Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories  of DANACHINTAMANI

CHAPTER-1

CHAPTER-2
CHAPTER-3
CHAPTER-4
CHAPTER-5

q oSu ڡq Aw Avuqu Nǯmx

Xqlw oe oeNT oenuNmu. Aq, oeo Qw

lmT dwu®9u BX XS yu¯9u BO q u܇wݡT

xS NN9u qww qlTNmuۡ. Cuu Nzqwu Slw

BNlw AiN䊮wT wluNl AwswTuw. uOw lu nu

q cclu cNʡw qw A NʡvS oeNiԇ NS oe

yoxTNl. Bu qw Bd9u yo㚮Xu y®T NǯmxT

oehw ylu. qw Nu®v܉lgu UhwSu tqwT

yqySl Qw NS oe yoqSmNl u oewT

yw cw quw. Fxu   O.ﱰ.xoeu劮 ulN

Nmm劮 cNʡw Sm bwyu oeqw ylvu. Cu S®9Sm

wws rs9N, 9oe؇ q Nǯmx NqwS.

ou u Sg抮 ﱇ r9w yiǯz

qw Avr u®w AoeNS u®9ð Xlw KSuwǵ. Bu

Nǯm x SNdч yl NpNl xS Ku ﱡ oexq

Ayo9Smu ﱇ AǵNw yo9 S Bqw Nuwݺh

mu Uhw u¯9N Xq䇮w oequ uQOETu. Cwݺu wS q

yur u SN AdчT Np NluT yriu. o9

Nǯmx u woeu NOE Sw Nw9hNu uµlS

u9oeu.  w T BwT u v®bT Fyl

ESS wݡ HlS oeo q N S A® oev Qyux

T oeSXw oev. Ohu¯pT Nj oeS ڡS 9®o

yǮޚ qT. oex T Nowoeu㡯T. wT u

Cv BN Nʡu ®N q z䇮N. v ANN

 

y¯u. oSu XuT ( YNʄh) Xl v,

Xuy® ( NSX) v, NqOE v, q y9ws v ¯Su劮 oe

Hqيu wٺ®u OESu Smw Eqي Qu凮u CuT( ulքh)

q٩u劮 wOr9uܺqXNr9S Ǯwu Xuu Ǯ q

Nriԇ S  iԇ m yrǯzu r9 (1231), r Su®o

v, r抮 v, Nuoe뇮 v, ASm, lw v劮 xq xw

Ay9 Nǯmx oeS yju ه Nǯmx u S. Au

oecu yN, NwNT ( OE) q oe oe뇮 Awqws

rs9N dwS u ydlrي. qﱡwmw dwNY ju

Sl OE u Yqo u. EuT-QlT wx oeS l®Nu

SoeS uSl®u vS q Bw  oeS Syي NN u

yǯo yiu s q Cwݺu r9 Qw SoeS.

bwX9 q NS uw q N XwS ®Oy9NT

wﱛuۊ. ANNuw u y¯vu u܊ uq q®Sr u

ylSw HTw. s9vS vTcT ` NqO9N Xlp' u

Nh u溚 ANNxS Nǯmx u Nww u9wq, ` xw ww

ySS BOESoeT Eqًu Soeu' Hu . S oeS m

cuw. ydqu u܊ NS uvu OEw uN qu.

ySqgNu bwoeo Nwl Nu uw Sw ( O...1650) qw ` Suq

Xq' Sq Nu uw rw. BX q®u䊮 q

w㇮ rSsu ` 懮®ٰq'u uw QXq ( u¯u)

u q dww ` oe yo y' uw ⋚OETu. S

u Ǯ vw ySph Au ®NvS vqT BN AX9wS.

 

dwu®9 NvyNu Nǯmx u N Sxq T Ǯqw

v.

bwu®9 q NǮ

¯r u¯9N yy NǮw ww Ǯ q q

يuu BTu. bw-vN-uu®9 yuS Bqw qbu

uNw Nooeu Au凮 bwquw NǮw nS y9roe yǮw

u®w-u®w Nq XNw XqoeT.

NǮww ? Bqw uq, ww As NS NyNq

ԇ ? wmw cw oeǮwu yjw ®Nي Bwurw Ehlrيu.

Bqw Jroe Nq oe䊮 Ǯ9Su ymq y SS NǮ dbӚ Sru.

Bu Nu n, Ǯn q 9Su Nmu mS x-

Au®㇮w D v Swsu.

oe¯qu Ao9x O, OENqي oeS OENXq w,

yyǮ, ﰊSp, cNp, N S䰚, oeq, qȶNSp,

N9N, r䇮wu N, 9qqxyo q d抮wu NǮw q

Aw q ylu SrS oenh, Nl u NS̺gTu oec

BTu.

