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ָ־ ִ

ֵ ָ

޵֟ ֤ . ֓ ׾ִָ ־֟ ֵծ ֯ ֜޵֚ ־ ֻ ӑ ־ ֻ. ӓֿ ָ ә י. ߑֻ߮ ӑԓ ן ֲֻ ־ֹ ߻ ߾ָ ָ֕ ֯Τ ֿ ֛. Ӧ ֵ ֮֟ ֤֮֯ Τ֟߻ ַӮ ֹ ףֻ ִ߮ ֹ ֤ þ֯ߵ Ӯ ֙ פ. Ӧ֓ δ ֡ õ ִ ֟-

 

  õטֵӿ ԟ ף־ ׮ ԟ l

  ֮֟ ׳ ֟׳ ֮֟ ֤֮֯: Ε: ll

  - 1/100/18.

 

 ׿־ֵ Ӧ֮ 30,000 Ӯ ָ ָ ( , 4/30/21 ) ƕָ õӮ ֵӮ . ( . 2/13/9) ִ ֵ ֤ ִ Ӿ ֳ-׸֟ ִ ֲָ֤ߓ . ֤֮֯ Τ֟߻ ԓ ƾ õ ֵ ֵӓ ֡ ֻ֮. ïˆ ָ ־ ֟߻ 飾挟֟ ֜ ( 12/1/37 ). ݾ֟߻ ־ֹ ( 10/22; 10/23; 6/60/6; 1/100/18; 6/45/24; 10/62/10 ֤ ) ֯ ֜ ֵ ִֵ֬߻ ӑ ֕ߵ ָ֯ ן ָ֚ߓ ߑֻ ֻ .

 

 ִ Ӿ ֵ ӓ֯δ õ ߻ ִ ֟ . ֙ õ ο֤ ֲ ֓ 㟯֢ (ֿ) ֟֬ ï™ ӈ ßִ֬ ֜ (, ָ֮ 1932, ֮ 189-90) ܵ Ӿ ִ֮ܵ ֓ ִ֬ߕ ( ןӛ֟߻ ) . ִ פ, , äõ ָܵ ֤ ֕ӓ ־ֻ ־޵֟ ֻ. ޛ, ָ ֲ֯δ õ ֲ ߻ ӟָ ׾ֹ Ԯ ָ֯޵֟ . õ ֧ߵ ֟߻ ׾׬ִ֬ ֵֻ֮ ֬ ־ ( ݾ, 10/22/8 ) פ ֟ӓ ߟ ֻ֮ ֮֕ ; þ֟: ֟֓ Ο֟ ד֮ӓ ߟ ֵ֮ ֤֮: ( , 10/99/3 ) Ӗ Ӯ ֯֟ ֻ ֜֟. ֵӮ , ӡ, Ο, ־Ο ֤ ־ ״ֻ. ֵ֓ ֹ ( ׮ֹ, ָ , 1/23 ) õ ֲ - ( ™ ) ֟֬ ֌ . õ ֕ פ ׾֬ӓ ָ . ׿־ֵ Τ֓ ֓ ־ . õ ־Ɵ á-פӮ ׾ָƟ ־Ɵ ( ݾ, 4/30/20 ; 5/30/9; 2/12/11; ֣֟֯ , 1/6/4/21; 4/3/17; ָ , 4/22 ). ֻ ״ 㬤 ִֵֵ ߟ ֟ ( ֳָ- ן֯־, 281/1 ).

 

 ֓ Ӥԟ . ָ֙ ӓ ӟ־ ֮ߵ -

 

  ׌ Ӳ׻֟ l ד֟ ֬ ޮ ִ׵߮ ֬ ֟ l : ֬ ־߮ ֵ ֛ l Ƹ ֬ ׋ ֒ ׿ָ ֕ ׮ִ l ™ ꬤ , á ןݴ l ִָ ֟ ֣ áܵ ׌ ׿֟ l ֮֕ן֖ l ָ-ִ ִ, ִ , ߮ ןֵ ε l

 

- Institute of Higher Studies and Research,

Jayapur, Volume I, (April, 1973), Page 3.

 

 פ ֵ Ӭ 귵֟ ãָ־ ֮֓ פ ֻ֙ ߟ ֮֟ ӓ ֟ ֬ ә. ׸ ָ־ָ ֵӓ γ־ ִֵֻ֮ ֓ ֓ ָֻ, ׾ֿ֟: ֻ֣֯ ֵӮ ֤ ֻ. ָ ן߻ ֕Ӯ γ־ ׾ָ ִֵ ߻ Ӯ ׾֛, , ֵ, Ӿ ֮ ֵӮ ޵֟ ƻ. ן֓ ֻ ֡ ִ֕޵֓ ߓ ָ . ־ ָ פ ֵծ ׮פ ־ ָ ָ֯δ ־֮֯Τ . ֣֯ ָ ׾׾֬ ִ鬤߮ þԟ㻵 ߻ ֟ Ε ֯δ ֤ߵ -

