֮֟ꓵ ׾֟֓ ׾֢֓ ֻ֮ ֟ ֟ ; ָӟ Ӭ ״֓ ֓ ֮֟, ֻ֯ ֿ֟㬤ߓ ֵ ֬޵֯㸟ߓ ָ߸֓ ־, ִ ӯֻ־ָ : ֓ ־ ֜ ֵ. ™ ֬ӓ פֵԟ ֻ . ֡ ™ Ʈ ㌟ ״ ִ֬ ֟ ִ֕ ֵ. ֛ þ֟: ™ Ӿ ַӮ ™ ևԙ . ָӟ ֓ ևԙ ãן ֟ ֻ֯ ޵֚ ֡, ㌟ߓ Ծָ ։ ־ָ, ַ : ִ ֵ ֜֓ ֓ . ֵ֓Ԯ ׻ƻ֯δ-

' : ־ ™׿ן֟ l

דֵ ㌟õ õ֤ :֣־ ִ ll

: ־ õ ֮֬ l

ֵ ㌟õ õ֤ :֣־ ִ l' ־֣. ll

 

''֯δ ִ㌟ ޵֚ : Ӿ ָ . ָӟ ד ֻ֮ӟָ : ֙ ־ߓ ֟ ; ֓֯δ :֓ Ӿ ֬ ޵ ָ߳ ߟ ; ָӟ ㌟ߓ þָ֮ӟָ : Ӿ ֓ ־ ֵ.

֬ӓ ֵֿ֯ : ޵֓ ֮ ֻ֟ ; ָ ֮ ־֮֬ ։ ™ ֮־ ֤ ־ ֚ ֵֿ֯ ָ֓޵ ֻ֟ .

î֮ ӈ ™ ӟ ևԙ ִ֕ ־ָ י ֟. ָӟ ֬ӓ ָ׸ þ֓ ֻ . ֟֟ ֬ӓ ֟־ָ ֻ֓ ֟ ־ָ ָ ד ָ ™ ֬ ִֻ֕ ֟. ָӟ ן . ֟Ӿָ ֓ ִ֟, ֛֟ ֮ ָ ֟. ֬ ֵפ ƻ ָ ֟. ִ ӓ ֛֟ӟ ִ֟ ӟ־ָ ִ֟ . ֮ ׻ƻ ֬ ֻ֯֕־ ֛ ֟֟. ֻ֟Ӯ ֛ ֟֟. ׻֟ ۛ . ֓ ׯӔ ֛ ֵָ߸㬤֚ ޵ ޵֓ã֮ ߾֕ӟ ֵ ã֮ ֱ ޵֚ߓ . ֮ Ӿ ֮֮ Ӯ ׯ׾ֻ껵 ۛ . ֬ӓ ָ߸ þ֓ ֻ ָ ӓ ֟ ӟ 㬤 ֟.

 

            ã֮.

֬ӟָ֮ ָӟ߻ ־ ߾ 14 ãӮӟ ׾ֳֻ . ã֮Ӯ ã֮ ֟֟. ߾֓ Ӿ þֳ־ 5 ָ ֟֟. , ׵, ֿ״, ׵, ֵֿ״ ׸״. ־ ԓ ֮ ֮ ֟, ׵ ֟֟. ־ Փ ֿ֮ ֟, Ӯ ֿ״ ֟֟. ־ ԓ ֵ ִֿ֮ ֟, ִֵֿ ӓ׿־ֵ þֳ־֮ ֯ ֟ ׸״ ־ ֟֟. ߾ִ֬ ֟֟. ֓ ֻ֟ ־֮ ֟֟ ӓ ã֮ ã֮ ֟֟. ֻ֟֯δ . ֟ӓ ӓ ׾δ ֹ ã֮ ֻ֟ ִֻ ™߮ ã֮ ֕ ֬ן ֮֟֓ ֿ . Ӯ ֟֓ ״ ֟ Ի.

ֻ֟껵 ֚ Դ֬ ־ԟ βֻ Ʈߵ . ԓ ֟֓ ־ ֌Ӯ ׾ ޵ ָ߳ ߾ ַ ԓ-֟ þֹ֓-֮ Ծֹ ։ , ߾֯ ֓ ֛ ֙ ֻ ן ׾֟ ֟֟. ִ ֕ ãӮӓ ֮ӟ ֵ֓ ָ֜ ß ã֮ . ӓ Ɵ ߻ δ ִ֕־.

1 ״֣֤™ :- Ʈߵ ԓ ״֣֟ . ֓ ֮ ߾ ֻ֯ ƟƟ֓ ׾ָ֓ Ӿ ׾ָ֓ ޵֓ ִ֣ ֣֣ ׾ָ֓ ߟ . ״֣֤™ ߾ ֟֟. . ָ֕ ֤֣ ֻ ֟ ߟ. ֓֯δ Ӯ ִ ֙ . ӟ߻ ֓ ߟ߻ .

2 ֤ ִݤ™:- ״֣֟ ԓ ִָ™ ֻ ߾ ִ֌֯ , ״֣֟֓ ã ֻ ֟ ֻ֬ ã߻ ߾ ֤ ִ֤™ ֟. . ־ԟ־ֹ ֤ ֮µ ֻ ֻ ִ߮߾ָ ֻ , ֮µ ָ־ָ߻ ֮µ ִ֕֟֟ ֓֯δ ִ֌֓ ׿ָֹ ֻ ֻ , ָӟ ״֣֟֓ ִ߮߾ָ ֻ ָ֬֟ߓ Ծָ߻ ߾ ã֮ ֟. 4 ã֮ӟ ֻ Ӯ֓ ã֮ ֟ ׮ִֵ֮ ߾ ƻ֓ ã֮ӟ ֟.3 ִݴ֣֤™ :- ִ֬ ״֮ӟָ ӓ ״ ֤ ׮ִ , ֓֯δ ֓־ ִ֌ ״֣֟ Ӯ ״ ׸ִ ߾֓ ֟֟, ִݴ֣֤™ ֟֟.

