Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories  of DANACHINTAMANI

CHAPTER-1

CHAPTER-2
CHAPTER-3
CHAPTER-4
CHAPTER-5

               

yrT oe

T wq

xwmmu

wl xuoew q r

roe Awq qwSpq Pr

moeu qw⇮v ®Suwu

Sru AYw ®Nu

A O C  ¯xr

Nwl OrS Amlroe

Nww Svoe Y y

qoew qSu 抮y

vw uR dwvS

oew v h A

oeu ðN ǮNy

oeoeu XSµoeu Yuy

-l. oeX. H. y9ws

wu q

Cuw wmu oe ; w l.oeX. H. yws A uqyo-X

yo9 OEQwSw Lvu Awq ww wu mu AxN - qSw C

 

yr rݛuw. wmw uNlNu l. oeX. H. y9ws

A NuS 'Au oeq yc u溚uSqoeu, wxݺu A' Hu

qq ww oeu. Cu N A Kqه muuu ww

NwSNq Cuu "w r o" H As9Nlq. D

w㊵ ' O O' S  u¯㩇u xq EyNyrS yy y

¯cw Buw l. u c S A wm vuۊ.S D w

`xv'S Pq yYw ¯q Croe q wqW uu抵o㊯u w

l.A.u A wm Hmuۊ. Cqoe ymqq wmS yS

¯cwu l.oeX.H.y9ws A OEQw NwSS ww wm u

. s9Nvq Hu wwS y݇q. Buۋu `wm' SdS

oeSu, OEQwSw Lvu Awq ww wu mu ¯wS yr `wu

q'w Bu y9N vqٰw.

oewu /r oeX.m.Awqc q y¯q A yq䊯u

w l.oeX.H.y9ws A q EvǮ Sw h; AlOET u

H Hl qlSw vhqwvu ui H...H.,H.m.uu yu ylu

`u®N' yǮ. O xu CS q,NOE,u®9,XqSS vÛu

S Ǯ BO, urه bqbqS C D BO A

AOSmu, vu, ru.

y䚮q yNu NqT OEQwSw  yNT

Smoeu- 1)u¯N 2)JroeN 3)O Yq. u¯9N w Nq

S u®9u N 抮y XwT rvN; CǮ q,bwu®9w

Nq S Auu۰ Bu y®N S A˪quqoe yXN.

CuNT u®9SsSw xǵՉu Au®㇮w m NTqu. w

l.oeX.H.y9ws A q rيq u N9x9oen u®u凮

 

u܉u u¯9NSsS xq Au®㇮w wlu SXqu. bqS C

u9ÊY q uׇ AµNSqu. C u®9w xyn

Tu wS䟇Tuw Nooeu. y䚮q OEQwS `uS

bwu®9' Ǯ EOEPoe9Tu, ww Su Ǯ Soen muۊ.

Cu C Au®㇮wOه Ǯw qqu, CǮ q, C uu

Auǵ԰ڡS X A uOu TS Ǯ Nw mu Ǯ

SrTu. bwu®9u S uu YqT CqyX

AwruTu, xcu D OEQw u®wNًS vNYT

uTu.

Cw yN r9S,v,Sm SlS, wSw Nq C

OEQwS u®wNًS vNYT Huǵ԰ A, CS S BOه

OS BS wS䟇Tu lﰇqoeST. C

`xv'Nr劮 D u OEQwS oequ S-"xc, cwwS q

NOE AꊮY oeiԛ Nqoe Ns xǮ YN OEQwS

oeTNuN D yN Eq xu9w. Cu Cwݺu Ǯqu, CuS

u®N wm Au®㇮w lu N S, YqS 抮N

o9wu" H qWӊu w l.A.Ku A q Aqq As9yo9Tu

Huw uwu BS wSo.

OYqo, Ku ru oeuu, Cu q yNu qwu Bu

ǮuTu. Oه BX, X, N9q D qu Sou®9Sw

Nl T y B Oه UwqS Nuuq, AOSu

Cq, oecTq Yr䚮NSqu. D Yqou q oeoeNT

Lu Yqw qoeuTN. D Sou®9w `Aru oex'

q `A u®9yq9N' OEQwS yrq.

 

w l.oeX.H.y9ws A oeX uSu۩ u q Kw

CqN qlT yoe9 ru N9x9oen muۊ. Swoe9

Ux Tru, D w㊮ oe rٚvÇu `l.' mT䇵u

oeqT qS v rq y䚮SwS q oew bqS

Nl BqUw AS Tvu C xS9qwu yrNwTu.

xcu, u®9u 9w y¯ rv C `yq xu y----

'qu vÛ Bqy xqu wXqw wSl Euuu yS

w q oeS bmNmu roeuTu. D w㋺u Cw

oeYwuu u®yu q m yNN OEu ®u ww劮

®oeN.

