״֓Ӥ ֮֬֓ξס סָֻ ӣ֟ 1018 ֣ . ִ֬ ָ ֵֹ ׾ֳ ָ ׾ֵ Ԯ֓ ָӳ ֓֯δ ן֤֯ ֻ֮ ӣ֓ ִ֮, ־֮, ӟָ, ן, ׮ ָ ןֵ ׬ָ ï™ פ֟֟. ׾ֵ־Ԯ סֻΖ֯߯δ ֮ .֓ ֻ֮ . . 11 ֟ .

֩Ӥ ׮ Ӳ߾֯עִ֬ 2389 ֣ ӣָ֮ ןֻ֢֯ߓ ָ֬־ָ 껵֓ ï™ פ֟. ִ֬ ˑ֟, ָ֋־֟ , -Ӥ-ֳ, 㤿Ԯִ, Ӥוֳ֮־֮, ָ, ׾ֵ֕, ׾֤, ָ׾֤, ־ִ, ָ߯-:-㬾-֬-, ןֻ δ֯׸ 13 . ӣ֓ ֙ Ԯ ӟֻ , ׾ֵ֕ ӓ֕־ וִ֮֓ ӓ֓ ֤֮ ֑֮Ӥ ӓ ׿µ ֓Ӧ֓ ׿µ ߮פ֚ ӣ֓ ֮ . Ӯ þ֟: ߸Ӥߓ ׿µ ƙ . ӣ֓ ֮ ׸ֵ֡ ֟߻ ָָ֮ ֻ ߻ ֕֓ ן Ӿ ע .

Ӳָ ָӯָ֬ ׾ֵ־ָ߻ -Ӧ-Ӳ߯-Ζׯ ߮ ִ ӣ׿־ֵ וֳ֦֮ ִ ӣ ֮ߵ . ӣ֓ ׾ßִָ֬ ֜ ֻ . ӓ ֑ Ɵִ (ꌵ֤߯) ֓ ֲֻ Οߴ֬ 656 ֣ . Ӳ߯, ־׬, ֟ӛ, ֻ׬ ֬ ֓ ׬ָ . ִ֬ ֮µֻ֓ Ԯ . ֲֻ Ɵ-ߓ ָ֮ ָֻ֬ ֓Ӧߓ ׿µ Ӧ (12 ֟) . ֟߻ 349 ֣, , ָ, ֮µ ןֵԓ ָ ןִ֮ ׬ִָ֬ ӓ ֮׾, ֵµ, ָ߸֮ ֤ ׾ֵ Ɵ - ׾׾֬ ָӴ֬ ׾ֳֻ . ִ֬ ֮ - ߾ӓ Ԯ ׬ ׾ßָ֮ . ָֿ-׸ (14 ) ִ֑ ־֓ 262 ֣ӓ ןֻ׸ (14 .) 489 ֣֓ Ɵִ ӣ ִ֬ ߓ ߯֯δ ֮µֻ֓ Ԯ . ׸׿µ Χ宴 (13 .) ֮ ׾ָָ֓- 900 ֣ӓ ӣ ׻߻. ִ֬ Գ, ֳ, ֵ-ֵ , ֮֕֬, ߣӓ Գ־, ֟ׯ֟, þ֯, ֮, ִ־ָ, ָ֬, ™֯ןֵ, , ׾δ ֨ߓ ֻ֮ , ׮֮ƾ, 84 , ֨ ָ֮֯֓ ׾֓ӓ Ԯ . ־ָ ֌ָ ֵ ֲֻ . (. . . ־ָ֮, 1983).

ןӛ ӣ ָ߻ ־ ӣ֯ ֓߮ ־. צ Οߴ֬ ֻ Գֳֵָֻ֯֓߮֟֓ ƙ . ( ִֻ, 1928). ־ָ ֤׻֯ߓ ֻ֓ . ֲֻ ןӛ- ӣ֟ 376 ֣ ֟߻ ִָ™ ֬߻ ӣָ . ָӳ ֻ֟ , ԯΖ֯ߴ֬ ׾ֵ ׾ßָ ֻ֟ ֺ . ӣִ֬ ֻ֯δ, ֮, ׬׮¯ע, ן֣׮¯ע ָ (ָ߮֡), ֡-׸, ֡-Ӧ--ן, ֵ֡, ӛ׾ֳ, ֮, ע, ן,, ׾֟ (סִ֟), ן֯֟, ֯, פ־פˬ, ־-Դ, ™־, .

ֳӿ ִ֬ ׸ӿ֯, ֯, סֿ™ֻ-֓׸, ן֯׸ֺֻ ֳӿ ִ֬ סֻ֓ Ԯ . ֓߮֟ ׾ֵ׾ßָ֓ ™ ו֮ ׸ӿ֯ (8 ֟) ׾ֿ ֮ߵ . ֟߻ 4 7 ԯֵ՟ δ֮ , ןֵݻ, Ի ֻ ӲӬ ׾ß Ԯ ןֻ֢֯ߴ֬߻ ׾֮֬֯δ .

ָ֮ Ɵ-

ӣִ֬ ִָ֓ ֻ֟ ӓ ӟֳԾ Ɵ֓ ָ֮ ׾ֳִ֬ . ֤ ִ֯ ָ֓ Σִ ִ֬ ׮ִ֬ ֵ֮֬ ֟־ ִ֬ ãӓ ָ֓ ֻ֟ . ִָֻ߮ Ɵִ֬ ָ֓ ִָ֓ԓ ׾־ָ ָ ӣ ׮ִ ֻ.

׮-ָ֓ ( ӣ )

־ԯΣִ ֵ֓ԓ ӣִ֬ ֯ ־ӲӬ ִָ֓ԓ ׳֮ ׳֮ κ ֜. ӓ ξָ֮֓֟߻ ןָ Ӭ ֕ ß׾ ׮ָˆָ֓־ָ߻ þӟ֡ ֮ . ֨, ן֣ ִӮ Ӥ ִ޵֓ κ . ִ֬߻ 75 ֣֬ ִ֓ , ξ֕, ֮-֮֬, ֵ, ӵִ׾ָ֬ ξߓ ׮, ִ޵֯ןԺ ֟֟֓ ֮֬ . ӲӬ ׾־֮ . ָ Ӿ ָ ָ֓Ɵ ֮֓ ֻ ־ ξ֮֓֓ ָ ֕ ֙ ֣ ƙ .

׮ִֵָ ӣ֟ 187 ֣ . ֮ ָ׳ӓ ï™ , ׮ִֵ֯ ֟ ֻ֓ ׮ִֵ ֟֟. ׮ִֵ ֮-Ԯַ׸ֺ . ׮ִֵ֓ ׾ֺ ™ӓ ׸ָ ޵֚ ָ ֲ֓ ֮ . ֮ӟָ ָ߻ ֵӓ ׾־ָ ӣ֟ . 77 157 81 ӣִ֬ ־ֿ εӓ þֹ ׾ßָ֮ ֻ֟ . ֻ ӓ ׮ֵ֟ ׸ ƙ . ך ֛־ֿӓ δ ӓ ־ ָ ך֯ ߿ . ףֻ ׾֮֬֯δ ןδ, Ο֮ܵ, ֻ֮, ֵ, ִ׵ ֳָ׌ Ƶ ־ֿ ε . ןδӲӬ ֻ֟ , ו֮־ָ-׮פ™ ִ֬ ן֤֯ ןδ . ( ֣ 89 ) ֓ þֺ ןδ ־֓ ִ֬ ׾ֿ֤ ( ֣ 94 ). ־ֿ ׮ֵԌߓ þֹ ï™ . ֻ֯ ֿ ( þꓔ ) ֿ . ִֿ֬ԟ ֵ, ־ֿ . ׌ ֕ ֵ. ׮ֵָ־ֹ ( ִ™ ) ׌ ֕ ׮ֵԌ. ־ֹ ִ ־ֿ ׮ֵ׌ ־֓ ӣ ֻ δ ֮ߟ ( ֣ 142 ) ™ ֛ . ־ֿӴ ִ޵֓ . ִ ־ֿ ε߮ ׸ֳ™ ( 147-148 ). ־ֿ ֹ֓֓ ֻ߮ ֻ ֻ ( ֣ 157 ). ָߟ߮ ӣ֓ ִ֬ ־ֿӓ Ƣ þֹ ӲӬߓ ׮־꤮ . ߻ 10-12 ֣֬ ֻߓ ֤֮Ԯ, ӓ ָ-ֿ þ-ֿ ִ ־ָ ֵծ ׸ֿ߻֮֟ ׾ָ֓ . ӣ֟߻ ֓ ־ִֻ֬߻ ֮-Ԯ ӿ ֮ Ի. ֙ þֹӲӬ ׮־꤮ ׮ִֵָ֓ ֮ þ֟: ã֚ ӣ ӯ׾ֻ .֟߻ 17 ֣֟ ֮µ, ָ, ןֵԓ ӓ -׾ßָ ӣֻ֟֯δ ִ֕־ ֻ֟ . ֓ ӲӬ ׾֮֫ӓ ֳ֟ . ָ ׾ֳ ֓ ӣ׾ֿ Ӿ ׾ֳ ߻ ֟ ӣ ־ֵ֓ ׮׿֟ . ӣ֓ ָ ֻ֬׸ Ӯ ָ߻ ָ֓ ߾֓ ׾ֳ ־֓ ִִָ֬ ƾ ï™ ֻ֟ . (׾ֳ׳֮֬-ִָ ™: ). ׾ֳ ־֓ ӣ ״. ӣָ ߮֬ ־Ԯפ ( . 380-.֘ 458 ) ׾ֳ . ׮ִִֵָ ֓ ׾ֳ ӣ ֻ ֵֿ ־. ׾ָ δ ״ ־ֵ՟ ӲӬ ߓ Ծ֬ ֮ ㌟ ֙ .

֩γ ֻ֬ ӓ ׮ִֵָ־ָ߻ ֵ֟Ծע ־֓ ֜. ꓵ 㸾֟߻ ֓־ Ӭ֓ ֙ ֮ ߸פ߮ ִָ . ֻ㌵ ֕ סֳִֻ֮ ָֻ߮ 1107 ׿ָֻֻ ( . ׮. 1916-17 ) ֤˴֯γ ָֻ֬ߤֵ ָ֮ ־.

׮ִִֵָ֬ 134 140 ֣֬ ֳָ׌ֹ ־ֿ-ε ׮ֹ . ֟ ִ֌-֮-ָ-׌, ׮־ֳ׌, ֨׌, ֳ׌ ӓ . ֙ ֳפ ו֮ꮦ ֳ֌߯ ㌟ ֻ ƙ ( . 140) . ָ֮ Ӯ þ֟: ׻߻껵ֵ ־ ׌ ֣ ֙֟. ߣ׌,( .8 ), ֤ˬ׌, (. 11 ) , ֳ׌ ( . 11) , ׸ֳ׌ ( .12 ) , ָ׌ ( .23 ) , ֵ֓Գ׌ ( . 10 ), ׮־߳׌ ( . 27 ), ӓָ֯š׌ ( .7 ), Ӥָ׌ ׮ֳ׌ ֳ׌ ֲֻ . ־ ֌ ־֮ Ӥ֟ ־֮֟ . ֳ֤׌֓ ֣ܵ ߿ ׮׿֟ . Ӥָ׌ ׮ֳ׌ ӓ ֲֻ Οߴ֬ ֙ ֙ ֌ . ӓ ֚֯ Գ .ӓ ֓߮ Ο ӿ֮ ޵֓ ־ֿ . ֌ γ֓Ӧ ֙ߟ ε֯ ־֮ ׿֟ .( . ֯, 1921).

ִԓָ֓ ܵ ֯֯ . ִ ִ֤Ԯ-֮-׸ֹ . ֓ ןӓ ן֤֯ ֮ ֻ֯ Ԯ, ׸ ߮ Ӵ֬ δ֮ .Ԯ ֓ 15 ֣֬ Ԯ֮ ֮ ֮֯ ־ ־ӓ ֯ ֙ ״ Ӯ ֻ֟ . 6 , 9 ֤֣, 5 ßֵ, 7 ֢ ӓ þֹӾָ ֮֨ ַֻ ־ֵָ֮ ִݤ™ ƙ . ( . 19,20).

ִ֑֯ ӟֻ , ֓ Թ ֤ ՟ ӣָ֮ ָ֬ ֻ . ֻ ֹ֓ ִ ָ֣ ֬֟֟ ( . 1) ꛟ ָ ֓ Գ™ ָ ָ . Ɵ ֢ () ֟ Ɵ ָ ָƟ Ƹ֟ ( . 3-4 ). ִ֤Ԯ֓ ֢ ו֯֯֟ ֖֮֮ ׾֮֬ ֣֣ Ԯֻ֓ ־ָ ָ֣ ƙ . ֓ ԯ֤֯ ™ ֻ껵 ֻ֬ ״֣֤™ ƙ .( . 5-7 ). ӲӬ ׾־֮־ֺ ӓִ וִ֮ ֤ˬ . ִ֚ ӓ ָ֤ ֟Ԯ ־ֿ ִ֕֟֟. ߻ ֣Ӵ֬ ӓ ݮ֟ ןֻ-ִ֡ ׸֓ áֵӓ ξΕ Ӯ ׮ .

׸֯֓ ָӳ ֻ֟ , ֻ ֟ ֮, ƻ ֟ Ԯ ׮Ɠ ӵ֯־ ֮ ָ ־ ֕ ׸. Ԯֵ㌟ ε ִ֌׸ . ߾֓ ߮ ־ ֵ ӕ . ӓ֓ ֚ ו֮ꮦӮ Ԯ ֮֟ ִ֌ֵ׸ ӵִ֓׸ ָ ׸ ֻ֟ ( . 3-5) . ִ֌֓ ׮:פ ֚ ( . 7 ) ӵִ֓׸֓ ָ ָ ( . 21 ) Ԯ, Ο ֤ ־Οߓ 11 ןִ ( .22 ) Ο-־Ο-׿־Οֹ 12 ָ֓ ִָ ( . 23-27) ӓ׮Ӿָ, ӓ־ ε Ο, ӓ״֟-סׯֹ ָ ӵִ 28 ӓ ι . ־ӓ 12 Οӓ Ӥԟ פ-׾פ֯δ, ֣Ԥӈ ֳ֯δִ ߮ ־Ο ִ׵, ֬, ןף֯ ֻ֮ ָ ׿־Ο ֻ֟ . ׾֮֬ ֣֟ 7-21 ֬߻ Ο׾֮֬֯ ߮ ָ ׳֮ :- 1)ֳ ׸ִ ֓ ־ΟӴ֬ . 2) ך ־Ο֓ ֓ , 3) ׿־Ο֟߻ ֻ֮ ־ԣ ־ .֣֟ 7-21 פݤ . 7 Οӓ . ֟ ־Ο ׿־Ο . ָ֯֓ ׾֮֬ ֓ ִ֬ ƻ֯Σִ֓ ־ֵ ״ . ׸֦ ־Ζׯִ֬־Οӓ ֯δ . ָӟ ׿־Οִ֬ ֻ֮֕ ־֓֓ . ָӵִִ֬ 25 ε 3 㯟ӓ ִ־ ־ . . 7 ׾ֿ ӓ ֜ ֮ߵ . ֡֯ξִָ֮֓֬ (. 3-8) ֟ ӓ ׮֤Կ . ָ ߮ 㯟ӓ .

Τ߯ ֺ֫ ַ֓ ™ ֻ־ָ ãָ (. 123). ߕ ֨ ֻ־ָ ֯ ֕֟ ֓֯δ ־ִ֓ Բߕ ݬ ֻ־ָ ־ ׮֯֕֟ . ־ָ ™ ָ פ֟ , ֬ ʾ ֯, ֯, Ο, פ ָ֓Ӵ֬ ׬ ֟ ӟ׸ ־ֿ㬤 ־. ֬ӓ ֛Ӳָ־ֺ ־ֿ㬤 ޵֚ ׻ƻ ־. ߻ ׻֯֓ ׳ֵ֯ ֓ .

׻֯ : ֟߻ 22 ֣֬ ξߴ ִ֢ ֬ ֟ ӓ ׮Ӥ . ִ ֓֟֟, ֟֟ ֪ ֕׾֟֟ ( . 4 )( ֟, ֓ ֟ ֟ԑ֮ ֛֟ (. 5 )( ֤ ִ֬ ֟֟ (.6)( ׾־ ׾֟֟, ָ֕֫ ߾֑֟ ֟ (.9)( ӯ֙ӓ ׾־֤֟ ֛֟ ֙ (ָ߯֙) ֟ (. 10) ( ֮֟ ֻ ֟֟ ִ-ߛ ξ ֟ (. 12)( פ껵 ß ֟ (.14)( Եԯ֣ ״֟ ָ֟, ֛֟, ֟ (.15)( ֯֟֟, ꛟ֟, Ӿ ִ߮ ꤟ֟ (. 16)( á߾Ի ׸׾֟֟, ߮ ָ Ӿ ׿µӾָ ן î ׾֟֟ (. 18) ִ ֮ ֻ ָ ־ֿ ֻ֮ ָ ִ ־. 껵־ָ þԻ ֟ ָ ןֵՓ ߴ֬ 㸱֟. ־ָƟ ִֻ ֿã-(֟) ׮™ ƙ . (.20). ֙ ־֯֯δ ׻ֻ֯ ־Ԗ֯ߟ ƙ . ֬Դ֬ ָ߻ ꚶ δ֟ ֜ ־ ֙. ִ Ӯ ֲ֧ ߾ ޵֓ ־ֿ ֙ ־.

߻֯: 44 ֣ӓ ־ ׻֯Ӵ֬߻ ׾ֵӓ֓ . ִ֬ ִ֮֬֬߻ ߻־ָ ָ פ . ߻׿־ ׾ֻֿ ֮ ׮± . (֓և ) ֟߯֓ ™ӟ פ . ֯Փ ׬ָ ׾ֵֻ֟ ָֻ (. 30-31). ߻ , Ӥ, , ־ָ ֵֿáӲӬ ֮ ֣ Ի (.16). ߻֓ ִˤԮֲָָ ֮, ֮, , ׾ֵ׾ָ ֯ ӓ ֮֬Ӵ . ߻ֺ ֻ֮ î֮ ָ ߾ ֨ ֟. (. 37-38)

֓ ָ߻ ӣӯ ָ-, ׻֯ ߻֯ ӓ׿־ֵ ߓ ӣ־ָ ״֟. Ԯפ Ӿָ ָ֓ ֲֻ . ӓ Ο ״ֻ֮ ӓ ִ ־ ֙˯ֳ () ֨ . ָ ꮦߟԓ ׿µ ׾֪֮Ӥߓ ׿µ . ӓ ֻ .. 15-16 ֟ .

ָ : ֟߻ 162 ֣֬ ־ ӓ ָ֓֓ 4֮ . 㸾֟߻ ִݤԮ֓ ־ֿ ־ ӓ 70 ӓ 44 ӓ . (. 7-8). ã֚ ֮ ֚ ֮ þֵ֬ ־õ ֻ֟ . (.11.) ־ֵ ֡ ֮֓ ƴ ׵ֻ . (.17-31). ־֮ӓ ׾־ָ . ֌߾ָ פ . ֢֟֟֓ ֚֯ ֳ֓ ֤ פ . ֮ӟָ þꓔָ֓ ӓ ׮Ӥ Ƹ֟ ֮޵֓ ֤ . ֙ ֻ֓ ֵֺ֡, ӑֻ ֺ֮ Ӳ ֻ֟֓ ִֵ ƙ . ֓ ֵ֯՟ ߯ ӯ֤ ֻ . ִ֬ ֳӿ ߻ 6 Ӥ . ָ ֯ ־֟ ָ ӣ ֓ ָֻ߮ ֪ ֓ ־. ֓פ Ӿֺ ӣ ӟָ ֟߻ .

פӲָ ӯΤִֵ֬ ׮ִ֬ӲӬ ־ ӣӴ֬ ּþִ (-ָ( ß δֳ ֻ֮ ֟. ך ӣ ֵ֓ ƙ . ׾֮֬ ָ ֨ ָ ־ֺ ӣӲӬ ִ֕֓ ֮ ֤־ ï™ ֌ . ־ָֻ ߸֮ ֓ ָ֓ ־֮ . ִ֬ 1243 ֣ . , Ɵ Ο֮ܵ, Ο֮ܵ, ִָ֓, ӓָ֓, ׯӛר, ֛־ֿ, ֤֮, ָ־֮, ִֵָ, ߻֯ßָ ֵׯ ִ֬ 12 ׬ָ . ß: ƻ ׬ִָ֬ ֺ֮ ֻ֟껵 ӓ 28 ӓ֓ ־ ׾ßָ . ֛־ֿ ׬ָ֟߻ 80 ֣ ־ֿ ׮ֵ׌ ־ָ߻ µ Ӵ֬ ֿ֓ ֿ ֻ . ־ָ פ . Ӯ ֵ֮֬ (־ָ֓) ӣ֓ ֮ Ӥ ֓ ָ ־.

׮ֆָ֓ӲӬ ֓߮ ӣ (־֟ ָ֮֬( . ֓ ׿־ֵ . ӣ֓ ֙ ֻ֟ , Ӯ ֵ ו֮֮פ, ־㯟 ״֮֡Ӥ ӓ ָӕ־ ӓ ӲӬ Ԗ֮ ֯ ԓֵծ ֻ껵 ӣ֓ ָ֬ ֻ֯ ֌߯δ ӣ ֻ. ־ֺ ӓִ ֓ ׾ֵ־ָ߻ ֤ ֓߮ ӣ ֛ . ߵ ã׾ָ־ֻߴ֬ ׿־ֳן ֵ֓Փ . ֯δ ־ֿ ֳµִ֬ ׿־ֳߓ ߸ ׮־֮ӟָ 609 ծ כ (פӲָ) ӑ֓ ã֮֯ ƙ . ֵ֓ծ ־ִ֯֬ ׿־ֳ߻ ־ֿߴ ֻ֖֮ ֯ ֻ ֻ֟ . ו֮Ӯ ֻ֯ ׸ӿ ִ֬ ֵԮӟָ ֵ֓ ִ־ֻߴ֬ Ӯ ֻ֯ ֮ Ԥ˲ֻ ֤ ָ ׿־㯟 ӓ . פִ֬ ־יӓ ӓ ԓ ָ ָ ָ֮֬ ַ Ɵָ ߓ . γ֓Ӧ֓ ָ֮֬ ִ֬ ֓Ӧ֓ (֕־ֻ ֬ ׿־יӮ þִ ִӟֳ֦֓ ׿µ ƙ . ־ ӓ ׳ֵ֯־ֺ ־֟ ָָ֮֬ ־ ֟ ֵֿ . ӣ . ֮֓ ָӳֻ߮ ֌ . ַ ֟֯δ ӣ ֮֯ߵ ӯΤֵ֓ . ӯΤֵֻ פӲָߵ Ӳָߵ áߴ㌟ ֮ . ӣִ֪ 2166 ֣ Ԯ, ֮, ׸ ֯ ָ ָ֮֬ӓ ׾ßָ ִԮ . ֵ֓Փ ӣִ֬ ӓ ָӾָ ֻ . ִ֬ӲӬ ־ ™ӓ Ԯ ִ֬ ֮ ֮ Ӿ ׾ßָ֮ ֻ . ӓ ֮֬ Ի , פӲָߵ ӣӴ֬ ӓ . 1621 1891 ֵ՟֓ 271 ֣Ӵ֬ ֟, , ִ ㌻ ָ ָ֮֯ӓ Ԯ ׾ßָ֮ . ־ֿ ׮ֵ׌, Ɵֳµ ׮ֿߣ פ ֓߮ ӣ ֟߻ ֣ ӟ ִ֟֟. ־ָ ׾ß ֨ . (1) ָו֟ ׸ ׾ֵ֕ꤵ (2) כ ָֿ֬ ָ֤֮֬. ָו֟ ӓ ֻ ָ .. 7-8 ֟ ־. ָֿ֬ӓ ֻ 13 ֟ . ־ָ ו ־֣Ԥׯ ־֓ ߻ .

׮-ָ֓־ָ߻ ׸֦ ӓ (8 ֟) ӓ־֟ (ӓ־ß) ־֓ Ӳָߵ ӣ ֲֻ . ֟ 1714 ֣ (1) ׮-, (2) ן-פ, (3) ָ֓֓, (4) (5) ֻ֮ ׾ֵ֮ ֓ ׬ָ . ׿־ֵ ׮ִ֬-֮֬ӓ Ԯ ֯ƯԾ ׾֤ . (ֿ֮ 1927( ָ֟ ֤, ִֻ, 1937). ӣ־ָ þ֖ . ׸֦֓ (ִ֌-֯ן( ֬߻ 12 ׬ָ֟ ִ֌֓ þֺ ִ֓ γ־֮ ֜׾ַ ֕-þִ, ֻ־֤, ֦, ֤׻֯, ֬ ֌֤ӓ ׸ פ .

߾֮֮֟߻ 323 ֣֬ ׮ӑ, , Ӥ פ ׮֓׸ӲӬ ׾ֵӾָ ֓ . ײӲ-ןš Ԯ ֻ . ӣ֓ ֮ ߸Ӧ׸׿µ ߮ ׾. . 1162 (. 1105) ֬ .

13 ִ֟֬ ״֓Ӧ߮ ξ֮֓-ָꬤָ ӣ ׻ƻ. ֟ 1600 ֣ 176 ָ ׾ֳ . Ӥ, ןδ, Ο֮ܵ , ֵ, ־Ο, ׸ . ׮ִ֬Կ Ӳ׬֟ ׾ֵӓ Ԯ . - Ӥԟ ߣӓ Ӕ, -, ןֵֿ, ו֮ ã׾ָ ֤ӓ Ԯ ꚶ δ֟ . εޛ ִ֕޵֚ ӣ ׾ֿ ֵ . ־ָ ֳ֦׿µ ֬߮ ( 13 .) ֢֖֮-׾֮ ־֓ ׻ƻ .

ו֮־ֳֻ׸ (11-12 ֟) ֤ ֬ ִ֌ ״֣֢ ֟߻ ֵ֟֓ ֤ . ־ָ ׾. . 1293 ֬ ֻ וֻ֮֯ . (. Ӳև, 1936).

׮ - ָ֓ ( Ɵ ) -

οִָן- 313 ֪֟ ӣ þ֟߮ ׻ƻ . ִ֬ ֢֖֮, ֬Ӯ, ֬ӓ ãӓ ָ֓, ָ ־֮, ִ ִפ ִ, ִԬ֮, ֻ֖֮, ֬ ӓ þֺפӓ Ԯ ָ Ӥ . ָ ׸֦ ߮ ׾ֵ֮ θӣ֓ 22 ׾ֳ . (֙ Ӥ ֤ Ɵ . Ӳև, 1950).

׮-ָ֓ӲӬ ׸-ָ ־֓ ӣ . ӣ֓ ¯֬ ו֟ ָּ֓ ָ֤֮֯ ָ -ִ-ִָ ִ׾ֵ֕ ִޛֵ ֮ ӣ ׻ƻ . ¯-ԓ ִ֬ ƙ , ־ ָ ֮ ֢֣-֮֬ ( ֢־֣ ֕־ן), ֯ ָ֓ áִ֬ ׾ßָ ׮ֺ 껵 ׸֓ ָ ֮ פ . ֻ껵 ֓ ׸ֵ־ֺ ï™ ִ֕֟ , ־ֲִ֬ ָ֙ ԓ ã֮֯ ַֆ ֚֓ ״֓Ӧ 괴ָ֙֓ ֮ ֓ ִޛֵ֮Ӿ ׸˵ ߟָ ֵ֓ ֮־֮ ӣ֓ ֮ ƺ֮ . ־ֺ Ӵ֣֓ ֮ 11 ֟֟ ֻ ׮׿֟. ӣ֟߻ ¯ꓵ ־֙ ƙ , (־ָ֮ ׸ָ ִָ: ִ֯: (. ־ֺ ӣ֓ ָ ־ ־ָ֮ ־ ֙.

ָ֓׾ֵ ӣִֵ֬ꆴ֓Ӧ׸ ֵ֣֬ Ӿ ָ ־ ו֮-ξ֮֓-õ- ߮ ™ . ֟߻ 226 Ӵ֬ ֵ֡֓ ׾־֮ . ִ֬ δ֮ ׸׾ֵ פ ֓ Ο, ֟ ߻, ֻ֮ ִ֌( ֓֯δ ִ֌( ֓֯δ ִ֌־-ֻ֮ 14 Ο-߻פ֓ 70 ןָ֓ ӓ þֺ ֻ֟ . 12 ֯, 6 ־ֿ, 3 ޛ, 5 ״֟, 10 ִ, 12 ־֮ 22 ׸ ӲӬ ׾֮ . ׿־ֵ ӓ þ֯־ָ ׾ß ׾־֮ . Ԯ ָ . ־ Ο ߻ ִ֬ 4 ־֮ ã֮֯ . θӳߓ ֻ֟ Ӳ ׸-׮֟ ֻ֓ ֧ 껵־ָ ֮֟ :ֿ֮֯ þ֮֓֓ ֯ ֕ ֬ ׾֮֬ . ӣ ־֓ ֣. ӣ֓ ֙ ִ֬ ֮ ֤߻ ߓ ִ Ӥ Ԯ . ӣ֓ 㸾֟߯ ֵ֙՟ ׾ֿ֤ ׾־֮֟ . ӣ֟߻ ָ 60-70 ֵ֓ ִԸִ֬ ˬ . ִԸ֓ ֟߻ οß߯δ ׾δ Ӿ֟ 1055 (. . 998) . ֣ ֵ֬ ֓ ֻ֮֓ ߓ ָ־֬ .