NǮw B9uq-B9y9w Hu Nq qN9h, yNq

¯ǵ " N" As9q NǮw bw SsS EOERiԊw. vN q

bw¯qSl凮 Nǵذuy9u Xw Q Sr.

brǮ uܺqS yN NǮw cw Nq Hl Ay䇮S NT.

Q q銮u o oe w u y rt Ǯ® Su cx 125

Ǯ9 9 rS 8 vwS uOuwu, C o u NǮy AǮ S

 

p-Ǯ® S ( O.y.3208) uu oei 105 Ǯ9S B9ww

NuwwOETu.

q9wu Nu 24 rs9NS 22 w rs9Nwu ®Sw

wws ( AǮw) xS q N q NǮxS xNh wh.

C N q oe Ar. uyS Tu NS

y䊮®u vNu oe¯qu Nq  wlqu ( O.y.3139)

q NSu uw vw NǮw D cSrxu T

yu¯wݺvuwu Ǯ yo rqu. Sٰxw NǮw Nw Nq "

lNh'' Au XuSyxS ( O.y.312) q `` Ob'' Au

NǮxS 138 zSS Aquwqw. Cuq Ku zSS 20 Ǯ9Su

Kh 2760 Ǯ9S Aq C9 wl Cu. Cu Nu凮

AǮwﱇ EOEQl oequTl.

vNu®9u q r䇮 9 q XuSmuۊ bwqu

y, N, ws, ES q oe HuT Ju cS. wws q

NǮ؊ oeN u. oe Nu Au yl-N Nsy䚮S

ǮS bwu®9u ȳq-Nwl NS q S oev.

bwq yoSw AOEOuS NǮw dw qٺqS w u¯9N

ȳr ymwwq oe oeNT. SS cu oer oeS oeq

Sh x9yN Xlw rǮǮ OENyǮ ( O..978)

SuNu 63 v Eq yǮ oeu 9 u ( wo )

S Au®9XO NǮw Kw. wﱇ qu ucw q NǮw qu

uw Ao-qv. u cw qu Au®N q uw qu

µc D9 Ku LS u. wwsw q OEu. uw

C lvu p S®9u w q uO S®9u NǮw

 

cxu. Nr q v䇮 NǮw Aqه. uwu NǮw Nr

Nʡ yl yyr BTuu oecq .

1w So9w oe yo As wws yo ( Ey),

ymqN wXu ( O,.1170) w XyN Au®9w yo, No9y9 N (

O..1145) wws yo, N qw ( O..1550) w ¯q As

wws yo, u®9 (O..1200) w oe®u As wws yo,

w S N ( O..1509) oe As wdw Sr, oe N

( O..1245) wws yo As oe yo q oenNw dw¯q

BSN Ǯhv NS NǮw -SSw ST q يT

p9.

bw wSq wws,  q NǮ D S KiS

Eyww ʊy9h u cw yYw Tqw Eyww

ʊy9h u cw yYw Tqw Eyuuw. wwsw

rs9N yuw ylu Cuwݰ Svð ¯ǵ NǮxS يT oeuw.

quwq D Tqw Nq uܚu NǮw Ac9wxS vÛuw.

AwN  wS NǮxS uµ9Sy9h cu wﱇ w

KzNl NǮw Ǯylw Nuw.

u So®uX Yq Eqي youw wﱚ Xq NǮw

yh Op,  r q¯ q N yuw Ǭ qٺqS.

bw ASW⇮u Kqw ASu AwqيyyvN ux NǮw

bwu®9wuw yryvqu.

uǯS䰚 uq yqx ®Sbwvu NǮxS Ǯ u®

ǮywSuu, cw q qu u® c ES䚵wwwݰ w vÛ

oewwݰu u Nww vÛu, NS u®9w, Op oeo, q¯

 

oe . SyNq, Su®9wTu¯N q Xo NǮ؊ 凮u y䚮S

y䚯yS bw ¯qu T vNi.

