Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories  of DANACHINTAMANI

CHAPTER-1

CHAPTER-2
CHAPTER-3
CHAPTER-4
CHAPTER-5

oew 2 w Nw 3 ǮS u ® rsNw o

v m vu.

Soeu®ww Kyu SSw yd NXS S凮 u®w

bw xN q oe cw qyt Eyw vS Swoe.

u¯l - SuS - oe dOES bwwOES

NwhN u¯N Croe yy bw u® xu yq, Su w

oe Ǯ oeS Squu. uOw Aqq yryuw N r,

oew, oeu q oe uOEu wﰇ S Awǯw D u®

N xmu Awy NlS. A dwp qqwSu wmw EuSN

y u® Sxu劮 u®bSrwݺ h lru. oeu® w懮q

q HOE u®S Eyw r. D v xou APq

uS, rq S, Tu Pq bw q bwX q

qu mu u¯N q x dwyuw YqwS. CS

NN Au®㇮w , ww q Awǯw AqSq, Aq wc u®wS

CSw AOErݚu B Nu u¯N qow wuiԚqu.

dwS r, N q SvÇu rsNw yrǯyw

Nwlwmw NOE yuN u oeqي NlSTu. Au wmw u¯N

wq Ǯo u l iԊ wOE oe  B BuuTu. ww

u® Eyu®S oeh - AS wl qw Aqw NymNm bw

u®u  SS yr u® yﱇ oe yloeuu Ǯ

Sr. uwvw uOw q A ypNqw  q ' yފySoe

dw' H EOSwT N xuwT r u u®u

Aqu uqN. N oeu®S dwu®u qqSw yq㣮 yT

AmNl yrيu qٺu oeS̢N. HOEl ȳqT

 

oeYoeT dwr oeS S Xw wl cw NOEbqS Awq

. N xuq xou ww uwSmS wǮTuۊ

Nw wS Avw u¯N q dN uNw A Yqw

uQOEST.

Bu®xN w¯S y¯ oeS uOEu dN S qvuT

u¯N BX XS oeySw ylr. qqދnT bw u®u

qoSu APq vS rN uOw wOE NNo NS®u

AlT oeSrيu oe PuNu Sr. BuS dwu Au XqwO

q Yqw y䰊n uqN T u®vyN Aډu o

yryu dwS ywdѰqSrيu q q q ATu.

D OEQwu u¯l, SuS q oe dOES oe bw yo㣵qS

NlS u oeOETu. D ڡSw AwN yqw vS q OE wS

CvS q  wݢNmu AwylNu Sr.

Aw

wS 'A⇮w ' Hu NOEu NwhNu yu

AwqwSu ǮNh q NOEo XN cS Q ASTu

bwu®u Ewq zjT q. Au Cu cwSu Nu

ww oecwu Blru Ku ASoeTq. C劮 wws

v yqwuu. uSu ¯STuۊ u®wS ANʊ

y®T ywqwSru. S®Sm 22 w rsN yu⛰w

wws r, Fu w uq uu Bvws Soe,

xN yws, XuS q u®w, q yuru q

X氚 rsN oeS YqǮNT.

w全

 

S YyYqu yyc 108 Ar oec r

Bvu yxqu ڡu. C Ouu Ku bw vu.

Su

u¯l wSvu N I S xoeu劮 Su ( Su ) Ku

o NS. Cw bw v u® yoS ww dwrSu

Bqيu NqT yws q q yur BNǮp

NqwS. v u O.. 1045 NOEo XN Kuw 抮wN

uu dwwvu. Cu Au®㇮wq oewݰlw AvÇ凵 " whN

OE" xouu EOEQu ru vu. Nwl whN Croew

oe uN Nl D OEz AqvuTu.

Z ( ®wy )

oe뉱u Hh S Aqu劮 S K yQ bw

NuSOEu. bw uxu Blru C I dwSu. Bu

DS C Ku uS qu. oeqي NyOE q OEoeu dwrSu

zju Ǯu zS S q u®q⊮ Sw rq.

Fq NOEo XN uSu cvq, r®w , Nu ou

q u oeuw OEwS oem. oelu  qiq

dwwvu. O.. 1068 OEOEQu bwX NwNwv OEQw

qw N yo yn muuw rqu.

AuSY

oe oewSN oevNmq AuSY Croe yhS " Au®㊮

Nc " Hu Niu. Au®㊮ q Nc Hu ys rsN Bvwsw Ǯ

oeu q AS ڡu AsOETu. Cw oeuNu

NyOE Soew ycw " uly " wu Aru ® ®Oىu Noqي.