߸Ӥ߮ ׻ƻ껵 ָָ֓ ֬߻ ָ 1000 Ӵ֬ ִӓ -ָ ӓ Ԯ . ֟ , ִָ֓, Ԯָ֓, ָ֮֓, ׸ָ֓, ָ֯֓, ߵԓָ, 㬪™, ֛־ֿ, ֮ ߾ ִ֬ ߻ ָ ׬ָ . ּ긓 ָ֓֓ ָ֬ ӣ ׻ƻ ֙. ӣ ֮ ֻ֯ ־ ֮֓ פ . ־ֲ ߻ ׿ֻ . 50 ֬ ׿µӓ . ׿ֻֻ . 47 ֬ ֮֓ ߓ 1037 (. . 1115) ֬߻ ִ׬ִָ֓ . ־ֺ ß ӣ֓ . . 1115 ֯ ־. ָ߻ ִ֬ ߸Ӥ߻ ֮֬־, ֬, ֻ֓׸, -֮ . ֤ ־ֻ .

֯γ Ӥ港 ָ-ݵ-ָ (12-13 ֟) ӣ ׮ןֈ֤֟ . ָ ӣ ָ ־֟ . ֟ ִֿáָ֮ áֵӓ ־ֳ־ ׾ֻ ӓ Ԯ ֯ ־֬ ޵֓ ֤ פ .

־ָ֓ ( ӣ ) -

־ ִӲӬ ִ֬߻ ƻ þ֟ӡ ӣ ־ֵ֯ע . ֟߻ 401 ֣Ӵ֬ ־ӓ ֓ Ο, ߮ ־Ο, ָ ׿־Ο 12 Οӓ ׮־꤮ . ƻ Ο . Ӭߓ Ԯ ֣ 176 259 ֵ՟ ׬ ׾ßָ֮ . ֓ ӲӬ ֳ֟ . ߕ ӣ þ֟ߓ ֮֟֟ ָ ָ ׸֦. ֵ֤׸ ӓֿ ߻ (֓ןֻ ߴ֤þן־֓ ߾Ζ֯ ִ֌פ: ־ִ ׾ßָ ׳Ɵ:(. ־ֺ þן-ԟ֓ ִ֣Ԯ . þ֟ߓ ־-Ζ֯ߓ ֿ׾ֵ֕ ִִ֬ ׮֓Ӧ׸ ִײӤ ֬ ָ־ Ο֓ Ӥԟ ֻ . ָӟ þ֟: ֵ֤ ߮ ֓ ֬ ӣ֟߻ ӯ֢֤և ָ ֣ ׸֦֓ ־֮ ˬ . ־ֺ ӣ ׸֦֓֓ ֙. ָ þ֟ߓ ֤ (־-Ζׯ ־֓ ӣ ֓ ָ ִ֬ ־.ӣ֓ ӟԟ ָ־ָ߮ ߓ ™ ֬ . ֟߻ 280 328 ֵ՟֓ ֣Ӵ֬ δ֮ ־ָ˸ ׿־Ο ӓ Ԯ δ ֢֣֓ 7, 21 ֬߻ Οδ֯ ׳֮ . ֢֣֯δ פ, ֣Ԥޛ ߮ ־Ο ִ׵, ֬־, ֳ֯׸ ֣Ԥޛ׾ָן ־Ο ִ׵, ־׿, ֬־ ןף-׾ֳ ָ ׿־Ο ֻ֟ . ׸֦֓ ִָև֓ ƻ ־ִ֬ ֻ껵 Ο֓ δ֯δ . ֜ ־ ָ ִִָ֬߻ ӯ ־Ζ֯ߟ߻ κ ֤ . ׿־ֵ ִ֌־꟯֢ߓ Ӥԟ (-( ׮״֢֓ ־Ζ֯ߓ 11 ֣ ֻ ִָև֟߻ ִ֌꟯ע ֟ ִ֪֬ ֓ ֛֯. ־ֺ ֬ , ֮ ׸֦ӓ . ־ָ ӓߓ .

־ ִԓ 㸾֟ ִݤԮ֓ ֯߮ . ־Ζ֯ߓ ָӳߓ ( . 2) ֻ ִ֌־ ί֟ ֻ ߕ־ ָ֤֓֓ ֤ ־ ־֓ ֻ֟ . ӟָ ִݸ˿֮֓ ֢ ׾׬֯ ֻ֟ . ׸֦֓ Ӥ֢׸ִ֢֢֟׸ Ӿ ׬ ֟߻ 70 ֣Ӵ֬ ִݤԮ֓ þֺ . ־ָ ӑןֻߓ ( 14 ֟ ) . 3֮, 1916 ). ׸։֓ ־ִֵ֬׾ ־֓ ӣ ֟߻ 120 ֣ ־ӓ ָ֓ ִԓ Ԯ . ־ָ ָ֤֮ߓ ׾־ . ( . ־ָ֮, 1924 ).

׿־ֵ ׸֦ (1) ־ִ, (2) ׾֮֬, (3) Ӥ׾׬ (֮Ӥ), (4) ׾֬, (5) Ο֮ܵ׾׬, (6) ß־׾׬, (7) וֳ֮־֮׾׬, (8) ןš׾׬, (9) ֡׾׬, (10 ) ןִ׾׬, (11) ִ֬, (12) ִָ֓, (13) ׯӛ׾׬, (14) ߻׾׬, (15) ֻ֮׾׬, (16) ֵ׿֢, (17) ã֟ã֟׾׬, (18) ֬ןִ (19) ֯׾׬ . Ο֟ 50 ֣ ֻ֮ Ӯ ֮ ӓ ƙ . ֆִ֬ ־ ӓ ָ֓ӲӬ ־ ׾ֵӓ ִ־ . ӓ־ָ ֵ֤ ߓ ׿µƟ ־֓ . (־ָ֮, 1912( ִֻ, 1939). ӓ֯δ . ִ֬ ˵ ֣ . -߆ (׾ֿן׾׿) ־֮ ֬ . (1) ׬ָ, (2) פ, (3) ֮ן, (4) ָ֯׸֟, (5) ߕפ, (6) ֬, (7) ֮, (8) ׾֬, (9) ־Դ, (10) ־ןִ, (11) ןִ֬, (12) ׿, (13) ׳, (14) ֤ӟֵָֿ׬׻, (15) ֻ֮, (16) ε׿֢, (17) ׾֮֬, (18) ֻ֖֮, (19) ֬׾ֳ׌ (20) ֬ ׾׿ . ִ֬ ߻ ־ ӓ ִԓָӲӬ ִ֮ ׮ִֵ, ָ֮֯ ׾֮֬ ֮֬ ӲӬ ׮ֺ . ־ָ ֮Ӥָ߮ ׻ƻ . 17 ׾֮֬ ׾׿ָ ֿ׾ֵ֕ߓ . (. ִ֡, , 1962).

ָ־ ֟֟߻ ן߮ ׻ƻ껵 ִԸ-ִ֬ 181 ֣ ֟ ־֤֓ ֚֯ ֟, ֳ֯ߺ֟, . 21 ־ֿ ӓ Ԯ . ׿־ֵ ־ִ֓ ߻ֻ֓ ׮ֺ . ־ָ þ֖ .

֣֬ ãִ֬ ָ ָ ӣ פ ֵ֮֬ (־ָ֓) . ֟߻ 546 ֣Ӵ֬ ־ӓ 11ןִӓ ׾ß Ԯ . ӣֵ֓ οßߴ֬ ֮ ֻ֯ ׸ֵ פֆ. ֟֯δֆ ӓ ָӯָ ִִֵ֬ ߮פ, ֵ֮פ, ״֓Ӧ פ . ֮ δӣ ֻ֯ ״֓Ӧ ӓ ֤֮ ־ ֚֮ ֵ֓ ָӯָ ֺ ׻ƻ. 㸾֟߻ ƙ , ׾ֻ֯֓ Ӧ߮ ֻ ֤ פ ָӯָδ ӣ֟ ׻ƻ . ֟־ ִ֬ ־ӓ ֓ ןִӓ Ԯ ֮Ӥ ־֓ ֮֟ ֻ . ֡ ִֵ֮֬֬ þ֟ӡ֯ ׮ֺ . ֟߻ 295 301 ֢֯ԓ ֣ ־ןδ֟߻ ֣δ . ֵ֓Փ ׸ִ֯֬֬ (. 22) ןִӓ ִִ֡ . ӓ ׾ßָ ן֮֬ 305 390 ε՟֓ 86 ֣Ӵ֬ . ־ԯ Ӥߓ ׾ֿ֟ , סֳ։֮֟ ƻ ןִ֬ ־ֿ 6 ןִ֬ ֋֕ פ-ʓָ ֻ֟ . ˸ӣ ֮ ֻ ׮׿֟ . ָ߯ ӣ֟߻ ֣ ־֓ ָ֮֬ ׻ƻ ֙. ־ֺ ֓ Ծ֬ ׾. . 990 (. 933) ־. ָֿ֬ ִָԓ Ӥߓ ï™ . ־ֺ ӓ ֓ ָ־֬ ׾. . 1296 (. . 1239) . ֟߻ ӟִָ֬, 11-12 ֟֟ ӣ ׻ƻ ־.

־ִֵ֤֬ ֳӿ ߻ ӣ ־ֲָ֓Ӭߓ . ֟߻ 224 ִ֬ ־ӓ 11 ןִ 12 Οӓ þֺ ֻ֟ . 12 Οӓ ־ ֮ פ֯3 ֟ ֿ־Ο֓ ־ ֻ֮ ӟָ˸־ . ֟ ֮, , ן, , ֛, ָ֯ . ӓ ֆ֓ . ֓ ָ, Ӥ ־ִֵ . Ο ֟߻ ƻ ߟ ִԯ֤ ִַ֬ ӲӬ Ӥ, Ǥïֿ ™ӟ פ . ֓ ӲӬ ֳ֟ . ׿֟ (ָӕ, 1932) ӣ֓ ״֬ ӲӬ ֓ ֓ ־ ֟֟߻ ־ ֻ֟ . ָӟ ֓߮ ß׻֟ Οߴ֬ ֻ Ӧ ƙ ָ ַ Οߟ ߓӦ

. ֙˯־ָ߻ ָ ֬ ֟߻ ˬ Ӯ ߓӦ ƙ . ָ ӣ ߓӦ ָ 15 ֟֟߻ . ӣ־ָ Ӧ ָֿ֟֯ ־ָ˸ ӓ ָ γ־ ֛ . ֓ ֓߮ Ο ֵ֯渓 ֙ פ֟ ׾. . 1555 ( . . 1498) ֬ ׻ƻ ֓ ¯֬ (ן ָ֓ ֵ֓ ߓӦ׾ָד֟ - ִ֯׮( .

־ָ֓ ( ӣ) -

ޛ-־ָ֓ ־ִԾָ߻ ӣ ָ ֬ . ֟߻ ߛ Ӵ֬ δ֮ ִݤԮ, ֮ ׸ ӓ ׮ֺ . ׸6ִ֪ ֓ Ο, ߮ ־Ο ָ ׿־Ο ӓ ׾ßָ Ԯ . ӟָ ֻ֮ ׮ֺ ָߟ߮ ӓ Ԯ֯δ֋ (׸-,֣ 25-26) ֻ֮ ־֓ Οִ֬ ִ־ . ֙ ӓ 11 ˸ןִӓ Ԯ . ָߟ߮ ־ִԓ ׮ֺ ֬߮ . ֮ ֻ֯ ־ ֙ . ָӟ ָ γ֮֮֓ ӣ ִӟֳ֦֮ ׻ƻ ƙ . ָ֬־ָ Ӯ ִ֯ߴפ ӣ ׻ƻ ֓ ִӟֳ֦֓ ӣ ˸ ֻ֮ . ָӟ (1) ׾ֵ ׿־ֵ ֻ֯ ִ֯ߴֻ֯ ׮ָ . (2) פ֕ Ԯ֣ ׸֓ ׮ ֓ ִӟֳ֦֯ ï™ (Ӧ( ֻ֓ .

׿־ֵ (3) ֯ 㮵 ӣִ֬ ޛ ־ָ֓֓ ״ . (4) ֓ ӣֻ֟ ֮ ִ֬ (ߟ(, (׾֪( (־ԣ׬( ֲ֓ ε . ־ֺ ֕־ן, ׾֪֮פ ־ן 敵֤֯ ־ԣ׬ ߮ ӓ Σָֻ ׸ֵ ӓ ֮ ֵ ֙. ָߟ߮ ӣ֓ ֻ֮ ׾֪֮Ӥ פ֕ ӓ֟߻ ӟָֻ ԟ 8 10 11 ֵ֟֯՟֓ .

֤ ֿßӯ擵 5 8 Ӵ֬ ׸֓ Ԯ . ׾ֿ֟: 7-8 ִ֬ ־ӓ 12 ־Οӓ Ԯ ׾ßָ  . ӣ֓ ִ֯ 881 (. . 956) ֬ ֻ.

״֟ן ־ָ֓ ָ 1500 ִ֬ ֻ ִ֬ 15 ֵ . ִ֬ ִԓ þֺ, ״֣֟ ִ֌ Ӵ֬߻ , ֟ ֟, ™, 12 Ο, ӓ ןָ֓, ִ׵ פ 6 ־ֿ, ֮, ־ 12 ־֮ ӓ ׾ß Ԯ . ֙ ֵ֟߻ 114 Ӵ֬ ֮֓ Ԯ . ִ֬ ֮, ֟, ֱ֮ ӓ ׮ֺ . ״֟֟߮ ֻ֯ ӣִ֬ ӣֵ֓ ֻ֮ӲӬ . ׾δ ӯ֟ 1050 1073 ֵ՟֓ . ӣ֓ ֻ ָ . . 1000 ־.

ָֿ֬ ִָԴִ֬ ָ 500 . ֟߻ ֚ ֵӴ֬ ־ִԓ ִ֮־Ԯ, ™ 11 ןִӓ ׾־֮ . Ο֯ןִ֬ 12 Ο׿־ֵ ־֓ פֵ֓ ֻ֟ . ֙ ֵ֟߻ 110 ִ ִ׬ִָ֓ ׾ß Ԯ . ֓ ֮ ־ִֵ . ־ָ ֖ . ֬ ӣ ִ֯ߓ ׾. . 1296 (. 1239) ֻ֟ . (. Ӳև, 1915).

ֳ ־ָ֓ ֮ ־֮֕ד֢־ֳֻ ־ָ֓ ƙ . ִ֬ 269 Ԯ, ֮ ־ִ ߮ ֮ ָ . ֓ ׮׿֟ . ָӟ ־ָ ޛ פ־ָ֓ ӓ γ־ ֛ . ֮ 14-15 ֟֟߻ ־ ֙.

־ִ׾ ӣ ֮ ָӯָ ӛ ֻ֟ ֻ . 17 ֟֟߻ ָֻ߮ ִֻ֕ ֮ ׻ƻ߻֙ Ɵ ֮ߵ .

֮ ( Ɵ ) -

׮ִ֬ԓִָ֬ ֯֓ ã֮ ָ Ƣ֓ ֯֓ ӟָ . ӟָ ֵ֯֓֯׿֢֟פ 6 ֳִ֬ ֙ ֯ ֮ . Դ֬ ִִ֬ - ׾ֿ֟: ãִֵ֮֬ ( . 4 . 1 ) ֟, , ִ, ㌻ ָ ֮ ӓ ֳӓ Ԯ . ֓ ָ ׮ֵԌߴ֬ ׾ֿ֟: ־ֿ-׮ֵԌߓ ֵ ִֵ֮֬ (. 1462 1486) ֮ӓ -άꤾֻ . ִ δֻ δ וֳִִ֦֮ ֮ ֻ֯ ֿ֮֟ ӣ֟ ֮֓ κ .

פ ָӯָ֬ ֮֓ ׾־ָ -Ԯִֵ֬ ֯֟. ֓ δ ֟ӕֻ (. . 2 ֟) ִֻ֕ ֟֟. ֟ӕֻ ֟ ֓ (ד֢־ӓ ׾ָ( ֻ֟ . ֓ ֚ ֯ ƻ (ִ( ֓ ֓ ֻ֟ . ֟ ƻ ã֮ . ־ֺ ִ ָӯָ ־ָ ֛ ֯ ï™ פ֟. ™ ֓ ֟־ ֮ . ֮֮ ֻ֯ דֻ֢ ׾ֵ֯ ָ־ ֟דӟ֮ ֟. ε ֓ ִ֯֬ ƙ .

106 ֣֟ ֯ ӣ֓ ָӳ Ӯ ֻ֯ ֮ (ָ ӓ ָֺ֟ ָ֤֯֓ ׾־ָ ָ ӣ( ƙ . ֓ ֻ֯ ֮֬֬ ֟֓ ֤ ֵ 껵֮ ݵֻ ֲ֬, ӟ, ִ ׮־ ֤֓ ֯ . (. 2-3). ך ֟֓ Ƹ֟, ӟָ֟ ָ֟ ߮ ָ ӓ δ֮ צ-ֵָ֟, ֮֟֓ Դ㌟ פ . (. 5). ָ֟߻ ֮Ӥ ״֣֤Ԯ . ִ ߾ֻ ԟ ״. þ֦֟߻ (֟) ֮Ӥ ֤֟߻ ָ . þִ֦֬ ݮ ָ ִ ׮׿֟֯ ִݤ™ ֟. ֮֯ þԓ ֯ . ָӟ þ֟ þֺ ׮־֓ ֯ ֮ ֮ ֌ . (. 23). ֵ, ֮ ֤, -, ִ ׮ֻ ־ָ ӯ ׾ָ ㌟ ֻ֮ ִ֮֟֬֬ ˸ ֌ . ( . 27). ֮֬ ֮-֮֓-ֵֺ ן֮ ָӮ ״֣֟, ֮, ޵ ֯ ӓ ־Ο ָ ƕ ( . 28). ־ãֵ֬ ־ԯ3ָ á־ӓ ׮ָ ד֟ ԓ ֿ ֟. (. 30). ־ָ ׮־ִ ֟֕ . (. 31). ֓ ־Ο, ֓ ״֟, ߮ 㯟 ֵ֡֓ ָ֮֬ ߮ ֤ ֮֓ ־ (. 33). ӟָ ָ ֬ ֮֟( ָ֮֬ ָ֮֬ ןִ ֻ֖֮ ״ ( 34). ָӟ ֖֮֟ ׾ֵ Ɵ ֤˳־֯ ™ ֟. ִֵ ׾ֵ׾ָ ֟֟ ָ㌟ ֟. (. 67-68). ִ ֻ ֮ ֆ֚ ִ֌߮, ׸߮, ־ ֮ ֟֟ (. 74-76). ֮ ֓ . (㬤 ֟ דӟ֮֮ ֻ֯ ֢֟֟־ִ֬ ݮ . ߓ ׮ֵֺֿ ֮־ß . ֓ ֜ ֡֟ ֮ ֟֓ ָ ֮ ־ (. 83-84). ֮ ִӓ֚ . (2) ־Ӯ ֢־דӟֺ֮ ִ֌֓ ׾ֻ֓ ֮ ־ (. 86). ֮֓ ׿־ֵ á֚֯ ׾֬ ׸ֻ֯ ֻ ֻ-׸֓ (. 100). ֵ֙ ֣֬ (104-105) ӓָ֯™, ֵ֡ ֯֓ ׬š֮ ִֵ֟֬ ֓ ֟ӲӬ ֳָ־֮ ֌ ӣ֓ ִ֯ . ָ ӣ֟ ֯ ׾ֵ ן֯֓߮ ׾ָ֓ ֜. ׾ָ֓ӓ ӟָ Ɵ֟߻ ׾ֵ ׾ָ֓ӿ ֮֟ ݵ ( ß: ֮֟ ׻ƻ ־ ֙. ֵֻ (-( ־ ֌ . ֟ӕֵ á֟ ִ-׮ִֵפ ֚ ӓ ׾ָ֓ . ֵ֟߻ ִֵ ֟ ׾ֵ ï™ ֮ þֺ֟ Ի .

ָ ֟߻ 90-91 ֣ , ָ, , ֢, ָ, , ד֢, á־, Ӿָ, ׮֕Ը, ִ ׬ ָ ־ӓ ӟָ δ֮ ӓ þֺ ꛌ֟ ֻ֟ . ־ ־֮ ִ, ֓ ׮־꤮ִ֬ ־ӓ Ԯ-Οפ ןִ (. 69) ӓ ִ ִפ ִֿ֬ԓ (. 70) ֤ӟָ ֣֬ ִԓ Ԯ . ֙ 91 ֣ ׮֣֮ӓ . ֣ ֓߮ Οߴ֬ ״ . ֟߻ ֣ ָ֓ ־ԣ֬ߟ ˬ 껵 ֜֟. ִ֬ ߓ ָ , ִ ֮ ӓ ֮ ֵ. ִ֢֣֯δ ִ֮֬߻ ־ֿ . ָ ӓ ֤ . ֚ Ӯ ׸ӲӬ ־ ׾ֵӾָ ӣ ֮ Ӯ ָ ӓ ׮ֺ þֳ׾ ֙.

ֵ֓Փ ߴ֬ ךִ ֮ ָ ך ׾ßָ֮ ִ ־ӓ ׸ӲӬ ־ ׾ֵӓ κ ֻ , ָ߻ ׾־֮־ֺ ï™ . ӓ ӣӓ ߻ Ɵ ׮״ԟ߾ָ γ־ ֛ פ֟. ִֵ֬ ӓ ׾ֵӓ ׾ֿ֤ ֻ .

ע (ן֮) ֬߻ 491 ֣֬ ֓ ָ ӓ ׾ßָ Ԯ , ӓ ֯ ׮ֺ ӓ ָ-ִ֬ . ָӟ ˟ֵӓ δ ׳֮ ָ . ך ӟָ ־֮ ןָ, ד ־ ־֮ ־ . ֮ Ԯ 115 283 ֣Ӵ֬ . ִ֬ ӯ4 ꌵ֓ þֺ, ߻ ߾, 6 , ֯ ֤ . ֵյ ן, . ֓ ֮ӓ κ . ӯ ֕ ֺ סΖ֯ߓ . ֓֯δ ִԮ δԮ 302 497 ֵ՟֓ 186 ֣Ӵ֬ . ֟ ־ӓ ןִ ָ־Ο (305 391), ִӓ 10 ִ (392-404), ™ ִݤԮ (414-422), ֿ֮פ ָ ָ ֯ (441-487) ־Փ Ԯ . ߻ Ο ֟ ӓ δ ׸ ִ֬ (. 25-26) ָ . ֡ ֜֓ ֙ ׿־Ο ֻ ־׿ . ־Ο׿ӾΟӓ ־ã ֢֣֟߻ ܵδ֯ ֻ ָ ־Ζ֯ߟ߻ ־ã ֟ . ӣ ִ֯ ׸ ֮֟ ֙ ߮ ֣ þ״ָ ֮ ו֮ ִ־ָ߻ ־֮ ãָ ޵֚ ֮֟߻ ӓֻ֟ ׮ָ ޵֚ ֵ֬㌟ ӟ, וִ֮֟ ֺ ӓ ֮ ƙ . ֣ ֮ ָ־ã֓ ַ 敵, ׻֣֮, ״֣֮ Ԯ֣ ־߸ ߣӓ Ӥ . ־ֺ ӣָӲӬ ֜ߓ Ɵ ״ , þ֟: ֲֻɓָ ӓ ־ þ״ָ (ן) . ӣ֓ ֻ֮ӲӬ ֟ ֮ . ־ָ ָּ ֓Ӧ ׾. . 1613 (. 1556) ֬ ֻ .

ӤӤ֮ӟָ þ֟ӡ֯ ׾ֵ ӣ ָ ֵ֓ ׸֦ -֟ (), ײӤ (), ֤™-ִ㓓ֵ (.) ӓ ־ָ߻ ߮ ӣ ֲֻ . ׿־ֵ ӓ ׾ӿן׾׿֬ ָ֟־ ׾׿ ꛿ִ֬߻ 14 16 ߮ ֮ ӳӬߓ . ֿ֟֟߻ 101 ֣Ӵ֬ ִݤԮ, ׮ֵֿ ־ָ, ֓ ׬ָ, ӓ , ֺ֮ ־ã ֤ӓ ˻ֺ֓ ָӯָ ֺ ִ֮ ߟ߮ Ԯ . ׾ֿ֟ߴ֬߻ 20 ֣ ֓ ׾֟ ãӓ Ԯ . ֓ 5 Ӯ Ӿ š֮Ӯ ã֮, , ֻӲ֮ ֻ֮ӳ֮ ־ (. 2 ) ӟ߻ ƻ ָ šֻ Ե ߓ ߮ ָֻ ֵ֮ ƙ . (. 3). ֮ӟָ ֯֓ ӓ , ξע, ãָ ׬ ָ ִֺ γ ֙ Ο֓ ן, ׌, ֮֓ ָ ָ š֮ ֻӲ֮ ֻӲֻ ֓ þֺ ִ֕׾ֻ .

֮ ( ֳӿ Ɵ ) -

ך ֳӿ ӣӓ ד֟ ֙. 3 ֬֟ ׾ֵӲ . Ӧ ָֿ֟֯֟ 345 ִָ֬ 107 . ӣִ֬ ֯δ Ƹ֟, ӟָ֟ ָ֟ ߮ ָ֟֯ӓ Ԯ ׾ßָ ׸ ׾ֵ֯ ֻ֮ ָ־ ֻ ֟׳ִ ޵֓ ֤ ֮֯Ӯ . ־ ֤ ߦӮ þ׿µ ֙ γ ӓ ο ֮ . ӯ֤Ӯ ӣֆ֓ ֻ֮ . 6 ֟ ֻ֓ . (. Ӳև, 1927). ָֿ֟֯֟߻ ֓Ӧӓ ִ֬ ˬ . ־ֺ ָӯִָ֓ ֻ֮ ֓Ӧ֯ ִ֬ ˬ . ־ֺ ָֿ֟֯֓ ֻ֮ ֓Ӧ ֻ߮ ׮׿֟ .

ִ ׮ ( ֬ 222 . ִ֬ εޛ ׮± ֟ӵִ ֤֟Ԯ ִ֬ ָ ׮־꤮ . ֮֕־ָ ָ . ך ֻ Ӿ ֵֻ, ֻ֟ ׿־ צ- Ӯ ֌ ָ֯ . ֓ ֿ֮ ֕ ꬤ ֵԯ֤ ֟߻ ߿ ִ֮ ָ ַ ֕ ߸ָܵ ӟӓ ֤־߿ ֤ . 99 100 ִ֬ ֟ Ӿ ֟ ָ֟ ֻӓ Ԯ δߓ ֮ ï™ . ־ֺ ָֻ߮ ӯΤֵ֟߻ ־֯ξ֓ ֚ . ֟߻ 4-5 ד֟ ֮ ֓Ӧ֓ ֟ ˬ . ß־ ӣ֓ ֻ֮ . 1100 ԓ . (. ָӕ, 1933).

֮ ( Ɵ ) -

ӤӤ֓ ֚֚ 敵֤֯ ׾ֵ־ָ߻ ֮ ӣ ֮ߵ . 51 ֟ ™ִ֤֬ ־֮Ӵ ֬ ֻ֯ צӮ ָ֟߻ ׾ֵӯ ׾ִ ֻ֯ דֻ֢֮ ִ֮֟֬֬ ξ ӓ ׮ֺ . ֮֬֬ ָ֯ߓ ֬֟־ , ִ ֬ ӯ ֻ֓ צֺ ֮ ֟. ֮־֓ . ָָ֯ ֲ֛ ׾ֺ ֟. 㬤ꓓָ ֟ ֻ֟ . δ ֟ ֻ֟ . ֛ ֟ . ֜ ֵ ֻ ֻ֯ ֓ ֮ ֟ (39-42). ߟ߮ ־ָ֯ ׾ִ ֮֟šִ֮֬ ãָ ƻ֮ ָ֮Ӥ֓ þ֤ (47). ݵ֓ ã ߾֮㌟ ã֓ . 敵֤֯ӓ ָ ִ׬ֿ֟ ֟ 105 . ִ֬ Ƹ֟, ӟָ֟ ָ֟ ӓ þֺ ӟָ֟ ָ֟֓ ֮ ֮֓ ׾־ָ . ֮֓ ֮֬ ߟ ֮֟ ׾֪, ִָ ִ ֮ ַ ֫Ӯ ִ֮֬ ׮ִ 껵־ָ ֻ֮ ֫֯ ָ־ ֮֬ ִ֢֟֟֬ֆ ãָ ־ ֤ . Οӓ ΟӴ֬ ãָ ֤֟֯֓ ֯ ֻ־ָ Οӓ ޵ ֻ֟ . (. 8). ׻ ֟ߓ ַӮ ָ֤֯֓ ֚֯ ָ֡ ִֻ֕ . (. 89). ַ פ־֕־ ߓ 껵֮ӟָ ֯δ ֪ ֟ߓ þ֟ӡ ߯ ֮֟ ֯δֆִ ߾ ֻ֯֯ þ ֟֓ ֮ ָ֓ þ֟ӡ ָ֟ ֮֟ (. 97). ӣ֓ ׿™ , ֟߻ ޵ ׾ֵ ֓ ֯֟߻ ׾ֵ֯δ . ֜ ־ ָ ֟߻ ֣ӓ יִ ֲ: ד֟ ꛶ ֮ ӟָ ֜. . ֣ 5,6,8,9,10, 11, 29 31, 32, 42 62 δ ִ׬ֿ֟֟߻ 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 18, 48, 78, 83 102.