8.6.2000 l.H.m.qb

ww q

u®9u Oه uOw EqN u®w yw q dw u¯w.

u®9l z q As9 quOʺq  w BTu. wǮ u

oew u®9w BX q No EuNwT yb, Bu®w Eyw u¯w

q u®w CS N Auw Nym qOqw. Bu D y䇮qu

uu uNu oeS oel As `w yuw'Soeu. BuS

Ax9Xx oeS Au Oهl Aqu STw wSq Hu Nv.

Cuw A Nq q AwǮn wwu OYq y䇮q, yq q. uN

Ku q u®w y䇵SOEu ww ul® wN. IwuS y,

ݰoe,u,,oew®r q yyN v qu u wﰇ

SoSu uSu Oه CNS As9v. CSw N

 

OEzNu Nu dwu SSN. Aq u®9u 9 Nq

Aw¯N u dWӚu.

¯qu cO, u¯9N, dN, rN q rN Coe

yy D wu凵 i u yQ bSrN u®9oeOEuu

bwu®9 yYw q AYw u®9S AwNwN IoeSw q

yw Nll Cu bwu®ﱰ9 AޚPq oenyiS

NqTuۊ Al qw yu®9w Awq rيu Au Yqwq

uqNTu. Cvw Nq cO oeS dN ڇ ǵ yr q

oehu oeNT x婱 HvTq Cu q u bwu®9

Aqq y䚮TNTuu ArOهSOEu Bu®xNq, Awq

Au AySrي wﰇ S q SǮq-Ǯqw

mqw YqN q w㊮w wT vSSu. Aq bwu®9u

ywEqrS BNq q Ax9q ﱰzu. vmð Q, yq,

䰇,wv q yv wǮw AN yNu y9¯ SoSu

rNq, ypNq, xs9q q yw oevNSqu. Oه Aoe9q

q yrµ q yS넵Nu AS. Aq Eqcw q yǮn

EuNu AS. 

T oe yqwu bwu®9 CvS qw Ǯ wOE, OE,OEw

ENmu Au yu q ®l u®9T , wS

q wmw N uyv劮 dwvS quSuu

9vq. Au凮 NNN u® cwqwS q yu uxSu

x9oSl APq uS q ⊮NSw Nw9hNu EuSN

Nooeu. AS y9roe, oeh, pS, yhyl q wluu r

xr yrrSq Nooe AOErݚu Cmw WxN, XN u q  

wOESu AqNTu. Au bwu®9 yryvq N9uܺqu  Oq

Nwu yu®w oeqي yqw x9ySrysuw Sr

SrSw NNǮT u. u Bqu xNnvS rs9N

u®wS Bu®w q AwǯwN yu¯wqxqu bwu®9u Ǯ.dwypq

qqS wv uOS uvyT, xr qw x9 UhwqNT.

Au凮 O NXu  qu A q, Bٰ, oeX9

q AySoe yXoS uNN uOw SrqST. bwu®9u

ySu yyo9q. D v ®q Ǯ9u Tu yO oeq

Svðd yQ. A u¯9N SSTu bwu®9u qqW u

cXud. oeqd q bwxS SS Ǯ ®O

¯x݋Nmuۊ.

bwu®9w uu u® cw, cwSu q ¯N Awruۊ.

Ku u®u dwqqSw xǵՉu Aw u ySluuS

bwu® BTqي. NhN dw, u, Ǯ dw q

yWӇ Au yq u. Aq yYw q A9Yw ¯q x9ou

A ASSo㊮, Or9 ¯cw q bSq.

yq yNu N yrNS ypSS u® u®9S ww u

bwu®9u oe S̩Sw yX mNl B OEQwS. oe뇮

Nw9hN mNOE NOEd (N.H..)w EuSxq wxu 12 ǮS (1979-

1991) xcN ww uOw oeqyo9 Av. ww Avw u¯l dOE凮uq

wlu qN9 bwu®9u oeuTu AwN uQOEr SrS 

oeSw yXq . Au BS Kgu Ǯ Aw®S q Sﱰo

Scw qu w m AqNo Ao9x q ⊮p. oeSS

qS AyYqwTu www Au Tw nu®9u凵 yYqwwT  

lruۊ. Au wwS Nwl cw r yXw mNiq. Au

yn `u¯l-SuS-oe dOES bwwOES' OEQwT ySmq.