4 ӵִ֟ݤ™ :- ߾֓ ™ ֕ ֬ ִߓ߮ ֟ ִݤ™ ֟֟. ߾ ִݤ™ ֟֟, ָӟ ӵִ ߟ ߟ Ӯ ӵִ֟ݤ™ ֟֟

 

' פ ׾ָ ߾ ־ָ ׾ l

֧פ ו ִև ׾ָ ll 29 ll-. ߾.

 

צӓ ׾ֵӯ ׾ָ ߟ ã־ָ ߾ӓ ߟ ߟ֒ ָӟ ו֮Ӧ Ӯ ֻ֟껵 Ծָ ã֯ ֮֬ ֟, ߾ ӵִ ִݤ™ . ֯߻ ־ ã֮ ִݤ™ ߾Ӯ֓ ֟.

5ӵ֟ӵ֟:- ߾ δӟ ӵִ δӟ ӵִ ֟֟ ӓ ã֮ ֟. ֕ ߾ӓ ֟ ֿ֣֌ ֻ֯ צ־ָ ׮ֵӡ ֟֟, ӵ֟ӵ֟ . ãӓ ׸ ֻ֟ , ӓ ׸ , Ο ãӮ ӵ֟ӵ֟ ֟֟. ã֮֯߻ ־ ã֮ ӵִ ֮֬ ֻ֟ .

6 δ֢ ӵ֟:- ӵִ ߴ֬ δִ֤ ־֮֬֟ ֟ δ֢ӵ֟ ֟֟.

7 δ֢ӵ֟:- δ֤ ֟ ӵִ֓ 㬤 ߟ߮ ֻ֮ ֟ ֮ӟ ݮ ֟֟, ߮ δ֢ӵִ ֟֟.

֟־ ã֮֯ ߮ ָӳ ? ִֿ ԓ ִֿ (ֲ) ߾ ָ ֜, ִֿ ֟֟. Ο ߓ ָ ָ ã֮ . 8-9 10 ã֮ӟ ߓ ߾ ֟֟ 11 ã֮ ִֿ ߾ֻӓ 12 ã֮ ֯ ߾ֻӓ ֟. ־ ã֮ δδ֮ ִ֮ݮ Ӯ֓ ֟.

8 :- ֕ ׸ִ ֟֓ ׸ִ ֻ ߟ 㬤 ֟֟ ã֮ ֟֟ ã֮Ӯߟ ִ֮ݮ ߓ ׸ִ Ο ӟ ֟֟. ӟ Փ ִֿ Ӿ ֵ ߓ . ָӟ ֚ ֵָ ֻ ֟. Ο ӟ ߾֓ ־ ָָ ֟ þֹ֓ ֟֟.

            ׮־ע:- (֤ӯֵָ)- ִ֮ ִֵ־֟ ߾ӓ ׸ִӟ ׮־ע ֟֟. ֯δ Ο ӟ ׸ִ ֟֟. ָӟ ӟ ִֵӟ ׸ִ ֟ ִ֮ ִֵ־֟ ߾ӓ ׸ִ ִ֮ ֟. ָӟ ãִ֮֬ ֓ ִֵӟ ׸ִ ִֻ ִ֮ ִֵӟ ֻ껵 ־ ߾ӓ ׸ִ ָ ֟֟. ׸ִӮ ׮־ע ֟֟ ֤ ӯֵָ֓ ''ãֵ'' . ã֮ӟ߻ ֮ã ԓ ִֿ ֟ Ӿ ֵ ָ ֟. ãֵ֮֯՟֓ ־ ߾Ӵ֬ ãֵ ֟, ׾޵֚ ãֲָָ֮ ֤ӯֵָ ֤ ꛻ , ƙ -

 

'ן ֵי כִֵ ־ִ׸ִ l

׾ִֵֵָֻ ֧־ ll 57 ll

 

ӓ Ο ִֵӟ ׸ִ ֟֟, ߾Ӯ ׮־ע ׸ִ֓ ߾ ֟֟. ӟ ׮ִԻ ֮ݮ߮ ֻ֯ Թ ֮ ֟.

            ӯֵָ :- ֻ֯ ֻ ׸ִ֮ ֮ã ֻ֯ ֵ ֟ Ӯ ӯֵָ ã֮־ֻ ֟֟.

            ֿӟ ֵ:- ߟָ ã:- ִֿ ߮ ָ֜ ֮ã ֵӓ ִֿ ֟, Ӯ ֿӟ ֵ ã֮ ֟. ꤸ ֻ֟֯δ ָ ֮ã ׮ 8 ã֮֯ ߟ ׾ֳֻ ֟֟. ӓ֯ ִֿ ߾ֻ ߾ Ʈߵ Ӯ ӯԟ: ֲ ֟֟ (ֿ״֟ ֟); ӓ ӯ ֿ ߟ ߟ. ֯δ ֪ ӛӟ߻ ֱ ֻ֯ ֮ ӛ־߸ ֛ ; ֯δ ֿ߾ֻ ߾Ӯ ӓ ׸ִ Ӯ ֻ ֟. ã֮ӟ ֵ ֻ ӓ ִֻ Ӯ ֿӟ ֵ -ߟָ ֟֟, ָӟ ӯ ֮ ԮӮ ָ ׿ֻ ֟֟ Ӯ ã ֟֟.

            ֵ- ߟָ ã :- ߾ָ ָ֜ ׮ ֓ ֿ ߟ ߟ ӓ ӯ ֿ ֟ Ӯ ֵ ߟָ-ã ֟֟.

֯δ ֟־ ã֮֯ ָ ߾ ֟ ߮ ֜ ָ ־ 8-9 10 ã֮ ֯ ֟֓. ַ֜Ӵ֬ ӓ ӟָ ֟ ƻ֯ ַ ߾ֻӓ ֟׾ֿ׬ ֲֻ֟ ׾׿™ ָ ֟. ִ ƻ ߟ ָ֜ ׮ 10 ӟ 11 ã֮ӟ ֟֟, ֻ : ֮ ߾ ׮ִֵ֮ ֻ ֛֟ (ֻ߻ ã֮ӟ ֟֟) ַ ߮ ָ֜ ߾ ֓ ־ԣ ֿ ߟ 껵ִ 10 ֟ 12 ӟ ֟֟ ֵӓ ӯ ֿ ֻ ִֻ ӓ :֮֟ ߓ ָ߻ ã֮ӟ֓ ֟֟. ־ ߾ ׸ִӓ .

