Nyou DTw oedOE Nuu Nyޡ. Cu Ku  ǮSu bw Bvrs, oers, Nyors Hu yuTu (EC II . SB. 476 (345). C.E. 1159,p. 289; ibid,

S.B. 532 (384) C. 12th cent. p. 328; EC. VII−I(BLR) Sh.64. C.E. 1112; Ec.IX BI.No. 389 C.E. 1133.p. 355 etc; Nagarajaiah, Hampa: Jaina Corpus of Koppala Inscriptions−X−Rayed: 1999: 11−12).

Srه oewݢ qNw KSl um cu wl. DXw Sr wmw yYw AvN. Srه DTw oewݢ qOw, wrS 15 Oﱰ uu劮, Ku Su u Au cu¯xTq. oe顮 ﰊOE塮w Nvu Sr (Sr, Sr) wmw y䚯yu. ﰊOE塮w O.. 1175 Tr wmS ulwN qlz뇮w qwwT wﱛuw. u (1196), D抮 u (1216), oeu (1232), u (1249) uOEu Sr wlw Bu. 14w qwvu, cwS Nu, Ku yyh Cw Klqw ylq.

DS ww vÛ oe wvu oeyl Xqoe SrS Srه XqS uq oe BTu. CuS rvu K c q p oeS, u®wS, u¯N X OETu. oe顮 Cm OE塮w Nu D Sr As um wmS ulwN qlz뇮w cywwT O.. 1175 wﱛuwu yYw EOEQTq. Bu D wu Ey܉u qlzTq u um wOEl BTu Srىu Bruw DXwu ruqu. DXw Dqw lv u bw u®uu

wr (wOEr)u rNh dwu Ku ¯Sw ً Niԛuu SqSqu.

D v ®qT SSl oe wݢu ®cSS ym q r®w SS ym lN oeyu¯w ySlwNʇw qw Sw wwzS Niԛu vN. wNʇw Niԛu v CuTu yqN BTu, AuN D DX − u mu vS u® Nޚu Ac H N ANu. Bu Cm ulօv xo DX uyrSu BTu۪ D w CǮ Ayu¯wT TOElu N¯SN rي, Au Ku yN N u®N wT drq. Au oe v D ًu Sl ¯SN Eu ¯SN oeu w q㚮 Noqu. ST D Xu CwǮ u®wS Cw ANu.

um lSS BNS Kyiq q DXw lwmw qwTuw Hu XoS Sr. oeiS Cu lu Blq ¯Su qٺu oe BqN Bu¯Sq qqu B XXw ww BSyNu lu۰w; B S CS ASq(Nagarajaiah, Hampa: The Later Gangas Mandali Thousand: 1996:72).

5. Su

Su −300 Ah ̺u−12 Ku yh Blq ¯Su QNu yho. bwS XvNh wSou Syy Adqw, NwNw, wu䚵w, ww uOEu xS qy®ﱇTq.

oe Nwl−q NrS ǵo (1050), u®q Nu ww (1112) Cw yrµS. Cw rsu v (El. Vol. XVI. Pp. 52−66. C.E. 1053) q dwyws Xq㩇 (El. Vol. XIII. No. 15 C.E. 902−03 pp. 190−94)) yv ylv. oeqي bw wS ur, xv wS O.

w ǮSu AbqTu NjyS yws (q w)w CrٰXS ww qNu AvÇ Cw Slu OE Sl C yYw v yq Bq. D S DSSOE yrNS  q Yq yNhTuu, D u S ي XXw ww CTǬ yNu muu (Nagarajaiah, Hampa: Jina Parsva Temples in Karnataka: 1999) C z rw y䚯zqٰw.

Cw dwu Sl KRT OETu yws r, Aoy wT OEN wlrي Qo֚iq dnu܊ NvuT yqهTu. Cu Ku Nl r  Cwݺu Qu (q) w C Ayyu NXym. S dOE Sm qN OUh dwu u®w dw u ¯Su wu; X dOE凮 SS qN NmNOE Su ﰊ®uSm (u bw v) ﰊ®u䚯 Soeu Cwݺu v NX Nu bwwu. Cqoe  w AyuSw hԊ, Ku Nw Hl v r q w Cu Ayy. Aqoe yYw uǯԺq ̺u v DS NʺqTu.

Cu劮 q w D u AXTu (El.XIII. 15. 902−03. pp. 190−94). ̺uu qN Xu䇮w S YNw  O.. 850 Niԛu vS, YNw S Aw Cq O.. 902−03 urSxqu D wu . wu Nl N S r N¯S, Nw Ku ql u, NTu. y dw  Nl Qu ¯S NTuۊ KhԺuvu AuqTu. HOE尊, oec qu NlS C Njw EySq m D ǮNh Nu u Ayqw qxN Xwu SrN. r y¯ ydw qyw INSqS, y®u mxu Njw Nޛu ww EyS AhԢw ST NqOETu. Eu u S EyS 抮y yws u HlS q٩ quۊ, C dw Hl¯Su q qu. ¯Su wu AwSoe uNu.

Cw 抮u, ww r CrٰYTw w NSl qNu AvÇ, D w−u NT NTw qlw Au v yq l u®Tu!

6. Nyޡ

Nyޡu wwS uq 68 AyNiq wS CuS A®Tu AwN oe SrSw KuTu DSSOE yNhT CTǬ q Nwl yNS T xzu۰w. (Nagarajaiah, Hampa: Jaina Corpus of Koppala Inscriptions: X− Rayed: 1999 oeyw: Nyޡ wS : 1998). Nyޡ Bvrs oers BTvquw,

SS wqwuvS Nyors xNh u® oevuuw D oe wS z. NwhNu Xq䇮 ywXwS yN T䇮 DS ®uqTu.