Bu¯ SsS :

1. r9 wOE wOE : y.H.N.Xu䊯 ( 1975), S

u㩇, S

2. bwu®9 : d9An؊ ( 1969), m..N.r9,  570004

Xlw  u®w

bwu®ﱰ9S Hqيu ڡSu oe yq oeS AXX. hSlS

OE uSS x9o, SoeS xS  q qyu¯w y ¯w.

yt9N ysuw v㚵ywu Awwq. xc9w yuSw 

wNǯSw uN wS9 yrr. Aq Nw9hNu EuSN

NoS APq vS, r9S, xv NS, wٺ®S q

zjS wmw bSqڇ u®y䇮 SrST r. yrS NXN

u®9 q NOEw Sﱛu, yu¯9Su. BAu c oec,

rw㊮, AvNS q cww㊮ uNN9N ®qT oeqي

qNS Nu Au Ev. Cqoe AOEON u®9w S BXuN9T

Srي dwu®9NvyNwu Xlw uN qcycu

u®9qٺqTu. N N BTu Dqw u®9u q AwSvul

Smu Oq  NOE Eywq٩ oeuu ®wu ¯STu.

qqދnT Croeu yhS oe⣮q Pp, Soq ®Ǯo, ®c N,

XuNSS, SS ®h, ®h ﰊ q9l,  lu®,  y,

®h Xlp, yry , oS S, N Nul, yN oe,

vS, r®w ﰊ, Xyr, NcwQ, NqN q q㇮vÙՊ

qu u Su w OENqيT yiԊw.

 

Nw9hN yPq y SScu u 2w oe ( O..961-974)

q 4w X ( O..974-977) C BN wyr q Qr

wSw ANu Xlw y®qu A¯c ASTuw Au oew

y9wTu u ( O..953-961) q Xw EqيvN

NʚSSw Nu凮 w AvNwTuw. Dqw qu Suw Swu

oe, q NOEu, lv Adqu q oeu y C

dwu®9xǮՊTuۊNl gԇ ySw NlNlTuۊ.

SySu AdqwX9 q wXuX9 w w

Ev۰ywSuۊ Aq qwS u cO q u¯9N wOEuT wu

ȳrN uOw wvS Np®qwuw.

w q Ssqu Nhy, Nhy, NhyT, Nhy, Nhy, Ny. Ny,

N, ̡, ̡, ̡wS, dwT, T, rs9T, q , u®rs9,

u® , u® rs9, u ̡ q Sh ڡ XuSy q

®u䄯oew q Xlw  NOENN9vu xqT Sr.

yrT Sg抮

ulքh ( yS9y)u OE xr cSrw oeuNǮ9N 

NrSOEuu NqSu Nuµw qSr9 Sg抮w yrǯyw Nqq

ww N u¯S Sq. yo ymqw ` Sh r' ( O..1880)

OES oeqي NS Shww oem Nlmuۊ. zyhou ulևw `

®c qN' ( O..1558) q yXow `®c Xq' ( O..1614) NrS

Sh yww Nq EOER. Yuwu N `x®u' ( 17w

qw ) Sh r9w  g Nu K quu,

uXuw ` b Ns ' ( O..1841) q , o q lu

NhyN Nw SrSw EOEROETu. oewu AwqN qw `Sg抮

 

Xq ' ( O..1889) Ss ®q oe NSu vð qٺqw

oeuSTu.

Xl Yq rǮ o oeyo ( O..978) u r9

yrǮyw Nqq u y䚯y. Bu r9 uۺq XNr9

wXu X9 Yq yNqSs ` Sh'u oer Xlw

̡u Shww NluwuT xv9ǮT EOEROETu. ǮN

SuyS u® wu®㇮w q Shww 14 X9 9 981 

Twbu yrǯywSOEq.

®q XNr9 uu qou yuwyu wOEu 525 S

youqيu ®Sw oe ( NNh dw) u9w¯S yl oeNw

q NOEu Xlw AN mNlǵ. Bu uS9u TNu

NwwS wOEu ﱇw u9u Au®uq w yur u

Borq xoeu ̡u凵 lSw Ql wOES EuNwuw.

oe AǮw ( Ag԰w/ ®qc) qw yuvS w

Aðy釮w yuw.

ڡu凵 Cu NS̪w Nq٩iԊ yrT oe CrٰYw

tlOEh EyNou ww yw q 58'-8'' Sqيu. u NyǮu OE

NqS9u xq qySrي T mS u oeqS, ASu

oeXYu Uhy9S, Ǯ qlS q xluSw ®cuS

oe l®ﰩq, oeu ڡ, vð Sð Qu, iv rmu S, wN,

NuyS, uiS, NoS, oeS, u w, OS, SS

SSu NuS q oeﱇ uoe whNw NN q

SSq, Nuw mSqu u9 N Smu.

 

Ql̚x CNʩS劮 wS oe oeq yo9uT. yc yuSS

¯Su oeqS OE ` Xo c mu' ( Nwl) , Xo c

qw ( qﱡ) q Hl¯Su Xo֊b NOE' ( k) Hvu. D

k w C凮S Ey Aqq yqw wSOEu HwOETu.

Au SScw x9u q٩u EOEQ Cu.

qSu oeu N®

oSu JroeN x9rSOEuu 10 w qwu qSu

oeu ٺ®w Xlw x9uwu C w ⊮ns9T

x嚮iu Hu rOETu. Cu XuT NS oeuw ٺ®w oequ.