ֵ֓ ׸֦ ꛿֓ 14 ִ֬߻ 16 ִ֬ ֮֬ ֬ ֆַ , ˾, , ֮, ߟ, ִ, ֚ ד֢֤ӓ ׮ֺ . ־ ִ֬ ֚ י ӓ ׾ָ ו֖, , ־, , ߴ ן֢֯ ξ ֚ ד֢ӓ ׾־ָ . ֮֬ δ֮ ֯ ַ þ֮ןִֵ ָ֮Ӥ֤֓ ׾־֮ .

׸֦ ײӤ ֬߻ 527 Ӵ֬ ֓ ׾ß ׾־֮ . ֵ֤ ִԾָֻ֯֓ ֯֯߻֓ ֓ ƙ . ָָֻ֯֯־֟Ԯ ִֻ֬ ֓ ֌֟( ֲԬ, ׳֮ӣ, ׾ָ ־ ׾ָ ָ ֮֕ӓ ßָ( , ָ֤֓, ֯ פ š֮, ֬֟-־֮, ֮ פ ֓ ֓ ( ׾, ָ . ֓ ָ Ӿ š֮( ׸ִ-׮֟ ֟֓ þֺ ֯δ ָ֮ ܵ, ꬤ, ֮ . Ԯӓ ִֻ ֯ ׾ֵ ִ֬ דԻ . ӟֵֻ֕, ꬤ, ֵ ӓ ״ӓ ֮ ׾ֿ ֮ߵ .

׸֦ӓ ֤™ִ㓓ֵ֟߻ 227 Ӵ֬ ײӤ֬߻ ׾ֵӓ ꛌ֟ ָ־ ߆. ׾ֵ ־ . ֬ן ׾֓ ״ ߮ ָ ֻ֟ Ʋ.- 1) ״֡ ָ, ֻ, ߯, ãָ, ӟ, γ ָ ֚ ָߓ ֤™( 2) ֵ, áֵ, ִ֣Ե ߮ ָ ָ֓( 3) ֵ, ֵ, ξ֓ε ֬ ָ ָ ߕ֮. ƻ ָ֟߻ ֚ ֤™ִ֬ 14 ã֮ӓ ֮ (㌟( ֢ӓ ߴ ׾ßָ֮ .

ӣָ֮ꓵ ֮ ֻ֯ ׾׿™ דӟ֤֮֯׬, ־߮ ׸֟ ֲ֤־ֻ פ Ԯ ָӯָ߻ ׾ֵ ׾ָ֓֓ ӛ ׸֦֮ ־ þֺ֓ פ  ָӯָ߻ ׾ֵ ־Դ֮ ֟֯ξֲָָ ֻ֯ ׾ָ֓ӓ ֻ޵֓ ε֟ . ֤™ִ㓓ֵ־ָ þ֟: ׸֦Ӯ ֿ׾ֵ֕Ӯ ׻ƻֻ껵 ֲֻ . ֜ ־ ָ ֿ׾ֵ֕ Ӯ ״֡, ָ, . ֚ ֤™߾ָ ָ ׫׿ (21-24) ׻ƻ껵 . ָߴ֬ ֺ ֵ֕ ׻ƻ .

ֳ֦ ִ֮֮֟֬߻ 270 Ӵ֬ צ ֮֓ ʾ ֺ ֮֟֬֟ ݮ ޵֓ ֤ . ß־ ֻ ֳ֙ ԯך ֟ Ի ֮ ־ִֵ . ־ָֻ ߸ ׿µ ו֮֓ µ ֳֵ֦֓ԓ ӣ֓ ˸ ֻ֮ ֟֟. ֳ֦Ӯ ָ֓ ֮ ־־ ֟֓ ִֻ֬֬ . ӣ֓ ֻ֮ ִ֮֯ .

״֟ן ֟--Ӥ (10-11 .) ֟ӓ . ֟߻ 32 ִ֓֬ ִ ־֯֬߮ ן ״ ֤ פ . ֮ ִָԵ ֮֟ӲӬ ֻ֮֟ ׾ָ֓ ӛ . ״֟֟ӓ ָ ӣ ָ . ֟߻ 9 ֵӴ֬ ן ֬ן ֤ .

֮Ծ : ָ֓ ֮ ӓ ׾ßָ Ԯ ָ ӣ . ֓ ֓Ӧ . ־ ֟֟߻ ֕֓ ִֻ߮ ֻ֮ ֟. ӣ֓ ׾. . 1248 ֬߻ ß׻֟ Ο ֙ ߻ ӛִָ֬ ״ֻ . ӣ֟߻ 42 ִ֬ 2000 ß . ִ֬ ֮֬֟߻ ־ ׾ֵӓ ֯ ׾ß Ԯ . ָ֓Ӳ׬֟ Ο Οֳ־֮ פӓ ׾ßָ κ . ׿־ֵ ֮, ִֵ ֤ ֯ε ֮ ׾ֵ ֖, ׾֯ ã֮׾ֵ֕ ӓ Ԯ . ֮ Ԯִ֬ ֻ껵 ׯӛã, ֤ã ã ֟ߟ Ӗӓ ε ׻ . ֮-ӓ þֺ . ׾־ ֟߻ ׿־֢֟, ֹ֢ ִ֢֟ ӓ Ԯ ߻ ӣ֓ ׿™ . ӣָ֮ ִֵ֓ Ԯ ׸ . ָ߯ ִֵ ֚֮֬ ֬ ָ ֬ ֓ ֓ ׮ ֆ. ־ Ԯ ֪֟ ־ָ ָ֓ . ֟ ޵׾ֵӓ ׾֯֟ ֓ ֮Ծ ־ ֣ . פӲָ ָӯָ֬ ׾ֵӲӬ ִ֬ ָ֮ ֯Τ߯ ָ ֵ֪ ӣ ֜֟.

֓Ӧ (12 .) ֿáִ֬ ָ ƕָ . ֟ ׮ִ֬ ־ִ Ӳ׬֟ Οӓ δ־ָ Ԯ . ָ֮֟ ־֓ פֵ֓( ֵ׾ֵָ֕֫ ֮:㬤( ׮֟ ֤ ָ ־֮( ֮, ִֵ, ָ֟, ָ, ׯӛã, ֤ã, ã ֟ߟ ָ֮֯, ֖׾ֵ֓, ֵ׾ֵ֓ פ ִԬ֮, ㌻֮֬֓ ָ , ֻ ִˑ֟ ֯֯ פӓ ׾־ָ . ֟߻ ־ Ԯ ֓Ӧ ֮Ծִ֬ ֲ: ָ ֿ ֮ꆣ־ -׾ßָ-֬߮ ֻ . ֜ ־ ָ ־ ־ 300 Ӵ֬ ִֵ֓ ׾ß Ԯ ֙ ֮Ծִ֯δ ִֵֻ ֚֯֯ ֬ ֻ֮ . ֓Ӧ ֓Ӧ ӓ ֻ ׮׿֟ ֓Ӧ Ծ֟ . ֓Ӧ ӣ־ָ֮ ֓Ӧ ֯ ï™ ֛ ֲֲ֟ߟ ֓Ӧ ֮޵ ֟ߓ Ӭ .

ָֿ֬ ֬֟-õ ӣ ׻ ׿֟ ֻ . ֟߻ 72 ִ֬ ֿ֟㬤, ֤֟Ԯ ֟ ֮֟ ӓ ׾־֮ . ָֿ֮֬ ֻ֯ ָ ִԴ֓ ߻ οßߴ֬ ӣ֓ . ӣ֓ ֓߮ Οߓ ןִ ¯֬ ֮ (ߧ֮߯( ־֓ ִԴӣ֓ ־ ֵ ƙ . ־ֺ ӣ֓ ָ ־ ֮߯ ־ ֻ֯ ִԴ֓ ָ֟ ־ ןִ ֵ ָֿ֬Ӯ ׻ƻ ־. ֻ֯ כӓ ֺ֖, ֬ ӓ ׸ ֯ ֮, ӳ߸ ׯε á֓ ֮ , ԓ ׮־꤮ .

ß Ɵ -

֚ ־ֿ ε ֻ֟ ִ֬ (֟׾Կן-ß־( . ִ ߣ֓ ßߓ ָӯָ ӑ֓ ã֮֯ꇟߓ ֓߮ . ֵ֓Փ 敵֤֯ӓ ֌߯δ ßןֺ ֮ ׌þֺ ׾ָ֓ ֙ ֟. ӟָ ßӓ þֺ ξִ֬ ׾֟ ֻ. ׬֤ ׵Ӯ ֿ ָ ß ֻ ִ֬ ֤֟ӯ ׮ ߣӓ š ֟ ׾ֺֿ֮ ןš ֻ. ׾ֳִ֬ ִӟֳ֦ ִ֟ߴ ֬ ס׿ ֓Ӧ (ֵ- ־֓פ( פ ֬ ӓ ׸ֵ ָ߻ ֵƟִ֬ פ .

ַ ξ֓ ׾ 24 ߣӓ ִ־ֻ ӓ ֟ ׾ֿӓ ֮֟ ֮ ִ֬ ֻ. ָ֯ ß ֯ ֬߻ ִֵֺֻ֮ ֜֟. ßӴ֬߻ ׾ֿӓ ֵԵ־֓ ־ӓ ֜ ֻ. ߟ߻ ןִ ׾֓ Ƹ ו֮֓ ( 9 .) ו֮áִ֮ßִ֬ ֜. ß֟߻ ָӳߓ 34 Ӵֵ֬ ֮ ׾ֿӮ ָ ߣӮ ִָ . ӟָ ߻ ֟Ӵ֬ ו֮Ӧӓ 1008 ־ӓ ׻ . ־Ӵ֬ , ׿־, ׾, 㬤, ïן, Ӧ פ ִԵ ֟ӓ ־ ֻ . ֻ ֺ כ ָֿ֬ (13 .), ׾ֵ֕ (16 .), ׾ֵ֮׾ֵ֕ ֵ֬ (17 .) ߟ ֤Ӯ ֻ ו֮áִ֮ ß ֲֻ . ֬ פ ו֮áִ֮ ß֓ ֛֯.

׿־ֵ ־֯ןֳֻֿ ßןӮ ־ִֵ ßӓ ֮ . ִ֬߻ ֌߳־֯ ߣӓ ־Ԯ Ӥ-ָ-׻֟֯ ־ָ֮ . ָ֯ ßָ֮ Ɵ֟߻ ן־֓ Ӥ Ƹ . ָ֯ߓ ן֯֓߮ ֮ ֕ Ƹ ß . ֮ ֦ӓ ֻ֮ ֟. ֟߻ 5 ֣ Ԯ֣ ߣӓ ß . ֻ֮֯ ֳ-ӓ׿߻ 50 Ӵ֬ ƻ ߣӓ ߾֮־ӟӲӬ . ß ֮ Ӯ ָ . ָӓ ™ ֜. ߾֮ ꤬ . ִ֬ ־֮ ֳ . ߾֮ , ֻ֯ ޵ . ֳ . ߾֮ ״ֵ֣֟㌟ ֡ . ߵִ֮ ֳ֓ . ߾֮ ֳ . Ο ֻ֙ ֙ ׮֑ ־ ֟, פ. ־ָ γ֓Ӧ, ״֓Ӧ, ƴ, ִ ֤ӓ . ֙ ֮ ֓ ִԮ ֤ . פ ( 9 .) וֵ-ן-־ (ו֟-ן-ß־) ֬ ַ ֻ ߣӓ ß . ֓߮ ָ֮֟ ߣӮ ֡ӕֵ ־ԟӓ ֬ ֟ . ָ֓ ֟ ߣԵ֡ ߻ ß ޵ 긯 ״ֻ. ֓ ߣָӓ ß ߮־ֳֻ (12 .) ֮ (֌ֵ֣( ֬ . ןߓ ֟ ו֮־ֳֻ ֵ֮ , ־, ָá, ֙, şֵ, ן ֵֿ֬ ֮ כ . ߸߮㬤 (וֵ-ן-־( ß ֻ . ֤֒ (11 .) ֵן( ß ִ֬߻ ׻֟ ֌߯ ß . ßߓ γ־֮ ßןָ ֬߯ ㌟ Ԯ ָݵӯ֮ ֻ ֟֟. ״ו֮ß־ ß ִ֬ ((, (( ׿־ֵ ַ ֟ ӕ֮֓ ֵ . ־߸ß־ ֲָֻ֓ Ӥ Ƹ . ֟ ֲ ֚ ߮ ߮ ׮ָ׮ָ Ԯ ֻ . ßߴ֬ ,ӓ ֵ ֆ. . ִԾ֬Ԯ (13 .) ו֮ß־֮ ו֮֯֩ (14 .) ן֣֮ß־֮ ִ֬ֆ , ָ™, ֬, , ֓ ֳӿ ӟ߻ ִ׾™ . ֓ ֓ Գ ִ֬ ִ֬ ֻ . ִԑ ִӛ (ִӛ) ֬ Ӳþִ, þֵӳ־, ֦ פ ֵ֓Փ ß . 24 ֣֟ ִԑ ָ ܵ 52 ֣ӓ ִ־ָ ß .

ִӟֳ֦ӓ ֮ ־ֿߟ߻ ־ԟ ֓߮ . Ɵþֵӳß ־֮ ֬ ָ ֓ 㸾֟ (þֵӳ( ֲ֮ . ִ֬ 24 ߣӓ ß . ß־֮ 5-5- ӓ ܵ 143 . ִ֬ ӿã, Ӧ, ӟןֻ . 15-16 ָ Ӥ֓ ֵ . Իָ ֲָֻֿ ꚶ֯δ֟ ֜֟. ן Ԯ ן ״ ֤ ׾֯ . ־ָ γ֓Ӧ .

Ӵֳ֟Τӓ ָ ß֡֟ ֮ (ßן-׾֪( . ֻ֓ וֿ֮֟( Ӿ וָֻֿ֮֟ . ָ ־ . ִ֬߻ ߓ ־ ֻ ӟ ™ ֵԤ ֻ פ֟. ֟ 116 . ָ ד֡־ ִ ך ֮ Ԭ ֻ֮ , ׿־ֵ ֓ ݵ ִ֕ ך . ־ָ߻ Ӥ߮ ׻ƻ . ָ֓֯ 敵֤֯ ֮Ӥ ( 6 .) ֬ׯεß ָΓ֓ . ִ֬߻ 26 ֟ 24 ߣӓ ß . (֬ׯֵ( ֲ֮ ָӳ ֻ֮ ֓ ־֮ ֬ .

ֵ֮֟֓ (ָ 5-6 .) ֌ִָ ß ָ ׯε ־ԡ Γ׻֟ ִ֮֟: Ο ֻ ֚ ֻ ֜֟. פӲָ ָӯָ ֺ ִ֬ 48 Ӳָ ָӯָδ 54 ֜֟. ß֓ ֮ ꮮ֟ Ӥִ֬ ֻ . ßןָ֓ þ֟: ׾֮֬֯δ ֟ Σִ ו֮Ӧ ԟ ֳ֣֮ ӓ ß . ָӟ ֮֓ ֟ ߣӮ . Ο ִ֬ Ӥ ִ, . ָӓ ֵ ־֮ ֯ ׾ֿ֯ Τ߯ ֟. ֟ , ֟ , , ƻ־ ָ ַ֓ Ɠ . ָӟ ֓ ִֿ֡ ֳָ ־֟. Ӧ( ֻ֯ ƴ ԯ . ָ ֯ ߓ ֟ , ֻ֯֕־ , ֻ֯ ֮ γ־ֻ ߟ, ־ ׾֓ þֺ ִֿ֮ .. ־֮ ֯ 㬤 ֟ ָ ֻ֯֓ 㬤ߓ ֓ ׾ֲ֮֕ ֟. ߮ ֟֓ ֕ ָ ֻ֮ ֯֓ ֟. ׿־ִԓ (ִԓ) ׾֬ߓ ׾֮֬ 껵֮ ֯ ׾֬֟ ֟, פ. . ߮ ӯ֤֯ ִԮ ֓ ֤ . ß֓ ָ֮֬ ׾ֻֿ Ɵ ׮״ԟ ֻ . ־ ־ 20-25 ׮ִ ֻ . ׿־ֵ ֌ִָ ß- ׸, ֵß־֮, ӓ ׾֬, ֤ןß־֮, ӡ, ֟, Ο֮֯ פ ֮㬤 20-25 ߟ. ִ֬ ֮֟ ֵ֓ծ ֵƸß ֟ Ԯ֣֓ ß .

֌ִָ֓ ߓ, ֓ Ӥִ֬߻, ֓ ߓ, ן֟ ׯε ß־֮ ֕ ִפ ß . ִ֬ 44 ֙ ׳֮־ ִ֪֬ ԓ ־ 㤓Ӧ ד֟ . 㤓Ӧ ֬֓ (ָ 6 .) ָ ־ ֮֟֟. ֟߻ ַ ֻ ֺ ß 23 Ԯ֣ ߣӓ . ֌ִָָ ֻ ߸ ß ־֮ ֲ־֮ ™߮ - ו֮ꮦ( ֻ֯ ִ֮֬ ֓ ־ ָ ֟, ־ ߾Ӯ ӟָ֟ ֯ ֺ ( ִֻ֕. ֪ 㬤 ޵־ָ ֺ ֟. ָ ֵ֓ ֟ ָ ַ֓ γ־ ֟. ו֮( ֻ֯ ֮ 껵֮ ־ ֟֓ ֓ ָ֤֟ ֟( ָ , ߾ ߓ γ־֮ ֮׾֬ ֟ ֻ֯ ֳ־ פ 㬤 ָ ֟. . ߮ ß־ָ 25-25 ֵß ֜֟.

֮ӕֵ (7-8 .) Ӯ ֻ ׾ָ֯ ß 40 Ӧ֕ ִ֬ ֻ . ןִ ֪֓ ֟ ߮ ֻ֯ ־ ƙ ִ֬ ַ ִ֪֬ ß Σִ ߣ ֳ֣֮ӓ ƙ . ִ֬ ַ ֯ ׮ָ ׾ַ Ըӓ ӓ ֮ ׾ֺֿ֮ . ( ֯ ֌֓ ֟, ֓ ׯ֟ ֟, ֌֓ ֟ ֮֟ ֻ þֺ֓ ֻ֯ ־Ԯ ֟ ָָ ӓ ֟ ֻ ֛ ִ֕ ֟. ֻ֯ ß ֯֕־ ߮֯ ֟֓ ָ ֟ . ָ ֻֻ֯ ßߓ . ֵֿ߻ ֓ ֵ ֻ ֵֿ߻ ֓ ֵ ֻ ֵ ֯֯ ״( ֵ ޵֟ ֵ ( ָ ֯ ָ ޵֟ . ָ ֯ ָ ޵֓ ß֓ ־ ֓ ֤־ ֪֟߮ ֟ߓ (׾ָ֯( ֲ־ֺ ֛ . ֪֟ ƙ , ־֮ ׾Ƹ-, ֬, ӡ ֵ֮ ӓ ֣ ֙ ֟֟. ָ Ӯ Ɵ ־ ֻ֯ߓ ֵԵ־֓ (ָ) ־ . ß־ָ ֓Ӧ, Ԯ֣ 괴֙ ӓ . ׿־ֵ ֓ ꮦן ׾ָ֯-֮֟֯ ֮ӓ ״.

פ֕ (11 .) ӓ ߳־ ßִ֬ Ӥӟ ߟ߻ 26 . ֙ ׳֮־ ִ֬ ߮ ֻ֯ ־ ™ ֲá֖, , ־ֵ ׾֮֬ . ßִ֬ ֌ӓ ֮-֮֓-ֵ þã 㬤 ַ ߣӓ ӓ ׾ֿ ß (- ־֮˕ ֻ֯ Ԯ , ׌ִֵ ֮֡ ִ֮֓֓ ֮ ӵִָ ֮ ָֻ֯ܵ ִ֮, ֮Ӥ-׮֮֬, ִ֤֓ ֤ ™ ַ ֟ߵ ִפִ֬ ִ֮Ԯ ξ ֻ ֙ ߻( ( ֻ֯֕־ ֓ ־ ־ָ ֯ ֮ . ֻ֯ ֮ ָ-֬ãþֺ . ӯ ֻ֯ ֖ . ֻ֯֕־ ֓ ־ . ִ֬ ™ γ־ ֓긕 ַ ִ֬ ( פ. ß־ָ þ֖, ָ ָ ߮ ֲֻ . ׿־ֵ ֟ן Ο֮֯֓ ״.

ߕ ß ֻ . ӓ ܵ Ӯ ָ( ֟߻ ß Ӥ, ֤׻֟, ָ ׌ֳ־ ִ ׿™ . ֯ ӓ ־(- (1) ֳּ֯ ָþ֟ ß (9 .), 2() ֻ ו֮֓֟׾׿, (3) ֓Ӧ ߟָ ß (13 .) (4) ֖ Ɵ ָֿ֬ ֬-ß (13 .), (5-6) ִԑ ִßן ֟׾Կןו֮ßן, (7) ו֮֯γ׸ ֟׾Կןו֮ßן (14 .) (8) ׮Ӥ ו֮ßָ (14 .) (9) ןֻ ־Ԗß, (10) ָֻ, (11) ֯γ (12) ֵ֮Ӥ (13) ӓ ׮ָ׮ָָ֬ ו֮ß, (14) ו֮־ֳֻ Ӥָ-ß־֮, (15-16) ן֓Ӧ (16 .) ֳו߮ß־ וֿ֟ן-ß־ פ. ׿־ֵ (17) ִ ָþן-֌ִָ-ß (18) ־ָ֟ ״ֳ֌ִָ ß ׾ֿ ֮ߵ . ָ ӓ ֮ ֌ִָ ß־ֺ ִõ֯ԓ þֺ֟ ֻ . ִ֬ δ ָþ֟ ״֣֮ ߣӓ ß .

Σִ֮: -

ִ֓ ׸ִֵ֬ ֻ֟ , ™֤֓ ֓֯ Σִ֮ ׾ֳ ֟ ׸ӟ, ξ֟ פ ֯ӓ ׸־Ԯ . ן Ɵ֓ ƻ ξ ֕ ֻ֮ ֟. ִ־ֵ ־֣ ִ֬߻ 246 275 ֵ֯՟ , ߣ , ξ֟, ֻ֤, , ן־ ӓ Ԯ ֻ ֓ ָ ֓ . ִ־ִֵ֬ Ԯ֓ ׮ָߓ ֓߮ ֻ . ֟߻ 㬤߯ߵ ָ֤֟߻ Σִ ָ ַӓ ־ , ƻ ָ ֟߻ ֻӛ, ־-, ָ߸֓ ӓ Σִ׿µ ӓ ׮ָ˸ δ֮ . ߣӮӟָ 12 ξ֟ӲӬ ׯ֟, ֟, ß: ξ֟ á߸ӓ ܵ פ ׮־꤮ δ־ָ . ֮ӟָ 9 ֻ֤ 9 ӓ ӲӬ ׯ֟, ֟ ֵ ß: ӓ Գ־ פ ִ־ֻ ӓ ִԓֵ,ӓ ߤֳ֮ ׮ָ֤֮ ( 263) ӓ ׮־꤮ . ֟߻ ׿š , ֻ֤ ӓ־֮֓ ָ ά֮ þ ֓þ ֿþ ӟ , פ ӳָ ß ׾ֿ ־ֻ . ӓָ֮֟ ӓ ֡ӓ (ן־ӓ) ־ פ . ֮ӟָ ׾µֻ߮ ߣӓ ֟ ߆. ™ ׾ֿ ֮ߵ , ָ ִ־ֻߴ֬ 3 ֯ӓ ӟ פ ( ָ ֯ԓ 132 ִ֬ ִ ӓ ܵ 54 ֻ֟ ( 63 ־. ԟ 9 ן־Ӯ ִ ֻ֮ .

ן־ֳ ןֻע ֬߻ ־֣ ׬ִָ֬ ָ߻ ӓ ӟ ֻ . ׬ָ֟߻ ֣ 421 509 ֵ՟ 14 ֮ ӓ δ֮ 1411 ֵ֣՟ ӓ Ԯ ָ߻֯δ פ . ӟ ™ߓ ׬ ׾ßָ . (- ߣӓ ֮ן֣, ֮֮֡, ӿ, ֮ӟָֻ, ָ֯Դ, ָ ֻ, , ָ߸,, ֻ֕, ד֮, ֤֕֯, ݵָ, ݵֳ־֮, ã, ן֣ ֻ, ֡, ֮, ־ӓ ִ-׮֬Կ, ֯ ־ ܵ ָֻ ָ֮֡ ã֮ ֻ֖֮֓ ӟָֻ ִ־ ֮ þßָ Ԯ (֣ 710 933) ֵֿ, ׻ֻ, ָܵ ߓ ָ ׮ܵ ֟ ׵ӓ ܵ ܵ ׵ ־ ־ӑ ㌟ן֣ , ㌟ֻ, ׌֮֡, ƴ㌟ ߓ ܵ ׌֯Եֻ, ןִ֮֮֬, ֬ ֻߓ ֑ ִָ ӓ ܵ, ׌ִ ֤ߓ ܵ ׌֯֯֟ ׿֮ ׌ֻ ӓ ܵ ׌֯Եֻ, ןִ֮֮֬, ֬ ߾ֻӓ ܵ ִָ ӓ ܵ, ㌟ִ ֣ӓ ֵ ㌟֯֯֟ µӓ ㌟ֻ, þִ ׿µ־ָӓ ܵ ־ִӓ ܵ ןִ ߣӓ ׌ֻ ӟָֻ, ߣԯξֻ֮֓, ־ ׾ßָ 1278 ֵ֣՟ ֯ ξ֟˵ ׾־ָֻ ָӳ . ӓ ֵ, ָֻ ӛ׻ֻ פݾֵ֕ ׾ֳ־, ֵֻ֕, ӵִֻ, ԕ֮ ӲӬ Ԯ 1410 ֵ֣՟ . ֤ӟָ ֤ ӓ ןֿ֡ ӓ ִ־ֻ׿־ֵ ֟ ߣԟ ֻ ׾֮֬ ׆. ֟ӓ ָ߸δ, ֵ. ָֻ ӛ׻ֻ, ֌, ֮µ פ ִָ֟ ֻ פ 4 ӓ 껵־ָ ֣ 1436 ֬ ־ ֻ֤ ׮ָ֤֮Ɵ ֻ֮ ָ֮ӟָ ִ ־ ֵָ ׮֤֮Ɵ ֻ֮ ִߓ ֟֟ ֻ֟ . ӲӬ ִ־ֵ 263 ִ֬ ֣ ִ׾™ ߓ ꛶ ֲ֓ ֮ ֜֟. ӟָ ӓ , þ, ָ, פ ֟ӓ ׾ֿ . ֣ 1437 ֬ ןִ ֻ֤, ӓ ֛߻ Ӭ, -þ4ֻ ִ ִ֮֬ ߣӓֵ ߣԴ֬ ㌟ ߻ . ֤ӟָ 11 , 9 ָ, 24 ִ֤ ӓ Ӯ 1439 1472 ֵ֣՟ פ . ִ ֻ֓ ξ, ֬ ֻ, 14 Ԭָ, 10 Ԭָ, 11 ָ֬, ָָ֓֬ ֤ӓ ֻӛ ֟ ֮֟ ֕֓ ֢, ֵ֓ ӿ֓ ֻ֕, 㯟 ֟ ӓ ֵֵֻ֕֯՟ ־߸ ׮־֓ 1000 ԓ ָӯָ( ַ ֕ ־߸ ׮־֓ ֡ߓ ֕׳ ֻ ӟߓ ֕ ֻ, ׾ֵ֕־ӿ, ӛӿ, µ״֡, ״֡, ݮ״֡, Ӭ־, ָƮ, 韵Ӭ, 㯟־ӿ ֟ ߓ ֻ֕֓ ָӯָֺ֮ ߸ ׮־֯ ƕָ ԓ ӟ פ . ןֻ֢֯ߴ֬߻ ן ӟ֓ ִ֯ (. 1476-1514)

Ɵִ֬ ֯ӓ ׸ ־ ־ֿߴ֬ ׻޵ ׾ִֻ߮ ָӳ . ֯δ Ɵ֟ ֻ ִֵֻ פ־ ֮֟֟, ֯δ ִ֬߻ פ־ ׾ִֻ׸ ֈ֓׸ (֤֓׸) . ־֓ ןִ οßߴ֬ ӣָ ֻ֮ ӲӬ - þִֵ ִֵָ ԟ þִ֬ ִָ ӓ ֟ ־֓ ֵ֓ ֻ. և־ӿߵ ׾ֵ֕ ӓ ׿µ . ׾ֵ֕֓ ׿µ ׾ִֻ ֮ ֟ áִ֬ ֵָ ׸ (ֻ֤) ׸ ־֓ ֮ . ־߸ ㌟ ֻ־ָ ִ ֻ֟߻ 530 ֟ߟ ֻ־ָ ־֓ ִ֯ ֻ. סֻ-Ζׯ פ ӣָ֮ ߸ ׮־֮ӟָ 3 8 Ʈ 1 ֟ߟ ֻ־ָ ִ ֻ֓ ָӳ ֻ (ן..4, 1474) ꤸ ֻ֟֯δ ߸ ׮־ֻ . 527 ן ־õ ֻ֮ ָ ֈ֓׸֓ ִׯֻ ֜ Դ . . 7 . ָӟ ָ ׾֮֫ ӣ ֮ ֻ ݵ ֮ߟ ߟ. ָ ӣ֓ , ׬ ׾֟ . ׿־ֵ ֟ פָ, ݮ פ ֲ ָ֯ ֮֯ ֻ . ׿־ֵ ֟ Ӥ֓ ֵ ӓ ׾ָ ־ ֻ ӳ־֮ߵ . ׾֮֫ ֓ ֮ 3-4 ֟֟ ֻ ־ ֮ ֟. ָ Ɵ ֟ ָ ֻ׮ 㷵 δ־ָ ָ֬ . ָ׾ ֵ֕֯՟ ֟ δ , ִ ӣִ֬ ֻ֟ ֻ 4֟: δ . ™ ָ , ֟߻ ֬ ָ™ߵ ֓ ִ֮֟: ׮֤ פ֟, ָ ָ™ߓ ׾ ַ ֟֓ ָ ֻ . Ɵִ֬ ָ ֟ ߓ ־ӣ 6-7 ֟֯ԓ ״ ™ ֡ ׾ָ֓ ޵ָ .

