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Sub-Categories  of RAJASTHANADA JAINMANDIRAGALU

CHAPTER-1

CHAPTER-2
CHAPTER-3
CHAPTER-4

RAJASTHANADA JAINMANDIRAGALU

9. Bw u v 

oNyu u uSw wmu wq Au EuyN Suw qlmu y lS x. Cu AhN Su ®.

D l Nl q ul yho. Cw mxu N 200 h uuu u q vu. whvu B Bm qTw劮 D vu Su x qNquq. vu BSou Ku auu. D auu N x u Squq. HS Squu Sqq Cw yq Cq.

D uwuS rwsw Aqq uu 75 .. Hqيu q Aq yu⚮w r Cu. Cu y¯ w ǮT S K BoSw Sru. Bou AYX  yiN ٺ®S S rsN rS. K Bo Q r w quu, Xu¯S, uqS S Hl BwSw vu, D BwS wl, ﱇ q  Nl Cu. Cuu Ayyu y¯ w㚮Tu.

D lvu  Ku w O.. wǮ ypu Su Bl; D Bl Nl ul F. Cu BhN SN. Auu, byS Nlu w  D ԰Ǯww CN.

B lxu BhS劮 vlN qݩ O.. cww CSST A yqpw  hS Byq Ku. D h ShԌ Euu EwqTu. hu  NlSuۊ w y UhS, As yn− wlw Ui NlǮ uhu EwqS Nl Cu. (As As Nl Cuu DS S ySmu.) D yq uuhvu 1220
h Hqيuu.

D h N wyq. ShԌ Cu ȶ  A XuNl N S. vl, A, AXSl®, AS yQu S. C NǮ cwr Cu. Buۋu Cw݌ Kh Ku yµ muۊ. Cuw `Byqu wS yN'' Hu NSqu. CS yr y D wS yNS q y y qS xlN. Cu D wS yN Q Bu.

D Byqu bw S vN ȳrS u BwN
uS. bqS, u Ju QlS mNm 䜮N `D拰 u㩇' ڇ Aq󰇮 Nuu. D Nuvu, CS u D hu yu xS dw xn wlru Hu qySu.

Pq bw vSu D hS w `vl' yuu. Buۋu CN `vl v'Su Nqي.

vl bw vS Kh B. AS D Ju Ku Oou:
1.   v
2. n  v
3. zq٩ Bvws v
4. Nq  v As ywq v
5. ﰊ v

D u vS uw l u qu Jrw ro.

ڡyo

bw wN yN ys rsNwu Bvws As Ǯ®wsw S ®q XNr C v Niԛ Ǯ®wsw XqQ yrw yrǯzuwq (Cuu `yYw u' wN). bw S D hw `AuX' u `Au T' Hu Tu, vw Nvu bw xSo CS v uwsT ruۊu, Ar rsN ﰊw qw qy懮T X lruS D AuTS vuwu qي. Bwq Nl  Ǯ qT CS vuۊu QT q bw wqي. `Ar qN' Hu Hl ysu bwu w㊯u ®u䄯 x (C w o̡u uqS mu) Yq `q N q' u Nl D qu EQuu Squ. 1

Bu D H JrSS QYqu wu¯S Sv.

Cw yu dwvu   vu劮 yr S l Nqq 抮Tu. D vu xyNwu r w AN w BvÚT BN Cw zS u yu ®S®u 2500 ǮSǮ yYwu Bvwq rw quq. Auwݰ vu yrǯzqq.

Cs Nqw N `Cuۊ CuN' Hu vS u. wS yQu Ku  yqwu Hu q cww S AuN yYwqw Nޚqu Hu ȳrN wcӊ Ay䇮 ylqي. B r yYwqw Nޚvuۊ wǮw C Huw w cw w wv.

D Nq q㚮qq Iw C, C Pq vS xoOʺq X Cuu bwrS qy®ﱇTvۊuuw ASr. Tvuۋu C Cs u vS xow Bwqu m uTu.z

oSu vS xouu S. uu Cw YNʄh (Nhy) bwxS qy®ﱇT, v ڡT yqxq. D yqqw Aq Xlw qSu h uw A qTu. y䰊nSl r Nrٛu; Au Ku vw Niԛu. xou ySð ZwT xq B ruT qtS Xu. vS xo u NST q q.