 10 AmSqيu ٺ® NOEu qyǮS Suqu ul

OE¯Sw oevu. XXNNu N¯Su y9u Xu¯Slx

Xl q Bqw S wXuX9 E NqwS. Eqي ¯Su

w q qc q u®wSw p9 zu. oe顮 Nu oeSl No

( O..1200) ww Nʄ¯Suw ww A oeO qw Srw

NrٛuwwOETu. CrٰYwS ٺ® yo9 q9 Sru Nw

N¯Su T Kulu CwݺulS cToeuTvq.

NlSu Xlw D ڡu xq ` ®Sqw Sw Nl'

SS NNu N劯S qNT NpNw q lS̋S EuT

uww xlruwq,

AQl T

AQl T Hu NiԊ oeu抮u OEhu劮 Sc

yiNw w x9uw. yiN SS  ®u Eqw

EuoenTu. yu⛰w Ohu¯ u Hl oeS yuyǮS.

 

Cv ScS lw N®Sxmu ǵNw x9rي. Au

Nu ulS劮A oeS AX9wSr.

CuT rq  Xw凮 Xlw NlSw

Sxoeu. Sg抮 oeﱇ HuT Nǯmx u

yu S Nd yr, ®uOE, yqS, S , r q hԩSw

w x9uw yrru.

Xl v

YNʄhu OE oe NOEqw Xlw O..982-85 qw

wuu 22w rs9N wws ﱇ AOqu Niԛ uS

Ǯ  NOETxu Nmu. huw 14 dwS oequ D Nhl

oeT y w oequ wOETu. SS x9o ySp

v Qu抮u oe y9Sl Avǯw yiN 11-12 w

qwu xu x9iԊoeuTuH quwq NhlN Cxq ¯SSw

Am dn9u܊w NSlS w oew NqOETuu u溚

Ay䇮 yiԊA. oe顮 wS wS Cuw ` qȶN㊮cw' q

`y dw'u NOETu.

Hl S®9SoeSu uS Qhy, w㚮u N®Su Nmu

wS q Qwwݺvu. rSu qiuۊ oeu 

yiNS NOEqN NqwSu Nm. NyiN Sl-NwS, wlw YN

yiN bm oeS yފ AQT S q iN q

llyou Sl-NwS oeS u¯wN rs9N rS. N Aqw

S®9Sm 5 AmSqيu Bu¯Slw yu⚮x wws rs9Nw

Soeu. Cu oezju OE O..1138 OEOEQu q Soe oe顮 A

Ǯu®9ww wx q r SScw Swu IXoxu yrǯzhuT

 

ruqu. Dqw yo Xq䩇 ( qȶOEN㊮cw) w x9uw.

oe顯X Swu ` uS QrN' uOq SSX (

u®9wX ) u Soe Nq٩iu. Bu v Sl Xo؊c

muru. Aq S®9Sm  Soe NOEqu oe顮 SoeuvS

uOE̺lq Nlqu. Aq u劮 wws rs9Nw u

Bw 9oe q Nǯmx SoeSw SSX NluwwOETu.

yދS dw ¯Sw O..995 Xl w S

dwuow. Niԛuw. D v ` dwSoe ̡u cw yS,

Xlw wuww mu dwuodqw xySlֺ' H yju Q

wqu. S®9Sm 3 AmSqيu y9ws rs9cw dw.

qu q Sw u¯9N BXn uqNT x9oSl IN dw oe

Cuu Hu ArOهSOEu.

CSu uyr Xuw Nqq q N ڡSw Hl hS

SrOETu. uT Sg抮 Soeuq STw iԩS

N®u w Nu w EYq Xlwuu ¯OETu.

XuTw l w yuS u䇮w Xlw N Hu

N. w CqpuOE Huw CuT NlSwq o y䇵S m

oe u9w¯Sw Nlw wSu.

u®9ã Xlw Aww q®O, ®Suu®w q NOEy

Nwmw u¯9N Yqw yvÇ YqwTu.

u®9u wOEl IYSwoe

q wws w uuu® |

wvq uµuqȶOEN nq ||

 

-wcwl S9u劮 qlyu yN oeuoeS y

IYSwoeS Nlqu. w cu oew Or9Su' wNi

wo ' Hu uOqTu YNu oec Kl IYSwoe

Sw uw ulymq ( OE ymq ) xS T NhԊ. D

Srw Xm Nw rOETu Cu N 1606 w N Ǯ9u

N٤, yǮ oe 30 Au 24 cw 1685 w C Hu rOETu.