 

Bu Cu Bvws dww Soe . AwN 抮N oe uqNqS Dqw q

yXqT. oe뇮 u® NlS bw uu ww oeN N

AǮSw wloeu.

lT

AuSYS Ar Ar ﱰyu劮 D OSw K u q bw u®S

w懮 qTq. SuS Sl w X氚 rsN

AuXuu r Swu. Cu 21-5-1977 u Su OE

Bou ®ﱇ Oq. Soeu yuzjuw A S T :

w Uu ® q |

xy Xu Sou |

xOr wu yq |

ov ryr rN||

Y ®xN |

NnSp yw wSo Sl ||

 X氚 w |

xy oeOE zu ||

D yuu EOERqT yw oe顮c ulwNwTuw. Dqw

NNTw wSo Slw oeu SvNTuwwOETu. BXq ٧

108 u®Ǯo x oec CS µiq D dwrS yw NN

xlOErݛu.

Sy

oe - SuS Su劮 Szއ yqu Ku o oe

ﱰyu Szއ ®ASqu uquwOEu wNz yws

 

rsN Soe v rTu. oe woeu D r

XuoeT oe bw u®u wOESw Sr wTu.

SlS

yy oeN Nu l 抮N Ar oerي D ڡu yYw

bwvvu. O.. 1078 wu NN oeu 抮u

xou Bwb vS h uwx rqu.

ﱧNi

y䚮q Ku NSTuۊ K Tu yu Fu. yPq

NOEo XN u Bw Nvqw N oeS Nuc Hlw

cN yhuu OE u Nuw (wu) cu¯xwT

mNl Bru yuu. Cw u Ng uruwOEu Bqيu

yws rw Su wlw Xq㩇u zOETu.

NUhT

C Hl dwS. ul vw q wu yYw oeq

Au⚮x rws rsNw r ®Nي Now qpu. u

w N Nu NOEqN poe Nl q y¯ Yqي oe

oeNT. Hl - yS NT  Hl  AmSqيu Ny

oeS q Ql̚x yws SoeS. ANou Zp uT

Nlv Ch Nu BNǮpTu. vu HuSl YN

Slu µrw dwoeuu NޚOETu.

uNu u Bu®xN r xqu YN v ڢ u¯N

ybӇ NoeTu. S®Sm yu⚮w oeS Ql̚w N yws

S. ul v yrǯzOEu q S S Q u䇮

Bw rws  Ar woeTu.

 

NUhT qq٪w OEOEQS AwN uw urه Sw xl.

q H FNi Bw Nv q ( O.. 1125 ) w

oeyu¯w oeXwN q X  wu q NwNy

Hw w ySl ⚵iuu dwS xo oeS xmu

®uwu Sw r. Aq 뇮 w ( O.. 1125 )

oeXwNxu rws vS u urهw ru. Si

Hw FXm S Nu ym uw ( O.. 1147-

1148) w Uovu u ®uww ru.

NUhT qOw TSi Su xSwSl yi oeu 22-6-

1989 NNw Ql̚x yws r ur u. 130*67

.. Aq D Soe wl woeNTu. Cuw 12w

qwu D ¯Sw Bru NOEo XN㊮ lNTu S

Nu NuۺuT SrOETu.

SS

dwu® NN O䇮q NoeToeu SS oe  O.. 500 uuo ¯qu BToeu xSoyur vSqu Nq NrNN u¯n Bu¯xݪ

Nooeu.

INq oeS Ao yuS vSwT q cwuhnlS

qlw ('IN yN') u®OETrvq. D So 'yx Uu

Nlrvq.

(indeed, the history of jainism is rather remarkable for the almost

total lack of doctrinal accomodation between sects that has taken

place over the centuries, espiecially regarding the issue of nudity.

There was only one apparent compromise movement, now long

 

extinct, that probably flourished in Souta India circa A.D.500. literary

evidence indicates that monks of this sect, known as yapaniyas , went

naked in the forest but wore a single piece of clothing (ekaphalaka)

when in populated areas.*

N I Hl OEwS (O.. 1230) D Aw vN.

yx Uu NvSou rﰊ u vow C Aoeq.

CSu Cw ww dwwS Fl oem. dwu qOE

yu⚮x rwsw duw. uܺq uwN rsN q

X氚

jaina path of purification : padmanab S. jaini (1979), university of

california press, berkeley, Los Angeles, London

rsN NqwS yYw uQOEST.

CrٰXS Nu crs xS yǮ BX N®Ǯo

xoec v Buuq crs oeuzju ySru.

Aq N®Ǯo Yq® ⊮N vÇ xqSru.

SSu xoeu oSS oe vS qOEqr.  Siԇ

qu u®ws rsNw yrǯywSu.

qlNl

tSrي dwu Ql̚x yws q u®w

oeﰊ rS. K dwTu y䚮q T ylT

NOE抮 Sm Swoeuu. Cu S®Soe q Aqu T lS

OEhu wu dwroe. Au Hl- l (Sl)S NT

u Xu (O..1282) Nu Nw݊uw A Buu S vN

uxu v xo q 'Xuw Ǯ ycw NOEoNT

Xuws rsN ٰq' SrS.

 

NhT

yqw uS yoT oeSuq ycw B q

ybӉuT XNu ww vu xoSmu. S®Sm

yws, wws q q yur Auu S. oeSl

ywsw Ǯ ENqwu ǮoQ q i -plx

qT ws, Ǯ®u, yu¯w Xqr q AǮ dwruw

Nooeu.