            ֵֻ:- ־ Ʈߵ ԓ ֿ ֻ־ָ ָ ԓ ׌ ֻ ֟. 12 ã֮֓ ֙ ãӟ ֵ ֮־ָ, Ԯ־ָ, Ԯ־ָ Ӹֵ ߮ ןֵ Փ ֿ ֵֻ 13 ã֮ ֯ ֟. ӓ ֮־ָ ԓ ֿ ִֻ Ӯ ֻ֖֮֓ ׯ . ֟ Ӯ ß ֡ ޵֚ ־ ֟֟ ӓ ֮ ֻ֖֮ ֟֟ ַӮ 'ֻ' ֟֓ ֡ ן ӓ־ָ ֻӮ ׾ֵ֕ ֯ ִֻ Ӯ 'ו֮', 'ָ֟', '߾֮㌟' , '׸ӟ' פ ƙ ֟. ߣ ãӟ֓ ִ-ξ֟Ԯ ֟. ׾ָ ִ֡Ӯ ӓ Ɵ֓ ֤ ֟ ߟ߮ ֻ֯ ׸ ֵµ ֟֟. ֵ ӟִ ֕ ԯ , ־ ־ָ Ӥ ֮ã ֟֟ ֣ׯ ӓ ֮, ֮֓, ֵ ָ֯ () ֻ ֟ Ӯ ֵֻ ֟֟.

            :- ָ ֻ֟ δ ֻ ֮ã ӓ ֮, ֮֓, ֵ (֓) ־ ָ֯ Ӥ , Ӯ ֻ ֟֟. ֻ ׿ֻ ƻ 4 ןֵ ֮ݮߟ ô ־ ָ߸ֵ֓ Ӭ֮ӟ -ֳ ֟.

֯δ ָӟ߻ ־ ߾ ֯ֆֻ֯ ֬ן ׾֓ ָ֮ 14 ã֮ӟ ֙ . ӯ 1 ָ ã֓ ָ, ןֵՓ, ֮µ ֟ӟ߻ ߾Ӯ ֟. 5 ã֮ ָ֓ ֟ ӟ 7 12 ֵ՟֓ ã֮ ֮֟֬ӟ ݮ ֬Ӯ֓ ֟ Ο ã֮ӓ ֻ ӟִ ֕ 1 ԯ ֟.

 

9 Ӿ ׬.

 

׌ Ӿ ֕ . ֟ ־ ԲӬ֮֯ 㙻 ִֻ ã ֟֟. ֓ӓ ָ Ӿ ׬ . ׬ ֕ ׯ. ֯δ , ֯׾ Ԯ ֟ӟֻ ߿ ֻ־ָ 㬤 ֮֟ ֓֯δ ן Ӯ ֟ ָ , ֮ ַ 㬤 ֟֓ ֯ '׬' Ӿ '' ֟֟. Դֻӟ 㙻׿־ֵ ֟ 㬤 ׌ Ӿ ׬ ֓ ã߻ Ӿ . ֟ ™ ד֟ ֟. 1 ׌ ԲӬ֮֯ 㙻껵 ן ã Ӿ ; ִ֬ԟ,  ֮֟֟ ֯δ, ֟֓ ־ Ӿ ֮֟֟ ֯δ ֟֓ ӓ ׾ֿ֮ ׌ ֻ֮ . ִ֬Դ֟֯δ ֟ þ֟ӡ ֟ ™ . ָӟ פֻ֯ ߾ ԲӬ֮֮ Ӭֻ ִֻ ֻ֯ ԓ ֟. Ӭ֮֓ ֵ ㌟ ֟֟.

㌟־ãӟ ֓ ӟ֖֮, ӟ֤Ԯ, ӟ, ӟ־ߵ פ þֳ׾ ׾֟ ֻ ֟֟. ֯δ ֟ӟ ׮֑ 껵־ָ ꮵ֓ þֳ׾ ß ׾֟ ֟ ִ 㬤 ß ִָ ׬ ׯ־ פ֟, ֯δ ֵ֟ӟ Դֻ ׮֑ 껵ִ ֟֓ þֳ׾ ß פ֟֟. ㌟ ֻ־ָ ߾ ָ ֟, ߓ þֳ־֟: ָ ֟֟, ֯δ ֻ֯ þֳ־ָ֮ ㌟ ߾ ָ ֟֟. ֓ γ ã֮ . ֬׿ֻ ֟֟. ־ ߾ ㌟ ֻ־ָ ִ֮ ֓ ã֮ ׾ִָ֮֕ ֟. ã֮֓ ֮ ָ ִԯ ִ֬ԟ . ֓ ָ , פ ִԟ ֟ ֯ ֻ֮ ֵ֮ ãӮֲֲ֟ӟ ׾ָ֓ . ֟֯δ ֟ þ֟ӡ ֟ ã֮֓ Ӯ דӟ ־Ɵ. ָӟ ֤Ԯӟ ֟ þ֟ӡ ֟ ֻ֮ ӯ ֯ ֮֟, ָ߸ָ֓ ֻ֮ . Ӯ ãֲֲ֮֟ӟ ׾ָ֓ ־ ֻ. ֟֯δ Ӭ֮ӟ 㙻 ㌟ ߾ ִ֮ ֟ ֓ γ ։ ã֟ ֟, ֻ ߟ.

ӛ׻ ֟֓ áӟ ֻ . ㌟ ߾ӓ ִ֮ ֮֟֟. ӓ ֟֯δ ㌟ ߾ ӟ ֵֻ֯՟ ָ ָ ָ ֟ Ɵ֟, ӓ ã֮ . ִ֮ ֮ Ӯ ã֮֓ ߓ ׾ָ֓ ֻ ־ ֵ ? Ӯ ֙ ־ , ָ ։ ֓ ã֮ Ӯ Ӳ־ ? ־ ֵ ? ο֓ ָ Ӯ ֻ ־ Ӯ Ӯ ִֵ֓ ִֿ֮߻ ֻ֮. ָӟ ִ֬ԟ ן ־ ã֟Ӯ ֵ ִ ִ Ӿ֓ ֮ ִ ™ . ִß ӟ ֯ . ֓֯ ߟ ֓ ָ ӯֵ՟֓ ㌟ ߾ ֟֟ ֯ ֟ ߟ ֓ ã֮ .