ֈ֓׸֓ ߮ ֻ֯ ӣ֟߻ ׾ֵ֓ ӲӬ , Ӯ ֵָ ֻ֤֓ ( ִ) ׸ ֟ ӣִ֬ . ( . 118, ֣ 118). ӣӓ ׸ֵ ֲֻ δ (־֤( 11 ӣ֟ ֳֻ֦ ֵָ ֯ӓ ֮־ӲӬ֮ ӟ . ׿־ֵ Σִ֮ ֟ ׾ֳӓ ֮׮֬ ֟ ޵ָ . ֈ֓׸ִ֬ ֻ֟ , ֩׸ ִ־׻׮ֲ֨ þֺ֟ ֵ֓ ָӯָ֓ ֮ ֟֯ ꛌ֟ ֻ֟ . (.1, . 8). ï,˙ ߓ ִ־ֵ ןֻ֯עִ֬ ֻ껵 ִ־׻׮ֲ֨ ׸ . ִ־ֻ ֨ ôָ֚ߓ . ָ֬־ֺ ׾׿™ ֮ -׿µӓ ָӯָ ׮׿֟֯ Γ׻֟ ֻ ƕ. ֓ (ֵ֓ԯָӯָ֟( . ӓ ָ֬־ָ ִֵ֣ ־֓ ֮ ֻ , ӓ ӣ֓ ƻ ִ֬ . ߻ ӣָ֮ ״ֻ ֓ ֮ ӣ֟ ֛֯. ֮֕ ִӮ ο ׾ָ֓ , ָ֮Ӯ ן֯β ӓ ֿ ( ָָ ־ פ ָ ֵ( ־֓ ։ Ʈ ָ ֟ ֵ( ֻ־ָ ֻ֮ Ƣ, ֵ( ִ֬ ־֮ Ӧ֓ ֳָ־ ( ׾ָ֯ߟ ™Ӯ ָ ֵ ߮ ֻ ָ ßã֟ ( ֓ ӓ ִ֚֮֬ ִ֮ Ӯ ֣֣ ִֵ֓ ֮ ׾ֻ (2-3). ־ֺ ֈ֓׸֓ ִ ׻ ִֵ ֯ Ӯ ֻ֯ -Ɵ ָӯָ ֓ ֵ֮ ר֟ ß ӣ֓ ׮״ԟ . þ֟: ֮ ֻ֟֯δ ֈ֓׸ִ֬ ãן, ӿ꟯ע, ã֮, , ־-(־) ֮, ׮־, ־ ֟ ׬ָ . ׬ָӓ ׾ֳ ִ֬ ӓ Ӥ ܵ 118 . ӯ ֮ ֣ . ָ߯ ӓ ֙ ׮ָ׮ָ Ӥӓ ֵ . ֿ֮ ־ ך ָ, ξ ֯ά֮ . ָ ך ִפ ָ, ֟, ֯ Ԯ ӓ Ԯ ֛. ׿™ִ ֳ ӣ֓ ֿ֮ ִֵ, ֳָ ӓ ߯δ . ִ֬ ׸ Ԯ, ֯ά֮֟, ־֯ ׮ֺ ָ֯ ֚ ֟ ֳ ֻ פ , ־ָ֮ ׾֟ þֺ פ֟ . ƻ 24 Ӵ֬ ׾ָ֪֬ ӿӓ ׾־ָ δ . ִ֓ ֮֯ ֕׳ֵ֯՟- ԟ ִֵ֟߻ ܵ ֓ - 25 85 ֵ՟֓ 61 Ӵ֬ Ԯ . 껵 ֟ ߟ֟ (.94), ־֮֕, ׾ֵ֕ ִִ, Գ־־Ԯ פ ӟ ׾ßָ֮ ֙ ִ֓ ֻ֖֮ ׮־֨ ӓ ׾֮֬ ӣ֓ ִ֯ . ִ֮ ֲ֟ߟ ֻ ִֵ֯ ׿™ . Ʈ֮, ߾, פ ߸ ָ֮ ־ ָ ׾ָ֪֬ . ӓ ֕֓ ד֮ ָ֮ ֻ֮ ָ֮ ֨ ־ֻ. ־ֻ 10 ӛ ־Ɵ. ֓ ֟߻ ָ֓ 9 ޵Ӵ֬ ןײײ֟ ֻ껵 9 ׬ ִ ֻ ִ Ӿ ֛. ߟ ß: ֮֓ . ןֻ ִޛ ־֓ ։ . ֲԸӮ δ 껵־ ִ֮ ֮ ֤ . ׮״֢֮ ֮֮ ߟ ׾־ ֲִָָ ޵֓ ׮ֵֿ . ߟ ։ ִޛ ֻ ֮֯ߓ ׾ָ֪֮֬ Ƹ . ֻ֯ ַ ևԲֿ֯ ׸ד֟ ֻ֮ ֺ֯ ߟ ד֡ ן֓־ָ Ɵ ֻ. ןֿ֓ߓ ݮ ד . ׾ָ֓ ׸ָ ޵֚ ָ֮ ֮ ֟ ִ֓ ֵ ׾ֻ . ָ֟ ֻ־ָ ָ֮ ֕ ָָ֟ ㌟ ݵ ָ ޵֓ ׾ָ֓ ӳ߸ þֳ־ ָֻ ݵ ֮ ֻ. ֟ ӓ ֓־ ׾ֵ ָ ߟ߮ ߮ ֻ֯ ֻ ãִִִ֪ ӟ׾޵֓ ֻ֓ ֤֕֯ ޵֚ ָ֕־ ָ ֻ֟. ִ ָ֓ ֡ ־ ָ þ֟: ֮֟ . ָߟ߮ ֟ ָ֓ ֯ ֯ ߻ ֻ . ־֓ ׬֯֟ þָ޵֓ ֮ ׻ָ֮֕ þ֟:֓ ߾ ֓ ֮ ־ֻ ֕ ֻ . ִ֮ ֻ ָ . ־֓ þֳ־-ד֡ ֮ Ο . ־֮ ߟ Ƹ ן֓ ׾ֺ ָֻ֟ ޵֓ ׾ָ֓ Ӿ ε֟ ߓ . ֯ߛ ֻ . ־ֻ ָ޵֓ ָ ֟֓ ֵ ƻ ֻ֮ Ӥꤸ ֓ þ֟: ֟߮ ַ ןִ֬Ի ֺ ֻ ֻ֓ ֵ ֻ֯ ޵֓ ֮ ־֮ ֵ֟ áߓ ׾ֺ ןֿ֓ ӳ ޵֓ Ο ֻ֓ Ο ֓ Ο֡ 껵֓ ן֓ ֮ ־ ־ֻ. Ο֓ Ο ־֓֓ ӛ ֻ ߮ ־֓ ׸ ӓ־ֻ ߟꓵ ӛ ן־Ο֓ ׮:Ӥ δ ֤ . ־֓ ֬ ִ֓ ֟ ־ ָ ֓ ֮֟ ֻ. ִ֓ ӓ ־ ־ . ָ֯ ׿™ ֮֟ ֜֟. ׬ָ þֳ׾ ֮־ ׸ ־ ׸ã֟ߟ ֟߾ָ ޵֓ ε֟ ׿™ӓ ׫׾֬ ־ ֙. ִ֮֬ ֮ ֮ ӟָ ִԯ֤ ӓ ӱ . ֈ֓׸ ׿־ֵ ׾ִֻߓ ָ ֟ ӣ ֲֻ . ָӟ 700 (.. 778) ֬ ׻ƻ껵 ִִֵֻֻ֬ ӣָ ֮߮ ƙ ,-

Ƶ-- ׸㯯ע-ָ ֜Ӆ

Ӥ״ פ ׯ ׸ ׾ִֵֻ֯Ӆ

(á־֬ ֮֕Ӯ ׯε, ׸ӿ꟯֢ߓ Σִ ӣָ ׾ִֻߓ ָӮ Ӥߵ ׸ӿֻ Ӥ .( ־ֺ ֙ ׾ִֻ߮ ׸ӿ-֟ ӣ֓ ֮ ־.

ָ ֻ֟ , ִ־ֵ ִ֬ ָ ־ ™ ֻ ӓ ִ־ֻ פ . ָ ֟ ։ ן־Ӯ ֮ Ӯ֓ ִ֯ ƙ . ֓ ֮ ӓ ׸ ߻ֵ֓Ԯ ֻ֯ (ֈִ֮֯׸-׸( ֬ ׻ƻ . ӣ֓ ׾.. 925, .. 868 ֬ ֻ. ӣ֓ ֮ ֪ ד֟ ֪ ״ֿߟ . ߣ ξ֟ ӓ ׸ ָꌟ ־֯δ ָӯָ ֺ Ԯ . ָӟ ׿™֓ ֚֮ ִ֮ ֟ ޵ָ . Ԯ ֮ ׾ִֻߓ ֈ֓׸֯δ . ֲ֟ߟ߻ ֮ߵ . ֈ֓׸ִ֬ ־֓ ߻ ־ԡ Ӧ ƙ , ן֓ ־ ӣ֟ Ԯ . ֓׸֯δ ־֮ ֓ þָ֟ Ʈ֤ ִֻ ־ ߟ Ƹ . ӣ֟ Դֵ ֓ ε . ֈ֓׸ִ֬ ׻ָ֕ þ֟: ߾ֻ ֕ ָ ִ֮ ֓ ֬ . ߟ֯Ƹ֮ӟָ ןֻ ִ֕׾ַ ס֕֙ . ָ ֈ֓׸ִ֬ . Ӿֺ ï,˙ ߻֓ ִָ ֻ ִֵ֓ γ־ ׬ ֛ . ֡ ֻ֯ ӣ֓ ֙ ִ ֓ ׸ ֈ֓׸ִ֬ ׾ßָ֮ ֻ֟ ֮ פ ߻֮ ï™ ֻ֟ .

ָ֦ ־ֻߴ֬ ™ ֯ӓ ׸ . ָ֦ ֵ֤֓ . ֵ֤֓ µ ֜ ӓ ֻ ָ .. 1191 . ֕ ӣ 12 ֟֓ ָӳ ׻ƻ ־. ד֟ ך ֪ ֻ ָ ־ ֮ ִ֪֬ . ӣ֟ ֵþֺ ָ ֟ ׾ֳ ߟ. ֮֓ 㸾֟ (ִ և(, (ָ և( ߟ߮ . ֟߻ ִ ׾ִֻߓ ֈ֓׸ δ . . ֟ ߟ ׮־֮ ׾ֿ . ߟ ֳԾ֟ ןֻ ָδ ӓ ֮ӲӬ þ֯ ֛. ݵ ֙ ߟꓵ ־֟ן֓ ֟. ߟ ׾޵֓ ־֓ ד֡ ֜޵֓ Ӯ ןֻ . ߟ ־֓ ߓ ƻ ־Ɵ. ן֮ ־֓ ֵ דָ֟. ־֟Ӯ ד֡ ִ ־ ֻ֟ , ߟ ־־ָ 㸌 ֻ ֓ߓ ָ־Ӥ . ָ ִ֮ ־ָ ֟ ߓ ןε ׾ֻ . ־֟Ӯ ߟӲӬ ־֤ ִ֬ ָ׾ֻ. ִ ߟ ִֻ ֛. ־ד֡ӲӬߓ ӟ ֓Ӧ֮ ֻ֯ (ס™ֻ֯֓׸( ֬ ף֟ .

ߣ ׸ () -

߻֓ ֈִ֯׸֓׸֮ӟָ ߮ ָ ֟Ӵ֬ ߣӓ ׸ ִ֬ ׻ƻ . ֯ ֵ֪, ֵ֪ ָ ֪֪״ ־ֿߴ֬ ׻ƻ . ֵ֤׿µ ֬Դ֮߮ .. 1103 ֬ 11000 δ פ-׸ ֬ Σִ ߣ פ֣ӓ ׸ ׻ƻ. ׾ֵ֕׿µ ֯γ ֮ ָ 9000 ֣ 5 ߣ ן֣֮ ӓ ׸ 12 ֟֓ ֬ ׻ƻ. 6 ߣ ֪γ ӓ ׸ ߮ 13 ֟֟ ׻ƻ. ߮ (-׸( ֬ 7 ߣ Ԯ֣ ӓ ׸ ׾. . 1999 ֬ ׻ƻ. ׸ ׾ß ֓ ֮ ™ . ֟ ָ 70 ֳӿ Ӥ . ֿ (׾..1178) ߓӦ׿µ ׸֦ (׾. . 1223) ֮ 8 ߣ Ӧγ( ו֮֟ 11 ߣ Ӧγ ֮ 12 ߣ 敵 ӓ ߾֮־ָ ׸ӣ ֻ. 14 ߣ ӟ֣֮ ӓ ׸ ״֓Ӧ֮ ׾. . 1223 ֬ ׻ƻ. 16 ߣ ן֣֮ ӓ ׸ ꮦ߮ ׾. . 1160 ֬ ָ ׮ֳ֦ ׾. . 1353 ֬ ׻ƻ. ߓ (֓Ӧ) ӣ ָ 12000 δ . 19 ߣ ׻֣֮ ӓ ߾֮־ָ ׸ ӣ . ߓӦ׿µ ׸֦ Ӯ ־ ߓ ֤߮ ׻ƻ ָ ָ ו֮꿾ָ߮ ׻ƻ . ־ ֟֟֓ 20 ߣ ׮֟ ӓ ׸ ߓӦ Ӯ ָ 11000 ֣ ׻ƻ. 22 ߣ ״֣֮ ӓ ׸ӲӬ 3 ӣ ״֟( ָֻ֬ ֓Ӧ, ָ וָ֮׸ ׾. . 1275 ֬߻ ןָ ׾δ Ӿ֟ 1233 ֬߻ ֯γ߮ ׻ƻ. 23 ߣ Ԯ֣ ӓ ׸ ֵ֤֯׿µ ֳ֦߮ ׾. . 1168 ֬ ׻ƻ. ֓ ֿ֮ ֪֪3֟ . ןִ ߣӲӬ (־߸-׸( ־֓ ߮ ӣ ֲֻ . ״ן־֓׿µ ֓Ӧߵӓ, ָ ֮ (״֓Ӧ) ӓ ןָ ֳ֦ ӓ. ־ԯ ֓߮ ־߸ ׸ ָ֓ Ӵ֬ ӯ֛. ߵ ׸֓־ֿ ׻֟׾ßָ֬߻ 㬤׸֓ ָ֮ . ֮ ֦ ִֻ֕ ֟.

ָ߻ ־ ӣӓ ֵ: ָߓ . ֟߻ ָ™ ֬ ֬ ߓ ֜֟. ָ֬֟: ֯֬ߓ . ָӟ ߓ ןֳδ ֟߻ Ӥ, ָ, ֟ . ־ӓ ִָ֟ ֜. Ο ӣִ֬ ׸ ֵ֓ Գ־ӓ Ԯ . Ԯ ӣ֓ 1/3 ֯ ֵ֯՟ ֜ . ߓ ֟㬤 ֮ܵ ֤ ӓ δ ß . ֵ֓ ׸ Ԯִ֬ ָ֮֮ߓ , ֟-ׯ֟-־, ֳ-֮- ןֵֿ, ָΛ ׿, -ξΕ, ֵֿ֯, ׸ƕֵ, Ʈ, ֻ֖֮֯֯, ִ־ָ-֮ ֤, ׾ָ, ֙ ׮־ ӲӬ ꛌ֟ ָ ׾ßָ֮ 껵 Ԯ֟ ָ֬ ָ ֮׾ֻ, ׻֟, Γ ָ פӮ ֻ֕ ֻ ֜.

֪֟ ׾ֿ ӣ () -

ߣӓ ׸׿־ֵ ӵִ, ־, , ׾׬׾֮֬, ֤֮֡ פ ׾׿™ ӓ Ɵ ޵֚ ׾׿™ ֌ӓ ߾֮-׸-֮ ִ֬ԓ ֟ ֙ ޵֓ ׻ƻ ߻ ӣ ֲֻ . ֿ֮ δ פ ™߮ ӣӓ ߮ ֛ ߻. Ӥ, ָ פ ־ ׿š֚ ֬ 껵 ֪ ӣӓ ָ . ־֮ ֬ ֟ ֪-֪״ ֿ֮ߴ֬ ״ á-ӓ ׸ ָ ӣ֓ ֮֮ ֺ֮ Ԯ . ӣ ןַ ָ֟ ꛟ֟.

ָ֫, ִֵֻֻ, ןֻӕָ פ ֓߮ ӣִ֬ ֤׻֯׸ (ָ־֟ ( ־ԟ ֓߮ ־֓ ֛֯. (׾-׮-( ֬ ָƮ֤ ָ־֟ (֬( פ Ӯ ָ ƙ . ֻ ֿ֣֯֟ߴ֬ ֤׻֯ӓ ֣ӓ ֮ . γ֓Ӧ γ־ ׸ִ֬ (13 .) ֤׻֯ӓ ߾֮־ӟ . ֟ ׾ָ֪֬ ӓ ß . Ӿֺ ӣӓ ֮ ֻ . . 500 ։ԓ . ֮ ӣ ֯ ֲֻ ֻ . ָӟ ߸֦׿µ ״֓Ӧ ֮ ӣ֓ (ָֻ( ־֮ 1643 ֣, 15 ֟֓ ָ 7 . ָֻ ӣ ׿֟ ֻ (״׾֖֮ ӣִֻ, ׾. . 2000). ֬֯ ִֵ֮ ֮ ӣ֓ ִԮ ֤ ָƳև ֙ ֮ ָ֟ ֤ ׿֟ ֻ . ָ־֟ ֌֯Γָ-Γ, ן ׾ֻֿ ד֡֯ . ֟ Ӥ , Ʈ ֻ Ԭ ֙ӓ ε . ֮ ׾֮֫Ӯ ֵ . ִ֮ ֻ֓ ֯ ֟֓ ֳ ־Ɵ. ֵ ֚ ֟߻ ֣ӓ ֤ ޵֟ , ָָֻӓ ï™ ׳ֵ֯ . ִ֬ ָ־֟ ־֓ ֬ߓ . ָ־֟ ֬ ޵֚ ־֟ ֮֟ ߮ ן֓ ֻ ™ ןֻ ד ߾֮-ӟ ׾ָ֓. ן֮ þ֟: ӟ ֻ֟ - ֟ ןֻ ֻ֯ ־֮֓ ֚ ֻ. ֮ ߺ֮ ֤ߓ ֚ ֻ֯ ׯε ֲָָ ߛ ߟ . ֬֓ ֮ ֺ ֛. ֲָָ ߮ ꛻. ӟָ ןֻ ָ־֟ߓ ֮ ״ֻ. ןִֻ֗־ָ ן֮ ֮ߓ ӟ ד֡֯֙־ָ ־ ־֓ ד֡-֙ Ӳ ָߓ ִ֬ פ. ד֡ ֩ ־֓ šֻ Գ־֓ ôָ ֻ. ӟָ ӓ ֜ ֻ. ָӟ ן֓ כӮ ֺֿ ן֓ ׾־ פ . ߴӟ ־Ɵ. ֡ ־֬ ֵ֟ . ֡ ֙ ֮֟ ӓ ֟ ֛֯. ծ ֵ֮֟ ִ ֮ ֓ ׾ֻ. ן֓ ׾ִֻ֯ δֻ ן֓ ֻ. ֵ֮ ӓ ֙ . Ӳ߻ ָ ֻ. ӓ ׾־ ꚶ ֙֟ ֻ. ֻӟָ֮ Ӥֲֻ ו ׿µ ֻ. ן֓ ָָ ׾ָ ߟ ߟ ֻ. ןֵ֓ ߾֮־ӟ֓ γ־֮ ߮ ־-Ο֓ . ֮֟߻ ֙ Ӭ, פ ӓ ӣ֟߻ ָ֙ܵ֓ . ָֻߓ ӑ ָ ־ֳߓ ֻ֟-֬־ִ֬߻ ָ֓ ״Ի .

ֵ֚ ֟֟߻ ׸֦׸ ֮ܵ ӣ֟ 485 ֣ 5 ִ֮ܵ֬ ׾ֳֻ . ߓ ֯ ֮ . ֵ֮ 5 Փ 껵 ֻ ։ ָ ֛ . ִ ޵ׯ޵ߓ ך ֻ 5 ӓ δ ִֻ. ֯ ߯δ ֮ ֮ ӛ , Ο֮ ֻ֯֯ ־ ֮ ־. ַ δ֮ ֻ֯ ӟ֮ ӳ־֮ߵ ֬ ־. Ӿ ֻ ֬ ֻ ӳ־֮ߵ ֙ ֮ פ֓ ־ ӓ ֮֓ ֓ ־. ֯δ ֤, ӛ, ֜ ֿ 긯δӮ ֻ֯֯ ִ֮ ־ ֻ֟. ־ծ ֻ֯֯ ߯δ ֤ ֟߻ ˳ ӟ֓ ־ ־ ӳ־֮ߵ ֬ . ֓־ ֚ ӛ֮ ־֓ áߓδ֓ ן֮ ֻ֯ ӟִ֬ ָ֮֯ ӳ־֮ߵ ֙ӓ . ־ ֙ ֤ ƕ ӳ־֮ߵ ָ ծ Ӯ֓ ָ֮֬ ֻ֯֯֯ δ ֬ . ָ ߻ ӛ֮֮ ֻ פ , ָ ־ 긯δӮ ןֻ ־ԯδ ֮֟ ־ ֕ ־ծ ֮ Ի ӓ־ָ ֳָ־֓ ָ . ָӟ ֵ֟֯՟֓ ׾ֵ֕֓ ֤֮ ־ ծ ן֓ ֮ ֻ֮ . ֡ ןֻ ן֓ ֙ ֮ ޵֓ : Ӭ פ. ӛ֮֮ ֻ֟ - ֤߾ָ ֛ ֮֟ ֤ ֻ֮ ן֓ ־ ֛ ן֓ ָ . ֕ ӓ ֙. ߓ ֗ ֛ ֓ ־ָ . ָ ֟ ָ ֗ ָ ֟ ָ ֯δ ־Փ ֮֓ ֓ . ִ ָ ֬ծ ן֓ δ֟ ֻ֮. ן֮ ־Փ ֮֓ ֲֲָ֤ þָ. ӟָ ôֿ֮֟ ֓ 껵 ֓ Ƹ֟ ֻ. ן֮ ׮֕־ ֤ ֻ֟ ֻ פ. ֡ ֓ Ӯ ןֻ ָ פ. ־ֹ ן֮ , ֮ ן֓ ֻ ָ ָ.ִ ׮֮ ןֻ ֻ֯ ֻ. ן֮ ֓ ־ָ ־ Ӯ ֮ פ. ӣ ָߵ Ɵ֟߻ ־-׾ֳ֟߻ ׫ߵ . ֟߻ ןָו֟ ֙ ־ָ߻ ֻ֮֟ ֺ ָ֓ . ӟָ ֻ ֺ (ִԯָ( ־֓ ӣ ֮ ֻ. ֯ ֳӿִ֬߻ ׸֓ ߟԓ ִ֬߻ ״֟֟ߓ ߮ ӣ ֨ . (. Ӳև, 1944)

וָ֮׸׿µ ָ֮ ӓ (Ӥ-׸( ־ִ֬߻ Ο 250 δ 16 ׸Ӵ֬ 4000 ֣ . ֓ ֮ Ӧ־ִָ֟߮֬ ׾. . 1095 ֬ ӯֻ. Ӥ ί渓 ָƤ ֕֓ . ׿ִ ׾֤ ㌟ ֨ ֻ. ר ־֓ ׸ו ןֻ ß ֟ ֙׾޵֓ ε֟ . Ӥߓ á֮ ן֓ ֳָ־ . ִ ™ ן֮ Ӥߓ ד֡ ߓ ֕ ֡ӕֵ ֻ ׾ֻ ֻ ׾ֻ. ֡ӕֵ ֮֕ ן֓ כ ݮ֓ ֻ֟ ֮ ֻ. ִ ֕Ӵ֬ ֜և ӯֻ. ֓־ ׾ֵ֣֕ ־ԟ־ָ߻ ׾ָ֪֮֬ Ӥ߻ . ןֻ ߓ ֮֟ ֻ. ֟Ɵ ޵֚ ן֮ ׾ָ ֻ. ֵ֮ ֓־ ן֓ ָ ׯε Ɠֻ ֮ ןֻ ֓׾ֻ. ӟָ ֮ ߻ ։ ֡ӕֵ ֕֓ ֳָ־ . ָӟ ׾ָ֪֮֬ ֻ֓ . ꚴ ׾׾֬ ֙ ־ֻ֮ӟָ Ӥ ӓ ִԻ֮ ӓ ׾־ ֻ. ߑ ֵֻ֯՟ ֕־־ Ӯ ֻ. ֻ֖֮ ֯ ֻ־ָ ֻ . ß: ִ׮֤Կֻ ן֓ ߾֮־ӟֻ 㸾֟ ־ ׸֯ . ֯ ß֮֯渓 ֤֮֓ ֙֯ ӟ ֙ ֓ ߤֿ ׾־( ֓ ִ֙֓֬ ד֡־ ׾ָ֪֬ ֻ ד֡֟ ׯεӕָ ӓֵ ֻ . ־ ֮ ֣ Ӥִ֬ . ָӟ ך ׾׾֬ Ӥӓ ֵ . ןֳ ӯ֮ . ־ ֿ֮ ָ ־֯ ԮӮ ָ־ֻ 鿵, ֮֕, ׾־ פ ־( ֟:ֻ ֮֮ ָָ ֤ӓ Ԯ ֯ . ֟߻ 韵ӲӬ Ԯ־ָ ׸֦֓ ִָև ֵ ֛ .

ָ׸ (֯ӓִ ( ֓ ֮ . . 1015 ։ ֻ ־ ֙. ӣ֟ þ֟ӡ þ֟ӡ 10 :- (1) ֵ, (2) Ӥ, (3) ֦, (4) ߸, (5) ֻ, (6) ֮, (7) ׾ִֻ, (8) ָ, (9) (10) ׾µ֤. ӯ ƻ ֙ Ο 500 ֣ 4 ֻ ߓ ֚ Ο 125 ֣֓ ӯ׾޵֟ ֻ . ־ ֣ӓ ܵ ָ 2000 . ־ ֮֯ӓִ Ο֓ ֟ ׾޵֚ ׻ƻ . ӓ Ԯ Ӥ, ָ ξ . ݵ ך , ־ ꌟ ӓ ֵ . ִ ֟߻ ־ ֻ .

֓Ӧ֓ ָֻ֓׸ ӣ ֚ Ӵ֬ ֻ . Ӧ֓ ֮ ׾.. 1145 ֬ þԸ 1229 ֬ ֻ. ӣ֓ ֻ֮ ֓ . ֓Ӧֻ ָ֟֓ ֕ ֻ㌵־ӿߵ ָֻ . ֓֓ ߮ ӣ ׻ƻ. ß ӣ ׿™ . ֓Ӧ֮ ֲ֮֮ ־֓ ֮ ӣ ׻ƻ . ִ֬߻ ֟ ֵ֟ ִ֚֬ ֨߮ ׻ ־ָ þ֟: ֻ . ֟ ׮ִֵӓ ӓ Ƹ֚ ֓Ӧ֮ ֵ ־ ֻ . ִ֬ ֕ ָֻ ӓ ӿ֓ ־ִֵ Ԯ . ֲָָ ֻ֯ ֟߻ ӓ Ƹ δ־ָ ֤ . ִ֬ 28 ֟߻ ƻ 20 Դ֬ ָֻ ֕֓ ӿ ԕӓ ן ֲָָ ֓ Ƹ . ߓ ֚ մ֬ ָֻ ֕֓ ׸ֲָָ ֓ Ƹ ã֟ . ֓ ָֻ֓׸ ־֮ ֨ . ֟߻ ƻ ֟־ ԟ߻ 92 ֵ֣՟, ӓ ֟߻ ָӳ֯ ־֣ ֵ֟߻ 259 ֵ֯՟ ִ֮ ֻ֟ ӓ Ƹ ß . ֯ ֚ ԟ߻ 5 ֣ӯֵ՟ ֬, ֵ֯՟ ֿ֓, ֵ֯՟ ׻ ֓ ֯ ֓ ԟ߻ ֙ 83 ֵ֯՟ ֳӿ ꓵ ӓ Ƹ פ . ꓵ ™߮ ƻ ԟ ƻ֯֓ ָֻ ֕֓ γֻ֟߮ פδ֓ Ԯ . ִַ֬ ֕֓ ִֵ, ָ֕, וִ֮פִ֮, ֮ ִ֮ ӲӬ Ԯ . ןִַ֬ ֮ߛ ָ ־ִ֣֬ ´֊ Ԯ . ֓־ִ֬ -ӟ-׿׿ָ ӓ Ԯ ( ־ִ֬ Ӧꤵ, ֟־ִ֬ ֕֓ þ֮ ָ֣-דӟ֮ ִ֪֚ ָþ֟ ߮ פ ֤ Ի . ָߟ߮ ־֟ ֳ ־־ ߓ. ָӟ ָ߻ ׾ֵӓ Ԯ ׾ֿ֤ ׾ß . ־ ӓ ӓ ֓ ך . ֵԴ֬ סִ֟ ֛ ׮־ֵ . ָ ֵ ֓Ӧ֮ ꚶ ֻ֟ ֛ . ֻ ִ֬߻ ּ־֓ ִ ꇻ. ּ־ִ֬ ָָ ֮ߵ ֓ Ƹ ֤ . ָӟ ֓Ӧ֓ ־֯δ δֲ֧ ԟ ߟ. (ֿ֮ , 1936).