OEN

1969 u zqu Ǯ® rsNw vu oeﰊ q

yur u rS.

oe

oe뇮 uuuq  u¯N uµw Awq yrي

ydwvS yYw AYw u®bSr NqST. oewSu

oeuwu劮 yXoevS ®Nي wuu u¯N

YqwoeSw݆. NXS S凮 Bvws vw 1940

ywxo lOEq. xoeu NXu q v ANNT

NOETu. oeﰊ v rws v Mqي u u

ASu SlS OE dwyS dw qٺqw q ®Sw oe

Nbw xw oeNT xz YqNOEu. Au C u® oeu

w dwS Arvu dr. Cw Xuy® rsNw uS

Xww㚮 q w oev. 'uw uuoe' EOهwwrي

Ǯw ه dww oeﰊ q銮 2447 (O.. 1921) NhOEq.

oeﰊ Lp (yw: 1904) dwu Auu dwrSu Gl

oeq, uo q, uXN q q ǵlNo qS.

Prq cwSu Nu xqu oe (oe oe)

oeyqwu Awqwsw v㚮xvÉu. oe N Aynڇu D

v  1100 ǮS vw bSgw wloeu. rsNw

yuzju 'yx U, Nl So' u EOEQu. v凵 12w qNu

oe抮 OEyru. CrٰYw ®ASqu uq dww AwsT

vu. oerيu yws rsNw v NuT ybvS wr.

oe wSvu Arxoeu劮  OSu oeuT Nhԩh

v yws q qT Shw rS.

oe

bw--Ǯ u®S Eqw qu. dwvu oequ BNǮp

Bw Bvws Soeu. wws dwvu 50w Nq x

®wv oec xu®u ®vu wq.

u¯l

oe ǮSu dnڇu oeOEyu Bvws rsNw

ww v vwN 30-3-1983 u yXNOEo vÇ ¯Sw ylq.

yYw u®w oeﰊ, Aqu wrsNw oew

Hrٟmv u®XN r q 'uv uq' S. wr utxu

XN oeﰊw Sm oeNTu. Au C q bwv Cu.

oe ®Suu oerي OEw yx U, ywS

Sow ru. C yXOEoeu dwru yqهTu. D ¯Sw

11w qwu bwru hԊ Bruۊ.

xSiԇ vu xoSrvq.

Nʺm

 

NwmS Nop, q, uwYqp Ar oe NwhNڊ

wq. XN g Boe, q䉱, qdNypq Kh

wSuw K lvT, Nʺm c¯ lru S ApS

m q qT q Nq ww B䇮u¯qT w

sNSNl yv Aru xh oedw Nwl

NOE EqٺS ST ru. B oe ®O, Mu, Mwq,

, u®xǵ, uw, , ® SoS C .

oedwu Qhy Tu ¯ hyu wlSS OE

ANq wqSr YqS. S®Sm u®woeﰊ rsNw

cwwTw. HN TOET uu XqQ oew ul q

r u yqڢS rNw oeS NOExSw qǮS.

ﱰyu劮 bwvu uS (wSu)T

yhSmu PuχTu. zju u yws rsN

Soe ڡyhT Eu wSoelwݡ zju Su. Nʺm uSS

lTq A dwwS BS BTu. NOEo XN C lSw

w (O.. 1007) Aruu oedw xo oeS uwS

q Adqws you 2 yuSw KSmu. NX u u (O..

1173)w w Soxv Nwxu vS u o uww q NOEo

XN 4w 抮 (O.. 1185)w w iSu wz v

AǮu¯XwS u ouww rq.  12w qNu wu

"uNu¯ dwu r®w rN rws uS uwOE xw

uw"w qٺu w vS bwu®S yXuu USOEuu

U uSou Quxuu Soeuww Aoe.

SuS

 

Nqyu yoS NiԊ N N㚮w N㚮r

ﰊwow SuTw Hl Bu®xN bw vS qOErيu Awu

Sr. 1914 xqu NXu LOE Scr bwysu yws

v q m u®S  Hl uNS u xoSl

oeﰊy® v BNǮN يXw Nvu Nm.

Ny

SuTxu N Ju O. ﱰ. xoeu NSu h w qvw݇ OE

 10 AmSqيu NqT rsN rvu, OEZw

AǮTu. Cu v ǮNh Nvۊoeuu Cwݺu

wu Bw dww Xu¯S wl N yǮu OE mw. Cu

zj AǮ oeYoe݇w oevu. D NoeSu dww u®w

rsNxoeuxݚu. C凵 qiq dwwu vu. Au xv NS,

wSNS q Nhu S.

l

u®OE--u®yu Croe yhS yuu bw, u,

u¯N Nuu. Ng KSlu v qw dnڇw qy Au

dASoew N Hl ǮS u Nʺm dq  SoeN

TOEq.