㌟־ãӟ ָ߸ ׾ָƟ 㬤 ֟֓ ֟ ָ߸ӟ Ӯ ㌟ߓ ֳ ֻ, ָ߸֓ ָָ֓ ֓ ָ ֟. ӟ ƻ֮ӟָ ָ߸֓ ־ֻ ֿ ֛, ֯δ ָ߸ָ ֟ ㌟־ãӟ ֟, ִֻ פ . ㌟ ֻ֮ӟָ ֟ ֮, ָ, ά, , , :, ֵ ֤߮ Ɵ ֟ ; ָ ־ ã ָ߸֓ ֟֟ ָ߸ ֟. ㌟־ã ֵ֟֓ ־ãӓӓ ִӟָ ֵԟ ֟ 㬤 ֵ՟ ֻ : 㬤 ޵֓ ߓ ָ ִֻ ƴ ׮ָ֟ ֟ӟ ݮ ֟֟.

 

10 ִ֬ ß ֵ ?

ִ ָ ™ Ӯ֓ δ ֮֟֟ ִ֬ԓ ֮ ß ִ՟ ֟ ; ָ ִ֬ ָ ™ ֮֟ ; ӓ δ֟ þָߟ . ָӟ ָ ™ ֮ Ӯ δ ִ֕ ֕ ß ֟ ׾ָ֓߻ á֖֮ . ֙ ָ ֮֟ ߟ ֯֯޵, þԮָ, ָ֟ פ ֮ߟ ߟ, 'ß' ֲ֓ ֜ . ™߮ ׾ָ֓ 껵 ִ֬ ָ ֮֟, ֟ þ֟ӡ ֮֟. ֯-޵, þ-ָ . ֮֟ ֲָָ Ο ֟ӟ ָ֟ ޵֓ ׌ ֮֟. ׸ã֟ӟ ִ֬ 'ß' ֟ ߟ, 'ß' ֓ 'ß' ֲ֓ ֜ . ™߮ ׾ָ֓ ִ֬ ָ ֮֟, ֟ þ֟ӡ ֮֟. ֯-޵, þ-ָ . ֮֟ ֲָָ Ο ֟ӟ ָ֟ ޵֓ ׌ ֮֟. ׯ׸ã֟ӟ ִ֬ 'ß' ֟ . פ ִԾֻӲ ִ֬ ß ֟֟ Ӯ פִ ִֻ֮ Ӯ ß ֻ ; ָӟ ׸ã֟ߟ ־ ִ ָïָӓ ™߮ ß ֻ ; ָӟ ׸ã֟ߟ ־ ִ ָïָӓ ™߮ ß ߻. áߵ ֮ . áߵ ™߮ ƻ ִ֬ ָ ß ִ ׾ֻ ֟.

 

4 .

Ɵ.

 

Ɵ ן ׾ֻֿ ָߵ Ɵӟ ֓ ׾׿™ ã֮ . ָ ֵ֓Փ ֻ֯ ߾֮֓ Ɵ֓ ֮ӟ ֟ߟ . ָ ֵ֓ծ ֻ֯ ߾֮֓ Ɵ֓ ֮֓ӟ ֟ߟ . ִ֬՟ ꚴ ӛ ׾־֮ ֵ֓ ֻ , ׾ ֟־ . Ӯ ִ֬Բָָ ָߵ Ɵ֓ ָ ӟ ֻ֯ ߓ ׾ֻ . Ԯ, ֵ, , ־, ֙, , ׿ֻ, ӡ֟ӡ, ß, . ׾ֵ־ָ ׾֯ Ɵ ֲֻ . , ״ , ־ԇ ִ֮ ™ ֻ .

ָӟ߻ Ɵ ׻ƻ . ׾ֿ֟: , ׾֛ߵ֮ ӟ ß δӟ . ִ֬Ԯ Σִ֯֓ ִԯΓָ֣ þֹ ӟ ֕ӓ ß Γ׻֟ ӟ ֕ ß Γ׻֟ , ӟ ֻ֯ Ɵ ׻ƻ . ִԮ ׾־֮ . ׾әߙ˕ ֻ֯ '' A history of Indian Literature'' Vo l-ll ֬ š 27-28 ָ ׻Ɵ֟. - ''ָߵ ӟ ן֓ ™߮ Ɵ Ɵ֯ . ָ ֻ֯ Ɵ ׬ӟ ׬ ־, ™ߓ ƴߓ . ֮ ״ Ɵ ִ֓߮֟ ӟ ׻ƻ 껵. ӲָӮ ֚ ֟֯ ָ פӲָӮ ӓ ꤸ ӟ ֮ ޵ 㸾֟ . ӟָ 10 12 ֟ӯֵ՟ ֌ֻ߮ ; ֳӿ ӟ ֻ֯ Ɵ ׻ƻ ߻ ֬׮ ־ ӟ ֻ֯ Ɵ ׻Ɵ֟. Ӯ Ӥ ָ֣ ӟ ִ ֛֮ ӟ ׾ֿ ִ鬤 Ɵ ׻ƻ .

֕ Ɵ ֲֻ , ־ . ־߸ӓ ֤ ָӯָ Ӳ֬ . Ӯ ӓ ֤ ӟ , ָ Փ ֮ ׾ֳֻ. ԓ ֮ӟ ָӬַӓ ׻ ֤ ־՟ ִֻ֕ . Ο ֮ ַӟ 'ֻ֖֮' ָ֖֮ ָ ַӟ 'ֻ' ֯δ ֻ֖֮ ִß ָָ֓ ֟ Ο ֟֟ Ɵ֟ ֓֯δ ֻ áӴ֬ ֻ֟ Ο ׾ֵ ֖֮֮ ï™ ֟֟.