OE ymqw YNu oeykT NNu A r䇮 BTuw. D

coeTw AvÇ S u¯9N q dN SS ySrw

NluT ruqu. ` IYS' Aw yu `S' H  yuu uOEu

y HwOETu. Au IOEvq yuu  vۊoeuTu. XSlwoe Hu

NNo IXSw oe뇵uToeu. oerيu凵 Cu oew Cwݺu oe뉱u.

NzOEwv HlulS oevNlr wws v Su

yQ BNǮ9nTu. vu  rs9N wﱰ抮wu Au -Hl

¯SS NT NqS9u劮 SoeSu y9ws q

yws rs9N . Cw NSoe uw oeyuw.

v Eqي ¯Su hy S9u lr wu q NqSlw

S uSl S UXu uww ǮwTu pN u Hw

vw zuwu oeOETu. S Oylu N 1293 w NǮ9u

vNq, S u 15 Au ¯w 23w w 1371 HuSqu.

wmw bw Croe q w ymqu d.d. cwsw A

yǮʋu wuw Sr yj Cru:

q抮 Sð uuUOEZ

wdqȶOENws w dw

w || vðy uop cv

 

SǯoeSq ¯yud

w抮 u®9dSЋXq oe

uǮq y9u w

qvǮu Or9wqux9q

0|| bwq yu®9w Xu

ww㚮quw xq 9So

uwwwq Or9 u®w / zw

oe o Suwwu, Nywvuw ®wq UXuw

w Ǯcw wu p N|| Au uۉ luuu Nu

Nq9Su ®y OE u vS qq w

ي y

Svu9 Nqﱩ OENu劵 y9uq oe

rOهu

q|| NǮ9 1293w u vNq q銮u S9

15 B| u vu UXu䊮 OS u S oe

S xvÇ mu Ni || UXu u

Ǯ㊮ pN u w

..... u

D w  oeqSw KSmu oequ oeOEh, 9,

Xu, XS wl Nl NS yu⚮x rs9Nw, u®¯Su

Ahn qlyqSxh u®wSrي xSo q NSwr vrي

ǮAw q Noequ D9 xS q Nr ES. Cu

wyju y9u, U Xu q oe rSw Nq 

 

yuSw IYTw oe ( N) w Bu ` N uXNr9,' NuNuw扱,

yNSX yo9rN wN Uu Kl, uSo S䰚, wOr9 Ǯwu

oe ymqw ` u®9ws yo' vu BNOETu.

w抮 v Dw w wiԊ Nw wws ﱇ

wus9T Ew huT rOETu. Bu D w Nw ul

O u oeSrيuu yo9 r ®uTu. v uoN

oe u®u l OE u q Aw yuS NS 19w qwN

u wu yN w NSw q. Bqw q AN w r

q Nqyw lv Xuu oeS Nlq. vu

ySouTw ¯Su Ngԇ OE wT r9vu.

CrٰYw ǮSw oe dwu®9Nي vw dn9u܊Suۊ.

bw Nu YNoewS

bwu®9u yYw wOEOEuu YNoewS S XXwNg oe

NǮ؊cwS qN  dOES uuTu. ® u¯9N yyw oev

ypNT qw yl¯9w q٪u. rNy® Xuw qw

yu9vu D qw yxqS wS oequ SrTu.

Bu cwqwS SS, X. XS抮 ( XS㊮) NS抮 q

oe顮 u® NUhS Cu OE q Bvyqw oev u¯9N EqrS

NoyǮu. cS UioeT ww oeh NuhS

oSqoTu ` oeoS u' u Pq Sl Nwl wmw Sliw

ڡuTu. wu,'.......... yX Hqw oewS uu

AwNw NuoeOuN X cw oeT Y AxS ` r䇮 Pp

NS' H yhw Ni OE H Fw urهT hNhw" Hu

oeOETu.* y䊮®u X SScw u 12w qwu Bv

 

oe顮 c Xw p c yqNw oeuۊ. XS抮

qTuNl 11u 16w qwuS Cu BNw wlu. C

cu¯xTu oewS

* Nwl wS ȳrN Au®㇮w : l.H.Yuwur9

` ywS' HuT Niu COEu XS rs9u CuuT

ruqu. YNoewS xoeu凵 N wv ul OE ul

oewS ڡu.

Bvdw抮 v

YNoewS j, v q bwxS yQ qoT Tvq.