NOEo XN㊮ bw u®䇮w r wS F oem. D

Su yPq ulօy uu KSl wT dwr qoNSw

D OEQNw Nlw.

wSu

brǮu ys Nwl Ssu ySpiԊ 'bq rN' q

'Xuy¯ Xq' NrSw Yu bwN u®Xw (O.. 1049)

 

wSuuw. DqxS yuuu®, cwN u®, Suyu, uu®, ¯ xq

q u®rN uOEu ww uSu.

 Hh ǮS u xh u oeﰊ ﱰd

q bwvu r Cv wyulSwݡ yu⚮x

yws rsNw q S dr.

wSu

ycw oeNq Cw Xuy® rsNw bOEx

v  700 ǮS Croeu. Cuw CrٰXS wNOESru.

v XuwswvS uNh q yXyS Auu OEoeu

ES.

ه Hlv bwqww vÇ wlNOEv hy

u w㚮u oeq ٺ®S q NyqSw oevu.

wu AǮ rsNw ru F KSl AwsT pw

oeuToeSru.

No؊

y¯ wv ul  No؋w ǮNh wqwu u

wyqS uOq, Nwlu BvSs 'NcS' oeS dwu®w Eu۰u

'yݰqي qN' SsS Nq9 q Bvyou XwNu ®Su

dwwX yǮw Bu XNr uw AUǮ (O.. 815-

877)w ulwNwu Nww Nw O.. 8600 Niԛu dw

y抮 T yqwSmu.

S®Sm Q yo doSmu. Bu qw㚮 qNu

wqNru Nmu oe顮  w㚮 vw Nhl w wwzqu.

wǮT Qhyu wT u抮yN, yu⚮x dwr

 

q Soyr qu SoeS xqT oemNm. X ¯hy

Slqu N®Su Nmu. oeuluu dwwu OES q S®Sm

T OEhu rsNw Soeu uu zj q qo uu

rه Ayyu  uNǮNS.

Ezw hS

1008 yws rsNw oe v S®Soe q qu Qhyw

q oevu ®Nي u¯N qǵw yru.

SmS

pw SlS t Xq㩇u u抮v凵 rw yuu懮S.

S®Sm yws, Xuws, XqQ q OEoeu X氚

rsN oeS q yur SoeS. ASu lu AǮ

qou rsNw ru.

Nw݊

oe v T No⊵S u® YNuu XNu 1008

Bvws rsNw ww B xoSru. S yuu凵 qiqu

Hl dwwSw Nooeu.

ul

qOE rws rs9Nw v u®yuSrي

NOE yXyS. Au yur yr Ǯ

y9ulvS rNqcxu wru. D uS  w uNSǮ

oeu.

q y䊮

 

tSm v yNSyv yu⚮x ®Sw

u®9w oeﰊw oeN E, Xq9r rs9N q Ql̚x

Xq9Q dwSoeS. B dnuڊw xru.

oe

NqT9 y9ws rs9Nw NyǮu OE d Ayyu

NǮxݪ wloeu. vw 1971 NhOEq.

NSu

yqw y9ws v No XN u Cm cSuNw

A OEzvu O. .1145 oe ly vw x9 xmu

®uw w q wSXu ®gԊN vu ENw rqu.

N

yyc q®uoec oe Ǯ㊮ AðǮuq q yc

108 Bwu xoec dwp y䰊nq qw Nu 20 w

rsN, q抮z yu⚮x xqwsw yr u®u凵

Nw xOESrي v yrǯywSu.

i

vS xo Croeu yQu bSq Nu u. K

®Ǯoy䇮Tu y䚮q N oeSrي v Nhl wmqoeu.

v yw SmSy, NǮ u Nm S®Sm, Nh

rSu Nmu wS, oe顮 NOEw wwzS q Aqu bu®S

q Qhyu. q u oeT y¯ vS NOE

Xuws rsNw u. Q hyu Bqيu ywsw Ayo

Nqwu. Nw NǮ ru. Avǯwu oerي xǮvN q OEwS.

 

u®u®S u¯N u܉u wٺ® yw, X氚 rsN, wv抮,

wuqS, q yur r, Xuws oe q oe

qu SoeS yl Cw vS µ qvu.

Ag

®yuu INTr o bwSm Awq XqǮԉ

yws rsNw Soeu. Cuw XN ¹, w㇮xǮՋ q

cwqx Nvqw OE OEQu q x NwNXu䊮 y䰊nq SS

iԇ O. 1045 ®Nq q銮u yǮ  uu x uwqw.

Nwmw Ec ȳrN yuu dq ur

A㊮q'rSwlwl' 抮. yS 300 cu¯xT BvN yyw

wOElT, q oer lT oeS yQ yYw bwu®u

NuSOEuT YډTu. APq wS q Q v, Awqws

v, rsv, Nʊ v, cwݰcw v, SSym v, u® dw,

X v, c v, oew v, u v, Bwb v,

SṪ v, yX v, i v, So q rws v uOEu 772

dwS 抮 oeS Au qq٩ yu Aquuu EOEQuۊ

H NS®u oeuToeT y䚮q rNS wl Su uwl

vS q Hu Swoe.