. ־߸ӓ ׮־֮Ӹ ߮ ֻ֖֮ Ӯӟָ-ӓ ֻ ֻ. ӯ ֙ ֻ ֦ . ֓־ ֬ӟ 12 ԓ ֵ ֛. Ӯ ֻ֯ ӑֲָָ ׾ָ . : ָ ָֻ ߟ. ֮ӟָ ֙߯ ֦ӓ ƕߟ Ɵ ס֟ . ַ Ӯ ֮֟ פ . ӓ ָ ֓־ ֬ ֬ ӟ ƻ, ֻ߮ ֢֯ߴ ָ ׿ףָֻ֓ ֻ , ־֯֓ ӑ֓ פֲָ ֲӸ ׾ֳ ӓ Ɵ ֻ.

 

 

פӲָ Ɵ

ֻ ֦-þִ߮ӟָ ߓ ֻ ֻ ߟ. կ 4 ԓ ֮ ӓֲָָ 㯟 ֻ. ӓ֮ӟָ 11 ֵ֓ 11 ֓ 10 Փ ֟ ֻ. 5 ֵ֓ 11 ֓ ֟ ֻ ԓ ֮ ָ ™ ֻ 㙯ӕ ֮ ƻ. ӟָ 4 ֵ֓ Σִ ָ֓ ֓ ֟ ֻ. ֯δ ֖֮ ™ ֻ. ֯δ ֻδ֮ ֮ ߸ ׮־֮ӟָ 683 ׮֑ , ־ ԓ ׿ֻ ƻ ӛ ֮ 㯟 ޵֓ ֻ ֵ֓ ָӮ ֵ֙־ֹ ֵӮ ָָ ־ԟ־ָ ֲֻ ¯֤ӟ ִ ־Ԣִ ֬Ӯ ֻ֯ ׿µ ֮׾ֻ ӓ ֳ ׾ֻ. Ӯ ֳ '֙ӛִ' ִ ӣӓ ֮ ӟ . ־ ֓־ ָ֬ Ӿ֓ ֵ֓ . Ӯ 233 ֣ӟ 'ֵ-' 'ֵ-ֳ' Ӿ֓ ӣ ׻ƻ ӣ ֵ֓-ָӯָ ֵԳ ß Ӿ֓ ֵ֓Ԯ ֲֻ ֻ. ӓ֯ ׿ ן֊ֳ Ӿ֓ ֵ֓Ԯ ־ָ 'ע' ׻ƻ. ִ֬ 6000 δ . ֯ ֮ ӣ־ָ ֵ֓Ԯ ֵָ֓ ֻ. ӛ ׾־֮ . Ӯ '֙ӛִ־ָ' ߸ֵ֓ ֻ. ӛ ׾־֮ . Ӯ '֙ӛִ־ָ' ֬ '־ֻ' Ӿ֓ 738 ֬ . 72000 δ . ָ ֮ ӣ ֵ֯ ־ָ Ӯ ׻ƻ. 20,000 ׻ þԾ ֻ. ӓ ݵ ׿µ וֵ֮֓ Ӯ 40,000 ׻ 759 ֬ . 60,000 δ Ӿ 'ֵ֬־ֻ' . ӓ ֮ - ״֟ . ִ֬ , ֬ ֬ . þӵ ָӮ ӣֵ֓ οßߟ ֻ߻֯δ ׻ƻ .

 

''ֵ:ֳָ ד֟ ״ֵ l

֯ξֵֻ֮ ꌟs ӣßָ :ll''

 

֙ӛִ֓ ֙ ӛ ־Ӭ . ֓ ֮ ־ֻ ֵ֓ծ ӟ ֓ 41,000 . ־ ӣ֟ -֬ӟ֓ ӟ , Ʈ ׾ßָ Ԯ .

ߑֵֻ֯՟ ߮ ӣ ײ֦ ( ԙ) ߻ ֳӛָӟ ֟ ֻ . ߻ ָּ ֵֿ ӓӓ ָ ־֮ ֟ ߮ ӣ֓ ֿ֮ פ Ɵ ֻ .

־ ֟ӟ ӟ ״֓Ӧ ֬ӟ֓ξ֟ ִ ֵ֓ . ߮ ӣ֓ ׾־֮ ֟ . Ӯ ӓ ֮ 괴ָ֙ ײָ-ָ֯ Ӿ֓ ӣ ׻ƻ. ӣ ׻ƻ . ӟ ߾, ԓ ֯ (׾ֿ֮) ӓ Ӥ Ʈ Ԯ . ӣ־ָ ֲֻ ֵ֯渓 þ.. ꛸ֻ֕ Ӯ ֵ֯ ӟ ׻ƻ ֙ ֲֻ . ӣ֓ ָ ֯ ֬ ֻ .

.. Σִ ֟ӟ Ӿ֓ ֮ ֮ ֵ֓ ֻ. Ӯ ִֵָ, ξָ֮֓ ӓßֵ ߮ ӟ ׻ƻ. 'ֵ' Ӿ֮ ֬ . ִֵָӟ ׮ָ׮ָ ™߮ ֟֟֟֓ ׾־֮ ֟־ָ ӣ . 9 ֟ӟ ֵ֓ ֓Ӧ׸ Ӯ ӣ־ָ ӟ ֪ (ֿ) ׻ƻ . ןȤִ . 17 ֟ӟ ׾־ָ ָ֮ߤ Ӯ ֿӓ Ӥߟ ӟ ֮Ƹ ֪֤֮ .

ξָ֮֓ ӓßֵӟ ֖֮֟֓ ׌֯ ׾־֮ . ֟֟ , ֵ֓Ԯ ֳӮ֓ ֮ , ӯ 8 ֳ ֲֻ .