Bw vl Nl S bw qT v u®qw ASSv. T qS u S.

D vSS Av۰w R剱u x ®qٺq. Auw bu¬y yu lw x u®w S o (Cwݺu Nl C bl q S Hu u) H u dnu܊ m yw yrǯN wuq. D S Cu
wu.

wyr 

Dq u®, yPq ̊ S BTw y䅩 Sc c O u uw ðuw r S wyrTuw. ygu q Nw uq Hlw Cw Tq. DN cn, u® yo BTuۡ.

w Awqu yo u¯N dw wlq Xur yhou (Bl y) qlTuw. BS q ysu yPq BX㊵xNmu BX u®UǮ d AS K uS qw Nl xS A nSou dqSw mu uǮu y䇮qsT BSl®Tw Eu܊Sq u. AuN Nl Kzu  u ðuwvS Yu wq D AuXu v xoNT ڡu®wuS BX y䚮q ڡw B muq. Bu Aw 䜮o A bwquw z q vÛuq, q AvNvu B u®w ®T v Iw luTu  S l. Au uT  vw Ey m AN (Nǯmx) w u¯xuwq. BS BN Nww xmu Nquq Cw XyN u NS AS Bvwsw yYw ou yr uqq. (Cuw N xq yr Hu Srqي.) B yr Cu D vuu.

S yr uruۋu Aw㊮ u® qoSqu Noqu. B Nl vu xo B®q. 2

 v (Ǯ®u v) D vu xo B®uu O. . 1031. vwu w S S 1200 NN vw ǮS N umu w Nww D vu xow yu. yoT q S u xqu D vN Nu Nw Blxu vw S uu Ad H Fw yu劮 A hSu qq.
 

D v 90 Am ASTu 140 Am EuT.

D vl vSS Tw ىu ASm SS yNu u, r wx yiN yu抮 ui, w NY, N CqvSw Aw Nw勛 KS wlS, Aǵ԰N, KTw v OoS Sl C D  vu Nylw uhS Nl wS (Au cwu vSw wmuS) `' Huw Axݚv. Bu uSu Q u抮u ulw KS Aq S qouq Cvۊ, Nqw NS T xr ¯hy NpS u Nu quNlqSqu. BS A dwuw wuwwwݰ yuqSqu.

TS ylh KNʊ q٩ Ku q٩, wl ShywݡSl ul uS−C Noq. H Aqu ySlST.

q٩u Cyqݩ rsN yqN NǮS yrǯziuۊ. N rsNS Hll NǮS. Yqu  rsN q yuu yN nu C A yrw pw yu q. Smw yu凵 NpTu.
(cwu Cw Kul uSS Cuw Sxu).

D q٩u Kh Jqٰ uNǮS. Cu N NǮS Awqu ylS. D Novu N rsNS KuOʺq X NǮS ur.

D q٩u Si xq S®SmS u u u Ku Nl Cu. D Nlw  NS. NS u rsN r C NǮS SlS qTNmu. Cw݊l NS yo qqT xru w ZpS Bu¯Tu. Au− yr rsN Nu w qq NSuۺqq. D NSuT yr rsN Nu u 22 Kh w NSuۺqq. Cuu, Hl S ®wS ԇT. Au Kh 57X 2−114 ®wS D q٩u. ⇮u Ǯu D H ®wS KuOʺq Ku w݋r. NS w㚮 H Nl wSw C. Ku r劮  NSw w Nou. rsN NǮu v u ®w XygTuۊ wqu

(Au−Nlw Au®¯Su) ®w yh Au,  Hl. Hl Am Bu Shvu Nmu. S D q٩u凵 JqN X ShS. N N w ®wS q XygT.