مou劮 yQq Qv (ulօv) As oeNh dw 抮u

Croew  8wqwuǮ uN Nl Fw

wy9Tru. Cu XN u NOEwNu ywdѰwSl

ww uOEnSw Nmu. BuHuSl wٺ®u. SlS

bu®Suۊ CqqS凮-, q㇮w oe9 Nw

 

xz N uyrS u® ¯®TS, Tq wqSr9 u NqwS

wq. yuܚoe䪺Suq D vu Sou oe䪺Su INOE

Ay9 NOEXq9vu Nmu. wSu u®nu, yur q

q bOEx urS®OuqNT. v

uKNhluAwN bwrSwAmOETu.

Cqoe Awy oeS JroeN oeqwݡdwN AwN coecq

ycw®SS Ǯ uwyy oeqw uۊ.uXN

Awu HlwyN(H) Nu Aw lN uN u

uSOHxu ®uw.wvqwN(O..683) BXrN

u®uXu®yuuq v u qESSOE- 300

yqu oelTOE S,cvqwN (O..723)(OE) S q

uދNwSxu® ymqS Nu SSv.HlwNvq

wN(O..735)oe 䰙Շ wr Su®dwN ®uw

xlOETu.SSu®q wqNHlwoe (O..968-969)w

SSNuydwwxcu ymqxS ® oeS S S̩

SlwSw Aq SSym Asq̺SHlw 抮(O..1078)w

Nu o (pN)ucN y w xuu®wwNooeu.

uoeo(Uou) (O..1199-1247)wN oeyu¯x

YuwScu Hc vS oeSuXuu

(O..1271-1312)w BN嚵 qyu⇮Hrws uS

uwquT ruqu.yPqSSu uxqw S qNqxqwu

PqwuNʊ Asq Ǯʊw Nʊ v SS dww xuw.

cwSu w q ws oeS Q dw BSS u

uS ONl yoew NlNluT ru qu.

 

AwNwN yNl bw ymqX㊮ 抮w q N

wwT mNl yxqTuۊ. uXu ®gԊN, NnX, yu⚵w,

r®w Xu ymq q uX uOEu BX㊮ yS

Prq cwSu Nu xqu oe (oe oe)

oeyqwu Awqwsw v㚮xvÉu. oe N Aynڇu D

v  1100 ǮS vw bSgw wloeu. rsNw

yuzju 'yx U, Nl So' u EOEQu. v凵 12w qNu

oe抮 OEyru. CrٰYw ®ASqu uq dww AwsT

vu. oerيu yws rsNw v NuT ybvS wr.

oe wSvu Arxoeu劮  OSu oeuT Nhԩh

v yws q qT Shw rS.

oe

bw--Ǯ u®S Eqw qu. dwvu oequ BNǮp

Bw Bvws Soeu. wws dwvu 50w Nq x

®wv oec xu®u ®vu wq.

u¯l

oe ǮSu dnڇu oeOEyu Bvws rsNw

ww v vwN 30-3-1983 u yXNOEo vÇ ¯Sw ylq.

yYw u®w oeﰊ, Aqu wrsNw oew

Hrٟmv u®XN r q 'uv uq' S. wr utxu

XN oeﰊw Sm oeNTu. Au C q bwv Cu.

oe ®Suu oerي OEw yx U, ywS

Sow ru. C yXOEoeu dwru yqهTu. D ¯Sw

11w qwu bwru hԊ Bruۊ.

xSiԇ vu xoSrvq.

Nʺm

 

NwmS Nop, q, uwYqp Ar oe NwhNڊ

wq. XN g Boe, q䉱, qdNypq Kh

wSuw K lvT, Nʺm c¯ lru S ApS

m q qT q Nq ww B䇮u¯qT w

sNSNl yv Aru xh oedw Nwl

NOE EqٺS ST ru. B oe ®O, Mu, Mwq,

, u®xǵ, uw, , ® SoS C .

oedwu Qhy Tu ¯ hyu wlSS OE

ANq wqSr YqS. S®Sm u®woeﰊ rsNw

cwwTw. HN TOET uu XqQ oew ul q

r u yqڢS rNw oeS NOExSw qǮS.

ﱰyu劮 bwvu uS (wSu)T

yhSmu PuχTu. zju u yws rsN

Soe ڡyhT Eu wSoelwݡ zju Su. Nʺm uSS

lTq A dwwS BS BTu. NOEo XN C lSw

w (O.. 1007) Aruu oedw xo oeS uwS

q Adqws you 2 yuSw KSmu. NX u u (O..

1173)w w Soxv Nwxu vS u o uww q NOEo

XN 4w 抮 (O.. 1185)w w iSu wz v

AǮu¯XwS u ouww rq.  12w qNu wu

"uNu¯ dwu r®w rN rws uS uwOE xw

uw"w qٺu w vS bwu®S yXuu USOEuu

U uSou Quxuu Soeuww Aoe.