ִ߻ ߻ 'ןֹ' ־֓ ֻ֮ ֟֟. ӓ ׿µ 'þִ' ֬ ֵ֓ . Ӯ ־ԯΣִ ־ֵ֛ ӟ '֣֟' ִ ӣ֓ ֮ . ӣ֓ 10 ֵ ӟ ߾פ ֟ ֟֓ Ӥ ׾־֮ . ׮ָ׮ָ ִ՟ ֲֵֻ, ߟ, . ã֮ , ӓ ã֮ ִ֬՟ ӣ . פӲָ Ӳָ ӯΤֵӮ ֮֟ פ ָӯָӟ߻ ֵ֓Ԯ ־ָ ׻ƻ . ӟ ߴ֟ ӓ 'ָ֟֕־ן' ׾֪֮Ӥ ֵ֓ԓ '֣֟Կן' ֮ߵ . ӟ ӣ ӟ ӟ ׻ƻ ֬ӟ־ָ ӣ .

Ԯ ֵ áӟ þִ ִӟֳֵ֦֓ ֵ֬֓ ֬ . þִ ִӟֳ֦ ֵ֓ծ 'ִ֯ߴ' Ӿ֓ 㤸 ӣ ׻ƻ. ӟ õ־֤֓ ִ ׾־֮ ָ ִԵ ֟ӓ ׾ָ֓ ֻ֮ . ӣ־ָ Ӯ '™֟' ־ָ ׾֪֮פ ֵ֓ծ '™á' Ӿ֓ ׻ƻ . ™á Ʈ ִ֕޵ ™áߓ ־ ֟. ֓ ׾֪֮Ӥ ֵ֓Ԯ ָ֯֯ δָ֯ ׻ƻ ׾ֵ ׾־֮ ־ ™߮ ޵ֻߵ .

Ӯ ֵ֓ '֮' ֻ֮ ָ ӟ ןֵֿ׌ . ָ߻ ׿־ֵ Ӯ ׬׾׮ֵֿ, ֵ ׾׮ֵֿ, ߵáֵ, δ . ӣ ׻ƻ . ־ ӳ ӟ ׻ƻ . ־ָ ֵ֓ ӟ־ߵ פ֕ γ֓Ӧ ִ ׾־֮ ׵Ӯ ׾ß -ӣ ׻ƻ . ֌֮Ӥ ֵ֓Փ ִָ Ӿ֓ ӣ ֵ֮֓ ֚ ֵ . ־ָ ֵ֓ γ֓ӦӮ δִֻ֟՛ Ӿ֓ Ʈ ӣ ׻ƻ . ֯ ־ָ ӟ-ߵԓֵԮ δִָֻ Ӿ֓ Ɵ֯ ӣ ֕ ֲֻ ߟ. ַ ӓ ӯ֜.

Ɵӟ ׸ӿ , ֯, ֩׸ . ӣ ֻ֮ߵ . ӓ ן֪֯ ׾ֵ '™ ֻ' ӓ ׸ . ӟ 24 ߣ, 12 ξ֟, 9 9 ן־ . ӟ ֯ӓ ޵ ׸ Ԯ , ֟֟. ׸ӿ ӟ  ӛ֓ Ԯ . ֩׸ӟ ִ֓Ӧ֓ Ԯ . ӣ֮ δ ֳִָ ִֵָ ֟ . ӓ׵ֿ־ֵ ׸-ӣ֓ ָ Ɵӟ ׾֯ ӛָ . ߟ פ ֵ֓Ԯ ׸ӣ ׻ƻ . ֵ֓ ֙ƮӤߓ 'ָ֓׸' ־ . ־ Ɵӟ ߸Ӥߓ Ӧγ֓׸, ׸Ӧӓ ִԿִԳ㤵, ֮ӕֵӓ ׾Ӭ֮ ݳ֙ӓ ״׮־ ߟ߻ ־ .

ֳӿ ӟ ׸ ӣ, ֯ ß δӟ . ӟ Ɵ֓ ӛָ ָ . – ָ֓ ֵ՟ Ɠӟ߻ Ɵ ӟ ׯε 껵 ӟ ׾־֮ӓ ™ ֻ ֟Դ֮ ӟߵ ӓ ֮֮ ִֻ ֿá ׾׳֮ ӓ ן Ӯ Ɵ֓ ֵ֮ ־ֿ ֻ . ¯֤ӟֵ֓ ׾ . ӓ ס™ ֯– ָֻ ֮ ӣ . ¯֤ӟ֮ ׾ þֵӳ ӓ ôָ . þֵӳ, ¯֤ӟ, ִָ, . ߮ ֳӿ ӓ Ɵ ִ鬤 ޵ӟ ֟ š ޵֓ ֻ .

Ɵ ӟ ׾ֻֿ . ֵ֓ ׸ӓ ֓߮ (.. 932) ӣ . ָ֮֬ , ޵áֵ . ӣ ™ߓ ֵ֮ ִԓָ֓ ֱ ִԓָ֓ ֱ ֓Ӿָ ׾֟֟. Ɵӟ ־ ׾֯ . ֤ߓ ֿßֻ ӯ, ׸Ӧֵ֓Փ ߾Ӭָӯ ԧ֓ ֓ӯ ™ ־ . ֪ӣ֟ ֤߳֓ ֪דӟִ ֮ߵ . ֙ӟ ßִֻ֓ ׾ӟ, ףֻ, ӕ֮ ־֮ӕֵ . ֙ ߵ . ß Ɵ֓ ָ֟ ־ֵ֛ӟ . ׾ ֮ӕֵӓ ׾ָ֯ ß, 㤓Ӧ֓ ִפ . ß ™ . þִ ִӟֳֵ֦֓ԓ þֵӳßӟ ֤Ԯ֓ ߓ ֬ӟ ָֻߟ߮ ӛ . ֿ׮ ß־֮ . ן-ӣ֓ ֮־ . ֤߳֓ 'ִ֡֓ ־ ' ™ ן֯ ־ӣ . ֵ֓ ״֟֟ߓ '֟--Ӥ, ' ֩Ӥ ֵ֓ԓ ֩Ӥ ӓ׾ӿן ָ֕ ־Փ ִֻ Ӥ ןӣ .