ִ֬ ָ ָֻ֓׸ . ֓ 飾ߓӦ ߓ ׿µ ׸Ӧ . ִ֬ 954 .

߸ӓ (߾ֻ( ӣ 1800 ֣Ӵ֬ ֻ . ӣ֓ ֙ ߮ ֻ֯ ׸ֵ פ . Ӧ֓֟߻ ֳ֦ߓ ׿µ ֨, ӓ ׿µ ׮֓Ӧ, þ֟: ׮֓Ӧߓ ׿µ . ߮ þ֟: כןֻ ƙ . ֵ֓ԯָӯָ ׸ֵ ״ . ֣ׯ ןִֻ֟ ֳ֦ߓ ׿µ ӓ ִ֬ Ӿ֟ 1213 ׮֤Կ . ( ּ. ִ.205). ־ֺ ֨ ֌ ֌ . ָ֬־ָ ӣ֓ ֻ 12 ֟ ־ ֙. ӣ֓ ӟָ ׸Ӥ ֮ (ֻ߯֓׸( ־֮ . ֓ ֻ 15 ֟֓ ֳ֬ ־. ֻ֯ ֮ ׾֮ ״֡ ֻ߯ ӯ ֻ֯ ꓵ ֚֮ ֡ ֻ׾֟ ֵ֮ߓ ֕ ָ ֮ ֻ Ƨָߓ ׿ פ. ׮־֟ ֻ껵 ֻ֮߯ ֮ ߯֟ ָ֟ ξ . ֻ֯ ֻ, ׾֖֮ ֟ ӓ ־ָ ֕Ӯ šӮ ֮ ֻ֮߯ ӯ֢ ״׾ֻ ׾־ . ξ ָֻ־ָ ֕ : ֓־ָ ֮ ֻ. ֙ ߓ ֤ Ӯ ֻ. ӯ ֣֔Ӥ֟ ֻ֟ . ֻ߯֓ ׾׾֬ ֟ ӲӬ ֮ܵ ָ . ֯ξ ָ . ָ ןִ֮ . ֬ ָ 挟 ӓ ݵ ֵ . (3. ƴֲ֤֤, ׾.. 1998).

ꮦ߮ ׻ƻ껵 (֓׸( ָ ־ (׮-׾ָ( . ӣָ֮ ֻ֯ ָӯָ ֻ֟ . דֻ֡֯ ֓֓ ֮֓Ӧ ӓ ׿µ ֲ֦ . ӓ ׿µ ֟Ӧ ߓ ׾ֵ֕֓Ӧ ӓ Ӭ . ֯֓ ּ־ֻ߯δ ָ߻ ֳ֦ פ ֻ ӡ ִֻ߮ , ׾.. 1323 ֬ ֳ֦߮ ׾֪֮Ӥ Ӯ ֤߯ פ. ־ֺ ӣ֓ ֻ 1323 ָ֓ ־. ӣ֟ 16 ֓ ޵֯δ ־ ֣ӓ ܵ 4002 . ִ֬ ֻ֮֯, 㤿Ԯ, ׾ֵָ֕, ߻־֟, ˾־ֲ, ֟, ֡ ֡ ֚ ׬ָ . 㤿Ԯ ƻ֫߯֟߻ ߯ ָ ֕ Ӧ㯟 Ӧ ӓ . ׿֮ ֮ ׾֤ ӯ֮֮ ֻ. ֳ֕֬ ן֮ ֮׮֬ Ɵ֓ ֮֟ ӛ . ִԳ־֮ ׸ ߻ ֡ ֻ . ן֮ ׮Ο ߣӓ פ ׮׾ָ ־֓ וֵֻ֮ Ӭ׾ֻ ֻ֯ ֵµ ִִ֮֬֬ ֻ׾ֻ. Ƹ޵֯渓 ֻ֮֯ š߮ ֟ ־ԟ֓ Ӥ ߟ ֮֟ ָ֓ ӛ 㤿Ԯ֓ ׸ . ָֻ־ָ ꓵ ֻ֯ ֟ ֮ ƻ ֻ֟. ֬ ָ֮ ָ߻ á- ֙ӲӬ ӟ . ־ ִ֬ ֮ ׸ ӓ Ƹֺ֮ ֹ ן֓ ֳ֣֮ ӓ ׸ . ֯δ ׾׾֬ ״ ׮ִֵ ӓ ֤ Ƹ ӲӬ Ԯ ӱ . ߮ ֻ֯ ֮֓֟ ־֟ ֙ . ־ ֟ ֻ֮֮֯ ָ֓ ß Σִ ִ֪֬ ֲִ . ӟָ ֻ껵 ™ ßִ֬ Ο ֟߻ ָ ָ ֡ . ӣ֟ ֤֟ ֟ ִ ӓ δ ׬ ֜. (. ƴֲ֤֤, ׾.. 1989).

Ӧ׸ ֓׸ִ֬ 1163 ֣ . ֮ ֓ ֨פ ־֓ ӣִ֬™ӟֺ֮ ׻ƻ . ˬ þ֟ӡ֯ ׿֟ . (֮֯, , .. 1938). ֟ ֓ Գ־֓ Ԯ֮ ָӳ δֿ: ֓ ֮, δ, ֮֕, ־֬, ָ׮ִ, Ϊ㮴Ƹ, ӛ-֤, ָӬֵ, ״֣֮֓׸, ֤Ƹ, ָ֤, ֻ֤֤, ״׮־ ֓ ־ ߣ פ Ԯ . -δ֓ ӟִ֬ ָ֮ ֹ ӟ ӓ ֻ . ־ ָ֬ ӛ ו֮ ׸ӿ֯ . ֮ ָӳ֯ ֵ֙՟ ֯ά֮ .

ָֿ߮ ׻ƻ껵 ֻ߯ ׸ִ֬ 1342 ֣ . ֕ ָ֬֓ ּ׿µ γןֻߓ ׿,˵ ָֿ ֮ ӣ֓ ֮ . ӓ ֓Ӧ֬ ־֓ ׿µ֮ ׾. . 1428 ֬ ׻ׯֲ֨ ӣ֓ ֙ ֻ֟ . ֨֓ ֟ ֙ ޵֚ ׻ƻ . ֵ֮ߓ ָ֕ ֤Ӥ Ʈ ֻ֯ ׯ֮֟ פ껵 ִõ֯Դ֬, Οֻ ֻ֯֯ ޵ָ֮֯֯ ֤: ״ ֟, ֟ ַ ֌ߓ ӲӬ ֟ ־ ֙ ִ ןֻ ֑ ִ֕ ן֓ כӮ ָ֮ ן֓ ׾־ ֻ߯ ־֓ ™ݵ פ. ֤-Ӥ߮ ןֳ֌ ֨ί ӓ γ־֮ ֟߻ ָݵӯ֮ . ֻ֮߯ ֮ ֟ ξ ֿ ֮ ״׾ֻ. ӣ֟ ֬ ֬ ֳӿ Ӥ ֜֟ ֪Ӥִ֬ ׾׾֬ ß ֻ . ָӳ֯ ֵ֯՟ .

וִ֮֌ (֯֓׸( ֿ֮ 185 ֣ ֻ . ߮ ֻ֯ ־ ׾ִֻ ֻ֟ . ֯֓ ּ־ֻ߯δ ־ ֟֟ פ֟֟. ־߸ ߣӮ ֻ֯ ֤֟ ֮, ֯, ߻ ־֮ ָ ִ׾ֳ֯ ־ִ֮֬ԓ ֤ ֯֓ Ƹ פ Ӧߓ ׾֮ӟ߾ֺ ֻ ׸ ֻ֟. ԕ֮֟ Գ ־֓ ֕֯ . ֻ ߮ ן֓ ԕ֮֓ ֟ ֻ֓ ֻ ֟ ֟ . ֯ ֵ ִ֕ ִԬ֮֟ ݮ ֻ 㜓 ֮֟ ֕ ָߓ ֕֯ ֻ. á־֮ ֻ ןôָ ֻ. ָ֟ ׾ָ ֻ. ָ ָӟ և-כӮ : ֵ ָ֟֓ ƻ ־ֻ ֻ . Գ־߻ Ԯִ֬ ֮,˵֮֕ דӟִָ֯δ ֟ ׾֮֬֓ Ƹ֚ ֻ֟ . ֟߻ ָ֯ ֻ דӟִ ״ ֮ δִ֤ : ִ֟ Ƹֻ. ֮ ָ Ӥ . (. , 1930).

׿֟ ֻ껵 ֵ֪ ׿־ֵ ָ ӣ á-ӛָ֓ ߴ֬ Ӥ ֛֟. ӯ וָ֮׸ (׮ֵ ߻־֟( ־֓ ӣ֟ ֛֯. ׾ֿ֟: ָ֮ (Ӥߓ׸( (׾.. 1095) ֬ ӣ ӟ ׻֟, ֤4, ,㌟ ָά֮ ֻ֓ ݾ פ . Ծ֮ ӣ֓ Ο ״ . ָӟ ֓ ִ֬߻ ֵ֪ ӟָ וָ֮ (13 ֟) ֮ 6000 ִ֬ . ֡ ӣ 18000 δ ֻ֓ ״.

֪-֪֟ ӣ () -

Ɵ֓ ™ ߴ ӣִ֬ ֜ ӣ ܵ֟: ֪֟ ֵ֪֪ ״ֿ߮ ׻ƻ . ӣ֮ ӯ ֟֟. ֟߻ ִ֓߮֟ ӣ ӛ . ֟ 100 Ӳ . Ӳӓ ӛ ƻִ֬ 29 Ӳ . ӛ ָ 11000 δ . ֓ ӑ֤־֓ . ַ ӛִ֬ 71 Ӳ 17000 . ַ ӛ֓ ִ . ӣ֓ ֻ֮ ׮׿֟ . וֳ֦֮߮ ֻ֯ ׾ֿ־֟ߴ֬ ֓ . ִ ֓ ֻ ־ ֟֯ ߓ . ֵ֟֯՟ ӣ֓ ƻ ӛ ׿֟ ֻ . ֟ 19 20 Ӳ ֲֻ ߟ. ׿־ֵ 18 Ӳ . Ӭߓ ־ Ӵ֬ ִ׾ֵ֕ š ׮š . ִ׾ֵ֕ ֕ ֻ־ָ ָ֟ ӛ ֟. ָӟ ֓ ןִֵֿ ֯׾޵ִ Ƹ֟߻ á߾Դ֬ ֣ ֛֟ ֮֕ ֓ ֕־ֲ֛ ױ޵־ָ Ӥ ֻ֟. ִ 㯟֯ ֲָ ֛ ߤ δ ֻ. δִ֬ ֮ ָ ,˙ ֻ ֙ ֛. ֙־ד֡֓ Ԯ֮ ָ ӣ ֺ . ִ֪ ֳָ, ִֵ ׾׾֬ ֮ܵ ֻ . ӣ ־ֻ껵 Ɵꓵ ָ֬־ָ ֓֓ ֤ ֻ ֙. , Ɵ, ן פ ™߮ ֮ ָ Ƣ֓ .

Ƴ֦ ִָפ (8 .) ִ֬ ־ ־֓ 9 ׾ֳ . ֟ ָïָ ׾ָ ַ ӓ ֮ӟָ֓ Ԯ . ָֻ֮֓ӟָ ӣ֓ ״ פ, פִ֮ ֮ ־ß ߮ ֻ֟ . ־ß , ִ, ִ ָ ָ ß ֌ . ӓ ִ, ִ֬ ִ ߮ ָ ֟֟. ֮ ß ֻ פ-֮ ־ß ִ ƙ . ԓֵծ ֻ֟껵 ֚ ׸- ֣ ˬ 껵 . ִ֬ ֵ-ןֵ֮ӲӬ 9 ־֟߻ ִ־, ӓ ָïָӲӬ, ӓ ֳ֮ ָ֮ӟָ ״ֻ껵 þ-ָפ ֟ӓ . ֙ ־ִ֬ ֵ ִָפ ㌟ ֻ ןֵ֮ ׸ ӟ ָ֟ 㸱. ƻ֓ ־ִ֬ ӓ֟ ָïָ ֮ ޵֓ ָ ֻ֟ . ֕֯ , ݮִֿ Ɵ ֓ ֓ ֟ ߟ . ִ ׾ָ ݮִֿԮ ֻ Ʈ֟ ֓ ָ ֵֿ֯ ֻ. ֮֕ ֻ ָ֚ ߮ ִӡ פ. ָӟ ן֮ ô ֙ ֛ ƻ֮ οִ ֬ ָ ״ . ִ ֮ ֮֟ ׮ֵֿ , ָ ֗ ֵֿ֯Ի ״ָ ָ ֮֮ ֗ ֟ ֓֓ ֬ ־. ׮ִ֤֮ ָָ ֓ ֟ ֻ. ֵ֙՟ ֻ ֯ ֻߓ . 9 ־ӓ Ԯ ןֳֻֿ ֮ ִֿߴ֬ . ֟߻ ֯, ׮ԾԮ þֳ־ד֡ ִ ֻ֮ š ֯ ֻ .

֮׸ ִֵֻֻ ֓ ֮ ֓ ӣֻ ֺ 700 (.. 778) ֬ ־׻֯ (ֻ-֕ã֮) ֻ. ֮ þ֟: ޵-ד֮ ƙ . ׸֮׵ ִֵֻֻ Ɠ ׿™ ߾֮-׸ִ֪ ӱ ׾׾֬ ֮ܵ, ֙, ִו ׌ þֳ־-ד֡ ӣ֟߻ ׿™ . ָ֓ ӣ ָ ֜ ך. ߻ ׾׾֬ ָ ߺ ӲӬ Ƹ ӣ֟ ֜֟. ָ֫ פ ֵ ™ ־֮ ӓ ¯׸ִ דס֟ ֓ . ־ֻ֯ ֙ ֮ܵ ָ ֻ֮ ӣ þֺ֮ ӛָ . ӣ֟߻ ֿ֮ Ӭ ӓ ߯ פ֟ ֮֬ ִָפ γ־ ꚶ δ֟ פ . ֮ ׸ֻ֦ ֮֨ ֵ ֟ ֻ֯ ֻ֮ . ӓ ִָ״ֵ (ִָפ) 㻻 .

ꮦ ֓書ֵ֓׸ ֬ ֮ ֻ֯ ָӯָ ߯ ַ ֵ֮߯՟ ֻ֟ . þ֟: ֮׸׿µ ֵ֬ Ӳ֤ ӓ ׿,˵ ֓ Ӿ ״֮֓ . Ӯ ӣָ֮ כ ֤׮־ 㸾֟ ־׻֯ߴ֬ ֓ ִ֯ . ״֮֓ ꮦ ֮ ֵָ֮֬ ־ָ߻ ׾.. 1129 ֬ ־߸׸ ׾.. 1140 ֬ ׻ƻ. ־ֺ ß ӣ֓ ֮ ֓ ָ ֻ ־. ֬ ֓ ο֓ ָ֚ ִ ָ֮֬ ֻ֟ ӟ :- ӓ֮֯֟߻ ־֓ ֮ . ֳ֣֮ӓ ¯֯ . ֓ ֕֯֟ ֻ ֕֓ ֓ ֻ֮. ֮֓ ֤ꮴ֢ Ƣߓ ֮ . ָӟ ָ Ƣ ׾ָ֪֬ . ׾ָ֪֮֬ ָ֕֓ Ƹ . ֓ ֮ ֮ Τ֟ ξ . ׾׾֬ ־ ֻ. Ӥ߿ ׾־ . ֬ 껵. ־ Ԯ ֓ . ֙ ֮֕֬ߟ ָ ֻ. ӓ ֤ ״ ߾֮ ֟ߟ 껵־ָ ֺ þԻ . ֮ܵ . (ִֵ֬ֆ( ֬ ד֟ 껵 ֯פ ִԓָ֓ ֓ Ƹ ֻ . (. ƴֲ֤֤, 1942).

ֵֻ֓Փ ׮ֿߣ֓, ־ֿ, Ɵֳµ . -֬ ִ֓ ֓߮ Ӵ֬ פ . ־ָ þ֟ӡ ӣָ֮ ֻ . ׾ֵ֮֓Ӧ, ־֤, ֵ֮פ, ִԯγ, ָ ӓ ӓ ןԓӦ ִֵӤ ӓ ӓ ӣ־ֻߟ ֛֯. ֯ ־ԟ ֓߮ ן 滵Ӯ ׬ Ӥ ꮦߓ (֮--ע( ֬ ֜. ֓ ֻ֮ ׾.. 1146 . ֻ ֕֯ . ӓ ֤֮ ֬ ֻ֮. ֓ ֮ ָþ֟ ߻ 4׵ ֻ. ן֓־ָ ֵ֮ߓ ֕ ֤׳ֻ Ɵ ֻ. ֮ ןֻ ֻ֯ ӟ:֟ ֻ. ֕֓ ִ֕ ֻ ֻ֯ ߓ ޵֟ ֵֿ ֻ֮ ֵֻ֓ ֻ . ֤׳ֻ֓ ֛־ ֻ ֲ ־ֻ. ֵֻ֓Ԯ ָþ֟߻ : פ. ֵ֮ߴ֬ ־߮ ã֮֯ ֻ껵 ֕־ӿ֓ ֕ ׾δפ֮ ֻ֯ þ֟: Ӿ֟ . ֵֻ֓ծ ֺ ןš ׾ָ . ֓ ֕ ֟־Ʈ֓ ֻ. ֦֤ ㌻ ӓִ߻ Ӧ־ ָ֕ . ֵֻ֓Փ ׾֮ӟ߯δ ֟־Ʈ֮ ֦֤ ֟ԯ ֵ ָ֕ ޵֓ ָ֮ פ. ֻ֯ ׿µӮ ֤ ӟֻ ֻ֮ ֬ ֵֻ֓ þԾ ֻ. ӓ δ ׾δפ֓ ֤߮ ӓ ׮ִԻ֮ ޵֓ ӟ ֟ ן ֣ . ן ֮ ӣ ֻ . (. ƴֲ֤֤, 1949).

ןߓ ו֤֮-֌ִ֮֬ ֮ ֻ֯ ֓ ׸ֵ פ , כ ִ֓֬ ״֮֓ ֦֯δ ִ . Ӯ ־Ԥ߮ ֵ֓ԯ֤ פ . ן ӓ ׿µ֮ ו֤֮֓׸ ׻ƻ. ֻ֮ ׮׿֟ . ֣ׯ ֓߮ Οߴ֬ ן׻֯ . 1246 ֬ ƻ֯֙ ׻ƻ֓ . ־ֺ ӣ֓ ׮״ԟ ֵ֓ ԓ . ֵ֮ ߛ ֻ֯ ־ ֮ ִ־ ָ ξֻ . ׬ִ֪֯ ֕ ߴ֟߻ ִ㌟ ןֿ֓ ׾־ . ִ ξִ֬ ַ ַ֮֯ ֻ ִ֟ פ. ߓ ָ֮֬ ַֻ ֻ. ֮㸓ξֻ ָ߻ ։ ֕ ׾־ . ֙ ӯָ֮ߟ ָ ߻ ֕ ןӤ ֿ ׾־ . ӟָ ָ ֮ ֻ ָָ þԻ . ֪ ֪ ߴ֬ ֻ ־ ָ .

ו֤֮֮ܵ ־֓ ӣ ָ߻ ӣֲָָ ׿֟ ֻ . (Ӳև, 1953). ֟ ֓ ־ . ֮ ָ߻֯δ . ָӟ ִ֮֮ ֯ . ָ߻ ӣ֯ ӣ ֓߮ ֵֿ ־. ֟ ו֤֮֓ Գ־ ָӳ ֻ֟ ӟ ֻ֟ . ֓ ß׻֟ Οߴ֬ Ο ד֡ ֳ֦֟߮ Ӿ֟ 1186 ֬ ֵָ .

(Ƹ( ו֮ ֮ ֯ ֵ֓Ӧߓ ׿µ ӣ ד֡ ׻ƻ þ֟: ֻ֟ . ֙ ߻ ӛִָ֬ ֻ ֓ ß׻֟ Ο ׾.. 1512 ֬߻ . ֕ ӣ֓ ֮ ֟ԓ ֻ ƕ. , ֟ ֟Կ, ™ ןפ ־ԟ߻ š֮ ™ӟֺ֮ ï™ ޵֚ ׻ƻ . ָ ־ֻߓ ԓ ο ֯㸓 ֕ ָֿ ן֓־ָ Ɵ ֻ. Ӥߓ ֟֟ ֜޵֚ ֓ ӡ ֛. ֤֮֙ ޵ִ֬ ֻ ꙻ. ן֓ ޵־ֺ ֮ Τ߯ ִ֬ ֻ ֟֟ ֻ. ֮ ׾־ . ֟־ֻ ƻ֫߯֓ ֕ ֵ ֓ Ɵ ߻ ֮ פ ֻ ֻ֯ ׾ֲֻ֪֮ ƻ֫߯֟ ׾ֻ. ӡ֮ ֮ߓ ,֟ ־ֻߓ ֻ. ־ֻ߮ ן֖ ןֻ ן֓ ԓ ֮֕֟߻ ֟ ״ ֿ֓ ׾־ . ֮߮ ׾µ֓ ׾ָ֓ ֻ֟ ן֓ ֟ ִ֤ פִ֬ ןֻ ֲ֛ . ָߟ߮ ־ֻ߻ ֵָ ֮ ׾֪ꓵ ־ָ ֻ֯ ֕֕־ ։ ֻ ֻ ֲָָֻ֯ ִ֤ פִ֬ ֓ ־ֻ߿ ׾ֻ. ӓ ׾־ ֻ. ߟ, ־ פ ֮ӕִ֮֬ . ֕֓ ֟־ָ ֙ ߓ ֟־ָ ֻ. ֙֓ ޵־ֺ ״ ֮֕ ֻ. ׾֫֯ ֓ ߟ ֮֟ ֙ דԟ ֻ ָ ־ֻ. ֖֮ ߮ ֻ֕ ֻ֟ ֕֓ ԕ Οֳ֓ ִ֯ ߵߟ ֮ ֻ . ֯֯ ㌟ ֟ ָꮦ-֪־֟ þֺ֟ - ֻ . ֕ ָֿ ־ֻ ִԯִֻ֮֬ ָָ 껵־ָ þԟ ։ - ֻ.

׾ֿ ֕ Ӥߟ߻ ֵ ֨ ־ ֪־֟ ָ֬ Ƹ ӣ֓ . ֵ ָֿ ָ Ӥ ־֟ ֮. ߴ֬ ׵ ƻ֫߯֓ ָ֕ . ָïָ ֓ ָ . ֮ߓ ֟߻ ӡ ƫֻ߯ ֟ ָ Ӥ־֟ þ֟: ֵ ֮֟. ־֟߻ ߻֮ã֮ ֵֻ . ֙֓ ֮ܵ ߟ . ֵ߮ ֵ ֤ ָӳ֯֓ . ָֿߓ ד֡ (ד֢) . ֵߓ ֵ ד֟ꛓ ֕ . ָֿߟ ָֿ ֮֕ ׻ ֻ֕ ו֓ . ָ ֪־֟֬ ݵ֓ ֕ ׻֓ ׮֑֟. ߻ õ֟ ִ֮ . ֩־֟֓ ֮֟ 긿֓ ֻ ֻ ֻ֮ ӣ ӣ֯ ԓ߮ ׮׿֟ ָ 긿֓ ָָ֕ .. 1540 ֬ ֻ .

Ӳ״֓׸ ־ ׸ӣ֯ ׿™ . ָ ֓ ֮ ִ֯δ Դ֬ ִ-֪-ߟ ֻ . Ԯ ֯ ޵֚ ִӣ֯δ (־( (( פ ֲӓ ε . ־ֺ ӣ ָ ֳֻ ׸֤ꓵ (5 .) ߓ ׻ƻ ־ ֙. ֓ ӯ֤֮ ֻ֯ (ξָ֫( ֬ ֓ . (. ־ָ֮, ׾.. 2004). ָӟ ӣ֓ ֙ ֣ ƙ , ӣ ׾ֵ֤֕ߓ ֤־ֺ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ֮ ׻ƻ. ־ֺ ֓ ֻ֮ ׾.. 1785 1809 ֟߻ ӟָֻ ־. ָ ֯ݔ ּ־ֻ߯δ 64 ׾ֵ֤֕ ӓ . ָӟ ӣ֓ ן׻֯ߓ ӣָ֮ ־. ָ ӣ֟߻ ןִ ¯֬ ַӤ ֓ ֻ֮ ׾.. 1814 ֻ֟ . ַ ֓߮ Οߓ ׬ ֮֮ ӣ֓ ֓ ֻ ֨ ֻ ָ 18 ֟֟ ִֿ߮ ӟ ׻ ֮ ׾ֿ ֵ ִ֕־.

ֵ֮ Ӳþִ ־߸ ߣӓ Ο ׿µ ߸ ׮־֮ӟָ 62 ו־ӟ ƻ. ִ֓ ָӯָ֬ Ӯ Ɵ֓ ã֮ . ֲֻ ֻ껵 12 ֟߻ ִþִ߮ Ӳ֓ ֤׿ֻ . ӣ֯δ Ӳþִߓ ֮ ֕ƴ֬ ֻ . ӓ ݵ־ ޵֚ ӓ ֚ ݮ ޵֟ ֻ. ָ ӓ ִԯξ ֜֓ . Ӯ ֻ֯ ֟Ӯ ֤ , ӓ ㌟ߓ δӓ ӛ ֻ. γ־ ־֓ ֲ ֚ ӓ ָ֟ ׿ָ . ֮ ӓ ֤ ӟ֯ ֓ γ־֮ ׾ָ ֻ. Ӳ׸ ָ™ ִ֬ ֓ ֿ֮ ֻ . և֓ߵ ֻ֯ ֓ . ӣ־ֻߴ֬ ӓ ֤֓׸ָ ֻ֯ ֤ ֻ֯ ӳ־֮ߵ . ֤֓׸֓ ֻ֮ ׾. . 1264 . Ӳ׸ִ֬ 16 . ܵ ӟָ ָ߻ ӣ֯δ . ׿־ֵ ֪Ӥ ֮ ָ . 1632 ֬ ׻ƻ Ӳד֟ ״ֻ .

֓Ӧߓ (ָ׾֌֓׸( ӣ ß: ֯ԓ ֻ껵 ֓ ֓ (־߸׸( ֬ ˬ þ֟ӡ֯ ֵ ׿֟ . (״ ׾֖֮ ӣִֻ 20, ׾.. 2008). ָߓ וֿ֟֡֕֓ Ӥ ־֓ ֻ ֤ ߟ ֮֟ ã׾ָ ׼ ֮ ׾ֵ֌ ִԯִ֤ ַ ָ ֕֓ ָƮ֤ ֓ ֓ ׸ ֻ֟ . ߻ ݵ ֪ ӓ ֿ֮ ־֯ .

׿־ֵ ָ֯ ָ ӣ ֲֻ . ӓ ֿ֮ ֻ . ֯ δ ӣ-׾ֵ֕ (Ӥ( (10 .), ֬Դ֮ ֮긴֓׸ (11 ֟), ֤֓׸ (13 .), Ϊ㮴֓׸, ֵֻӤ , ִԤӤ , ֮Ӥ , ָ פ. ( Σ־ֻ ).

-

ִԯ֤֓ ׮״֢֮ ֑ӓ ֵ ִ ָӯָ֬ ָ ֓߮ ֻ֯ Γ׻֟ . (ִֵ֬ֆ( ֬ ӓ ָ ־ֵ ״. ֪ ֣ ֤֟ ֢ ™ӟֺ֮ ֢֓ ֻ֮ ַ ֌ߓ ߾֮ ӟ ֪ Ӿ ִ֪֬ ׾ßָ֮ ֻ֟ ֟ ߓ δ ֻ ,߻ ֟ Ӵ֬ ֜. Ɵ֤, ӓ֟ӡ פ ֓߮ ֑֟ ӣӓ ߓ .