SuS

 

Nqyu yoS NiԊ N N㚮w N㚮r

ﰊwow SuTw Hl Bu®xN bw vS qOErيu Awu

Sr. 1914 xqu NXu LOE Scr bwysu yws

v q m u®S  Hl uNS u xoSl

oeﰊy® v BNǮN يXw Nvu Nm.

Ny

SuTxu N Ju O. ﱰ. xoeu NSu h w qvw݇ OE

 10 AmSqيu NqT rsN rvu, OEZw

AǮTu. Cu v ǮNh Nvۊoeuu Cwݺu

wu Bw dww Xu¯S wl N yǮu OE mw. Cu

zj AǮ oeYoe݇w oevu. D NoeSu dww u®w

rsNxoeuxݚu. C凵 qiq dwwu vu. Au xv NS,

wSNS q Nhu S.

l

u®OE--u®yu Croe yhS yuu bw, u,

u¯N Nuu. Ng KSlu v qw dnڇw qy Au

dASoew N Hl ǮS u Nʺm dq  SoeN

TOEq.

NOEo XN㊮ bw u®䇮w r wS F oem. D

Su yPq ulօy uu KSl wT dwr qoNSw

D OEQNw Nlw.

wSu

brǮu ys Nwl Ssu ySpiԊ 'bq rN' q

'Xuy¯ Xq' NrSw Yu bwN u®Xw (O.. 1049)

 

wSuuw. DqxS yuuu®, cwN u®, Suyu, uu®, ¯ xq

q u®rN uOEu ww uSu.

 Hh ǮS u xh u oeﰊ ﱰd

q bwvu r Cv wyulSwݡ yu⚮x

yws rsNw q S dr.

wSu

ycw oeNq Cw Xuy® rsNw bOEx

v  700 ǮS Croeu. Cuw CrٰXS wNOESru.

v XuwswvS uNh q yXyS Auu OEoeu

ES.

ه Hlv bwqww vÇ wlNOEv hy

u w㚮u oeq ٺ®S q NyqSw oevu.

wu AǮ rsNw ru F KSl AwsT pw

oeuToeSru.

No؊

y¯ wv ul  No؋w ǮNh wqwu u

wyqS uOq, Nwlu BvSs 'NcS' oeS dwu®w Eu۰u

'yݰqي qN' SsS Nq9 q Bvyou XwNu ®Su

dwwX yǮw Bu XNr uw AUǮ (O.. 815-

877)w ulwNwu Nww Nw O.. 8600 Niԛu dw

y抮 T yqwSmu.

S®Sm Q yo doSmu. Bu qw㚮 qNu

wqNru Nmu oe顮  w㚮 vw Nhl w wwzqu.

wǮT Qhyu wT u抮yN, yu⚮x dwr

 

q Soyr qu SoeS xqT oemNm. X ¯hy

Slqu N®Su Nmu. oeuluu dwwu OES q S®Sm

T OEhu rsNw Soeu uu zj q qo uu

rه Ayyu  uNǮNS.

Ezw hS

1008 yws rsNw oe v S®Soe q qu Qhyw

q oevu ®Nي u¯N qǵw yru.

SmS

pw SlS t Xq㩇u u抮v凵 rw yuu懮S.

S®Sm yws, Xuws, XqQ q OEoeu X氚

rsN oeS q yur SoeS. ASu lu AǮ

qou rsNw ru.

Nw݊

oe v T No⊵S u® YNuu XNu 1008

Bvws rsNw ww B xoSru. S yuu凵 qiqu

Hl dwwSw Nooeu.

ul

qOE rws rs9Nw v u®yuSrي

NOE yXyS. Au yur yr Ǯ

y9ulvS rNqcxu wru. D uS  w uNSǮ

oeu.

q y䊮

 

tSm v yNSyv yu⚮x ®Sw

u®9w oeﰊw oeN E, Xq9r rs9N q Ql̚x

Xq9Q dwSoeS. B dnuڊw xru.

oe

NqT9 y9ws rs9Nw NyǮu OE d Ayyu

NǮxݪ wloeu. vw 1971 NhOEq.

NSu

yqw y9ws v No XN u Cm cSuNw

A OEzvu O. .1145 oe ly vw x9 xmu

®uw w q wSXu ®gԊN vu ENw rqu.

N

yyc q®uoec oe Ǯ㊮ AðǮuq q yc

108 Bwu xoec dwp y䰊nq qw Nu 20 w

rsN, q抮z yu⚮x xqwsw yr u®u凵

Nw xOESrي v yrǯywSu.

i

vS xo Croeu yQu bSq Nu u. K

®Ǯoy䇮Tu y䚮q N oeSrي v Nhl wmqoeu.

v yw SmSy, NǮ u Nm S®Sm, Nh

rSu Nmu wS, oe顮 NOEw wwzS q Aqu bu®S

q Qhyu. q u oeT y¯ vS NOE

Xuws rsNw u. Q hyu Bqيu ywsw Ayo

Nqwu. Nw NǮ ru. Avǯwu oerي xǮvN q OEwS.