׿־ֵ ן, ֵԤ, , , Ӥ, ָ, ֟, ֮֕ן . ׾ֵӾָ ֵ֓ԓ ӣ ֕ ֲֻ . ן ֵԤ ׾ֵ Ɵ δӟ ֬ ֻ . ӟ 敵֤֯ ֤֮ߓ ֮֓ ֵ֮ ֮ߵ . ־֛ӟ ֮ӕֵ ִִֻ ׾ֻ֮–, ָӟ ָ-דӟִ ֟ӟ ־߸-ָ֟- ֮֕ߟӟ ֤ӓ ן־֌ֳ . ôָߵ ӣ . ֻ ӟ߻ ӣ֓ ׾ִ־ֻ. Ɵ־ן׸ ָ ӟ Ɵ ׾ֻֿ .

׾֛ߵ֮ ӟ ָ Ɵ ִ Ӯ Ɵ ֯ ֻ . ֛֮ ӟ ׻ָ ן֯֓߮ ׾ ֓ . Ӳ ֛֮ Ɵ ֟, ׸ ޵֓ ֵ֓ ߮֓ ״ֻ . 13 ֵ֟֯՟֓ ֛֮ ӟ߻ ־ ӣָ ֓ . ӯָָ ֯Ӳ֬ ֲ ָ áߵ ӣ ߲֧ ֤ ָ֙ ? ֛֮ ֪ӣ֟ ֓߮ 'ִӛֵ ' ߸֟՛ ִӛֵ ֓ . פӯ, ׾ ξ֟ , ׳֮־ ӯ . ֓ . 'ԙ ׾֓׸' ָ. ֵָ֓ծ ׾ֲֲ֟ӟ ߻ ָ ֜ . '֛ ׾ . ֵ֕֯՟ ֲֻ ֻ껵 ־ ֓߮ ִ ߓ֓ Ꟶ. ׾ֿ֟: ֓߮ ߴ ֛  ן ֻ . ӯ, ꮮ Ӯ ָ ߴ֬߻ ֓ ֮ ݵ Ի. ָ ߮ 14 ֟֓ ӟֵ֯՟ ־™ ӯ־֓ ֮ . ֛ ֵ Ӥ, ָ, , . ӣ ׬ δӟ Ӯߓ ׻ƻ . '

ݵ ָ , ֛֮ ӟ߻ ־ Ɵ פӲָ ׾־֮Ӯߓ ׻ƻ . פӲָ ӯֵ֤ӟ߻ ־ δ δ ֵ֓ ־ ԙ ׾ֳӟ֓ ָ Ӯ Ӿ ִ֬ ӣָ֮ ־ ָ ֛֮ ӣָ .

ִ߻ ӓ Ɵ 㸾֟߯ ִ֬ ߮ γ׾֟ ֻ . '' 'ֻ֤ߵָ' Ӿ֓ ӣ ֧ߵ ֵֵ֓ծ ׻ƻ . Σӟ߻ ָ֟ ߻ Ɵӟ ֻ ֜֟. ־-Ɵ֯ ִ߻ ߻ ן׾ֵ Ɵ ֓߮ ־ָ ֵ֓ԓ ׾ֿ– γ־ . ' ִֻ' ֓ . ӓ ֓߮ ׌ ןִ׻ . ֻ֤ߵ֮ӟָ ӓ ןָ δ ֟. ''ן֮ ֻ 괲֟ '' ӣ ָ ߸֮ . ӟ 㬤 ׾ֵ ֬ӟ ֻ֟ .ӓ֮ӟָ ֻ껵 ָӮ ֻ֯ ӣ֟ ָ߻ ӣ֓ ָ߻ ӣ֓ ָ ֻ . ֓ ָ ӣ '֮ ֌כ' ־ ӟ ׻ƻ .

ִ߻ ꓵ ӓ ־ӯ דӟִ, ֻ֯כָ ֻ֯ן ӓ . ֻ֯כָ ןִƟ֯ ִ ן ןֲֲ֟ δֳ ֻ֮ ֟. ֓ ߮ ӛ ֵ . ӟ߻ 5 ֑־-ָֿ ־, ִ, ֮, ָ ־ ߻ . ӓ ־ӓ ֵ֓ . Ӯ ִ߻ ׻ƻ . '֮' ִ߻ ן֯Γ׻֟ . ӟ ִ֬ ׿׾ֻ ֟. '׮֑ә' ӣ֟ פ ׮֑ә, ׯֻ ׮֑ә ִ ׮֑ә ֮ߵ ӣ . Ӯ ֟ ן-ӲӬ ӣ ׻ƻ . ֯δ ִ߻ Ɵ֮ ִ鬤 ֻ .

ָ֣ ӟ פӲָ ߮ ־ ׻ƻ ӓ Ɵ ' Ը ׾' ӣ֟ ״ .

פӲָ Ɵӟ Ӥ ӣӓ ܵ ָߓ . 껵 300 ԟ ӣ Ӥ ֓ ׻ƻ . ־ӓ þֵ֬ ־ֿ Ծ . ־ָ֬ ӓ ӟ ו֮־ߓ ֮ ޵֓ ε֟ ן֯֓߮ ֯ . ִ Ӥ Ɵӟ ֪ӣ֓ δ ׬ . ָ֬֟: 16 ֟֯ Ӥ ֪ӣ Ɵӟ ֓ ֵ֮ ֵ Ի. ן ӣ֟ ֣֟, ִֵָ, ֙ӛִ, ֳֵ֯, ӛ . Ɵ֯ ӣ֓ Ӥ ӟ . ֵӣ־ָ߻ ִָ, ִ֯ߴ, δִָֻ, ֵ֤ׯ ֣֟Կ׾ן ָܵ ֮ ӣӓ Ӥ ֲֻ . -ӣӓ ֵ֮ Ӥ ֳ ߟ ߟ ָ ָ֣, ָ™ ן֤  ӟ֟߻ ֓ ֳ ֟. ֯δ ִ Ɵ Ӥ ꓵ Γָ ֵֵ . ־ ӣӓ Ɵӓ ֤ Ӥ ֻ . ֤֓ ֵ Σִ֟: ֵ֯㸓 ׾֮֫Ӯ ӛָ . ֤ ֕ ֟ ־ֵ ״֟. ֻ ֤ߟ Ɵ֓ ֓. Ӥ ֪ ֪ þ֟ӡ֯ ׻ƻ ֟ ֬ӟ֓ Ԯ ־ֵ ״. ֪ Ɵ֟ . 긛ӻ֕ߓ, 'ִ ֿ' ֪ Ɵ֟ . ֟ ִ֕ߓ 'ƛֻ' ֬ӟ֓ 滵 . ꛸ֻ֕, ִָ֟֕ ֤֕, ֮֕֕, ֵָ֮֟֕, ֵ֓Ӥ, .  ׾־֮Ӯ ֻ֯֯ Γ׻֟ Ӥ ֪ ֪ Ӿ ָ ֮ . ׾֮ӟ, ֚֯, á, ״ ֮֕, ֪ Ɵ֟ ׸ ׻ƻ .