ִ֮ӟָ ߴ֬߻ þ֟ӡ ӣָ֮ ִԤ ֤-ֻ- ֟ ֜. ֟ 544 ֣ ׾ֵ֮, ߻, Ο, ӵִ, , ֮, ֮ פ ׾ֵӮ ֺ á-ӓ ™ӟ פ . ֬ ӓ ׸ ׾ßָ֮ ׻ƻ . ־֯ ־ ֵ֟֯՟ ӣ ׮ִ ֻ. ӣ ֑֓ ӛָ . ֵ ֨ (10.), וֳ֦֮ ֯γ (12 .), ֯γ (13 .), ֵ֓Ӧ (15 .) ֵָֿ, ִ׾ֵ֕, ־ԮӤ, ִԮӤ פ δ ָ ֨ . ֣ӓ ֻ֮ ׮׿֟ . ָӟ ׮ӑִ֬ ֓ ֤ Γָ , ӓ ߣ ־߸ ӓ ִֻ߮ ֻ֮ ֟֟. ָӟ ֣߻ ֺ ֓־-־ ֟֯ ׬ ֓߮ ߟ. ָ ӓִ  ӣ ִ֤֯ ־ָ߻ 㬤 ֓ ӓ ֤ ƻ ־. ִִ֤֯֬ 425 ֣ 310 ֮ ֜֟.

֓ ߾ָ ֚ ֟֟ ׸֦ ֮ ֻ֯ (֤֤֯( ӣ ׻ƻ. ֟ 1040 ֣ . ־ָ ׮֓Ӧ (12 .) ֲ׬֮ ֬Դ֮ (13 .) .

ִ׮׿µ ֵ ֮ ׾. . 915 ֬ ִԤ ֓ ӣֻ ֺ 98 ֣ ׻ƻ ־ָ þ֟: ׾־ָ . ӓ ֮ ִԯ֤-ֻ-׾־ָ ־֮ ׿֟ . (. Ӳև, 1949). ֟ 156 . ֟ ֮, ߻ פ ֤ӓ ֟( ֫פ ׾ָӓ ¯׸ִ( ֲָָ֓ , ָ ֪ ִ֕֟߻ ־ ָӾָ߻ ֌ӓ Ԯ ( ִ֕-߾֮֓ ™ ד֡ ־ . , ־֯ ֟ Ԯ ߻ ׻֟ Ɵ Ӯ ㌟ .

ֵߓ ׿µ ֵߟ ӓ ߻ִֻ֤ ӣ ֓ ָ ֟ 116 ֣ . ־ָ ןֻ ӓ (14 .) . וָ֮׸ (-( ֬߻ (׾. . 1108) 30 ֣ӓ ָ֮֬ ׻ƻ껵 ָ 40 . ִ֬ ו֮֯ ֤֮֡ פӓ , ָ ֻ֟ . ֮֕ߟ, ִ֕-ã֟ ӓ ד֡ . וָ֮ 60 ֣ӓ (ָ֤( ־ָ߻ ֳ֦֓ 2500 δ ע ֲֻ . ꮦ (ִ֮ܵ( (11 .), ָֻ֬ ֓Ӧ (־ֳ־֮( (ִֻ֤֯( (12 .) ֑֟ ӣ ƺ . ֯γ (ָֻ-ןֲ( (׾. . 1241) ִ֬ ׿־ֵ ֳӿ ֵ֮ . ֟ 5 ß־ . ӣָ֓ ֟֯δ ֤֓ ָ֮֬ ֵ֓ ֓Ӧ ֮ ָֻ ֻ֕ ִ֬Ե ֮׾ֻ. ֓ ß־ִ֬ 54 ֮ . Ӥ ׻֟ . ֮֟׸ (ֵן-( ֓ ֮ ־֟ ֟߻ ָ־ ֟֓ ַ ֓ ָ֮֬ ֻ . ֵӟ Ӳߓ ֕ ֟׮ ֓ . ן֮ ߣ ־߸Ӯ ִӲ׬֟ ο ׾ָ֓. ָ֬־ָ ֮ 28 ֣ ֻ . ֵֻ֯γ ӓ ׿µ֮ ׾. . 1260 ָ ־ָ ֻ֯ ׻ƻ. ֟ . ֕֓ ֟׮ ֕֓ ֟ ־֟ Ɠ־ָ ֵ֮ߓ ֕ Ϊ ֌ ֻ. ߣ ־߸Ӯ ֻ ָá ֓ ֤ פ. 껵 ߻, ֤֮֡ ֯ ӓ ׾޵֚ ׻ƻ . ֟ ֳ֤, ָ ֻ ӓ ӟ ֻ .

֓Ӧ֓ ָ֟ (12 . ) 50 ֮ . ך ֳӿ֓ ֵ . ߓ Ӵ֬ Ӧγ Ƣָ ׾ֵ֕֓Ӧֻ, (11 .), ו֮֓Ӧ Ӿ-ֻֿ, ֜ ׾־ӕָ ֤Ӥ (12 .), ׮Ӥ ֤- (13 .), ֓Ӧ ִ׬ ־֬Ԯ ֬Դ֮-֮ ־׸ (15 .) ָ ӣ ֮ߵ . ׿־ֵ ñ ֑ . Ӵ֬ ׾׿™ Ο ׾׿™ ״׾ַ á-ӓ ׸ . -ӕ֮Ӥ, ߾֟, ־Ӥ פ ָ 20-25 ӓ ӣ־ֻߟ .

ֳӿ ׾ -

ָߵ ֵ ӓ ׾ ܵ ߮ ßָӴ֬ ׾ֳֻ . Ӯ ֓߮ , ֬ ԓ߮ ֟֟.

ƻ ָֻ֟߻ , þֺ , , ׮֤ פ ןӣôןӣ ִֵ, ֳָפ ׸ ָ֮ ָ ־ӣ פӴ֬ ֜. ֻ ꓵ ׾֓ ֓߮ ֮֟֟. ֬ ֟߻ ӓ ߮ ã ֬ . . ֮֯ ־ ֟֟ ִָ֟֬ ֻ껵 ӓ þָ ־߸ 㬤 Ӯ -β֚֮ . ƻ ã߻ ӓ þֺ ֻ סׯ֙ Դ֬ ִ Ӵ֬ ֜. ֮ӟָ ָ™ ߻ ӣ ״֟ ӓ֟߻ ֆ ֵ֬߮ ַ ã߻ ֻ֮ ֟֟. ӓ ׾ ־ ֮֓ ַ֯ ֓־ ֵ֟֯՟ ֻ. ֮ӟָ ֵ֬߮ ӓ ֙ ã ֜ ֳӿ . ꓵ Ӥԟ ֳӿ ֓ ־ԟ Σִ ֟ӕֻ-ֳµִ֬ (.. 2 .) ״. ָӟ ֓ ֤ ׾׿™ ֲ֯ ֳ™ Ӿ ֲ֓ ׾ . -־, , ׻, פ . ָ֮֟ ޛ ֮ ( 6 .) ֻ֯ ־֤Դ֬ ׿־ֵ ַ ־ ָ ֲӮ ֳӿ ƙ . ָӟ ־ִ֬ ֳ߸ פ ִ֕֓ ֳӮ ֳӿ ֻ֮ . ־ֺ ֆߓ . . ־ ִ֟֬ ֳӿ ־ ֮ Γָ֟ ֟ ï™ . ֳӿ ׾ ־ ֵ֟֯՟ ƻ ֲָָ ֵ ӓ ׾֓ ָ ßָ ӯ ןַ ßָ֓ ִ ֻ Ӥ, ָ֚, ָ֟, ֻ . ֬׮ ןַ ßָ֟֓ ן׮֬ . ߟ߮ ֓߮ ָ ֬֓ ֤׿ ӓ֟߻ ֕ ֳӿ . ß: Ӥ פ ӓ ׾ ֳӿ֯֓ ֻ . ™߮ ֳӿ ꓵ þֺֻ Ɵ . ֓ ֮֮ ׮ָ ֳӿ֓ ܵ ֕ ָ֮ ֲ֬ֆ Σִ ִ֬ ׾ ִ֬ ׫ߵ ׾ֳ֌ߴ֬ ֳӿִֵ֬ ־Փ ֕ (( . . ֟ (ִ: ֮ ֟: ( ֟ (ִ ֆ ( ָ ֳӿִ֬ (ִ ֵֈ ( ֤ . ֚ ִָ߮ (ָ-( ƙ ֳӿ ָӓ (ֲ ֵ () ֵ ֻ ָ ׿™ . ֓ Ο (( (( ֓ ֵ ָ δ֟ פ֟. ָ ܵ֟: ֟ (׾ֳ׌֯Οֵ֟) ָ ֟ ޵֓ ן֓ ξ ֤ ֯™ פ֟. ָ ׾ֳ֌ ߮-ָ . ε֤֯ӓ ֵ . ε֤֯ӓ ֕ ֟׬֟ ׾ֿֆӓ ֵ . ֓ ׿™׿־ֵ ־ ֮ ֤ ־ ֻ ־ ־ Ӥ ӓ ָ֯ ֜. ֬כ Ӥ ֳӿ þ֟: ־׮״ԟ . ֓֯֓ Ӥߟ ӓ ևԓ ׾ָ ֻ . ߻ ΓƟ Ɵ֓ ׿š .

ֳӿ Ɵ -

֯δ ֳӿ Σִ֮ ־֓ ָӳ ִ֓ . ֵ֕֯՟ ׿֟ ֻ껵 ֳӿ Ɵִ֬ þֵӳ (ֈ֓׸( ־ԟ ֓߮ . ֟ ׾ָ֪֬, ꬵ, Ӥ, 㬤 ָ ֓ ӛ . ־ Ӭӓ ܵ 90 . ӣ֓ ָӳ ߮ ֻ֯ Ծ֟ ָ, ׯֻ, ִ ޛ ӓ ӓ ־ӓ . ִֺ ֤ ֬Դִ֮Ӥִ֬ ִ ־ֻ Ɵ ֮֟ ָ֬Ӯ פֻ. ӟָ Ӧן ֵ֓, ִ ןԬָ Ɵ ֮֟ ׾ ֵ֓Փ þֵӳ ״ֻ. ֻ֯ ׌ ׸ֵ ֮֟ ֮ ֟ ֤״֮, ׯ֟ ֺ֤ Ӳ פӲ ֟ӓ . ¯֤ӟ֓ ִ֯֬ þֵӳ ֻ ֓߮ Οߴ֬ (ֵӳ֬כӬ ֻ֯Ӭߵ( ߯ ֜. ־ֺ ֮֯ߵ ӑ֟ ֵ ֮ ׮֑֟. ߮ ֻ껵 ׾ ֵ֓ծ ֻ֯ ֩׸ ӣ ߸ ׮־ Ӿ֟ 1203 ԟ . . 676 ֬ . þֵӳ . . 959 ֬ ָӳ ֻ껵 ֳӿ ִ֯֬ ֻ . (ֈ֓׸( ֮ ߓ ֬ӟָ ֆֻ . þֵӳ ֻ־֬ ׮׿֟ ޵֓ ָ֬ . ֻ֯ ӣ֟ ֮ ׾֓ ׸ӿ ֮ꓵ (. . 783) ԓ þֵӳ ֻ ־ ֙. ֕ ß ӣ֓ ֻ . . 700 ֟ ־ . þֵӳ ֮ ֻ֯ ӣ 82 Ӿ 83 ׬ֵ֯՟֓ ׻ƻ. ֓ ִ֯ ־. ָӟ ӓ סֳ֮ þֵӳ ֮ ֙ 7-8 Ӭߓ ֮ ֩׸֓ ׾ִֵ֯ ֓ . ӯ ֳ ֩֓׸ ָ֓ ֡ ֟߻ Ԯ ׬ ־ִֵ . Ӥ֓ ׾׾֬֟, ָӓ ־֮־߮ ׾ָ, ֳ־-׮ֺ פ ־ ־ֿ߯δ֋ ™ .

þֵӳ ָ ֳӿ ӣ (׸˚״֓׸( Ӿ (׸ӿ֯( . ֓ ׮ ߮ ָ, ׯֻ, ִ ޛ ӓ ׿־ֵ ֚֮ Ӧ, ִ--ָ-֚ , ֬כ Ӥ֚ ֟ ӓ ֮ . ӟ ָӯָ ־߸֮ӟָ ִ ִ, ׾, פ״֡, ָו֟, ֬Ԯ Τ ֤ӓ ִֵָ֫ ֮ ֺ֟ ߮ ֬כ Ӥִ֬ ӣֲ֬ ƙ . ӣ֟ ֤, , 㬤 ߮ ӛ Ӭ 112 . ֯ Σִ 99 ׬ þֵӳ ֻ 껵 13 סֳ֮ þֵӳ ֻ . 13 Ӭ߯ ָ Ӭߓֵ ¯ ׮ ֿ:ן ӓ ־ ֻ . ־ֺ ֿ:ߟԮ ֟ ӿ֮ Ӿ 鬤 ־ ֙. ӣ֟߻ ֳ ו֮֓ ׸ӿ֯ ֜. ֤ޛ֟߻ ֮֕, ֻΛ, ׾־ פ ӓ Ԯ ־ִֵ . ֓֯δ -ӛ֬ -ӛ֓ ֮, ָֻ, ׿, ָïָ ׾ָ, ߛ ֮־ -ޛ֟߻ -ӛ-㬤֓ Ԯ ֳָߵ Ԯֿ ִ֟㻵 .

ֳӿִ֬ ־ֻ ߮ ׻ƻ ׸ӿ- ״ֻ .֟ 112 Ӭ . ׾֯ξԵ ӓ כӓ Ӿ , ևԓ 㻻 Ӳ . ӣ֓ ״ ֵ֓ ӓ ӣ ӓ . ֟ ֮֓׸, ׾ ֩׸, ו֮ ׸ӿ יִ׮ ָ־דָ, ָד֟ ߸׸, וָ֮֟ ־ִ ֬ ־ֻ ֵ֬־ֻ, ׿־ֵ ֟ ӣָӓ ׸ֵ . ֻ-׮Ե֚ ־ ӓ ֤ . ֻ֓ ™߮ ־մ֬ ԓ߮ .֮ ֻ֯ ߸׸ ӣ 910, . . 988 ֬ . ߓ Ծ֬ . ֓ ָ־֬ ׾޵ ֟ ֮֬ ֲֻ . Ӥ֕ ֓ ֻ֮ 10-11 ֟ ( ֻ֯ ׾ߟԮ֟ ߮, Ӳָ ׾Ӥ ӓ ָ֮֟׸ ӣ, ӓ ׾ֿ - (ָ ׾ָ ƺ, ׾Ӥ ־ֺ Ӳֺ). ֻ֯ Ԯ֚ ߮ ו֮֓ ׸ӿ֯֓ ָ֬ ֻ ֓ ï™ . ( ו , ׾ָ״ ׯ ) ־ Ӭӓ ܵ ׸ӿ֓ ֙߯ ߿ . ָӟ ӣ δ ߛ֙ .ָ ׸ӿ 12000 δ ָ ӣ 18000 δ . Ԯ-דִ֡ ׾ßָ ׬ ֻ ֙. ֳӿ ־ָ֯ӯָδ ־ӓ ™߮ ӣ ׿™֯ . Ӥד֡֓ δ ָ .

ֳӿ ֮ Ӯ ׸ӿ-֓ ֮ . þֵӳ擵 ׸ӿ ֟߻ ןִ Ӭߟ ֿ:ߟԓ ֻ֓ . ׿־ֵ ֿ:ߣԮ þ֟ӡ ׸ӿ ֓ ֮ ׾. . 1500 Ӿ 1520 ֬ . ӣ ֮߯ (פ) ֬ ξֻ־ӿߵ -ߵ פ 擵 ֺ ׻ƻ . ֟ 13 Ӭ Ӿ . ֻ֮ ו֮, þֵӳ ¯֤ӟ ӓ ֮ӓ ָ֬ ֙. ߟԓ ׸ӿ ӣ ״ֻ . ֓ ֻ֮ ׾. . 1553 ֟߻ 44 Ӭߟ Ԍ ֮ .

(ֈִ֯׸֓׸( ֟߻ ™ ֻ ӓ ׸ӣ־ֻ߯δ ֳӿ ¯֤ӟ֮ (ןי˚֯׸ָֻ( ֯֓ ֮ . ӓ ֮ . ֓ ֮ 881 ֣֬ Ӿָ֟֯ ָӳ 887 ֮ Ӿָ֟4ӟ 6 ԟ ֓ ִ֯ ֻ ־ ֮ꙴ֬ ™ ֕ (ߵ) ֕ ߟ . ָ ־֓ ֓ ӡ֓ ߮ ӣ֓ 㸾֟ . ֯֟߻ Ӭߓ ָӳ ָ ָߓ ֮֕ ֮ ָ . ֻ֮֯ (և-֓-ִִֻ( δ ָ֬߿ Ԥ ֮ ׾. . 1029 ֬ ֮ ָ 㙻 . ֕ ԙ ֯֓ ִ֯߮ӟָ 6-7 Ԯ ֛ פ֟. Ӭߓ ָӳ ֻ ӟָ ߟָ ֯ ־ ֙. ӣ֟ ӓ ַ ӣ֟ ߻ ߮ ֻ֯ ׌ ׸ֵ פ . ӓ כӓ ־ ־ ֟ ־ ݬ֤ . ָӳ . ӟָ ִ֬Ե ֻ֮ . þ֟: ָ ֙ ֟ ֮ ָ߻ ֻ. ָ ӡ֮ Ӯ ֵ פ ־ָ֮ פ. ָ߸֮ . ֡ -ׯֻ, ׾ןֻ, ־ָ, ָþן׮ֵֻ פ ӓ ֤ ӓ ־֯ןֳ ß־ ׸ֵ ֟. ӓ ֮߻ Ӥ š Ɵ ֤ ֣ԓ ֟. ӯ ֯ 102 Ӭߟ ִ֯ ֻ . ƻ 37 Ӭߴ֬ פև֓ ֳ . ֟ פ֣ ߣ ָ ξ֟ ӓ ׸ . ߓ Ӭߴ֬ ָ֯δ 껵 ֻ ӓ ׸ ֻ֟ . 69 79 11 Ӭߴ֬ ִ ֻ .֟ ָ . ָӟ 㸾֟߻ ֈ֓׸, ֩ þֵӳ擵 ֳӿ (ֈ֓׸( δ ִִ֮ ִӲӬ ֓ ß 껵 .81 92 ֵ՟֓ 12 Ӭߴ֬ -״֣֮ -ӛӓ ӟ ׸ӿ ֻ ֺ ֻ֟ . ָӟ ־ Ԯ ߓ ִ֮ ־֯ןֳ ָ Ӥ ֻ ׻ ֙. Ӳ׬֟ ָ, ־ԟ, ֪, , -Ӧ֓ ß, 㬤, ׾־, ׾ֵ-׾ֻ֯, ׾־פ ־ ָ פ ӓ Ԯ ֟ -ִ֬߻ šִ ־֯ ԓ . ߮ þ֟: ֟ þ֟: ֮ ֻ֟ -

ֻ׮ ן: ãןֿ -

֣Իֵ ֿ ׾׾֬ß֢֣׮ԟֵ:

ӓ֪֮פß ֓׸ ֮֡ ׫

־ ָ֯¯֤֮ ֬ ֵߤִ

ָ ߓ ֓׸ִ֬ ֻ , ߮ ƙ ֟ ׾ֵ ־֓ ߴ Ɵ ִ֣Ԯߵ ֙ .

ֳӿ ߣ׸ӣ -

¯֤ӟ֓ ֮֯ӟָ ֯δ ֳӿִ֬ ׮ָ׮ָ ߣӓ ׸־ָ þ֟ӡ ־ ׻ƻ . (1) ֿ:ן ֮ Ӵ֛ ֟߻ ֻ֨֓ ׾֮ӟ߾ֺ (Ӥ-׸( ӣ Ӭߟ ֻ. ָ ӓ ׸ӿ ֓ ֻ ֿ:ߟ . ֤ ӣ֓ ֻ֮ 15 ֟ . (2) ߓӦ ֮ ׾.. 1587 ֬ ֮߯ (פ) ֲָ ֤֓ ָߤԟ (ן-׸( ӣ ׻ƻ. ֻ֯ ָӯָ֬ ߮ ֣-ӑֵ ֟߻ ֿ:ߟ, ֵֻߟ ֳ֦ ӓ . ֻ־ӿ֟߻ ߵ ָ֕֓ ֟ ֮֓Ӧ֓ (ָ֬( ֓ ֓ ׾ßָ Ԯ . (3) (״Ɠ׸( ֮ ׸֦ ֮ ׾. . 1216 ֬ . ֟߻ (ָ֮֟׸( ־֮ áꌟ ӯ֤֯ ׿֟ ֻ . (4) (״Ɠ׸( ִ֤ (֤) ֮ ׻ƻ . ӣ֟ ָ Ӭ 83 . ߮ ָӳ ֻ֯ ׮־-ã֮, ֻ־֤ Ӥ ָ ֓ Ԯ ֻ֯ 㸾֛ ӿ֓ . ֻ֮ ׮׿֟ . ָӟ ӣ֓ ׾.. 1510 ֬߻ ß׻֟ Ο ֲֻ . ־ֺ ָ ֻ־֬ ׮׿֟ . (5) (-׸( ֮ ֩ߟ ֮ ׾.. 992 ֬ ֟ 18 Ӭ . ֻ֯ ָӯָ֬ ߮ Ӭߵ Ӧ, ֬־ ו֮ ӓ . (6) ָ (-׸( ӣ ָ߬ ֮ .. 1189 ֬ ׻ 12 Ӭߴ֬ . ߓ כӓ ־ 껻 ևԓ ߻ . ׸֮ ׮֑ ִ ָ פ߻ ֻ. ξֻ ӿߵ ƻ 擵 ӣ ׻ƻ. (7) ןָ (-׸( ־֓ ӣ ־ֻ ֮ ׻ƻ . ֟ ߮ Ӭ . ӟ ӑ׬֯֟ (ֵ) Ӯ֓ ׾޵֚ ׻ƻ ֻ Ӭߓ ֙ ״. ֓ ֻ֮ ִָ 15 ֟֓ ֯ ־. (8) ֵ״֡ ƻ ֓ (-( ־֓ ӣ ֙ ߣӓ ׸ Ԯ ָ Ӭߴ֬ ֻ ־ ֵָ֯ ӑ׬֯֟ ߾ִ ֚֓ ֻ . ׾.. 1545 ֬߻ ӣ֓ ß׻֟ Ο ״ֻ . ֕ ӣ ֯ԓ ֻ ƕ. ־ִ֬߻ ֙ Ӭߴ֬ ֕֓ þֺ֟ ׸ . þ֟ӡ ״. (9) ֬- (ִև-׸( ӣ 10 Ӭߴ֬ ֻ . ߓ ־ ֿ:ߟ פ . ֓ ֻ֮ ׾.. 1500 ־ ֻ ƕ. (10) ָ ֮ ׾.. 1512 ָ (( ӣ ׻ƻ. ӣ־ֻߟ וָ֮ ߓ ׿µ֮ ֻ껵 ֳӿ ־߸ ׸֓ .

ֳӿ ־ִֵ ׸ӣ -

ߣ֓ ׸׿־ֵ ֳӿִ֬ ָ ׸ӣ ־ִֵ ߮ ׻ƻ ߻֯δ -

(ן׽֯׸-ֺֻ( ¯֤ӟ ֮ (Ƹ׸( (ֵָ׸( ָ ӣ ׻ƻ . Ɵִ֬ γ־ ׾޵֚ ָֿ ׸ ָ ׯε . ׾ֵ־ָ ִ֬߻ ֤֓ ֿßֻӯ 17 ֵ֟֯՟ ָ 30 ӣ ׻ƻ ֜֟. ־ꓵ֤™߮ ֯ ִ֬߻ ֤֓ ӣ ֳӿִ֬߻ ¯֤ӟ֓ Ƹ׸ ־š . ӣ 10 ִ֟֬ ֓-֟ ԓ ӟָ֮ ִ֮֟: ֓ ׻ƻ . Ƹ׸֬ 4 Ӭ . ֓ ֮֕֬ ֕֯ ׸ ֕֓ ֮Ӥ ֯׻ֵ֓Կ ֻ. ֓ ָ֖֮ ֿ״֮ ׾֪ ֯ ֆ֚ ֮֕ ָֻ ֖֓ ֵָ . ֚ ֕֓ Ӯ ִ 㤢 ӓ ׿µ ֵֺ ֓ ִֵ֟ Ӯ ֻ. ӓ Ԯ γ׾֟ ֻ֮ ֮ ӓ ӟ ׾ָ֓. ֵֺ߮ ֻ֯ ԕ֮֓ ӟ ޵ 㸾֟ (- ֗ Ӿ ָֿ . ן ֟߻ ֵ֮ߓ ֕ ֿӬ ӓ ֟ ֕֯ ֿ ӓ . (Ӭ 1) ֻ֯ ִ֟ ƻֻ ֿ֛ ׳ָ֓ ֮ ƻ֮ ׾ָ ָֿ֮ ׮֤ ޵֓ ׾ָ֓ . ָӟ ֻ ֓ ևԮ ׾ָ . ִ֟߮ ׾ Ӯ ָ . ӟָ և ֮ ָ֮֯ ֿߟ ׸δ . ߴ֬ ֓ ־և ֓ ׳֓׸ ֟ ִ֟ ֆӮ ֿӮ ָ (. 2). ׾׾֬ ֿߟ : ֙ ߾ ־ևԓ ֻ֮. ־և ׿ָ֚ ֮֟ . ֻ 㤢ִ ꙻ. ߾ָ ֮ ꛻. ָӟ ֮ӓ γ־֮ ִ Ӯ ִ֮ ֻ. ™߮ ֻ֕ ߓ ֟ ֻ֟. ֻ֕ ֙ ׬֮ ֮֕ Ӯ ֵֻ֯ ֻ߮ և, ֛߻ ֕ߓ ӟ ׾ָ֓. ӓ ־ֳδ֓ ־ ӟ ֕֓ ֛߻ ֕ ֬ ֵֺ ֆ ִֵ֟ ־֮ 㗵֓ Ԯ ֻ֮ ߮ ï™ ֻ֟. ( . 3 ). ӟ ָ֓ ד֡ ָ ־ևԮ ֻ. ֕֓ ִ߻ Գ־֓ ôָ ֻ. Ӯ 㻻֓ ֻ. ֤ ָָ߲ ׾ָ ߟ ֮֟ ׸ ֕֓ Ӯ Ӯ ֻ. ӟ ֕ ׸, ֓ ӛָ Ɵ 긾֮Ӥ ־ծ ֻ. Ӯ 㤢ִߕ־ ֻ ( . 4). ֮ ¯֤ӟ֮ ꚶ ־ִֵ þֺ֟ ֤ . (. ָӕ, 1932).