Nlw D ShS BqNǮN w㚮S. Ku N, Cwݺu BwS, qٺu uS, N劮 NuSS wqO, qٺu D NuS Bw q q, Nl Nu S ®w拇 Nuvu Nʩ AmǮ Cvۊu, N ®wS Nqu yNu yiNS Nu, Sc CqvS, S u® NqwS C Nlq. qyiNS (beams) NNʊ, BwS , wqN, yo bmS, , uu E S Nlq. CS Nqw S q N, wcN, S yNrN Sw ﰤ AS Xww sqT S䟛 r (wcq), −C AuqT.

Cyqw NǮuuw wu¯q r S uS Nqww N q SwTu. Cu `P' q.

Hhw NǮuuw ®w拇 o qNuu A bwX㊮ u®w vÚruۊ. Cu q٩ C BqNu Nqw u® yiNS yyS, u® ou uqS, w㊮ SyT Nq D yXww Bw u® dSw Nrي r N w NuxS A®. CǵԺu BNrS CmOvNuT D y®Nu NqNqS ®S vu xc. Bu ou KSl d w Nu qNTuu BNrS wl ANu ڡ lu Au®Tu.

yws rsNw r C Nu Huw ®w拇 q  l C, Au® w S Au® y u u.

Ku ®w拇−AN rw q ST mTu. Cu r 11w Nu Huw ®w拇 vw S u࡮ Auq Nqw Nlqu. BYX N Tu xr yXO uqS wl Nr Qu  wN ou. Ewq NXSw  wlwS Cvۊ w, Ku bm u , Cwݺu Nw qw  lSw Yϊ wS; A® S T u䇮w qrي Cw݊l Sq Nqw wcNqw Hsw SSq. A凮 NS T K cw N Sǵ԰ ulT. qvu XY ESS xcu ESSw Hu ® iԚǮ qT. Eu NS劮 Bu®Su−o, y, AN, −uu H Bu®S H ¯SS Aǵ԰ yyoT Nq٩i. D u x wN, wq Tu , u qi, qu NwS, ® u®u rN, Ohu Nqw−S yru Au yyoq Hu Noru. ®O S N yoq uu Cs yo u®Su.

S qٺu ®w拇凮 wwu K u. AYX Xu¯p O u ®Tuۊ. CS O ulS Ku ju Bw Ǯ uluT Hu q Eq䰣u u. Hh NS D u Ku N N¯Suq XYu uTu. Euuۊ −o, XN, y, Ql, y S ANS. D uq Oh, Nn®o, Nj, w, wy Cqv h B®oS−S Iww H qSvS NqٌTu. Txq D u NoSw Yuۡ.  w u. Tx xz, Bwu D u Qu cTu.

Cw pq u w yhS qq. Bu Hǵ԰ ow Ku whu Aw® Nlu. DSS wmS D ow ywuwu Bwuw Nl u®.

C凮 wqٺuw Nu rwsxuw. Awuw u w ®w拇 Szlw lrي NǮxuw. wqٺ®qw Nuuw ®w拇 16 uS Nu u®u ww u. vw ®cS ww oNyw g rيq qTu. D ww q ESSw, oNy ﱚNluq Bqw Hl NSw NSw ww vÛuw, Bu®Sw q cxݚq Nruۊ.

K®qw NǮuuw ®w拇 rsNww uOw `yX No'Sw qTu. Cu Aqq Tw yiN cw Bw, s, NuS q pS (ouq) Srيuw qTu.

qw NǮuuw Zp ®Sw wwsw (Dq−bwyoS yN NǮxS Ao) uOw UhwSw  qS NqٌTu. NǮ, wws S NǮwp cOllrيu Yqo Ku quu. qٺu wwsw uSu i vou Nbw yzهw q E Nqwu. (wws−qw u uq yoTuS Auw qu vS quq.)

w݊lw NǮuuw Zp rwsw yXNou Nqwu−9w NǮuu Cq. Cu yNu Nuu ®w拇 Hh v uqSwݡ Ku Nu. vwʋu 17Tw w ®wS凮 yXNou uS C.