Cw bw Sju xq O䇮q Aqw oevuuu AwN

EyPS N9x9ru. ju zjvyrS XOr9 ymq u

Au¯wvu NlruuT 16w qwu wu rqu. uu uo

Nwl dOE凮 NN9u uwOEj Cu QjTuuT Aw Xq9Q

v xoeu uq OEOEQu Aoequ. ju zj SSu 暮٧

qOr9 ®gԊN ygԊN ygX9 oeS ywS u SoN

uu EOEROETu.

ywS y¯Xu uܺquu vqu 68 N 68

PjSS wNTuۊu oeOETu. yNu劮 12w qwu

Nw uSo yNSXN u XNoewS 64 vSuuT

ruqu. Su yQ BNǮ9nu Ǯ® u uTu, D Xq㩇u

ES, x9o, dn9u܊ q u®9y¯w Nqq

wu¯SwݡSlq Cq AwN rS ®l qu SrTu.

Cuu rNh Xq㩇. yu  S®9Sm Bvws uou

rws q Eqيu wws r9S yrǯzi.

 

oe顮 w wvqw Nu Cw v x9qq

EOEQuu v x9qq EOEQuu v Tw

hyu OESu 11w qwu q Cuw XS ulwN bu Xw

x9®uxqu. Cu ﰊbuw NN9vu x9oSluu

buX dwu Niu. 17-12-1110 xvÇ NOEu

wO ulwNwww EOERq vNwv uܺquw Ǯ

Uiu u Bt9N NpNw rqu. qOES So wu uS

dn9u܊Sluw r xw  oeS uwurS uNw

ru. r抮 Sm Tw qOE w 11-12 w qwu w

oewS 64 vS q qN  dwSw xS

uu Ql ( u®9vN) cOr9 xw oequ.

Bv抮 Sm Q hyu ¯Su qOE w OEOEQu qoNu

12w qwN uuTu cﱰw uww Aoequ. Cu wSu

y9Qu qOE w w  iԇw wSw dn9u܊

SOES qOEuw Amuuw oeOETu. 12w qwu

Bv抮ﱇ zju w OEOEQ U uSo yNSXu cOr9

®gԊN Ǯwu oe uw; Aq OEqʊ Sou wSXu u Ǯ㊮

®o ¯wOr9 u yw dn9u܊ muuw rqu. S®9Soeu

SQu w 16w qwu w ٧ XOr9 ymqu

Ǯw q YNo؇w Swu ymqwxu u bǮ N 5

uBv抮, Xuws q rws rs9N SoeS yrǯyww

ru.

uSu Xw w㚮 Awyu XN q oe顮 S

STu. Cu rS, ٺ®S q OEpS NoOEuۊ

 

SoeS q u抮S yu Nxu x9oSm. wws Soeu

Nl ioeTu. rws q Bvws r9S ANq qoS

oeS oezjSwݺv. QwwSu wlw u抮S oe NOEqN yiNSu

Nm. Au yǮS, q oeu NqwS BNǮ9pT.

oenyiԇ Sc, oeS, Or9Q q Nwl wS. wS

NǮ Tu NS qNuw w㚮vuT oe顮 NOE

yrxvNST. Su wSm劮 10 w qwN u qOE w

IOEX9 xS v ow rq. Cuw cSrs9u PqTu

NOEݡ u uuT Nlqu.

n

u¯9N Eqwu y䰊N Oهu dwS ywdѰw NN oe

AqSquu. Aq YN oewS u¯9N yrNu Bv抮 uS CrٰYw

uNS NNwSoT dn9u܊Nʡyiu. tTu D vS NN

xlOES 18-2-1954 oSu ٧ XOr9 ymqX

S ڡN xmu µi qqߩT 20-2-1954u xoeu bw Nu

Su dn9u܊ ru y Smvq. d Qr v||m.

uc A  UwN9 q v|| oe ry䚯u bw A oeS

uvS q Cu dn9u܊w NSOETvq. y䚮q Su bw

c, w u® dwyb r q oewS Sڊ B䇮u

yb NN9ڇ wrيl oe Awuwoe9u uTu. ` A®

dw'u u¯9N y¯w xq xqT SNuu Au Cu Hvw

oequ Nq9Tu.

oe뇮 Sh

 

Bu®xN wSNq-r qNʇ O wSrي yYw  wOEu

w劮 Nnu wT oeSrيuw cSvPq Nwݺm Ngԇ ( NǮ؊cS

cOE ) Eqي vOwl Nooeu. l dOE凮 NǮ؊cyg ( ArSy )

qN wN NwN oeS u D qo xoeu Swoe-

H.N.oeSu qh v oeNg-N.-oe HuT NNru

NǮ؊cygu  12 O.ﱰ. uuu.