oS ju oe⇮ `Sh p' (:H.qc) D

OEQw NqS (1982-89) yNhSmh .Cu Cwݰ9 yuNu BrⰇ

H.Hw.ANN (z䇮u9) A Cu yN yu yNhnS

zru BSS wwzq yq韛u. Cu AvÇ `uoy9'u

BXn 9N u®9S oe-u¯lu oerيu ul, h,

q y NUhT, wwS SmS, Z, ql, EzwhS, oeOE9y

q l SS oeS YNʰm, oS  q oewu

xlru Eyw㚮S oeu. Cu w `b X' ( : l.

oeX. . Ǯr9) yrN 1991 u u¯T yNhSmq.

`oe뇮 dwS' oe뇮 Pqu㊯u u®wN Cb

y䰊nu uv. rq OEQwS `oeﰊ p' (. H. Hw. yi)

`wx9o' ( : c cG) YNS凮 q `rs9uw'

oeS `ﰊq9l' ( : l. H.z. yi) Ǯ ypS N Nmu.

uu®9 SqيT y ¯qu pql bwu®9

¯qu凵 Euu Ku Croe. Bu Nu qNvvXS uOEu oeN

yvÇ bwu®9 uS凮 qw wOESw NlNOErݛu. Au

uQOEr uS bwu®9Tu. N OEQwS y䚮TNT oe

pS oSu qSm. D yO䇵 Ǯ zr q Bڇw

qu ًS ww NqWqS q.

®yu, u®9vyN q dwWw ylwu oS ju

zjvNST N9T ٧ yc XOr9 ®gԊN ygX9

SS .  

D NwN rNy䇮T `wu q'Sw oeu q Bm oe

Pq u溚u l. H.m. qb q zr wmw xmu ww

xq q Xqwu l.ryް AS -

ww wuu 䰇OET q oeS S®ﱇ ysu qw

wl zrqu u¯w݊q qyl l.uܪS yhoi

AS- `IXSwoe' Nq w qw KuTu oequ d.d.

cwsw AS-

oerS AuT oeoe Ǯ Ndw  N oe

XwSxq u溚 q qu SO l. .w. Xu䇮,

qST ݰoe XwS rي l.H. z. yi,y.d.oey, l.oey

wSc, l..cyi, x.TSl, l.oeX.. Ǯr9, l..xNhy

q cQ Nu AS--

Qyh w㚮Su N oeX.z.xrw, N oeX.z.x q lv

oeX.H.cr AS --

AuT vNh w wvN抮 BUg zgw Nu

H.WwN q vS9uS oeS oeu Ax LuSS ww

Awqwq NqWq y9N u®wuS.

cww `dww'T u®9vzه u Srي Hu qٰw.

21-8-2000 l.oeX.H.y9ws

ym

wu q

ww q

 

1. dwr

2. uoy9

3. oe Nǯmx u

4. bwu®9 q NǮ

5. Xlw  u®w

6 . Tu IXSw

7. bwNu YN oewS

8. oe Sh

9. oe뇮 dwS

10. u¯l-SuS-oe dOES bwwOES

11 .uS bwu®9

12. Aru oex ..H. Xu䇮

13. A u®9vyN uwN

dwr

wN uqu . ¯ u®q BXn Eu۰. Aq

u oe oevw y9S oeN u wrNq wShw q

yu¯9w mu BTu. Au Xu Bu yu q Q

qǮ oeuXhn SSOEuu BqOENw q u¯9N Jroeu

Yqw y9u SoewqTu.

u yuuw oer䇮 BXnq bw yuu

dwr䇮 oeq 9rNT yXqT u bw yuu Au

qwu Bu ypN wOE oeS Ǯw ylvu Swoe9uu.

Awv-Awqu EuͰ bwu®9u rs9N yy

yǮw q `Bvoe'wu ySpqT Az9p Nu ys  

rs9Nwu Ǯ®uw Bu¯rN wOE ASuu. Ǯ®uw Su

Bvyq9N q BvyXNT q,u®9,A,w㇮,x q qS SoS

oeqNT Tuw. oevww NwTu CNu wÊc-

u S®9bq wT Auµ㇮ Nq wS cwruw. 

cµSu OEOES OEON QOEyqS DlSu qw KlְSu

Uioeuqoe xOEcw wqy䚮Svu uOw w抮q q pNqw

wSl 9S yqTT qywݚS u¯uw. oeqي ®S

yvÇw uiuw. Aoevw oerيu us9wu Bu um qySu

S vuw.qqދnT yo NǮ INuu "yq" Nh

Euwu N bww yluw. oeou Hqw OEZwT Nuw.