22 q 23 w NǮS yފ Ku ul NnTu. xS zS u ﱰyu uquw݌u rw C凵 CTu. C `o'u B E Nqw C Ku y®Nu Cw N rS D Nn. Cu yNu Nn Nǯmx (AN) u S䜮u. (NwhNu D uu S䜮S ur). DN N劮 w SXS Nqw q uTu.

qيlw NǮuuw ®w拇 Nv uw NǮw wN Nqwu. C NSww Au® w S Au® ywwT qu w u  lu. q I wTxuۊ. Cu Su yiN NǮ q u Slw Xlhlrيu Nqwu. N®Su Ku yiN Cu C ǮT NǮww NqٌTu.

wqيlw Nuuw Zp Slw  Nr `P', N q BwSw v , S r uu NqwS.

wq⊮w ®w拇 ⇮ Nuuu q٩ Cu AT, , , N uu vNީNu qiuۡ.

46, 47, q 48w ®wS ul Squ u uq rS. C qq, r q yur.

wqٺ®qw ®w拇凵 u u wxu.

Jqٺuw ®w 20 ¯SST Kliu Au rsN BX, S ®Nي NqwS.

yr NǮu u抮u q BNǮN u抮 yiNS, AhyiN h−H C.

S q٩w wl rS NoS upvq. w SSmq. Nqw D qS, yyNqS w XOqSqٰ. S q٩ rT w yw uSw yu u抮u qٰ. Cu w HuT Q uSw yN. q٩N D Q Ǯ®ws uSN wl qu yun y®su. Cu yb, EqvS u®u uqr pS m ASq.

D yu抮N HuT Ku Nl BwS w NqٌTu. D w凵 `Au®N' Cuۊ. q  yiNS S S wqO ®q NqwS. ®q− uu uS, w dN−Cw Nrي yiNS C.

D Q vu r Tw ¯Su−Shy. Cu q٩u wqu ¯S. Au−u抮w ui w uS Arq rSu uN wʊ b Ch wlu Su D Shy. Cu wq Cu wXO As wS. Bwqu Sl® hy As S®Sm. wS S S®Sm wl YNuu Aqu.

`Shy'  w݊l NS Ku ul b. C All֌T wʊq Kh  NS. BYX Cuw ȳqS q٩u Hl− ¯SN Tu. S T ¯Su , r S AN YqNǮN rSw NqٌTu.

D Shy (uo ¯qu uS XwS u Cuwݰ wSw݄N.) NS N Nqwu Nm. ٺ®u Kh Hqيu lu w Ku ¯S XNNTu Au S yq ulTu. ٺ®zju Nqw Nm. Kuu vOS Kuu yh rwݪ NqٌTu. CuOʺq w ¯Su yr vOw u® ®T  Ku Am Hqيu urSw NqٌTu. Cu  ulu ¯SuwqN uNSw w w yiNS NlTu. oNyu Shy, wXOS ٺ®S Ǯgʰw, AǮRTu X. Cw H NS ulT.

(oNyu u D v xou ݩ qwS wq Buu. CuOʺq wT S NhԄNuw xu®N AS uT D mq. Buۋu Cuw ﱋu w㚮w zN멱 u®q− Hu ¯u.) D NS  S uqS, wqN Au AX w㚮S (border designs) C. Nu w HlǮ Hqيu u qu vSS XYNm. Cu Bu¯u  NS wlw ANq qoS, N S qS wlw ڡNw ®rl LT Cu uxN S䜮S xr. S Nxw  xq uxN S䜮S Pㇵ Nl uSu. (N, ®wS ENqwST C N. yo ulT C Cu Nm.)  24 Cs S䜮S.

D Shyu AqNǮN ¯Su Cu u®u劮 يT Shu凮 ®w. D Shyu D ®w ShNBu¯ KuT. KuOʺq Ku YNuTu Ku uq bmiԊ Kh wݺu qS D Shu. D qS , S, BwS, Nu, qS, S, Cwݩ lmT NqٌTu. u®¯S Au u Nuq ¯Squ. AǵԺu ® ! Nuu w݊l qSvۊ  Au® Am Euu Nu SS !! D qu NurNuvu Cvۊ  Ku uǮ Euu q! D qw Ku u NqٌTuq.