 

u®u®S u¯N u܉u wٺ® yw, X氚 rsN, wv抮,

wuqS, q yur r, Xuws oe q oe

qu SoeS yl Cw vS µ qvu.

Ag

®yuu INTr o bwSm Awq XqǮԉ

yws rsNw Soeu. Cuw XN ¹, w㇮xǮՋ q

cwqx Nvqw OE OEQu q x NwNXu䊮 y䰊nq SS

iԇ O. 1045 ®Nq q銮u yǮ  uu x uwqw.

Nwmw Ec ȳrN yuu dq ur

A㊮q'rSwlwl' 抮. yS 300 cu¯xT BvN yyw

wOElT, q oer lT oeS yQ yYw bwu®u

NuSOEuT YډTu. APq wS q Q v, Awqws

v, rsv, Nʊ v, cwݰcw v, SSym v, u® dw,

X v, c v, oew v, u v, Bwb v,

SṪ v, yX v, i v, So q rws v uOEu 772

dwS 抮 oeS Au qq٩ yu Aquuu EOEQuۊ

H NS®u oeuToeT y䚮q rNS wl Su uwl

vS q Hu Swoe.

مou劮 yQq Qv (ulօv) As oeNh dw 抮u

Croew  8wqwuǮ uN Nl Fw

wy9Tru. Cu XN u NOEwNu ywdѰwSl

ww uOEnSw Nmu. BuHuSl wٺ®u. SlS

bu®Suۊ CqqS凮-, q㇮w oe9 Nw

 

xz N uyrS u® ¯®TS, Tq wqSr9 u NqwS

wq. yuܚoe䪺Suq D vu Sou oe䪺Su INOE

Ay9 NOEXq9vu Nmu. wSu u®nu, yur q

q bOEx urS®OuqNT. v

uKNhluAwN bwrSwAmOETu.

Cqoe Awy oeS JroeN oeqwݡdwN AwN coecq

ycw®SS Ǯ uwyy oeqw uۊ.uXN

Awu HlwyN(H) Nu Aw lN uN u

uSOHxu ®uw.wvqwN(O..683) BXrN

u®uXu®yuuq v u qESSOE- 300

yqu oelTOE S,cvqwN (O..723)(OE) S q

uދNwSxu® ymqS Nu SSv.HlwNvq

wN(O..735)oe 䰙Շ wr Su®dwN ®uw

xlOETu.SSu®q wqNHlwoe (O..968-969)w

SSNuydwwxcu ymqxS ® oeS S S̩

SlwSw Aq SSym Asq̺SHlw 抮(O..1078)w

Nu o (pN)ucN y w xuu®wwNooeu.

uoeo(Uou) (O..1199-1247)wN oeyu¯x

YuwScu Hc vS oeSuXuu

(O..1271-1312)w BN嚵 qyu⇮Hrws uS

uwquT ruqu.yPqSSu uxqw S qNqxqwu

PqwuNʊ Asq Ǯʊw Nʊ v SS dww xuw.

cwSu w q ws oeS Q dw BSS u

uS ONl yoew NlNluT ru qu.

 

AwNwN yNl bw ymqX㊮ 抮w q N

wwT mNl yxqTuۊ. uXu ®gԊN, NnX, yu⚵w,

r®w Xu ymq q uX uOEu BX㊮ yS

300 Ku ¯STu wSOE ywݚw AS BTu NhXT yYw

bw uSu Ouu S®Sm q Evu NOE Ql̚x Ju oelSwݡ

yws rsNw  r oeS Bvws rsNw S

Aqq oeNT. Au OE Bw Xuws q OEoeu

yur SoeSw Nooeu.

wSOE

F wlw wor9 u ǮNh u ANǮ9

NǮ؊cu As9q m NǮw (O..939-967) u q Bqw SSm

96000u q cwu SS y9m cuqيS ®qw (O..937-960)lv

N-N xm As yuۅu O. 950 xoSl AwN

uwurهw ylvvq. q Cu bw v.  w㚮u wOE

oeqyo9u D rNgX NOEqu oeS Ǯ uST

y9iq. CuN Bu¯T wSu CNʩS劮 BqNu S®9SmS

 Hl AmSqيu zju OE 24 rs0N r9S u

yrǯziuۊ S qqw P㇮ SSw Nooeu. Au y䚮q

 

S®9Sm S oeS Hl S®9Sm Bw ⇵vT wor9

S.

ryqN As rynذ抮 uu wSu Slw

`wS' wOq wu Sl dwr9 l¯Sw q

Nooeu.

F vmօT-r Sm  Hl AmSqيu

wT Bw rsN oeS ﰊSOEu v.

ApS

-300 Nu w oeS S顮 ﰊOE塮w Eycu¯xTuoe

ApS yYwu yws vu. u yur,

Nǯmx q r u SoeSu oeN u®w oeﰊ

Ql̚x rws, yu y9ws q yǮuq, X氚

rsN, q yqq rsN, bm wSr9Sw oeS oeu

ww Nooeu. v oeSl XN uw q NSl

wz byNsT wu vu dnu܊ Sr q

oeuNʡ ®Nه OEQwq Nu Ǯw r wS.