 

  -ֵָ-׻ֆ -׾ֵָӟ-פ-և- l

  ׾ֲƵ-ִև Ƈ ll

  - ִֵֻֻ, ֮ 104/7

 

ן-ִ

 

 ֡ֆֵծ þֹ֟ ߻ þָ ֻ֯ ֟֯ ִ֟ӓ ֤ ֟ δ֟ ޵ 㸾֟ ֓ ִ֬߻ ӑ ֻ ( ־Ծ֟߻ ӯ 15 ֵ ) ֓ ָ ֣ Ӥ֟ ֜֟ ( ֵ ֵ 10 ) ֣֣֮֯ߟ ֵֿ֯ԓ פ Ӯ ָ. ָ ו֮ӓ ִ֮ ӓ ֵֿ֯ ׮֤Ӯ š ֻ֮ ָ ˸ֵ֟ ָ֓֟ ֡ þߓ ֓ ֻ. ָ ִ֮ ֮֟ ֵ ִ֮ԓ ָ . ֓ ָ֓֓ ™߮ ֓ פ Ӿָ߻ γ־ ֻ. ֵӓ Ɵ֟ ֡ ֓ ֤ ֋. Ӥ ִԓ ֹ߾֮ ֛ ַ Ɵ֟ ߻ ִԓ γ־ Οֵ Ο ߟ߮ ֛ פ֟. ô֮ ӳ־֟ ֓ ï™ ֮ ֵ֓ծ ô֮ ß׮ ֵ ιֵ׮֟ l ֲ֟ ӓ ֮־֤־ָ . פ ָָ߻ ָ ֓߮ ִֻ֕ ֟֟. ֳָ ֯ߟ ֬ . ծ 㬤 ֮֟ ֮֬֓ . ־ֹ ֯ߟ ֳָ ӣ֓ ӓ ֮֟ ֮֬֟ ִ֬ ֬ ־ ֬ .

 

ן ֿ׮ ӯԓ ׻֟

 ֳָ ִֵ֓ ֮֓֟ ߻ ֲ ï™ ֟-

֟ ִ Σִ֯ .

פ ֵՓ Ɵִֵ֬ ӟָ פ ֢ӓ ִ֮֟: þָ .

ִֵ ־֟ Ӿ ־ ӣֳ ׮ִ ֻ.

ֻ Ɵ ֕ .

ֵָ֡ܵ ״ ־ӓ ֵӮ ־֮ þָ .

ןԯ þ ֻ.

Ҿ־ָ ֻ. ֕οד ׾ָ֓ ׮֤Ӯ .

㌻֮֬֓ þָ 껵֮ ӓ ֬֬ ӛ ӣ֓ ֻ.

ֵ ԟ: ֛.

Ӥӓ ִ Ɵ֮ ׵ӓ þָ ׮ָ׮ָ ׸ָ׿־ֵ ֵ֮ Ɵֵ ׾֟ ֢־׾ָ֓Ӯ֓ 긑ָ ֮. Ƹ֣-

 

  ֬ ֖ ׯ֟֟ l

  ֿ־ õ ֲֵ֮֡ξ֮߮: ll

  -֮ôן, 5/41.

 

 ׾ֿ ֕ Ӥ擵 ӣ֟߻ ֳ֣֮ӓ ߾֮ӲӬߓ ӓ ִӲӬߓ ӟ ֡ ֟ ƻ .

 

ֵԯ߮ ֓߮֟

  ־ ׮־꤮־ֹ פ֟ ִ֬ ֟ ֻ ׾ֵ þֹ֓ Ƹ-߿ ֟ ֵԯ-֯ ֓߮ . ӕָ ߻ ֯Աֵ㌟ ݮִ Ԯ֣ Ӿ Ԯ֣ ӓ ָߓ פ֟ ֌ߓ ƻ֮֕ . . ֣֮ ׾ָֻ֪ ߻ ӕָ ֵ֛֯ ݮ ןִꓵ ( Ӳָ 449 ) ߚ־ָ߻ וָ֮ ָ ֓ .

  ߣӓ ߮־ָ ׾ ޵֓ ָӯָ ן֯֓߮ ֯ Γ׻֟ . ™ ߻ ӿ֮֮ ֬ ֻ . ߣӓ ן֯֓߮ ԓ ִ ־ָ߻ ߾ ӕָ ߻ צӾָ߻ ִ֬ ־ßáָ֮ ׮׿֟ ֟ ֛֯֟. ߯ ֓߮ ֓ ֟ ֟֓ . ָ ֜ ָ ӕָ ߻ ԓ 㾵־ֹ ן֓ ֮ ֯֯Ԯ֣ ӓ ֕־ ִֵ Ӳ֟ ָ . ִ֬ԓ ןֻ Ԯ֣֯ ( . ֮֯ 9 ֟ ) 㸾֟ ָ ߓ ֮֟ ָ .