SQ (S) XN拇 Ǯ®ﱇ u. Ǯ®w

Sou®u. rsNw o µSw wl o yuw

cSrwuq u®y¯wSuw.

Ǯ®uw vUTu U oe 14w rt Xqu Adq

oequu NOEyqu xow oevuw. OuNwT

bwu®u oeq Jroeu ﱢqwT oeuw. S Nyru Bv rsNw

⊮ns dwr䇮w cy-qy-AXw-yXwS Pw bSn NSl

yuNT BXNl OESru. Ǯ®ws rsNw w Au

. q bw yyS u Ku Cu, q HlT

yw Hl SS YhԺq qqu. Ǯ®ws rsNw q

w XqSw oev A¯㚮 m wmu CvS D q Sr oeuN

uSru H Ay䇮 Eq ǮnTu. *

u u® r䇮wA BX wOE 'y¯ yo'

u you q Ǯ®wsww wu EOERu Swoe -

 

NOE yq Ǯµu dw抮: |

XN qq c: S: :|

* bwW⇮ yu®w :..m 1977, bw N yNw, u¯l

oeﰊp:1-2-1991

uoy

'A yu®:' H qqvu ww rN q qrN uOS

HnT xr bwu®u NlS Awquu. NNN ESﱛu u

oeqي yQ u®S w bwu®9u qq愵u®wS H NwN qw

yu¯9 q Mwqw NNl s9Nu uOS xpr.

INw ww r T u9 AOٚ `AwNqu'S, qN9

qN9Nlm SoS䟇wT `uu'S gԇ yST

Bqbrw oerٛ xq ycqu SqT N u9w, N

W q N Xq `r䊮q'SS C ru®9u Ǯqw

`AwS' u®9S yq9w dw ysw SS iN pSr.

C bwl®9u d q S9 u®wST.

bw Xχuw AwN y9vS uoy9u Aqq

oeqyo9 wwݩNu Au BXn N bw rS

qSNT. `Eu Xqw uµ NEN' H oeOهq

y9uw qqS Awǯw 9u®9 q HOE cwSS EwrS

dxTu. Aq y9S c HuT NOETu. Au y9Ǯo

As ycǮou Ay® yu Nuh. D y9w w oeu

BXnTq wuuu ySpOETu. T, oe, oevwS BXn凮q

oel, Npq, Tq, wq, uOEu BuyuS q BlSS C

 

Buv. yq F bqS w ®u q-sq,

pS q yb ywʊ vS wlv. uOET XrN q

wNN oev mNh dN 暮 q wrNqS oeX Kqw

xlu N Bu¯rN w¯w Ehlqu. Cvw AwN uwvw

SS uoS BXn yoewuTqu. yr Ǯ ¯uyuS

Xq q U  Nyu, yXﱉu u Xqu9S (BS -

yԺ) wl y9u BXn Oه 9N O䇵

BqOENwݩm։. Bu D y9w ǮT ®uyu u 

uS Tu wmwOEl ãq wqogSu. bwu®9u

ys rs9wNwu Ǯ®wsw ԇ Eqz9p N AqSl

Az9p Nu w yuu u®9yXww NSmu D u凵 .

x9 Kul xq Soeڊlw u¯9N XS NqXw, yXw,

Pw, o, yjo, XX9,S, Eyu q Nyw Awuw

NSu Pw uuw NS. Ku Jroeu yN dwwSw

w Soyr uT wNu Snqw HOEl

BXǵ. Au Aru®9xǮԊ ǯ9Su NS q xSu

Su® u, N9xc9, yǯ޺c q, Xuw Ǯ, Awqw q, u¯w q

xu9Ǯyﱇw D u凵 BX鋚T ¯uyu Aqq SN

Tu.

¯r u¯9N q rs0Nu Eyu h rN uOS

v㚵ywT `uoy9'u BXn bwu®9u oeqSOEu.

¯uyu u u yXﱉu uOE̺l u q䇵uS yrvw

u®9l wc抮y YoeSTu. Eq , Eq u9 (xwq), Eq

Bc9 (wq), Eq X (xOE®r), Eq q, Eq ,

 

Eq qy, Eq qS, Eq BOXw (wwuw C ¯w) q Eq

oeX9 D oeqSoSw Nq µ-®, Xw-yXw, Eyw㚯vS

q Soeou Pq cSq. oewuw vwuu vS

NهSqu.