SS ®qS mu dwuv wqTu. N凮⊬6Aw C

Xq㩇uw Niԛuw.

wN Sm Huw N® u XN Hlw Orw ww

oevu9 (O..751-752) Nw SvN bSwS

dww Niԛu Srw rqu

Bu® yuu NwSu dOES u SSu® Su  Sl

(w Sl) Asq S Sluw w ApS OE oe

Nw Xu. SSu® w (NN w ) Hu yNqT D w

 

¯v uOE Sl Nlyiu Nq Sno uOqwu oeN

yyw ApS bUw Su Ao q ðy uyrS

Nwu rOETu. oeq Ao XXϩ oeS q wu

ApS凵 N cw⚮١u ySpOETq. yyw q dw®w SSu®

wu NqTu NqswTw

h

oei h -300 ¯Su Ku yu JroeN qoTu.

No XN ®wN Hlw 抮w BN (O..1071) q

dw AquuuT ruqu. Au CrٰYwTu v yoT

tS Au m¯SSw m Fwl oev xoNʰS

ڡqOETu. y䚮q Nhl AyoTu. S®Smw dwrSu

 NSwݡ uzj qu OE USou EOEQu.

wu Nwyއw w N ulwN uww

ydN yuy䣯wSu u dwN uwqu Sru. Aq

" u®qu Nq wwx EOEQ NoSqu.

YX

SuS qN xSuu ﱰyu劮 D OS hSlSu

BqTu. oeSu ' Xuyw Sl' u Nl lu OE

AǮT SX vS PYqw ' Z Xur ' u

u® Sr yd. Cu bw u Ǯ Nh ® 1 w

AU Ǯw Nvu Pr q ڡu - 300 Ku ¯S

BTvq.

oe

 

SuS ﱰyu oe Sw OEzS ' yOE ' Hu

NOETu. oe bw u®u EX䇮 wOETuu NoeT  21

/ 2 AmSqيu AǮ yu⚮w rsN r oeS yws uw

wS y¯ ¯S q yNT vۊuw Ngԇu

Nooeu.

Su

NxNzNNu, q qN, ybw vwN, ®cw

YqwuN Ncww yvxc, oe, wqNqOE, vSu uOq

dwx wSS www ( O.. 1112) bwyuu Xy ' u®q'

w Yuu Suu凵. oe Nnvu Dqw wwu, ww

xuwu NiԊw. Aq " Suuu oec u®q

wru ®Szu u®r qyc NxNzN Nu " Hvw.

- 300 yqu Ku yQ ¯ST q٪w YX, NqNi,

xSu uOEu SSwݡSl Ah Su 12 HuT

Niu. ̺u, Su oeS oSu CuT wu

xSuuT NiԊl Swoe. Nwl, ȳq uq BX

ow 11-12 w qw Squ q oeyow Cw

dwu YuT ruqu. O.. 902 wu

XvNhu wSoN u 1 w wu䚵w, 2 w wu䚵w, Adqw,

NwNw ﰊw, Nw, q oe OqX oewx Syyw

EOERqu.

Slu w h w yqwu yws oeS Xuws

vS Aqq tOEڇ. Hqيu ywSwݡ XqQ Qhy

 

u oeSru Cw Awr Nu凵 wNXϪu. Aq Cq No oeqOE

A㚮T oem wSw Nooeu.

yws rNgXu SlS Am ǮNh u 2

w NǮw ( O.. 902-3) Nu qlu ȳq OEw wmw

Xu䇮w S yu YN xu v xo q Aw S

Axu u ®uw w rqu. S®SmS  S

uT. vw KoeNqOE rN S oeS

NNSqu. Au dw rSu uu S®SmS xqoewݺhm

E SiԚ qoN ulq. yO uS O v y

wǮuuT ru qu. Cuw oeOr x N cuq q

qۊOEmu Hu SqSqu.

yNu凵 y u Bvws uSu Q hyu N®u

OES Ar ®T Tru S NXNw Yqu. K

u抮S oenyiS yu⚮w rS Nqww Nooeu.

wu¯uq NwhN q wS®yw yr wuN

v懵 oevu FwSl Suu Bvws Soew O..

1675 yw yrǯzuuT ru qu. Au oSu CuT

KuS v wq D dwp qwݩ yuvS ®Sw

Sg抮 ﱇ xu®ulS BSﱛuuT Nl qu.

S

oe xoeu劮 S wS XSy, XS, S Hu

Niu. Cw ' i' wT qou yws

vuuT ru qu. C  oeqS dwwu AwsT vu.

NTw oeS wlw oeqS Acu܊T m c uyrS oeS

 

yuS vS xS u®yu l rي Yqou Sl

oequ dwr oeS ¯Su OrQu. cwSu u oeoew

Nu S N u®w wyr wow ( O.. 1317) Cq uwS

oeS Dqw qu q AcѺv C凵 OEQw qw NSl vo

ylu  SqSqu.