D Shu vw uu rSw EuuT bmTu. C Aqq Tw (N¯Su) qvu Bw qu S XYNm. D uuS A ZwS. D vw rS uN S ovu Nmu Kuu w݆w ®T.

D Shu Nqw CmOvN C. w㚮S wl ASquǮ ڡNu Nqw Sw T  u®Sru.

D Shyu xq Hq Nnmu w q Squ. އ C. wST q Ay yr¯ yw S Sh u B yodS S Nx mqSqu. xcN, w u HǵԺu Aqwu!

N S wl yru qou Juu N rS. yr qo Kuu NqN ı勇ru. D w㚮u۰ Ku S. Shyu q D qoS. wXO.

wXO As wS D ShyOʺq  iԩSǮ Hqيu quu. Cuu 4x 3= 12 NS bTu. Zp K®q AqNu NqN NqwS wT NSq.

S®Sm u抮  yiNS NqwSu Nmu. lu u抮yNuۊ. D u抮u BYX Hl SlSu A凮 Bvws rS.

S®Sm K¯Su Sl cT Tu. (A Tuۊ yb l w S y.)

D uu SlSw NǮ NqwSu ANTu. Sy oNy As bⰊw dwvu Syuq EuTu . uT−Cw H dwvS SyS q yrq wS . Au XNNu qw vu N uq OuSq Sq. C  IoSw vu yr 凮 SySw v. Cuu−uvu wl D SyS T Cbwh yhyh SyS wq Noqu. qv yhuu BNu Au  Nu.

cw u bw vuS Sh K¯Su Hǵ԰ ANqTuۊ ¯Su q S r  NhlS Shu S wSu Nlqu. x Kuq qlu; uvu Cﱰ Nhluq ® iԚu−CS uuu, As Hl NoS CuOʊu.

NuST D ` v' xoSl w ǮS u dnu܊ Nmq. w wu ytyww D u Oou N ¯SSw uT u S N y NSw mu. Cu wluu O. . 1147− 49. uSu u抮uuw `' w Niԛuw Cw. C−XwT Sh, Eq ®T S Ǯu BwS q S䜮S. Cu y u抮u Aq Nlu cw yr Cu.

Bu D Sc yrS S w yr− H 1311  xN u¯ ul you wSh. w yrw DXS y嚮Ԋ By¬ y㋚xu ywdѰTu.

D Sc凮 Nl Ku ulu ou Nqw Cu.

D NNw O.. 1321 (Avw Rч u¯ q ǮS wq) Hlw S dnu܊Sq. Bwq w S 1950 u 1965 Tw vwu ǮS AvÇ 13. 82 yS Xu. D uSu 18 u 27 Tw q NǮSw Cq uSSw dnu܊Sq.

AuS -  Ku  ǮS u D uw NiԚ ㉱u oǮ Sqٰ? vwh Ni Jq⊮ yS !

n v

  vvu N hS uu, Cwݺu yNu D vu. O.. 1231 Cuw xq. Cuw Niԛu y q qcy H u. C Scqu O u u Cm ðuw rSTuۊ. AwN NuwS NSu D rS  dwSw Niԛu. AN NhԺru D v.

T D vu −`o  v'. S Auw NuN Nou. n Hw D C xyN u. Bq rNl N, Aw wwzST S qcyw yr Awyu, S o㛺− CS Au¯rN EwrST qcyw uq  D vu xo NSlw. ڢ y u xu ASqu ڡw yluNl, v Ni ySS ﱋu Xvu Cuw Niԛu. D vu yQ yr ®uww.

Cu Cyqيlw rsNwu wwsw v. Bu BS A zu wws S䜮 1311 Rч u¯ ®SSmq. u qٰ ǮS O.. 1321 q qNw B xw ym, (DT) rw yrǯz uSw yw ybrS qu.