¯֤ ߮ (ֵָ׸( ֬ ֯ӓִߓ ֟ ֙ ޵֚ ִ֤֓ ָ֟ ָ ֓ ׸ 9 Ӭߴ֬ ֻ֟ :- ֤֬֟߻ ָ֟ ֕ ֵӬָֻ ׾ֻֿ֮ ߯ ָ߬ ־֓ ֻ. ӟָ ™ ֟߻ ׸ָ ָ֕ 飾ߤ ד֡ ֵӬָ ֕ ן֓־ָ Ɵ ֻ ֮ ןֿ֓ ݮ (. 1). ֻδ֮ 飾ߤ߻ ֻ. ֮֯ וִ֮פ֟߻ ׾Ƹߟ ֛ ָ߮ ֓ . ־ֺ ֓ ־ ָ ֛ ( 2). ָ ׾׾֬ ׾֪ ӯ֤ ֺ ֻ. ֓־ָ ֮Ƹ ָ ־֓ 韵֮ Ɵ ֻ. ӓ ׾־ ֻ. ֓ և ־֡ և ӓ֟߻ ֜. ֓ ־֡ ։ ָ߬ ֓ ֻ. ֓ ֆ֓ ε֟ ֻ. ֓ ָ ֤ꮴ֢ Ƣ߮ ֕׾ֻ֮ ָ ָ ֻ. ֓־ָ ֲ ״׾޵ ָ߬ ִ֣ . ָӟ ָ ָδ֓ ־ָ ֢ Ƣ߻ ֿ . ִ ֟߻ ָ֟־ ׬ ߾ ֻ (. 3). ָ֓ ָδ֓ ܵ֟ ֜. ׾µ־ ֣ ָ֕ ֻ ֓ ָ ֻ֮. ָֻ ֻ֯ ֡ ִ֕ ָ֮߬ ֻ ָ޵֓ ε֟ . ֻ޵֚ כ֮ ָ ӟָ ޵֓ ֤ פ (. 4). ֮֕֬ ָ ֣ ӓֻ. ֮ ֮֓ ֕ ׾ֵֻ֮֯ ֓ ߻־֟߻ Ӥ߾֟ ꛾ ןֻ ן֓ ׯ֟ ֚׾ֻ. ߸ . ֮ ֕ Ӥ֓ סֳָ֮ ־֤֟ ֳָ־ ןֿ֓ ׾־ . ֮֟ . ֻӱ֬ ޵ַ ߴ֮ ֓ þ֟ (. 5). ֻ֯ Ԥ ֲָ֓ ֤߮ ӓ֮ ӓֻ. ֣ ֮ ָ֮֯ ׾֤ ֬ 껵 ֕ וֿ֟֡ ֻ־ֻ ֓־ֻ ֮ӯ֟֟ ״׾ֻ. ֮ӟָ ֓ ׸׿ָ ֕ ָ֮֕ ֿ֓ ֻ. ֓ ߴ֟ ֿ ֮ ׾־ . ָ֬ ߕ־ ֮ , ָ֮֕ ֟ ӛҾ֬Ԯ֓ ָ֑֕޵֟߻ ӿ֕ ߮ ׯ֜ ֵ֓ ԕӮ ӓ ։ӤӮ ־ֻ . ָ֓ ֤֯δ ֵֻ ӛҾ֬Ԯֻ ֮ ָֻ֮֕ ֣߻ ֵ֕־ָ ׾ֻ (. 6). ֤ӟָ ָ Եӟ ־ԟ ׮ֻ֑. ֬ӟָߓ Ӭ ֓ ֕ ӛΪ ֮ ׸ָָ δ ֵ֓ ֟ ֣ ֻ. ֵ֮ ֵֻ֯ ִ֓ . ֓ ־֟ ָָ ׾־ . ֮ ӑָ֮ ָ֓ ֕ Ӛ ֻ Ӛî֮ ֻ֟. ׌ ־֓ ֓ ߿ ׾־ (. 7). ־ֻˮ֮ ֵ֮ߓ ׾ߵ ֕ ֟ ָ ֵ֮ ןֵֿ֓ ݮ . ֜ Ӭִֵֻ . ־ִ֤֬ ֕ ָ3־ ןֿ֓ ׾־ . ӟָ ־ֻ ߯ ֻ ׾ִ֤֣Ԯ ߻ Ӥ֟ ӓ . (. 8). ޛ ֟ ξ ߟ ָ Ӭ ֟߻ ן֯֟ ֻ. ףֻ ֕ ׾־ . ӟָ ׯƟá־ ӓ ֆֻ. ӓ֕־ ֮ ֻ֯ ׯε ֟ ߴ֟ߓ Գ־־ֻ ֯ӓִ߾Ο֓ ־֓ . ֓ ֓ כӓ ӡ ֵָ֬ ֻ ָ ޵֚ ӓֻ. ָ֮߬ ֻ . ָֻ ֕׳ ֓ և-כͻӮ ֻ֑. ָ֮ ߑֻ ֕ . ӟ ָ ֻ ֕ ֵֻפ סֵ ֮ פӲָ ֻ. ָָ þԻ ֻ (. 9) י ֻ֮ ¯֤ӟӮ ׾׾֬ Ԯ, ֮ Ӥ, ֟ ־֟ ד֡ ֵפ ־Ӯ ߾ ֮־ ֤ . (. ָӕ, 1933)

׾ֵ֢ (׾µ֤) ֻ֮֯  ִ֟ߓ ֌ ӿִ֬ ֻ֮ . ֓ כӓ ־ ֋ָ ևԓ ־ ֮ . ӓ ׮׿֟ . Ӥ֕ 10 ֟ ־. ӣӟ 22 Ӭ . ׸ֵ֮ ׾µ֤ ߌ . Ӭ㤢 ֻ֯ ־ֲָָ ָ֚֯ ָֻ ֟. ֮ ״׾֟ ׾־ . Ӭ㤢 ֻ ָָ ־ . ֻ ִ߯֬ ֻ ֓ ֵָָ ָ ָ . ןֿ֓ ݮ ׆ד. ָӟ ֓ ֤߮ ׾µ֤ ֬ӟָߓ ָ . ֻ ָ ֮֟. ֮ ߻ ֯ӓִ߾Ο֓ ֟ ֙ ޵֚ ׻ƻ . ӣ֟߻ Ӥ . ֻߛ, ִ㦯ξ, ֕֓ ֿ, ֛ ָ, ׾ִ֮֯ξפ Ԯ ֓޵ָ . ߓ ׾ִ֮ Ӿ ָӟ ׾ִ֮֓ Ԯ ֡ ו־ӟ . (. ֵ֛ ׸. ָ. ֛ 1923).

ӛ׸ ӣ֓ ִָ ֮ ֻ֯ þ֟: ׸ֵ פ . ӓ ӿ ׫ Ӧ . ݵ֮ Ӯ פӲָ ֻ. ӓ ־ ִֻ֤ . և ָߓ ִ֕ӡ־ָ߻ ֮ ׸ ׻ƻ. ִ֕ӡ־ָ ׾ֵֻ֕֯ ֕֓ . -ֳֻ Ӿ ׮ֳֻ֕ ֓ ־֛ Ԯָꮦ֓ ִד־ . , ֓ ߮ ׮ֳ֌ . ִָ֮ ֻ ֓׸ӿߵ ֕ ׾ֵֻ֕֯ ֓ ִֻ߮ Ӥ־ӿߵ ֕ . ־ֺ ӣ֓ ֻ֮ . . 1050 ֯ ֻ ƕ. ׿־ֵ ߮ þֵӳ ¯֤ӟӓ . ־ֺ ֓ ֻ .. 965 ӟָ֚. ֮ 10 Ӭߟ ֻ . ֵ֮ ӛ ָӯָ Ο ֻ֮ . ֟߻ ӯ ָߓ ֕ ֛߾Ʈ ֩־֟ ӓ . ָӟ ß Ƣ߮ ߻ ֮֟ ׾ֻ֮ ӓ ֮ ן֯֕־߻ ôֿ֮֟ ֻ. ӓ ֻ֮ ׿ ֮֟ . ן֯渓 ֕ ׮֯ס 껵־ָ ֵ֮ ߻ ֕ ֻ. ӯָ֮ ֛߾Ʈ ֮ ӛ׻ þָ޵֚ ӓ ß־ ֚׾ֻ. ֻ ֮֟ ӛ ӯָ֮߾ָ þָ . ָߟ߮ ׯִ֟֯֬ ֑֮ ӯֻ ֓ և ֙ ֻ ן֮ ׯ֟֯ӓ פ. ֯ ӛ ӯ֯渓 ֕ ֻ. ߻ , ӛ ־ָ ׾ֵ֕ ״׾޵֚ ޛ֡ . ß֟ ֯渕־߻ ־ԟ־ָ ֓߮ ӱ ־ֻ 1-2 ־ ӱ ֮׾ֻ. ӟָ ֮ ƻֵ֫߯֯՟ Τ ו. ֕ӿ ׾־ . ֙ ߻㯟 ߕ־ ִԯ֤ , ֻ . ִ֮ܵ֬ ֮ ֮ ӛ֓ ׿֚ ֮֟ ֻ֟ . ߮ ӟָ ֌ ꚶ , - Ӭ ֯֟֟. ֓־ Ӭߟ ֯渓 ֓߮ ӱ ׮״ԟ ־ԟ־ָ וִ֮ԓ ã֮֯ ӲӬ ӟ ֻ . ־ Ӭߟ ֤־ֻ ӛ ׯε ֟ߓ ™ Ɵ֮֟ Ƹ 껵־ָ ׾ֵ֤: ޵֚ ָƮ֤ ֕֓ ֻ֟ . ֚ Ӭߟ ֤־ֻ ӛ ׯε ֟ߓ ™ Ƣ߮ Ƹ 껵־ָ ׾ֵ֤: ޵֚ ָƮ֤ ֕֓ ֻ֟ . ֚ Ӭߟ ן־ ӛ֓ ֟߻ ן׾ָ֟ ן֓ ӟ־֮ ޵֚ ߮ ׸֮ ֻ ӓ ׾ֵ ִԻ֮ ӲӬ ֻ֟. ӣ֟ ôֿ֮, ֤֮, ֓߮ וִ֮ ߟ ֜ ן־ ׾ִֻ ֤ӓ Ԯ ָ Ӥ ִֻ . (. ָӕ, 1937)

(ֈָ-׸( (֩ߓ׸) ӓ ƻ ֮ þ֟: ߿ Ɵ פ . ӓ כӓ ־ ևԓ ־ ֟ և (֤() ׿ֻ־ ֑ ӓ ӿ֟ ֻ֮ . ӓ ֻ ׮׿֟ . ָӟ ӣ֓ ׾. . 1191 ֬߻ ֓߮ Ο ״ֻ . ־ֺ ֓ ָ־֬ ׮׿֟ . ӣ֟ Ӭ 4 . ׵ ֩ ן֓ ԕ֮֟ š . ֻ֯ ׾֬־ ֻ֯ ։ ־ֵ֕ ӓ ӟ֯ ָ ָ ִ֮֬ Ӥִ֬ ֟ . ַ ֮֟ ޵ևԮ ֕ ֻ. ָӟ ִ֯ ןֻ ן׾ָ֓ : ־ ֻ. ָ߯ ӵִ ֵֿ֯ ӓ ־ָ ֙ ֻ֖֮֓ ֯ ֻ . ־֟߻ Τ, ָԮ, ֮ד֡, Ӭִֵ, Ӧꤵפ Ԯ ָ ׻֟ . (. ӑ ָߕ, Ӳև, . 2005).

(ָ׸( (ָ֮֟׸) ׸֦ ߓӦ ׿µ ו֮֓Ӧ֓ ׿µ . Ӯ ֻ֯ (״-׸( ֮ ׾. . 1216 ֬ . ֓ ӣ֟߻ 443 785 ֵ՟֓ 343 ֔Ӥ֟߻ ־ִָ֮֕ ß . ֓ þ֟ӡָߟ߮ ӯ֤ ֿ֮ ֻ . ֵ֮ ָ֮֟ ֕֯׬֯֟ ֓ . ֮ ֤־֓ ־֮ ꛶־ָ þָ ξ . ֮֕֬ߟ :ָ ֻ֕. ֓ ״֡ ֻ ޵֚ ׮ֻ֑ ֮ ָָ֕־ ֻ. ָߓ ӛ ָ֮֟֓ ֮ ֓ ֢ ֜. ֬ӟָ ָ֮֮֟ Ӥ ָָ߲ ׾־ . . ״֡֓ ˴֟ և-כӓ ֻ֕֯ ָֻ. כ֮ ֻ ֤߾ָ ־ ֯ ֻ. ָ֮֟ ֻ֯ ָδ֮ פݾֵ֕ ״ ξ֟ ֻ. ֙ ֻ. ֬ ֻ֮ ߮ ֻ֯ ןֳꓵ ־ָ þ . ֟ ӓ Ԯ ָ ֮Ƹ . (. -֮׻ׯֲ֬-ӯפ, ִԮ, 1921).

׿֟ ׸׿־ֵ ß׻֟ ֳӿ ׸ӣ ׮ָ׮ָ áֳӛָ֟ ֲֻ ֿ֮֓ ֙ ֟ . ֯ Ɵ֓ ӣ ߻ δ - ߸ (Ӳִ ָ( (׾. . 1076), ֵ֮פ (Ӥ-׸( (׾ . 1100 ), ָ߬ (ֻ-׸( (׾. . 1208), (֮-׸( ( ֬ ) ( ֕֓׸( (12-13 . ), (ו֤-׸( ( ׾. . 1275 ), ֻ֮֯ ( ׻-׸( ( ׾. . 1454 ), ֬ ( ֻ-׸( ( ׾. . 1579 )( ־֟ߤ (ֻ( Ӿ ֓׸ ( ׾. . 1700 )( ׿־ֵ ׸ (ֵֵָ֯֕( ו֮֯γ׸ ( Ƹ֕׾ֵ֕( ־ . ֟ ֯, ӵִ פ Ӯ ןԴӟ ֡֓ Ƹ֕ וָ֮֕ ӓ֟߻ 㬤֓ ד֡ .

ֳӿ ֑ -

ָӳߓ ֻ֟ , ׸ ־֓ ֪ Ο֓ ֟ ֙ ֟. ֓ ֮ ׻ƻ 껵. ӯ ׾ֿ ֻ֑ ӓ -- ֵ֮פ ׾׬-׾֬ (׾. . 1100), ߓӦ Ӿ ӛ á ( ׾. . 1123), ָן (֋( (׾. . 1247), (ֵָ֯ևԈ( (׾. . 1313), ֬ ־ (15 .), , ׿־ֵ Ο ñ֮ ״֟( - ֻ֓Ӧ (Ӭ֤ƴ( ִ֧֢(, ׾ֵ֮֓Ӧ (ָ֕ӓִ(, ֿ:ן (וָע׾( ׾־Ο-(, ָן ( Ӥ׾( פ. ֟߻ , ׾ֿ֟: ׾ֵ֮֓Ӧ (ָ֕ӓִ(, ֳӿ ֬߻ ן־֓ Ӥ ָ Ƹ .

ָ֯ ֳӿ ֮ߵ . ׸֦֮ ִ֬ (֮ܵ( ־֮ ׻ƻ ֟ ןָו֟ ֙Ӿָ ֟ (֟) ־ָ֮ . ӓ ֳӿִ֬ ׸ ֮ Ӭߟ (ִ֯׸֚ ־֓ ӣ ׾ . 1044 ֬ ׻ƻ. ֓֯δ ߟԮ 15 ֟֟ (ִ֯׸( ־֓֓ ӣ ׻ƻ .

Σִ֮ : -

ִ֬ Ɵ֓ ָӳ ִ֯ . ִ֬ ߓ ™ ֜. ׾ ֩׸֓ ֮ ӣӟԟ ־ֺ ߸׮־֮ӟָ 1203 ָ,Ӯ ֕ . . 676 ֬ ֻ. ӣ ׾ִֻ׸ ֈ֓׸ ִ ׻ƻ ־ ֙. ֓ ֮ ™ ӟ ֻ . ߟ߻ ׾ֵ Ԯ ֵָ֮ ָ֮ ߻ ִ֮ . ֡ ֩׸֟ Ԯ׾ßָ ך ׬ δ֟ . ִ ֓ ׾ßָ ֈ֓׸ פ֙ ß . (. Ӥ ֤, ָߵ ֮֯ߚ ֿ, 1958-59)

֩׸֮Ӵָ֟ ֟߻ ָ ӣ ו֮֓ ׸ӿ֯ . ӣ ֟ 705, . . 783 ֬ ִ֯ ֻ ָ ָ֟ Ӧֵ, ֯ ߾ֳֻ, ןָ֕, ׿ִ ָ֟֕ ӛִ֬ ߸ָ ֕ ֕ ߟ . ӣ֟ 66 ֓ ׾ßָ 12000 և . ִ֮֟: ™ Ӥ֓ ֳ . ָӟ Դ֬ ׾ֻײ֟, ӟןֻ, ֤Ի׾כ פ Ӥӓ ֵ . ׸ӿߵ 22 ߣ ״֣֮ ӓ ׸ Ԯ ӣ֓ ܵ ׾ֵ . ָӟ ß־ֺ֮֮ ߓ ֻ ӓ Ԯ . ֓֯δ סֻ ߾פ 6 ӓ Ԯ . ֤ ׸ӿ֓ . ֤ӿ֟߻ ߯渓 ֕ ֻ ־֓ ֟߯ δ ֻ֤ ֻ֮. ֓ š Ӭ ִ׾ֵ֕ ֓ ֟ ׿־֤ Ӯ ׸™״ ־֓ ֻ֮. ֺ ֻ־ָ ӓ ׾־ ִ֕֟ ־֓ ֕ ׮׿֟ ֻ. ׾־֓ ֤ӓ -֚֮ Ӭ ֻ껵 ֿӮ ֮ ֻ֮ ״֣֮֮ ֻ֦֮ ׾ָ ׾־ ֓ ֮ ֻ. Ӯ ֻ֖֮֯֯ ֻ. ӓ 22 ߣ . -ӛӓ ִָֻ-ӓ ӿ֕ӓ ӟ פ . ӣ֟ -δ֓ ӟ ׾ßָ֮ פ , ־ֺ ӛߓ ôָ . ֡ ״֣֮֓ ׸ ԓ ӣ֟ þ֟ӡ֯ ֜ . ֵָ֮֬ ֟߻ (״֕( 22 ִֵ֬ ӓ ׸ ׮׿֟֯ . ָӟ 49 ֣ ӟ ָ . ֈ֓׸ ӣ֓ ׸ִֵ֬ ӣָ ׾ִֻߓ ֯ (׸ӿ֓׸( ־֓ þ֟ӡ ӣ ֻ֓ ӳ־ ֌ . ָ ӣ ֓ ָ ß ӣ֓ ָ֬ ֌ . ӣ֟߻ ֺ-ӟ ׾ßָ ӟ 铔י֓ ָ֬ ֻ ֵֿ ־. (. Ӥ ־֤, ָߵ ֮֯ߚ, ֿ 1962).

ן- (׾. . 1450 1510) ׸ӿִ֯֬ 39 . ֡ 15 ԓ ӣ ן׿µ ו֤֮ ֮ ׻ƻ . ֟ ׾ ו֮ ӓ . ӓ ӣ֓ ָ֬ ӣ ֻ֓ ־. ֓Ӧ ӛ֯ ( . . 1551) ֻ ֳָ ߻ ֟֟. ֟߻ ־Ԯ ו֮-ֳ֦ ־ָ ׬š .

ָֻ֬ ֯γ׸ ӛ-׸ִ֬ (. . ָ 1200) 18 ӟ ֳָ֟߻ 18 ־ԟ ֮ ꛌ֟ ֻ֟ . ־ ԟ ߛ Ԯ . ֓ ¯׸ִ Ƹ֮ ï™ ޵֚ ׾֤֮ ֻ֟ ֻ-ָ (ֻ-ֵӟ) ӓ פ . ָ ֻ֓ ։ . ֻ Դ֬ ׸™״ ߣӓ ׸ . ־ִ֬ ӓ ӛӓ ֻ֤-þִ֮ ӲӬ ӟ . ֓ ֵ֪ ӟָ ֕׾ֵ֕׸׿µ ׾ֵ֕ (. . 1603) ֮ . ִ֬ ֯γ֓ ӣ֟ ָ ˬ .

ִ֬߻ ןָ Ƣ֓ ֮ ֯ . ֓ פ ָ . פ֟ 47 ־ ֓ ׾ßָ 12000 δ . ֟߻ ƻ 42 43 ־ԓ ו֮ Ӯ ֻ פ֓ ӯ ָ- ֓ ֮ ֳ֦ ־֓ ӓ ׿µ֮ . ֮ ִ֯ 820 ֻ. פ֓ ß־֮ ֬, ִӟֳ֦, ߤ, γ֓Ӧ, ׿־, ֵ֙֓, ׳, (֮Ӥ 敵֤֯), ּ, ֻ߯, ָ֡, ֤߳, ߸, ֵ ׾ ָָ ֵ֓ԓ ß . ֜ Ɵ . ӯ4 פ״֬ Σִ֟ߣ פ֣ӓ ׸ . ֟߻ ־ Ԯ ָ ׾ß ֓ ߟ߻ ׻֟ ָ פ ־- Ӯ ӣ ִֻ . ִӲӬ ֵ: ӯ֯ ׸ֵ ִ֬ ף֟ ֻ . ִ ӣ ֮ ֻ֮ . 23 ߣפ ֻ ӓ ׸ ִָ֬ פ ֓ ꛌ֟ ֻ֟ . ָߟ߮ ־ԯΣִ ֓ ӣִ֬ 63 ֻ ӓ ׸ ס֟ áꌟ ֬߮ ׻ƻ ֜֟. ָ֟߻ 68 ־Դ֬ ִ֓׸ . ׸ ֈ֓׸֬߻ ׾ִֻߓ Ԯ֯ ™ߴ֬ ֕ ߟ . ֻ ߯ ִ֓ ߯ ֓ ֮ ֻ. ߟߓ ֮ Ӥꤸߓ ֻ . ָӟ ןֻ ׮™ ִ֕ ־֓ ֖δ ߟ ָߓߓ ß ״ףֻ ״֮ߟ ޵֟ ֻ. ֮ ֻ֕ ״ֻ. ָ ֮֕ ӟָ ֻ֯ ֕֬ ꬵ ãׯֻ. ֮֮ ֖֯ ִֻ ׮ִӡ

ֲָָ֓ ߟ ׾־ פ. ִ֓ ֮־ֲ֧ ך ߓ . ֻ֯ ԕӓ ֮֕֬ ָ ָ ޵֚ ִ ߟ . ߻ ד֡ ֮֟ ־֮ ߟ Ƹ . ߟꓵ ֚ ӓ . ֟ ־- ־ ߟ. ֬ ִ ָ ־ֻ. ִ֮ 飾Ӥ ־֓ ֻ֯ ֕ ו֟ӕֵ ־֓ ֻ֯ ֻ ָ֕ ߟ ו֤֮ ֻ. ָߟ߮ á ֈ֓׸֯ ־ԟ: ׳֮ . ֟߻ ™ ꬤ פ ָӯָ߻ ִ ֟. ֻߴ֬߻ ָ ֟֟ ָֻ ָߓ ֕ ƙ . ָӟ ֳ ןֻ ־֓ ƕߟ ƻ֮ ֯׾޵֚ ׾ִ֮֟ ֻ֡ ֳ ״֮ߟ 㸻. ߟ ֻ֮ ״ֻ. ָ֟߻ ׿™ӓ á֓ ֢ ך . ִ֬ ֯ӓ ־ פ ӯδ ־ָ ֮ ָ ָ פ ָӯָ ֯ ï™ פ֟. ֵ֬־ֻ֓ οßߟ ו֮Ӯ þ֟: Ԯ פ . ӓ ֮ ֺ֮ Ԯ ֻ . ָ߸֮ ֻ ָ ֮֯ ߓ ־Ɵ. ֮ Ӥ ֻ ָ ָþ֟ ӓ ֻ , ןֻ ָ ֵ ״ ־Ɵ. ӓ Ɵ ։֮֮֬ ֟ . ֢־֖֮ Ӯ ֮ׯӛ ֟ ֟, פ. ( . Ӥ ֤, ָߵ ֮֯ߚ, ֿ, 1 3, 1951 54).

֮ӟָ ֓Ӧ֮ (ס™ֻ֯֓׸( ־֓ ־, ָ֟֓ ֕ ָֻ ӓ ׾֮ӟ߾ֺ . . 1160 1172 ֻӛ֟ ֻ. ֟߻ ־Դ֬ 63 ֻ ӓ ׸ פ . ֟־ ־ԟ߻ ִ ֈ֓׸ ֩ Ӯ ֺ ׻ƻ . ־ ־ԟ ־߸ ߣӓ ߾֮ ׸ . ־߸ ׸ þ֟ӡ֯ ӣֺ֮ ֲֻ . ֟ ִ֮֯ ָ֓ ֟߻ ־ ӟ ӟֳԟ . ָ߯ ֙ӓ ׾ßָ ־ ֡ ֓Ӧ֓ þ֟: . ־߸ߓ ֟ ߸׮־֮ӟָ 1669 Ԯ ָ ֤ ֕ ָֻ ӲӬ ׾µ־ ׾ֻ . ִ֬ ֕ , ָ֕ ֵ ֤ӓ ֮ . ӣ֓ ןִ -׸׿™ ־-ß: þ֟ӡ ӣ ן 滵֮ ָ Ƣ֓ . ִ֬ ־߸֮ӟָ 껵 ֻ֖֮ ׿µӓ ֯ ֵ֓Փ ָָ פ . ֻ (ã׾ָ־׻֓׸( ֟֟. ֵ֓Փ ִ־ֻ ӓֿ Ӳ׬֟ ꚶ . ׮ֵ׌, µ פ ӣ ָӯָ ִ֬ ׻֟ 껵 . ãֳ֦ ־֓ 꿵 ӓ ֮ܵ( 긤 긤 ӓ֟߻ ָïָ ֓ ( ֵ þֵӳ־ ֮ ֻ֯ ֮ ֓ ֚ ֻ껵 ־׻ ֓ ӟ( ִ֓ ӲӬ ֮ܵ( Ӥ֕־ӿӲӬ ֮( ֌ Ӧ㯟 Ӯ 껵 Ӥӓ ֕־ӿ֓ ֿ֓ ӟ פ ֙ ™߮ Ƣ֓ . ӣԮ ֻ֯ ֻ ־ ƙ . ָ ӣ֓ ִֵ , ֿ֮ ӯδ ָ þֳ׾ ָ ֟ י ־ ָ ӓ ӟֳԾ ַ֟ , ֻ ־ ݵ .

־ ֟֟߻ ֓ ֬ כ ָֿ֬ ӓ (סֿ™ôןֿá( ӣ֟ ָ߻ 63 ֻ ӓ ׸ ֮֯ ꛌ֟ Ԯ . ִ֬ ו֮ ֳ֦ ӓ ֯֓ פ֟.

ֵ֛֓ߵ ו֤֮׸׿µ ָӦ ӓ 1802 ֟ (֟׾Կןו֮֓׸( (13 .) ӣ֟ 24 ֵ δ֮ 24 ߣӓ ׸ . ָӦ ӓ ָ (ֳָֻ( ־֓ ӣ . (. Ӳև, 1926).

ӓ ֯֓׸ִ֬߻ ֓ Դ֬ ֳ, ן ״, ֬Դ֮ ֓ ߣӓ ׸ . ӣ־ָ . ֖ ֟ ӣֻ (־֤-֟( ִԯ֤-֟( ƙ . ӓ βӬדִ֮ ־֓ ӣ . 1306 ֬ ֻ. ӣ ֓ ָ ׻ƻ ־. ֩Ӥ ֮ (ֳִֵֻ㤵( (׾ . 1615 ) ־֓ ӣ ָ ָ ִֵֻ ֓ ׻ƻ. ִ֬ 24 ߣӓ ׸ . ִ֮פ -ָ- ֟ ִ֬ ׿֟ ֻ . ֟߻ ִ֪֬ ֻ ӓ ׸ ֤ ꛌ֟ ֻ֟ . ߣӓ ߾֮-׸־ָ þ֟ӡ ־ӣ ߻ δ :. ֟׾Կןו֮֓׸ָ ӓӦ Σִ ߣ פ֣ӓ ߾֮־ָ (֮֩Ӥ( ־֓ ־ӣ 19 Դ֬ . ֪ ־֓ ӡӓ ׾֮ӟ߾ֺ Ӵ֣ ׻ƻ ֻ֮ ֻ ־ פ . ֟ 6281 . (. ֛, 1932). ߸Ӥߓ 8 ߣ Ӧγָ ֬Դ֮ӓ 敵־ָ, ֤ӓ ׾ִֻ֣֮־ָ ־ִֵ ׸ӣ ֲֻ . 15 ߣ ִԮ֣ ӓ ߾֮־ָ ׸Ӧ (ִԿִԳ㤵( ™ ־ . ֟ ֬ ־ ֑ (׿ֻֿ־֬( ֓ ֙. ׿־ֵ ־ָ ־ ֈ (֤ߵ-׸( ֓ γ־ פ֟. ֮ 11-12 ֟֟߻ ־ ֙. 16 ߣ ן֣֮ ӓ ׸־ָ (10 ֟), (. . 1282) ӓ ׿µ ו֟֯γ, ֌֓Ӧ (13 .), ߟ (15 .) ߳ (׾. . 1659) ӓ ־ ֲֻ . ׾ֵ֮֓Ӧ ׻֣֮֓׸ 4000 ӯ ׬ . 22 ߣ ״֣֮ ӓ ׸־ָ ֵ֓ (11 ֟) ָֻ֬ ֓Ӧ (13 .) Ӯ ־ ֻ . ݳ֙֓ ״׮־־ (12 .) ™ ֮ 15 Դ֬ ֓ ִ֯ ֻ . ֮֓ ׾δ ֮ ׻ƻ ״֤( ־ ׾ֿ . ֟ ִ֕֟ߓ ׾ֻ֯֓ Ԯ . ִõ֯ן-þֺ ־ . ֻ֟ Ο ֓ ֙ ִָ֬ ׻֤ (֤( ־ֵ֓ ֻ Ɵ. Ԯ֣־ָ߻ ֓߮ ־ ו֮ (9 ) (Գ㤵( . ֟߻ Ο ִ֬ ִ ־ֿ߮, Ӿ ָ ֯δ ֯ ֤ ִ׾™ . Ԯ֣ӓ ӯ ׸ פ֕ (. . 1025) (Ԯ֣֓׸( ӣ֟ פ . ֓ ׸־ָ ֌֓Ӧ . . 1219 ֬ ־֤߮ . . 1355 ֬ ־ ׻ƻ . ־ֵ֤֓ ӣ֓ ֤ 3ߟ ֻ .Ӭָ־ ִ֟֬ ߣԮ ־ ֟֟ ֩Ӥ ׾ֵ֕ Ӯ ִ֬ Ԯ֣-׸ ׻ƻ. ־ ֟֟֓ ߳׿µ Ӧߟ ֮ - ֻ. ׿־ֵ ׾ֵ֮֓Ӧ ־߸ ӓ Ԯ֣ ׸ ״. ־߸֓ ֮ ִ֪֬ . ־߸ ׸־ָ 18 ԟ Ӥ ־ (֬Դ֮֓׸( ( 910) ֮ ׻ƻ .

ֳΤӓ ָ--ִ֬ ֓Ӧ ס™-ֻ-׸ִ֬߻ 10 ־ԟ ־߸ ׸ ֻ þ֟ӡ þ֟ӡ ӣֺ֮ ֲֻ . ߟԓ ֬Դ֮- (׾. . 1518) 19 Դ֬ ֻ . ֩Ӥ, ־ ߾ֳֻ Ӯ ֬Դ֮ ׻ƻ .

ָ߻ ߣӓ ׸ӣӯ ӣ ־֓ ™ Ƹ . ֟߻ ׾ֵӓ ָ ׸ ӣ ִ֬ פߓ . ߓ ™߮ ׻֤, ָ, ֑ פ ӓ ־֟ ־ ־ִ֬ ֜֟. ֓ δ Բ֨ ֮, ֿ߾Ԥ, ִָ ß׮֤Կ֯ ָӳ( ֓ ָָ ָ, ֮, ־ԟ, ֪, פ µӓ Ԯ( ֮, ׾־ פ ִו ־( , ָ֟ ־ֳ־ ׾ֻ( ӯ֮֟ ׾֮֯֟ ֟ ֌ӓ ֤:ӲӬ ָ֜ ӓ ֟ Ǥïֿ ד֡ פ ־ָ֤ܵ Ɵ áִ֬ ֻ֟ ־֓ ־ ֤ ־ִֵ ָ֬ ִ׾µ . ߕ ־ӣִ֬ ֣ã֮ ԯ֤֓ ִ־ . ן֣ӓ ׸׿־ֵ ֮ ָ ִו š áֵ ֮ ׸-דִ֡֬ ֵ-׵ӓ ״ ֌ δ֟ ֿ ־ ֤™߮ ־ӓ ֮ ߟ ֮֕ Ɵ֟ ׮֖ ֻ껵 ֜֟ ֯ 4 ֵ֪, ֪֪㌟ ӯ ߟ ֵ֪ . ӓ ֯ ׸ֵ פ .