  ָ ן֧ ׾֮֫ӓ ׾ָ֓ ֵ . ֚ ߻ Ӥ ֵ ֛߻-

A. Chakravarty : Yesterday and today, PP. 59-71

Sir Sanmukham Chettys Lecture on Mahaveer Jayanti at Madras, ( Jain Sasana, P-291.)

Sir Kumarswami, Acting Chief Justice, Madras High Court, Vide Jain Law Supplement by C. R. Jain

  (ֿ֮, ֮ 296 )

Mr. Ranganekar, Justice, Bombay high Court, A. I. R. 1939, Bombay-377.

֮ Ӭָ֬ י ( ׸׿™ 4 ).

ׯ׸ֻ יָ כ- ֮ 54.

. ֮֬ : Indian Philosophy Vol. II, P. 227

  (׸׿™ 4 ).

. . . ֣֮ . (׸׿™ 4 ).

. ׵ (׸׿™ 4 ).

. ֳ ׬ָ (׸׿™ 4 ).

. ׾ִָ֓ . (׸׿™ 4 ).

. . . ִ״֕ á, ָ֮ (׸׿™ 4 ).

. ֻ֤ á, ָߵ ׾, ׮֤-ָ,

  ֮ 180.

 

־־ֹ ָ

 

  ־ ־֟ ֙Ӿֹ ֬ --

Ӿ ָ֙ ӓ ׌ִ֢ ֵӓ ־־ֹ ӯ ԯֵ ׾ֳ ֵӓ ־ ֯֟ ־.

ָ ֤ӓ Ӿֹ ֵ֟ ֙ӓ . ӿ֮ӟָ ־֓ ֤֯ ־֓ ޵֚ ֵ֓ ֮δ ԯָ ӲӬ ־ֿ .

ӓ ן פ ֵկ ָ ԓ . 24 ߣӓ ׌ֲ֧֟ ޵֓ ָ .

ֳ֣֮ ָ ӓ ן Ӥ ֟ ־ԡ ָ֓ ֟ ״.

ן ָߵ פ כ ߵ ӿ Ӯ ֮ .

 

-ִ֓ þִ

 ׿־ֵ ִָ ָ ־ ֜ ָ ֵӓ ׾ָ֓ ޵֓ ֟ߓ ָ . ־ ִָ ֌߯ ָ ֮ ֌ ߾ָ ָ ִ֓߮֟ . ֌ ׮׿֟֯ ӯ ԯֵ ߓ ׬֯֟ . ֌ߓ ܵ֟ߴ ָ ־ ָ ߟ ֮֟ : ־֮ ָ־ ׾ܵ֟ ֻ ԯָ ֟ ן ֲֻ֬ . ֮ ֌ ֕ פ֕ ֳ֣֮ ӓ š ָ . ߓ š ֌ ׯִ ξ֟ ֮ 9 ׮֬, 14 , 32000 ֕, ꙶ־֬ ֟ ֤ ןֻ פ ־ ֙ޛ߾ָ ֵ֮ ֵ֕ ߟ . ƻ ξ֟ ֻ. ֵ֮֓ӟָ ֓֓ š פֵֵֿ ( ߟ ) ֕ ֻ. ֵ֓֯ ( פ ) ӿ֓ ׮״ԟ ֻ. ֓ ָ֓ ֈl ֻ ֓ ֵš ֿֿ ָ ֮ γ־ֻֿ . ֵֿ֯֓ ( Ӧ ) ӿ֓ ֢ ֻ. ֯ סֵӓ ӿ Γ׻֟ . פ ֡־ӿ֓ , , ֮֕ : ӟԟ ֻ ֵֻ֮ ־Ӯָ : ӿ ӿֿ ֻӟָ֮ ׮ִ ֻ.

  ֳ֯ ָ׿־ֵ ָ ֟ ֌ ֓ ִ֓ Ӥ֟ ӳ־ ִָ ֌ . ָ ӲӬ, ֵӓ ԕӲӬ ӿ֕ӲӬ ֟ ָ Ɵ ןֻ֢֟ ֹ ֲֻ . ן֓ ׾ָ ָӯָӴ֬ Ӥ ֤ þֹ י ƻ . ֮ ӲӬߓ ֌֟ ־ֻ . ֵ֌ ֬ ֹ ӣ ֹ ֤֟ . ֟ߴ֬߻ ֟֟ ָ ִ֮֟: ֜ . ֵָֿ ־ ָ ˳ . ֵ֯δ ֮ ֓ Ɵ ָ ָӳ֯֓ ־ ָ ӟָ֓ εꓵ ӟָ֯ ֟ ߟ߮ ֲֻ . ָӳ ֯Τ .