`cy9'u Cuw y9Ǯoy9u NOETu. ww Sr, ySr,

Ewr,urS ywu Cu BXnw u9xN Ǯ9N 

wNv u, Bu®xN wSN yu K⇮u

BXOESu.Cu EOEQ `A uu®9'. qNlN NX q

qqs9 quqoe SsS Nlu.

u®9u BNq

Oه dwu KvOEu u®9u u®9u ANq Nlu.

rN uOw u qS, ulS qN yr uNvuS

q Bq⚮㇮9 ElToeuS u®9u B䇮 Nxu. u®9u

Eu۰u Yqw-swNlm - -u܇ yyjw N

wS9uq Nlu BTu. xxu uOw USSq BOهw

muTu.

y9uXn www NqOE xu Ow yQqS, AWwvu

WwN q sqvu NulS oeS AqqulS Nl

u®9ywTu.ySrw w uԇ Fu®9uԇwݡuSN

Su®w ZN. oehqvuOE u Oهw B

u®9wu ySpOESu. q- Yq-Bwu 抮ywu vqww NoNu

u®9Xn qww qw qlTN넵N . Aq u®9Xn x

y A q v󇮾 yuulq r qlSN .

lu dwu uX ywqu wqoe EgSu. u®9w

 

oe As `O䇮qN' oeS xχ As ¯qN uT

y䇵TNT SmOETu. wT cww㊮ bwu®9uw qqS

Aqq Nkouq q NhԡS BXn OǮquq

Ay䇮uǵ. Bu T bwu®9Xn ¯Ǯ Nkow.

u¯n As NqSm yXoqSu q, Bu T

bwu®9Xn ¯ǮNkow. u¯n As NqSm

yXoqSu q, Aٰ, B, AySoe q oeX9w N

(Soeڊ) BXu ASwݰ x9 BXuS oeqSS. w

NǯSw q uQw u l BNw v- w-

ʊS Su Bqw EwrS u®9Xn yQ yqw

qu. u®9u u® QSw yXq bwX㊮ yNq ¯ǵ

`uOEu®'(u u®9u ), `Xq Qu, `uo

OE u®', `u Wwwqx u®9', `u®9 N9 xoe9o' q

`qښoe u' qT NNǮT 尙uۊ. xN, x, xcw,

Axc 抮ywu yqww q9抮yu No oeN AwN

Zu u®9ywu uN Bwuyµ qvuOE u9

u®u u9xN PTu. 9N, 9z, Nq9, N

BSoeSS xqN q As9q rs9Nw 9 Bu®Nw.

x9p, uYq q N9uHu l BOEXwS qww

q N yuw uSq; ¯qq - u®qS yhSq .

Cvw AwN xq OSq oeS N SS wrN S Au®yqw

Nou ccӊ umðN. Aqu ¹rN

QOEyqTq wN 暮q wvw q uX,

vw,vw, oe懮qoe uoS YqwuNT.  

CS w懮 抮y bwu®9u rTu. 9up q

OENqيu bwu®9 u u®9Tu.

bwu®9 SsS

AwN Bu¯ SsS uoy9 Nqq ي q Bu

nSw NooeuTu. BX9 E (Er)

"qqs9q"  Xw oeq yNS xu®9w "ru®9

uu®" HuT EOEROETu. Uov BX9 " Xχ"u

XnwS yNou Xq u®9w p9q AwS u®9w

yryvqي. BXy q ®uX9 "qNlN NX" q

yyc . Awqr Aw "Auu®9"u yuyo oeS

BvyoS凮 uou®9u q y䚯yu. AqXu BX9

"yǯs9uy"u cwu rs9N q u®wSw A wu

BX9S Au. quwq BX9 B EyuSw NS xmu.

AS Au®㇮w u¯㇮xNu.CuuT v q Oه ST

oeu, w q XqwS Eqw q EqrSu.

u yuu ǵ

uo u®9u xyn bxN oeS XN uNwu

AOEXwS. uOS wT ǮS Nq qO9N Xw, xynu,

Aqs9 tqs9S oeuT.