C凮− Bou wl wws v, q٩ Ku q٩u.

q٩u Jqيl NnS. CS w (23−26) uT hS (1950−65)

D q٩u w㚮 yNu  vuuۺq Cu. u NqwS ®w拇, ShS K¯Su C. Bu AwǮ u®T. w㚮S ywqw wlvu. ANu Nqw u ®w拇u. 2 u 6 Tw ®wS , S, wqN, S CqvS. K®qw ®w拇劮u Sw. C Ku Nl−u, up, cXS. qٺul−u抮N wS Yqu. Cwݺul Tw dwvu ENqwu. BwS, uuN, NuS, SN−C劮w C NqٌTu.

wݺuw ®w拇w NqwS Sw. C NǮ cu® wlw u y䚮S S wwsw uOw N uS Yqou. 14 u 16 Tw  ®wS yws S rws rsN dw YqS.

19w Nu凵 Ku y®Nu. Cu Cyqw rsNwu xqw uOw Yqo mu. r NTw yiN uw Nruۊ. u®u yiN qrي lS, w, , BSq cXS. Cu u抮N Yqu.

23 u26 Tw (wxq) NS Ku wws S Bqw u® cr rS. Cwݺu AN , 26w Nu Ns rsNw yr C.

Q uSu ¯Su劮 q٩u ¯Su `'u. C uT Nqي q ANq BwS S䜮S. Aq D BwS yu vqTq NqٌTu. CS NS. uqSS O SS−CS Nqw q u. D Sc u®u ®Sw Bvwsw uu ul rvu. C凵 −y, qcy C Nhu u㊮S S䜮S.

wqݩw Nu rN rsN 72 S䜮S r Cu. Cu 16w qwu. 46−49w NS HuS Ku ul hyu q u NqwSw vu.

Q vu w㚮 vwuq−Shy, wXO S Sl®hy (S®S) Sxu KSmu.

Shy w㚮  vu w㚮w wwzu Cu AǮ ulu. NS A劮Ǯ NqwS. Cw NS XT PSw vu rS Nqw Nm Cu. Bu C BNǮNT. qoS Bu NS. wlw Shuw w㚮S  vu劮q Cuۊ Au Bw ylv. Bu D Shu Nuu qSvۊ Aq qTw Xw q Auquu. `A iN uS SySmuǮ T No D Nqw S, yNq, youq qu Awq H凮 No' Hu Cu S Eűuuۊ.

D Shu N AYw qu 360 bw BX㊮ rSw NqٌTu. Ar u Nqw, Cu w qu劮 72 rsN Nqw−C q q⇮ S Nyo NST.

Shyu wq wXO Nl Ku qu b. Cu Zn K®q BqNu ®wSwݡSmu. yru KuOʺq Ku Xu q Nqw w㚮Su Nmu. Cu S®SmS qu u抮u Hl yNS劮 uhyS Xw `xcN wǮq䋺u u®?' HwǮ u AqNqwSu Nmu. D Kuu uhy Ku OuSuru Aǵ԰ u, Su Cw mTu. qyur S Bw, NuSu Nm zj, Bu  NwS w, uSl Hl NqN zj, Bu  NwS w, uSl Hl NqN yo qq NSw v−uu w hy ¯S, Au  uSu Zp S QSS uu S, A劮 OSqu SyS−C EqȳǮ NSN NSwmST. D u hyu Su ⇮ S u r Cu. SmS Kuu dwr Cu.

xcN Cs Kuu uhyu Xw އw dwu u®w y®w Hru. Au−uSu Eu AǮ ¯Su S Iwwݰo?

Sl®hy As Q S®S Tu. C Ny Aq wws rsN cwwTuw. D vu yrǯyw Buu O.. 1231 Xq qvS vwuu.

 vOʺq Cu YNu, Au uu BTuۊ Cw NSN X yoquu Hu N Ay䇮 ylqي.

zqک v

vw Hl vSw wm ǯw µcwwݺl upuqu ySS Cwݰw wlu ASq Hxݛu Su wlu qu qٰxu Huw wlN. Equuۺu Ku Nl CuS Au yNu qٺlxl q Y ClNSqu. Au uuu r ǮTNSqu.

vluw Cw݊l bw vS Ṡ Cu qw u.