Sq٩

l dOE q qOS u Sq٩ Su Aw AN抮 uu wNo oequ oeu Ku oe (bw) xv w SS qSw S Au − S uyrS Swu c uu® (OENuu®, bvq)w Nl vwSw Nq KuT Ayyu ru Nmuw vUT XY wyjw yNiu۰w (u®w, 25−1, 2: 1996). ww XuNl yNu凮 D u®w OEQw u (yh: 170−80).

8. Ywy, H. i

by dOE凮 oewSu qOS u CNOE yu Ywy oe뇮 NhlNT y qlrيS uq yws yuzjuu I S oeww Nq ww Awq vuu ywO l ASq (wSc, oey: XuNl: 1997: 195−98).

bw QN S

(up P ®uw NuS Yu).

1. Hw.Hw. AN N, yuN, Shp (08176−67270) oS y 573 135.

2. AN wSwSl yiOE, 693, S, wSu y, SuS dOE.

3. H. z. Adqy䚯u, Nwl Eyw㚮N, u®OE NOEb, lu y (u.N)

4. m. Hw. AO, Ǯ y bq N, N cx NOEb, ST y 585 309. oey qN, SS dOE (08479−4554).

5. A. w. XuOr, 713, C q Hy¬ N, Yq¯w , NywS,  −570 023. (0821−541022).

6. r H. H. N, N oec q NOEc H. B. , yg oeOE,  − 570024.

7. z. d. Nyow, w cx NOEc, ¯S y, S dOE.

8. r Sml yp, Sml y, NOE dOE.

9. l. H. H. cXu, yX, oep NOE NOEc, SvwS, S − 560 009.

10 dwuq u, (xq dOE w㇮vð) HOE J − 190, oeqwS, S − 590 011.

11. . Hw. bwy N..J.m NX, Sl NyN J.d. , YNS y 577 101. (31837).

12. i. B. bli, wu u㩇, Sl, mN y− 571201.

13. y. du®N oeqyg, yu¯yN, Croe ¯S, 抮 NOE q pc NOEc. ®ur y, S dOE. (08282−65358).

14. y. u®nu NN, HJ −7, N.HX. NOEx, y 581401. (08384−76857)

15. xOE N .. w. 14, uwN䚮, Xwy OEMg, S 577 201

16. l. H. z. yuy䚯u, yX, i.. o NOEc, u®T y− 572 132.

17. y. wSc, wr 121/1, 17w Q㊮, b. z. wS,  −570 008.

18. yu⊯c ulr, ybp Q vS, S − 590 001.

19. . yn N bw, oN ln, NhԊ y 583 134, dOE.

20. l. H. z. yi, xwS, u¯l y 580 003.

21. y. . oey, 657, H N䚬, wS, uswS,  − 570 011. (0821−571340).

22. oe OENy: Nwl Eyw㚮N, Ocx NOEb, SNg y.

23. xc b, N, b y, NN qN, Elz dOE.

24 qXu wws Nk, y bq N, Cm y, by dOE.

25. H. q݊c bw, y Ԋ, oeN y, S − 560 064 . (080−8460030).

26. y. . z. ﰊuN Nwl yu¯yN, N ys ub NOEc, XN y 577 522.

27. l. H. m. qb, 86, 9w N䚬, w况v, NywS,  − 570 023.

28 l. rws vu, yXN, Nwl ¯S, qNqي Nu, NǮuwS, l y.

29. y. H. m. i, Nwl yu¯yN, H.m.H. NOEc, Ed y 574 240.

30. r q wrN, qS, 4w Q㊮, SvwS, qN. (0816−72158).

31. l. wu S, uw N䚬, yy, u¯l − 580 001.(0836).

32. H.H. ®Xu yXN, yNq q bw ¯S, wSSr,  − 570 006.

33. r l. bq H. u, wr ut x, wr , u¯l y 580 001.

34. l. N bw, LIG−30, 6w N䚬, N N, NǮwS,  − 570 023.

35 l. oey wSc, 1079, 48H Q㊮, 5w ¯S, bdwS, S − 560 010. (080−3207133)

36. oewXu OoT, N, Cm y, d. by.

37. l. qN, Croe ¯S, oep NOE NOEc,  (0821− 560177).

38. l. r cN, cwOE NOEb lw Ǯw OE, wSSr,  − 570 006.

39. rws oeqyg, yuN, dwup, oe.

40. .H.yi, yuN, ySr dwc, 198, wuwS, wwS ٰo, oe (0836−324239).

41. l. qN, H.28, oelʰ u oeq, NywS,  − 570 023. (0821−560771).

42. r H.. yuq, Xux, 15/1, 10w Q㊮, 4w Al , oewqwS, S − 560 019.

43. y. H. q, 295, 34w Al֊ 9w Q㊮, 4w ¯S, cwS, S − 560 011.

44. r d. H. q, 3/7, 7H w, 3 H N, 1w ¯S, oeX. B. . B. OEMg, NOEowS, S− 560 043.

45. l. zr ®Xu, yXN, Ny Nwl Au®㇮w , wSSr,  − 570 006.

46 H.. qc, 544, 32 w Al֊, 4 w N, cwS, S − 560 011.(080−640646).

47. H. dquN, Hq rc h䚬, r 369, 42w N䚬, 8 w N, cwS, S − 560082.

48. r Tq SoyOE bw, AX S q || N؊cwS, (d. ) 571 604.