Pu u AOS Ǯ wh q SyuT

uh. Aq y9, y, Eqي, uo, BSݰ, wq, Dw,

, Fu®9 q Auµ HuT u vNS, Ǯ rtS u rt,

Ǯ cS usw, y q ww uSS,

Ouqu uS9 ( u®b), uq u®9u ®Sqw OEOES  

o9w uqS q u w p9q ` AqrǮq uS'

HuT, oew ®Nwu ow qٺu oe uwuT,

® xOENuq u oeuS SX oewq䇵Sw P

uwu wq KSmuw, N µ-u9xݰ No, O,

S, wS, X9, w, N , N , 暵XϚ q BǮ

uyoS, Bq NOEoNT S9w Nޚ u, q, Xq T, BX,

x9o, wv抮, Xqw, r q x9o S u®OS Blq

NwݡSl S, wS, Ǯ, yQl, N, So, U, , Xq q

AN uu¯wS oeS qcw ão ANSw, Ayw,

Boeq EyS9q, XqP9q, u抮q Z¯,

y⚮uq q wQN u¯ uUrS EOERi. Au

rsN cwrSw q u ,  q䊯q, qNq,

Xu Xq䚮w, Awq ﰇ9, cǮ®wX oeww, y, Su®

oq q z䇮qvq uSo ǵS Aw懮w Nooeu.

Eq yu Ǯu, Fu9qw, Hqيu q N抮y uՇw

Yu. Aq Arl uoS Eq yuP㉱uOE

y䊮®S.

bw-vN

w oe9 vN u EOER u®r, , u®, Aٰ, X,

Cv䇮xSoe, vð, u, q q ANu® H oeq oS uoy9uw

Eq , Eq u9, Eq Bc9, Eq X, Eq q,Eq

, Eq qS, Eq qy, BOXw q Eq oeX9 u®9w

oe.

Eq  u9c9w X q  !  

qySOXw oeX9p u®9 !!

uoS

Eq 

SuǮ qu uN xcu uN. Nu®xu q⇮ u

Eu. Ǯ-BNN Su Oه N oeS XwwSw;

ww q mSu. q, u9 q cuT qu yo

yǮ NyǮՊT HTu uqS AwN. Nu®u Cq Eq

uoS凮q Awqwvð, AyqPw, yqPw q cw w

u®u µuSh. oew q ru wǮw Hqoe u9 9

y䚮SSw Hu s9wSw. zr, y, q, N, u, Nn

q AwNyw yr9w mÛN넵N. u u9q

NqTu ﰊw ®ǮoTu. Cu Bqw ¯Tu. ®q9oe qw xr

qu uµ9qu,  q, r yr, q ݰq, u u,

 u, yt懵 oeS vNS w q bw Aq

µcwu rw. ®Sw u9w oeﰊ, IO䚮, Sq u

q oeu yS uOEu yvS oew qr9ST.

r9SS Q, r, wv, w, ww, qT S uS.

Nu®N wu yy.

cw q uc9w Nyw 尙q S PxOETu

`` EqS Ny u Ku o qqu,

u®S Ny u Hl US Cqu,

xXS Ny u r oeS Cqu,

XlS Ny u Anqqu.  

 BS, q⇮ qu, oew q, r OE,

uqu nx, n v, u¯wu r, yu yqڢ, zr

y9r, Nq NTOE, Nn NOE, AwNyu Awyn9 u

up, ݰoeu boe q r䇮 Sr HuT BN uoSw

p9OETu.

Eq u9

w, cw q uq ySr ywST. AoeN As

uw Oه 懮 ww quNw. u w

 ANuhԊ uX vw yu qwS qw KuTu.

AǮuSu bw As vrN u, J懮9 u, Ǯ br

cxuw u, uN C wN q9u u, AvN Abwu u,

qyw u q qw u9u uvu Oه Awr AXw

qyw.

Buuu H劵lw zr, y q Aww N넵N.

w Bl wm uTqٺu Nw wu-q¯ q

qS¯ulS Nloeu. cw oe, S ®O q

u®㇮wu BOهw qN. Cuu Nj ¯w NToeT

N ¯ lu. Cu N u9wu AS q uu9u

Tu. Cuu uOw u®w, y, bw, u, Xq9 q cSwwq

AqT uN.

Eq Bc9

Nyhq dww wlq wmS wlS oeupNN. y-

oeS AypNqS Hu Buw xlu. ww u ¯wS

lN. Bu9y䇮u dww wlN. Su 9cӊu  

®Xu䊮 q yu bwo9 Ssu Eq Bc9 u®9w يT

y䚯z. Bc9 u®9Xnu Yq NqS xw S뇮q qo

S. uq9 S u HXϊvvN. u yuSw

q AwNN qNʺq As9 N uq9 oSw D qwT

p9OETu-

Q yuuOEN

X Xlw qOE

oeu Nq9 q

ru® uq9o||

S Hu u uoewݚSl. u®cw qw

NT Nol. Au u Gcqw ylN. Aqq Kyq

wluN넵N.