oe顮u Ǯu®9w ( iu)w By oeyu¯w ulwNw q

懮 bwu®ﱰ9w BTu yp ( oep yp) wxu yrǯzh

A 14 AmSqيu y9QT ®Sw oe r9

Nw9hNu oeqي XrN Sh S w xqoeu. O..1147

oe顮 Nu OEwS Cu rw xlq. yu Nw NqS9u

yr qw y9N hu Nu qwu AYw oecw dw®Nًu

NiuwOEu q٪w S NS u¯o n Smu Biu.

r9 yuS q NS CNʩS S oe. wOE yu

Tu h vn؇ OE يu yXdw Xq㩇S ASS

®SǮS XOEz凮T oem. A NOEqN zju OE m

ioeT yws rq rs9N wN N yu⚮w yrSw

Nooeu. ASwT rs9N SvS Au Xuw xTNl N

u抮yN, A OhyS, XXu q N iԊ ANq

OEp ¯SS HOEl AwsT v. XO qvu Nlh wu

ulNS, ٺ®zjS, vSS, N XymS q oenyiS SqNu

q u® NOESw r. Kiw w oeT yXdw

Xq㩇S CvۊNw z D yNS wT. Cw yhyu

y9T qOENiw ypw wu. Dqw yNﱇ, NlSx

 

q xǮwTu XrN O. oe顮 Bwu So wTu c

yQw. Dq qc X Xy, Ac yp XAy q qu Xc.

Dqww XcwSu cy9ws v劮 O..1116 OEw, `

quwlz9 NSwlT y y ou OES m Nxyw

qN uu'wu rqu. Au NulS g c yqNw

oeu oeS̢N Cwu. Cu w ypw dw®Ou¯w, ` SSm

q®qي u vSwN uy ulvy Hu Vu. Ǯu®9Aww

vSoe SSu qSlw Numu N, NSS oey Tuw. xOEv-

xT ( EuNl) Ncwww ydqSuw q Aw qlw

puw, Cw vST' pN ul' ( pN ul ) q wN

SSw ur iuw. S qw Oqvu N Xlww oew.

Au Ǯu¬9ww Cw݅ AvN ww Cw oe顬 dwN

q xٺ® w rqu. w N wv yNr Jw xmu.

Cu y䚮q urS w Au ? cw A q Awڇwݰ ?

Nwl Kl uSru.? oe vw NUhS qٺu

x9oSOESuqoe  ®w Cvw u®9xS q NOEcӊ

Nnۊu EJNvuۊ  zS Ay yN yNSu OYq

. qoeu Croeu yhS yn9T wS w wOE

NXrي yQ bwwOEw oeSu y䇮rݛ Nym Nl u w劮

Sq oenTu. Cqoe  yǯʊ- Bǯʊ ʊ NwmSS

qٺuu uN u® ? NnlS N oeSrي Nwl wmw 

yqw Nl ww w umq, Nj Tu vq.

oe뇮 dwS

 

Nw9hNu pc, u¯9N oeS ȳrN qS lu oe wSu

 Awwuu. 9u®9 w懮q Cw oeS̋q. ` A

yu®9' dwp Awq y¯vu Toev. NOEo XN

cu BNq Awy NOErNu bwu®9 qw yu¯9

SoǮSuT CvS ASvu. Cmu y wOE

uu®9 BNoNʡST oqq TuS bwu®9 qw xu®9u

Nhxiw NhԡS wl qw uquT qw wOESw EN멱

u®q.

oe뇮 O..10 u 12 w qwS  200 oeS oeS 1200

Blq ¯Su yQ ¯STvq. 11w qwu OEwu

oe뇮w `` HOE y9u oe '' HuT, quwq yu, y, y,

y뇮T cwSu q yX9T wlw y Ky޺u (

O,.1547)u ` KA'T, o w BN du wSu

y䚮q oe뉱u Nlrي wS dwS BST qw u¯9N 

Ǯqw ENl vu. K yx bw xUu yQ

wOETu oe NNo U vS ySlulw yn9練w uq

Nlqu. Aq vS bwcu K ySlSu oeu, S, Xqs9 ,

yX q q S9S KuSm IN¯vu u®9 y¯wS

OEÛu.

oe뇮 mu u uuq N u¯9N uµw HOEl

Awq yrي w dwvS yYw-A9Yw u®9bSr

NqST; dw®Nي wuu Kgԇ ySu Yqwoewr.

cc9 uOw Kqlu wl wNǯu NSw qdq m x9Nou

qoST.