`zqک v'−yXu Ǯ®uw yr v. Auvw wwTu S Hw r䇮Tu ðǯ Hw Cuw xu. Cu xoN QYq. O.. 1315 u O.. 1433 wl S Cu xoTu. KgԊ−wws vu xou wqu Hu xu.

zq Hu v v Hus. v o q١S Cu u. cx Cuwݰ `zqڌ' Hwqي. D vu劮 Bvws r q١ yu¯wT yXvu mu. r Ywu ou ®T Noqu. Hh Am Hqي, 5.5 Am AS (y¯ qT) D r y¯ h S䜮u Hqي 41 CXSu. D S䜮u, S®Su Bvwsw Aq r Kvu.

u D vu r CvۊN. Au ®SSl wq DT rw O.. 1468−69 zqu Au ¯Suw wvu rqu. 108 o As w iN hwSǮ qNu D rw uhw Nu HN xuwq.

D v wXO, Aq q S®SSw vu. Shy q q٩S xo Aqu xq S Noqu. ® r Cw yQ BNǮn.

vws v (ﰊ v)

zqک vu ¯SN D vu. C O.. 1490 vwsw (ﰊ) r zq. Cw Cyq Cq NǮS rsN rS.

yws v

vluw dwvS凵 q Hqيu D v xouu O.. 1458−59 .

Q yuu抮u N D v Oou yS w HlSlS q qTw D vu.

D vu w㚮 wuu. Cuu qu hyuq v. Cu  mS XqQ v. D vu w QS Sðu ydww rS. D S®Su SlS  AǮ vNީN, S 9uu rS. C qٺu Ǯh. vw uu yO yr Hll rS−xr ®Tuuu Nr ®Tu Cwݺu. Cuu−H 24 rsN , S ®dN Cuۊ. S®Su w QS w qu hyS. y vOT hy q ulu. Cu Hh NS Hh S. Eu hyS YN−T K®q NSw v. D NS  SS, Cq rS Nqw, ANoSS C HwǮ Nl. D NS  IoSw vs D Nwq CS Sð uN No.

uSu D hySS ShSu Au u ®wS. Bu A  S n Sw ®qw ylv.

D vu m w S®SS hyw v. A凮   IoSw vu. qvw Sy n vu Syuq Cu u®u Nu.

bw rlrيS D vu hy XT NSqu.

`Eul NqN vSw NiuS Eu NSu NS 懮 ru Cuw Niu'− H Jru (Legend) Cu S Cu. Bu Cuu lu Fǵ. B vS AquTuۊ Cu iS g ou NSuTu. Au D v Niu  v Niu 425 ǮS, S n− v Ni 225 ǮS wq. B v Niu S AǮ Ǯ uOuq u®. Buۋu D vw `NT N v' (NS u) Hu N m N Ku ur Bu¯u  iԊuǵ.

D Ju vS xu r u¯ou Ku vS bw v Cu.

A yqu vl−Ku wu NqN bw q, C u®u. ®O Cu. N u¯ vu. T u wl w wTNǵ.

D v Oou yNu vS S q u®S yqNT. rN qS H  ®S.

D yX vS ه Hl¯SO. ه ¯Su D vSS HuT, Ku vS dwv Hqيuu. XwT Nyliuۊ Au NqNq D vS劮Ǯ ®T. r uTu. D vl vSu w Oh uu AXSl Ku hu. C q yuu Ku Bvws vu. C Ku h Hqيu Sou Bvwsw q yr Cu. Cu yu⚮wuu. Ku w Cyq o qNu D r yrǯyw Buu N q 1466 y¯o u uﱇu (O.. 1409). D yru C rws S Cxq vw u yrS. Cw D vwh u yrS Kh qN 1444 oq (oNyu Bvws vuw NS P Cǵ԰ BTu N NNq?).

Cw Q yr q yT Au Su yo Yϊu Nou cw qي. u®Squ D v Aq u, uwSuu.

D T  yPq bwrS qy mu. A D yuu AwN cSw q AwST vuۊ Hu Squ.