Eq X

AqS-S v܉u w BOEXwS wlNS Eq

huTq. yq ¯wS BSq wN rw Yq.

h  yu Yqvu OE® Nǯ uSu. BS

rgT yyNqgSu. dw ( dyo) wSu dwwS rݚN.

qwuu yus9S Nq q-N, ¯r-®, B-AOEǵ q

oe-oexhN넯u. CS OE®u u® yS BT. S-

AwS q zr-y  CrrSyiԊN. Nu®, , OE®,

w, Ar, N, ®, dSy, u, yu, wyN u, r q oe S

13 SNǯSw oeOETu. CSw qduu qwwwSl ®qw

oeu. x9 Yqw u oew RTw. Cvw wrN AySS

OE® NoTu. CS S䟛u u¯w, uS Xu u® q  

OEÇ NmNu yq Cq yOESu xq. BX9 ®gNN `

cr9N' Ssu dw OE®, BS OE®, Cv䇮 OE® q EyµS

OE®w r. uoe q w Hl uTN. A® ¯wSw

uN.

Eq q

Bl rw qs, QYqq q qSN. wN q, XN q

q NN quT  qyNSw oeOETu. xcw wmS

Cq w wuq bSNgw N. xcr Sr yrw

wN mNl rݚN. Bu qw yNhS q

cu. Cu Coeyu Qw xlu.

q 䇮q z䇮 䇮q w 䇮q

qz䇮 z䇮 X wwq 䇮q

Au bwSS qu oeq QS yQqw uT rOETu;

cwyu As yuN q, y As ss9 q, ¯ As uN q

q Ey As oeN qw OETu. qw wmuu 

wNgT H劮 SuS zr yqwS u®Su.

Eq 

XX ¯u ww OE oeqixhNl N9qq抮wSN.

uOw AwN N BNǮ9nSS S Su Yqٚ暮w NymN넵N.

Cv䇮 xSoevu ww uqSw qzޚ uSu. wq䰺v䇮,

q䰺v䇮, Unv䇮, wv䇮 q 9wv䇮  Ju uS

Cv䇮 Sw oeOETu. qS lN. u®wq Sh

umN. ǮNwu Oه Yq qqw, xTNl AqqwSw.

`Q dw' Huw AN, w qdN.

 

Eq qy

BX Eﱇ `qqq q'u oeqy q AqS qy

Hl u®S qyw r. oe qyw Aww, Au9, r

yPw, yqS, N 㚮w q NN µuSw oeS

AqS qyu y䇮q, w, q u¯㇮, qS9 q u¯w

µuSw r. INSYqqw mÛNuu Nq

Nlu. u¯wlu u N9Su q Ay9n w¯

EgSu. Au Yq ¯gT rNXn lu.

CuuT Hqoe NǮNhOES Huu uµ9vu wSqSqu.

oex xS䟚N. qyvu AǮNSu bwo, uwo,

oex, lx, Aq, BǮ, w q Sq  

xS q, r, SzSw yy " u¯㇮ y qy '' uT

xz.

Eq qS

y KrST oeS qw BqwrST uǮ yrSw qdw u

RTw. uw, u®9, yyN lw. yow Xu yzl

lw yzǮwSw. Aq wǮww µT q qT ( T) Hu

SmOETu. qwݰ w, ǮNwTw, yq-Ay-

®9Qq yNrw µTTuۊ, ySoeqwT xq x9y

Aq9Qq yNrw TuSw. uwO䇵 D Hl AS AlN

Sm: uq ( Nlw) q yq ( qSuNw).

uwlw uqwT u yry®OEyw ChN넯u.

uwO䇵 Boeuw, uw, µǮc (MǮu®) uw q A®uwuT

yu®S. CqS NhǮ v܇S uuw uq-yqS9S N

 

qz u¯ww xlqoeu. uww yXqT Eq

wu®9vu lN. cw q " yXw qq懮9rٚ " 

iN xc lqw Soeo y9T oe q A®q ySoevu

xrهSu gSu r. uwwu dyow Srq 9c

N S rw:

NS S uS uS

SS Nl u®9N

HǮ Nl 9c ||

¯r ynroelq ®Sw oe, uw No9, qSﰊ

XNr9 q uvðYqoe oeyǮ BToeT. Kiw Oه

ySoeqwTN.