 

Prq cwSu Nu oe뇮u Nlru oe

oe뇮 Nǯy Syuu劮 Awqws v ڢ bw

Croew  900 ǮS uN Nlu. xoeu oeS̰ ulN

uq q u dwS y䚮q v q Noq. oe

qOEw N Aoeq NT9 oeu ( ǮՊ) As9q yڊ

Nl Nwwq N ASqu SoeS ®u. Awqws dwu

Awqwsw Soevu dSwݺh lql. uOET  I

AmSqيu NOEqNT Ql̚x X氚 rs9Nwݡ ®Sw oeﰊ

rs9N yr S®9Sm NoSu. y¯ Su Bqu

X氚 rs9Nq yuu CNʩS -u qS q u܉x

(u܉N) Ey̢. r, XN, c q Sw w NS zmv

xq xw oeu As qyw Soe. HlS Nu

oewoeS Nw9w

ENqwS. zjuw 12w qwu EOEQ yrw

ioeu dw®Nه9 m uwNh Sr ruu. Au

yx Uu No Sou EOEQ uNu. Nǯmx u

Soe C凮 qٺu BNǮ9N Tu. K Sm ¯Su yqNTu

N Sruq oe tu Smwu yux q yur u

Soew 1940 BX 108 yS xS Nu

ڡyhSOEq. 1968 oerيu ygv Soew yw

yrǯzOEq. S®9Smw Cq dx຅Su OEoeu y9ws,

yur u q OE xq rs9N. C NoS D Nu

oewݡ bSg oeqyo9uTu. Cu q v 1100 Ǯ9S u

bSgvvqu, Au Klu oeS oew N 1784 ( O..1869)

 

oeuT y䚮q bSgw mOEqu yX u®N v.l.ylS

u uQOEu rOETu. CrٰXS uq dwww wqw rS

SrٚOETu.

D u NOEwNN dn9u܊Smuw roeu. 1939

q 1953 H.z.Cm u, 1962 q 1972 9cxNu

q 1984 BX㊮q 108 u®Ǯo xoec y䰊n q

B9uvu r q݄ wT ⊮ns9 nNST. 10-8-

1983 dwuq ®c Eyu® SqS Su yXN yrǯyw q

ybvSu v dn9u܊ NN9 qٺu rw ylvvq. 21-

8-1985 oe0c bwju 暮٧ uuOr9 ®gԊN ygX99

oeS wu ® ybuT S®9Sm vw wqw ®

Nhl qOErq, v u 33 AmSqيu wٺ® cÛq.

bwu®9ǮՊ oeS QhSu Aoy Xuy wT No9u¯qu

v NNSmq. 23 u 29 IzOE 1993 u yXNOEo

yrǯoeq wlq. oe뇮 bw CroeNي qoT ®Nي bSq Aڇ

NuTl Swoe9uu.

 200 ǮSǮ oeuwOEu AOyg uw S®9Sm

1008 y9ws rs9Nw w oeN NyOE Soeu. Au OEoeu

uy, wv抮, wuq q oeﰊ uOEu dwSu

Awqws vu qvOEu NOE yur  mqT yb

ywʊSq٪. v ¯Su y y䊮®u oe u Sl Cu.

oe oe뇮 NXS Lp劮 oe v, wlw v q oeu

vu u® wSu Nl Bvws dw oeq oeq

S x9oqow݅oeu. NyOE Bvws r SQ q

 

XN wݡSmu OE Xuws, wws

SoeSu OEoeu uNh, uy, wuq q y9ws uOEu

AwN S NoS. Cw NOE bOEx u Soew oe

oe뇮 OOE vu qvu wOETu. u 1940 108

yS xS xvÇOE dn9uۊSmu y䚮q Bu®xN 

w㚮vu q wNoSq٪u.

oeﰊ v劮 Nyh v As ul vu Nl

1008 rws v bqي uw oeru Aqq

NOE x9oTu. NyOE rws r Sl q

oex ulSmu woeN NqwTu. Cuu OEoeu

uy, X氚 rs9N, wuq, oe, yur q bOEw

SoeSw u9oeu. S®9Sm ¯Su Sm yX uy,

OE Bvws, yXOEoeu ru Cuw yrS. Hl¯Su

Sm y9ws, Sl Ouu Xuy® vu 

ru yXOE y9ws q rws SoeSuۊ y9ws

vu  r9u oeu Sl Cu.

C uq Avw woS q D u  Ku qwuǮ

oe NhlwOEu. 1987 u¯n Sl r9 y yrǯyw

oeq wu.

 ju xoeu劮 Xuws v YN oeS XNwu

NhlTu ( yw: 1904) S®9Sm OEoeu oe, wuq, uNh,

X氚 rs9N q yur qu Auu dwS q

Su Gl, uXN, ǵl ¯w q uo

qS NoS.

 

԰Ǯw ه bw m9S ySou劮 Xu dwu As

Xuy® rs9N uw oeu抮u Sl OEy®Nu

EOERq oe뇮 gNo u®nuywu oeﰊ q銮 2447

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