֤׸ ֿßֻӯ ( 881) ™ ֪-֪-ֵ ӣ . ֟߻ ֮ ֳ֦֓ ָ-֟ ֻ֟ . ֓ ָ ¯֤ӟ֓ ֳӿ (Ƹ׸( ׸ִֵ֬ פ . ֙ ߮ ֵӴ֬ ãִ֬ԓ ׾ßָ ׾־ָ . ֓ (ֵ֮֬֬( ־֓ þ֟ӡ ӛ ֮׾ֻ . ֓ ֮֓ ָ֬ ָ Դ֬ פ֕߮ ( 10 .), , ֻ֯ (ָֿ׸( ӣ ׻ƻ. ׿־ֵ ־ (13 .), ߣ (15 .), ߟ (15 .), ֳ֩ (16-17 .) ־ծ ָֿ ׸־ָ ׮ָ׮ָ ־ ֻ . ֌׸ (14 .) ߻ ֵ ָֿ ׸ ׸֦֓ ꓵ ָ֬ ׻ƻ֓ ֻ֟ . ִ ֮ ָֿ-׸֓ ֮ ֪֟ ׾ . 1839 ֬ ߻ ï™ ƙ , ׸ ׸֦ ӦӮ ֟ ַӮ ֪֟ ׻ƻ ָ ִ֬ Ԭ֟ ֵ ֪֟ . ׸֦ ׸֓ ֻ־ֺ ִ ӣ ï™ פ֟. ֕ ׸֦ ӣ þ֟ӡ֯ ֲֻ .

ֳ֦ ָ֡֯ (־ 75), ¯֤ӟ ֳӿ ֯ (Ӭ 98), ֤ ֤ ֪דӟִ ֤߳ ִ֡֓ ִ֬ ߾Ӭָ ߓ ־ִֵ ִ֪֪֬ ׸Ӧ ߾Ӭָ-ӯ (15 .) ӣ֟ ֻ֟ . ִ֡֓ ֬߻ ߾Ӭָӯ֬ ֵ: ꓵ ˬ ֜֟. ַ ֲ֟ߟ 㬵 ־ָ ִ֡֓ ֵ ï™ פ֟. ֓ ֪דӟִߓ ֤߳ ֌ ׳֮ ׳֮ ֓ ׮4ֵ ֵ֕֯՟ . ִ֡֓ߓ ֓ ־֕־ ֤ ¯ ӓ . ֿ֮ ֲ֮ ߻ ӣ֟ ׳֮ ָ . תӟִߓ þ . ֡֓ߓ ֡ ֤ ָ, ֤ ֓ ִ֬ ֮ ׫ߵ֬Դ֬ ןִֵ ֤ ֟. ߾Ӭָ-׸ (׾ . 1596) ׾ֵ֕ן׿µ ֓Ӧ ֮ ׻ƻ .

׸׿µ ߓӦ׸ ָ֮֟-׸ִ֬ (׾ . 1214) ξ֟ ָ֮֟֓ ׸ . ֓ ָ ֓ ־֓ ӣ֓ Ӥԟ פ . ֓ ־֓ ־ӣ ו֮֓Ӧ֓ ׿µ ו֮֯ן׿µ וֻ֮֯ ֮ ׻ƻ ֛֯ . ָֻ֬ ֯γ ־֟ߓ׸ (12 . ) ־ִ֬ ֮-־֤ ֮ . ־֟ ֮֓ և ֕֓ ־߸ ߣӓ . ן֓ Ӥ ֵӟ Ʈ ־߸Ӯ ο ׾ָ֓ . ֙ ֻ . ӲӬ ӟ ־֟ߴ֬߻ ָ־ ֟֟߻ ַ ֟ ֻ . ܵ ֮֓ ָ֬ ӣ֟ ֮ ӱ . ָֻ֬ ֯γ ֮ ӛ-׸ ׻ƻ . ו֮֯֟-׿µ Գ֦ ֮ ׻ƻ껵 ֮-׻ֳ֦-׸ (׾. . 1285) ִ֬ ׸ 1460 . ֓ ֮֬ ־Ԥ߮ ֻ ֤ . ־ִ֬ ֮ ׻ֳ֦ ӓ ׸ . ֦㯟 ( ׾. . 1428), ו֮ן (15 .) ־֬Ԯ (15 .) ֮-׻-׸ ־ ֜֟. ִָ ׻ֳ֦׸ִ֬ (1277 .) ֟ . ֓ ֮ ֓Ӧ֓ ־߸ ׸֟ ֻ Ӥ, ָ פ ׾ֿ ־Ӯ ֕׾ֻ . ׻ֳ֦ ־߸ֻ߮ ֕׮־ ׮ . Ο 㬤 ֻ. Ӧ֓ߵ ׸֦׸׿µ ֻ֓Ӧ׸ ӟ-׾ֻ (׾. . 1296) ӣ֟ ָ֟֓ ֕ ߸־ֻ ֓ ӡ ßֻ ֓ ׸ 14 Դ֬ ֻ֟ . (. ֛, 1917). ӣֲָָ ןֻ׸׿µ ָֿ֕ (ßֻ-ֻ֯-βӬ( ӣ ׿֟ ֻ . ӡ ßֻ ֓ ։ ֻ֯ Ӯ ־ԟ־ָ וִ֮פ Ӭ׾ֻ. ִԓ ֟ߓ ָ ֵ ֻ֯ ־ ִִ֕֬ ָ . ӣ֓ ָ֬ ӓ ׸־ָ ֵ֓Ӧ׿µ ו֮߮ ( ׾. . 1497), (ֿ֮ ־ָ֮, Ӿ֟ 1974), ׻ƻ껵 ӣ׿־ֵ ֬Դ֮, , ן׾ֵ֕ פӮ ֻ ӣ ֲֻ . ׿־ֵ ֵ, ֻ֓Ӧ, ָӦγ פӮ ӓ־ָ οß ֻ .

וָ֮׸׿µ Ӧןֻ ֵָ-׸ (׾. . 1312) 9 ԟ ֻ . ߓ ֯δ Ӯ 港γ ֮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ׿׾ֻ . ( . ־ָ֮, 1917).

ן ֵָ-֟׸֓ ״. ֮֯γ׿µ ־ԮӤ (֛-׸( (13 .) ־ӣ֟ ֟ ܵ 388 . ־֟ ֻ֤ ֕֓ ֻ . ׿־ֵ ִָ֟֬ ׾. . 1312 1315 ֵ՟ ֛껵 ֓ Ԯ ֻ . ӣ֓ ֻ֮ ֓ ָ ־ ֙.

ׯ֓֟߻ ֓Ӧߓ ׿µ ֵ ֮ ׻ƻ껵 ָֻ-׸ִ֬ (׾. . 1422) ָ֟֓ ֕ ָֻ ֓ ׸ ֮ ִֵ ӓ Ԯ ԟ . ֓Ӧ֮ ֓ ӣ֓ ָ֬־ָ ָֻ֓׸֟ ֻ֯ (ֵ( ־ ֻ . ִ֬ ׸׿µ ׸Ӥ ( ׾. . 1487 ), ָ֮ ( ׾. . 1537), ׾ִֻ ֓Ӧ Ӯ ׻ƻ껵 ָֻ ׸ӲӬ ָ ӣ ֲֻ . ׿µ ֌Ӥ Ưֻ֓׸ (15 . ֟ ) 15 Դ֟ ־ ֟ ߸ߓ ִ֬߻ (ƾֻ( ӣ֓ ָ֬ ֮ ׮֯ Ưֻ ֓ ׸ . ֵ׮֮ߟ ֛ ֮ Τִ֬ ָ֯, áָ֯ ֯׸ ߻ ֻ֯ ׾ôֵָ ֻ ־ Ưֻ֮ ֮ ֿ ״׾ֻ. ָ ӟ ָ, Ӥ ֯ ߟ פ .

׌ֳֻ׿µ ֺӦ ִָ׸ִ֬ 680 ִ֬ ״ ָ֕֓ ֯4 ֙ ַ ӟָ ֮ӓ ִԮ . (ֿ֮, . . ִָ֮, . 1908). ֓ ֻ֮ ׮׿֟ . ֓ ׾ֵ־ָ߻ ֵ֪ ӣ ״֟. Ӥ׿µ ו֮ߟ ֓ ָ Ӥ׿µ ָֿ׿µ ִӛ߮ ׻ƻ . ֵ֓ ֯֓ߵ . ּ־ֻ߯δ Ӥ Ӯ ׾. . 1457 ֬ ׸֤ ״ֻ. ֓ ׾ֵ־ָ߻ ־ӣ ֿ߻߮ ׻ƻ . ֺӦ ִָ ֪ ӟָ . ָ ֮ ӯ֤ ֓ ִԮ . . 1894 ֬ ֤ .

֓֟߻ ֵߓ ׿µ-ָӯָ߻ֵ֮֓Ӧ߮ (15 .) ׻ƻ껵 ƴ߸־ִ֬ 14 . ӣ֟ ֈ߮ ֿ֮֟ 㬤 ߟ ֮֟ . . 1301 ֬ ߸֟ ״ֻ껵 ƴ߸ ֓ ׸ . ӣ ׻޵֓ ָ þ֟: ߮ ֻ֟ , ָ ߸ ӓ ֳ֬ ֓߮ ߯δ ־ָ֮ ֡֟ ֟ ִ֬ , ׾֮֬ ֆ֟ ֻ. ׾֮֬֓ ӛ ޵׸ ߮ ָ, ߸ ˳ Ӯ ־ ׻ƻ. ֟ ָӦδ ׻֟ δ ꌟ ָ . (ֿ֮- Ӳև, 1879). ו֮֓Ӧ׿µ ָӦ׸ ֟׾Կן-ו֮֓׸, ֤˴֮Ӥ־ ֳָֻ ӓ ֯ ֻ֓ .--> 174

ɮ״֤ ֻ߯-׸ןֻ (.128) 9 Դ֬ ָ֕ ֤Ӥߓ ™ ֲָָֻ߯ ׾־ ֨׾֮֬֓ ־֓ ־֓ Ӥԟ פ . ֻ֮߯ ִ֕֟ ׯε , ־ָ , ֳӿ 30-40 ӣ ׮ִ ֻ . (. וָ֮ .)

֮ -

Ӧ֓ߵ ׾ֵ֕׸׿µ ֯γ ִԳ㤵 ־֟ 14 . ֟ ָ֟֓ ֕ ߸־ֻ ֓ ֨ ӡ ßֻ ӓ ߾֮֓ Ӥ Ԯ . ֨ ״ןֳ־-ίӓ- (.906) ֪֟߻ ִ ֮ . ֟ ־֟ ӖӮ ןԴӟֺ ִ ֮׾֬ ָ֟ ֻ֟ . Ƹ֣ ӟ֯ ׮־ע֯ ָ ( ԯ׸ִ ֕( ֻ֯׸֟ ( ִִ֬ ׮¯޵ . ָ ֌. ӣ ֓֟ ֮֟ ֵ֮֮ ֓(ׯֻδ ( Ε ӣ֓ ֚ . ֟ ӓ þֺ֟ ִԾ ִԴԟ߻ ӲӬ . ӓ ִ֕֟ ֤ ӓ Γָ ֻ . ֟ӲӬ ָӿ-֨߮ ӣӓ ׮״ԟ ֻ . Ƹ֣ ֬Դ֮׸ (״ןֳ־֯ίӓִָ㓓ֵ( (11 .)( ꮦ ״ןָָ (3 .)( ָ׸ ָָ פ.

ִ֪֮֬ ֻ֮֯ ןֻӕָߓ (.. 970) ֿ֮ ָ ֯ . ָӤ (Ӳ֛׸( ׾ֻ . ֵ֮ Ӳ֛ ִ֬Ե ֮ ӡ֟ӡ֓ ־ָ ߮ ֻ֟֯δ 7 ֵ ׾֟( ֢ Ӥ ָָ ׾־ ָ ӯ֢ ֕ ״׾֟. ֙ ֤֤֓ ֳ ֻ־ָ ִ֬Ե . ֮֯ ָ ֬֟. Ӳ֛ ־֓ ס֓ ־ (և( ִ֬ ֻ . ָӟ ָ߻ ֮ ֡ ֓ ֮ . ׾δӾ֟ 1457 ֬ ֻ껵 Ӥӓ ׿µִ֬ ָӤ Ӿ Ӯ (-ֻ-֙( ƙ . ֮֓ ִԮ ֤ ֻ ։ ֮ . ִ㦾֓ (16 .) ִֵ Ӯ ׻ƻ .

ָ֮׸ ֓ (15 .) ֓ ־ ָ ꮦ׸ δ ָ ־ԯָ ׮ָ . ֟ ߟ֯㸓 ֵ ֕ Ԩ ӡ ӓ ӟ . ָߟ ׿־ֵ ָ ״ ֌ Ɵ ߟ. ֬ ֮ ָ . ֻ֯ ׾ֻ ߮ ֵ ׾֟. ־ֺ ֻ ߻ (ֈ( ֟֟ Ԯ 껵 ֬ ־֓ ֓ ˳ ִӓ ֚ . ֓ ָ ֟ ֮֟ ֓ כӮ פ껵 ֤֟ ™߮ ־׸ ֟4 ַ ™߮ Ӭ׾ ӓ ״ ֜, ֯ӓ 32 ד֮ ֟ ֻ֟ . (.-ֿ. .. ־ָ֮, 1917)

ָ֙ ֟ ו֮ן ӯ-š-֮֯δ ֡֓ ε֮ ֵ֓ 韵 ֓ ֙ . ֓ ִԮ ֤ ֻ ։ ֮ . ֓ ֵ֪ ״֟. ֟ ֓ ־ ״ . ֻ֮ ׮׿֟ . ֮ 15-16 ֟֟߻ ־ Ӥ֕ .

ו֮ן ӯš֮ (15 .) ֟߻ ֮ܵ ֨ , ݵ־ ֡ ״ֻ֮ ݵ־ӟ ֵ 韵֟ ֓֟. ֓ ߮ Ӥ ֮ܵ . ֓ βӬדӟִִ֬ ֟ ֛֯. ֓ ӯ֤ ֿ֮ Εߟ ֙Ի ֮ . ִԮ ֤ ׿֟ ֻ .

ו֮ߟԓ ָ ָ ֮ ֕ ֻ-ֻ-֮ . ׸δ, ׾׾֬ λ֮ ֟ ָ ֙ ״ ߾֮ ַ ֻ ֻ ־ӓ ӟ . ֆ״֌Ӥ ֲֻ-ֵֻӤ (15 .) ֪֟ ֮ܵӓ ӛָ .

ֵ׾ֵ֕׿µ ֮׾ֵ֕ (ֲ֯ר-ִԲר( ָ ־ ִ֑֙ . ֪֮֓ ֮ ߸׾ֵ֕߮ ã֮֯ (׾ֵ֕( ߻ ֬ ־ ֙. ־ֺ ֓ ֻ Ӥ֕ 16-17 ֟ ־. ֟߻ ֵ֮ ֕ ӡ ֌ ֨ ״ןֳ־-ίӓ߻ ֌߯δ ־֟ ׻֟ . ֕ ֮ ֵ ֻ֓ ־š ִ֕֟ ֡ ӡ ִԻ Ƣ . ֙ ׮-֤־ֺ ֟ ֟. ß: ֮ ֕ ֓ ֓ (ִԯָ( ꚶ ӣ֟߻ ӛ . ֓ ӯ֤ ֻ ߻ ֤ ׸ ֮ .

ןִ ֮ܵ -

ӣ֓ þ֟ӡ֯ ־ֿ . ָ ִ֬ ߣã֮ ֌ ӲӬ ן ӟ ֛֯. ֓߮ ן׮״ԟߓ ™߮ ӟ Ɵ֓ . ӯ ߻֯δ -

Ӥá -

(Ӥ( ׾ֵ־ָ ִ֬ ӣ . ״֯ ݳ֙ ӓ (Ӥ֮( ӣ֟ 5 ֵ ־ִ֮֮֬ ӓ ֻ . ֵߟ ֮ ֻ֯ Ӥ֮ ӣ ׾. . 1192 ֬ ׻ƻ. ו֤׿µ ָӦ Ӥ-־׻, (ִӕ( Ӿ (Ӵ֤׾דן( ӣ֓ 12 ֵ֯ 8 ֵ־ָ ֲֻ . ӣ֟ ׿™ . á ֤™߮ ֟߻ ׾ֵӓ ӯ ׾־֮ ֯ԓ ӣӴ֬ פ֯δ .

-

Ӵ֬ ־ԟ ֓߮ ֮ ֻֻ֮֯ Ӯ ׻ƻ (ևֻ֓-ִִֻ( . ߻ οß߯δ ӣָ֮ Ӥ ־֓ ֻ֯ ꙶ ֚ ָ ָ ׾. . 1029 ֬ ׻ƻ. ֓ ָ ֓ ֮֕ ֮ ָ 㙻 ׿־ֵ ַ ן δ־ֺ ֙ ֬ ֻ . Ԥ ָָ֮ߓ ֕֓ ׿ֻֻ֟ ֮ ™ ֕ י֤ ֓ ־ֻ㙻֓ . ֟ ָ֯֬߯δ 250 ֣Ӵ֬ ָ 1000 ֲӓ ֵԵֲֵֿ פ . (1) 㸾֟߻ ֻ֮ פ 18 ֵԵֿƲ ֣֭( (2) ӟָ פ 167 4ӟ֓ ִ ֣( (3) ֯ 597 ֵ՟֓ ִ ִָ֬( (4) ־ ָ ֕ ֣ ָ, ֓ ָ ִ פ . ָ ӟ֓ ׸ ֮ ֌ . ִ ӓ ֵԵֲֿ ֤˳־ . ָ ֬ ßߟ ß ӓִӿ ֟߻(

ָ ֓Ӧ (-ִ-ֻ( . ß: ӣ֓ Ӿ Ӿ (-֬-( þ֟: ӣָ֮ ӣ֓ 㸾֟߻ ֙ ï™ ד֟ . ֓֯δ ֣ ֻ֓ (־׻( ־ פ . ָӟ ӣ֓ ƻ ӯ֤ . ׯֻֿ ֮ ß׻֟ Οӓ ָ֬ (-ִ-ֻ( ־ ֣ ִ֕ þָ . ֮ӟָ׿֟ ֻ껵 ֟ ֮ Ӿ ֜. ִ֬ þ֟ӡ þֵӯ δ-֬ þָ . 783 ֣ ӓ δ֮ þָפ, פ, ־פ, פ, ־פ, ־פ, ָפ ָפ ֚ ԟ ׾ֳ , ֟־ ԓ 㸾֟߻ ָ֮ ֻ֟ ִ־־ã ִ֬ ׯά ֻ ָ ߿á֟ և ן֓֓ ֤ . ֺ ԟ : ֲӓ ֮ ӓִֵ ָܵδ . ֕ , ߮, ָ ֓ ָ ֬ ܵδ֮ ֟. ָ֮ܵ ־ִ֬ ָפ Փ δ . ֬߮ ֣Ծ֓ ֫ӓ ֮ܵ . δ֯֬ ԯ ִ֕ֆ֚ ƻ ԓ Ƹ . ԟ߻ ƻ 6 ֣ 2 ָ, 7 19 ՟ 3 ָ, 20 37 ֵ՟ 4 ָ, 38 49 ֵ՟ 5 ָ ָפ ֫ פ . ֚־ ֵ֣՟ ָפδ֮ פ ܵ֯֬߮ ֣Ծ֓ ֫ӓ . 72 ֵ՟ ֣Ծ֓ 76 ֵ՟ ֣Ծ֓ ֫ ָפ ֬߮ פ . ֓ ָ 83 ֵ՟ ָפ, 84 ֬ ָפ, 139 ֵ՟ ָפ, 143 ֬ ָפ, 148 ֵ՟ ָפ ֙ 174 ֵ֣՟ֆָפ ֲӴ֓ δ֮ ֣Ծ֓ ֣Ծ֓ ־ӓ פ . ֓ δ ־ ԟ ָ . ñ֡ ֬׿־ֵ (כ Ù) δ ֻӲ ֌ ֙. ֓ ֬ ן֖, ֓Ӧ ֻߟ߻ ӣ֟ Γ׻֟ ƻ (

ִִֻ߮߻ ־ӓ ߻ ׾׿™ ֬ӟ֯δ . ӣָ֮ ֟߻֓ ƙ ,

֌ ֬ ֬ ֌

ֈ֌עӳ־ ֲ֬ 3

֬ ӓ ׮ִֵֻ ֺ ֬ ߟ, ֟ ״ ߟ, ָ á֟߻ ֬ , , פ ֣֫ԓ ִ֯ ™ ׳֯ ֌ ߟ ߟ Ӯ֓ ߿֧ ֮ ֟ ӓ . ָ ֮ Τ֟߻ Ӵ֬ Γ׻֟ ָ߻ Դ֬ ָ ־ ֫ Ɵ ޵֓ ן֖ ֵ ο ˳־֟. ӓ ï™ ӣָ֮ 㜓֓ ֣ פ .

׾֯֬߇ ִ ӟֵ ׮

ִֆև-և-ֵּ-׾ֆ 4

׳֮ ׳֮ ֟߻ ֬ ֲӓ ֮ܵ 껵 ֫ ӟ ֛֯߻. ֚ ꆮפ ֻ֯ Γ׻֟ ׾ֺֿ֮ ֬ ֻ껵 ֳӴ֬ ָ߻ ָ Ʋ ֜֟ Ӯ֓ ֮ ӓ ֮ . ֲ Ɵӓ ִ֬ Γ׻֟ ֮ Ӿ ָ֬߮ ֬ ߟ ֟ ֛֯ ߟ ֓ ֲӮ ֮޵֓ ָ֓ ׳ֵ֯ ï™ . ֮ ֵԟ ㌟ ޵֓ Ӯ ״ֻ ֓ ï™ Ӵָ֣֮ ֣֬ ֖ פ . ֮ ֲֻ ־ áӓ ׸߻֮ Ӯ ֜ ֻ , Ɵ֟ ֲ Ο Γָ֟ ֡ ֲӓ ׮ָ֓ , ָ ֲִ֬߻ Ԯδ ׮׿֟ ־Ɵ. ֓֯δ ֲӓ -Γ׻֟ ֓߮ ԓ߮ Դ֬ ׾֟ ׮ִ ֻ ( ׸֚ߴ ֲӓ ֤ߓ ׮ָ Οߟ . ֳ™ ֲӓ ӕֻ֟ ֛֯껵 Ӯ ֤ ־ ֵ֓ ֓ӦӮ ο ֛. ƻִ ֲӮ ֆ ξ ֻ ־(

ֲӓ ָ߻ ߴ ӣָ֮ ꚶ ߮ ӓ֓ ꓵ ־ֺ פ֟. Ƹ֣ - 㸾֟߻֓ ֲ ֓ ε ו֮ Ԯ . ֲ þִ߾֓ ֵ ֲ֯ ֬ , ο ׮ Ӯ ֓ ָ פ , ֲ֯ ֬ , ο ׮ִ Ӯ ֓ ָ פ , ֲ ӣ֓ 㸾֟߻ ֻ־֓ Ӵ֕ ָ֯ . 18 ֣ (׾ֵ־ָ( ֲ (ָ( Ԯ ֮ . ï™ Ʋ , ֲ֓ 㟯֢ (׾ֵ֮-ָ( ֲ֯ ֬ ֻ ָ ִ֬ ֲ֓ (ָ( ߓ ֬ . ֓ ָ֮ ֲֻ ך ֲ ֻ֮ֆ. ֣ 67 ֬ (ָֻ( ֓ (( ֻ֟ ï™ , ֲ 곤 ֻ֮ ֓ ֣֓ ך . (ֵֵ( ֓ ӛ ֙ ֲ ֮ ֵ (ֵ( ֮ ֳ™ þֺ ֮֟֟ ï™ . ߯֟ ï™־ֺ ָֻ ָ߻ ֮֬ ޵ דӟ ֤ ֻ֓ פ֟ ӓ ָ ï™ ׾־ֲָָ֮ ֣ ָ ֲӓ ֵ Ƹ פ . ֣ӓ ܵ 634 . ֟߻ 75 ֣ ָ֟ . ָ 65 ֣ ָֻ֓ ß , 껵 ֣ ׮ָ ָ . ־ ֮ þ֟: ֓Ӧ֓ ־. ֲ ׾־֮֓ Ӥԟ ׳ִ֮-ד֮, ןӤ, ֻ, ָ֕, , ֻ֮֯, ֻ, ֤׻ֵ֯֓, , Ӳ, ߻ ֟־Ʈ ָ áָӓ (ָ֤( (׳ִ֮ד֮( ֚֯֟ ߿ֲӣӓ ֛֯. ֲӓ ֦֓Ӯ ֲֻ ֟. ֤׻֯ פ ֵ֓ծ ֻ ֲá ֲֻ ֓Ӧ֮ ֟ ß ӣ ׻ƻ ֓ ï™ 㸾֟߻֓ ַ ָ֣߻ פ . ָ 껵 ӣӯ ֻ֮֯ (և-֓-ִִֻ( ָ ֕ ֲֻ . ߓ ӣӓ ֢ ״ . ߻ ָ֟ ֻ֮֯֓ ־ Ӥֻ ָӟ ӓ ֲֻ ӣ֟ ״ ߟ. 铔י ָ . ֻ פ֟ Ӯ (-ֿ( ־֓ -ֲ-֓ . ֯δ δָ֤֮ ֻ֯ (ָ֯( ӣ֟ (ָ( ־֓ ֓ . ָӟ Ծ֮ ־ Ƣ֓ ӣ ֕ ״ ߟ. ֟߻ Ƹ֣ӓ ™ ֲ֧֚ ִִֻ ֪ ӯ֤ . ׯֻֿ Ӯ ֻ֯ ֻ֯ ָ ߾Ο Ӥ׾ֻ . . 㸻ָ߬ ֮֕Ԯ ֻ֯ ֟ ֚ ӿ֮֮ 㬤 þֺӟ ã֟ . ָ ֣ӓ ׬ ӿ꤮֓ ָ . . ֮֕ԓ ֟ ֟߻ ׻֟ ִӓ ܵ 3978 . þ֟: ӯ 1500 ֲ ֲ ֮֟֟. 100 ִ֟ 1850 ֫ӯ 800 ֲ ָ֟߻ ֵ Ӵ֬ ֟ ֟ þֺ֟ ״֟. ָӟ 껵 700 ֲӓ á ִ֕֟ .

- -

ִ֬߻ ִ֓߮֟ ָ ֮ӕֵ . ִִֻ ֣ ִִֻ ӓ ӣ ֲֻ . ִִֻꓵ ֙ ֮ӕֵ֮ ֓ δ, 敵֤֯֓ () ׫Ӭָ֮ (֮ӕֵ) ӓ ־ ߮ ӣӮ ֵ֡ ƙ . ־ֺ ֓ ֻ֮֓ Ծ֬ 8 ֟ . ֣-ִִִֻ֬߻ (־ ָפ( û ߸ ־ֻ֙ ˬ . ־ֻ ֻ 738 . ־ֺ ֓ ֻ . . 780 816 ӟָֻ ־. ִִֻ 206 ֟߻ ֣Ծ֓ ֲӓ ܵ ָ 2000 . ָ֮ ֻ֯ ָ, Ӥ ߟ ֌ ן֟֌ ַ ֲִӓ ֮ ֌ ֲ֟ פ . Ƹ֣, 5 6 ֬ ״ פ 27 飾߾֓ ֲ פ . ӟָ ֟־ ֟

(ֵ֟Եָ֬: : ֵ֟Ե֯ן֮ԯ:

ֵ֟Եֺ : ֲ֮֓ ֵ (

֮ ֓ ֟ ־ԟ, ֕ ӓ Ο 27 δ 81 ִ ד֟ . Ӭָ־ ֟ ֻ־֓ 18 ִ ־ ֟ ֟õ, ֮, ֩ ִ ӓ Ο 18 ִ ֵָ ޵֓ 㯟 פ . ֣Ԯִִִֻ֬ 46 ֟ ָ 60 ֲӓ Փ ׮ֺ .

Ɵ֓ ֯ ׸ֵ־ֺ ָߵ Ɵ֟ Ɵ֮ ֟ ָ ֻ֟ ֓ ï™ ֮ ߻. ָߵ ָӯָ Ɵ ֟ ( ׿־ֵ , ׾ֵ ֟ þ֟: ֮ ׿™ ׮ִ . ִ Ɵ֓ ֮׿־ֵ ֻ֯ ֮ , ָ . ӯ Ɵ ԯ ׿֟ ֻ ֓ ָ֟ ߓ ֻ . áֳӛָ֟ ָ: ƕָ ӣ ׿֟ Ӭָ֟ ֛ . ӣӓ ־ӓ ֢ . ˸׿֟ Ɵ֓ ֻ֮֟ ֤ פ ֟ ׾֮֫ӓ Բָ߻ ָ Ӭ .