Eq AOXw

u w yq oew ChNu Awq bw, Awqﰊ

q Awqu9ww yl EuNwSu AOXw u®9Tu.

u¯wݡw qw Ayu  uNvuS xSST

v܄®qwSw. B-BNSS ruw݋q ylu u凵

qzԉu dOErݚN. q-sS wlw Aq AT ySoe

yoSw r u®SN. Aroew, ArSoe, ⇮, OE® q

Ar¯w d9 N. sq, Nu®, w, OE®, r, Ar, N, ®,

cSy, oe, yǮu, u q wyN uuT oevw u®u

AqS ySoeSw q q ( oe, Su, qh), w, , Yw, u®w, u¯w,

u, u,  q yqSw oeuS Crrxh N넵N. dN

wqq Nl u®9 CuTu. Bq bw u9wuTu. yr, r, r,

u®w  Yqw uw AN.

 

Eq oeX9

xbqw 抮yw ANu l oeqw wSoN. TS

q Nي uoeQOʺq Bq QN yxݰu ` ®Sr Bu®w'u

oeOETu. 9v䇮 QS q, EǮ, Nj, u, , dSh, oeS

q ¯uT Hh u®Sw SrOETu. Cv䇮 Qq

oeX9. ǮNwSl q AwS vqwSu CN. BlS oe

Xu oe xuu As9. ﱇT Cv䇮S OE xqow

oev oeX9w yuTu. oeX9w Awuu uoew

, EqNq, XNqw q xSqgSu. " ﰇ9w q

oeX9 dw" uw݋N. oeT oeX9qw

yl oeqSv, NǮ yoe q Uwl OE9

lOEuw oeoeu.

uo u®9w Nw-X-w BvÛ Awuu

yi9w y㚮wSu NwT y OEv SoSwݡwT H劵lw

r oeS  ¯w oev qT dw x9oen xqwSw.

Cqoe Aq u®ww y Q, r q wvgS

NowSw.

oeN SsS :

1. Bq u®9u®w : Xu uv ( 1973), r c

yuw®c,  ԰, oe

2. y bwu®9 ( Nw : 1973) bw m9S, Ǯw l,

oe

3. ȳq W⇮N bw NS NpN: y.N. ®c ( 1971) Bu9

bw SsOE, lu

 

4. bw xr : NOEoy䚯u oewSm ( 1977), Nw9hN u㩇,

u¯l

5. A uu®9 : 105 . Awhi Aw ( 1970), Cm

u®9xǮwSN ru dwXu d u®wi, Cm (

by)

6. uo u®9q : oe.. uwN ( 1985), dwbr

yNw, S

7. bwu®9 y¯ǵ : .y.yb ( 1976), Nw9hN uu®9N

U, u¯l

oe Nǯmx u

w抮 N qwǯs yux|

Olµ oeNO ykq yXq q |

AN A bw rN q quw |

Nǯl کS  ||

bw u¯9N q q yy q9wNu Cyqيlw

rs9Nwu oeu wwsw yu®N w uq, oe

wwSw ylm. D dww uqw NS q, A, A,

AN, ANu , AOE, Nm, Nǯm, ANǯmx, Xm, S,

cNʄ, cNʡ, cOp, cN q cNʡ qu u® wǮSu

Nh 9q BvÚlrي. yNq ¯ǵ uw ` Sm' Hu

NOESrvq. rs9Nw O, yXN, cSur, bSq uq, O uq,

w uq, O yux, Ǯ yp, NǮ, xp, EyS9 xp, EyS9

xp, uǮ oep, uu q Nu Au¯wwq u

oeS bw u¯9N yu yNw Nl u, Eyww

 

yrxvÚq١. q䇮u yur u, bOEx u q

Nǯmx u rs9N y9 As EyugST ®Nي AðǮw

y yySq u¯9N Sw Ev۰ywS.

q Nǯmx u oeo mN yrw ylvuۡu

® ®qSw c w dwuw y®NهT q 9oe (

o9) wvS Jroew x9. 9oe wu uu®9

yy Nw ww ylmw.

uw cwu cvyu ®q Qlu Ǯuu u; Au

cu¯x TwS ( Tw-Fc9qT). ®y cw Bw

9w Bw ymq ( yq ) xu qTvq. Dqw

u®9yr݇ oevp ATOEu ( ATOEu) . C yq uyqu

uqNT ®N (1Ǯ9) q y®N(2Ǯ9) NmS cxu.

JroeT yr uS oeoewT ANuw. ǮS uq

u®Nًu Tw q uqq䰇 zj uT q y9quw

u AuuT ydlrيu Swoe9.