Ӥ Ɵӓ ׾ֿ֟ , ӟ ӟ ֓ ξ ־ԡ ™꟯֟ . ӣָӯδ Ӥ ӣָ֓ ƻ ֮µӮ ָ ׾ֵӯ ׾֮ ֟֟֟ ֮ ־ ֻ֯ ׾ ־. ײӤ ִ ֓ ־Ԯ ֻ֯֯ ӣ ֮ . Ӥ Ɵ֟ ־ ָ Ӥ Ɵ֟ ߾ֵ ָ֮ߤ֕ӓ '֟' ֻ֮ . ӓ '֙ ִֵָ' ֟־ָ߻ ֯ ӣ .

Ӳָ Ɵ ֙߻֯ ߻ ׸ ׾֖֮ ׻֟ 㬤 ӻָ֮֟ ß־ß ֻ. Ӿ ߵ׮־Ԯ֓ 6 ֟֟ ֵ Ӭ߻ ӓ ֻ֟ ֤ ֳ ֻ. ֟ ׿ֻ ƻ껵 Ɵ 㾵ֵã֟ פ . '֣ ֮֓ ֟֟' ֮ӟָ ߸׮־֓ 10 ֟֟ ֻ־ ָߟ (֛֙) ק ִ־ ӓ ֻ֟ ֳ ֻ . ֟ 11 ֓ ֮ ֻ. 12 ֓ ꤸ ֻ . ֵ֟֯՟ ôָ ֌ߓ ָ֬ Ɵ֓ ֚֚֯ ֻ . ָӟ ֟ ߸׮־ Ӿ֟ 1980 (..453) ָ ֮ ӣֹ֟ ӣߟֹ֟ ֻ. ֬֓ ִ֓ ã ܵ֟ ӯ֤ פ ӓ ֟. Ӯ ӓ ׮ָ׮ָ ֵ ߟ, ֻ֯ 㬤ָ߮ ߟ . ߓ ޵֯δ ߮ӟָ ִ֟ ָ 긯ָ ֻ .

Ӳָ ӯ֤ӓ ֯ ִ ׾ֳ֟ ׾ֳֻ . 1. ֆ- ָ֓, ֯, ã֮, ִ־ֵֆ , ־֟ , ִ֟֬, , ָ֯ף , ο־ ׾֯ 2. ָ -֯ , ֕֯ο , ߾׳ִ , Ζ־, ӳ澤߯ Ζ֯֟, ӦΖׯ, ԯΖׯ, ׮ֲָֻ, ־֟, ¯, ¯֓׻ Ȥ, 3. ֯߮- ֣:-ָ, ֤㸯Οܵ , ֌ ßָ, Ӥ־ָ֓ Ӧ, ------

 

            ִֵ㤸Ӯ ֻ֯ ִָ֓ ֟ӟ ߻ ׻ƻ .

'' ߤ׬ִִ ߾߸֤ ߟ׬-־ֿ֟-(980) ֟ ֤־Ե֤׳־ֿ֟ ָ֬ ֢֯ ׾֟ד ֵ֟.. ־ֵָֻ ֳ֌ֵ ӑ֟ ־׿™ֻ֤߮־֬ ֳִֵֻ ֤֮ ״ד־׿™֮ ׬֮ יsי֮ ִֻ֮֯ δ þִ֟ ֵ ßֹ: : l ֟ ֟ ִָ֮֬֟ׯ ָ֣֮֮֮ ־ִׯ ִ֮ ߤ׬ִִ ֟: ll''

:- . ׬ ִִӮ . ׮. . 980 ֬ 12 ԓ ִ ֬ 껵֮ӟָ ֓ ֻ־ָ ־ ߾ӓ ָ֚ áֳ֌߮ ׸ ӑ֓ ֮ ׿ֻ ƻ껵 ־ ֬Ӯ ֳֻ ָӴ֬ ־ ӓ ӛ ׿ֻ ƻ껵 ß ָ י י ִӓ ֌ӓ ֻ֯ 㬤߯δ ־ á Ӯ ֮ 껵ִ ׬ִִ Ӯ ־ ִӓ ֻ֮ ֟. (ִֵӤӓ ִָ֓ ֟.)

Ӧß־, ׾֪, ֯Ο֮ܵ ߸ß־. 4 ׮ֿߣ, ׮ֿߣ, ־ָ, Ӭ, Ɵ ӓ. 5 - Ӥ ־ָ, 6 ָ - ֵָ֮֬, ־ֿ, ־׻ ׯӛ׮ֵ׌. 45 ӣ ִ ׾ֻ ֟֟. ӓ . ӟ ָ֓, Ο, ֟֟, ן, . ׾׾֬ ׾ֵӓ Ԯ . פӲָ ӯΤֵ֓ Ɵӟ ֲ ӣӓ Ӿ ӟ Ի껵 ׾ֵӓ ״. ָӟ ӟ פ ߟ. Ӳָ ӯΤֵӟ ֦Ζׯ֟ ; ԯΖׯ, Ӳ澤߯֯Ζׯ Ӯ ֻ֮ . ָӟ פӲָ Ɵӟ . ֓֯δ -׻ ֵָ֮֬ ־־ָ ׮ֿߣ ִ ӣ֮ ֲ ƙ .

Ӳָ ָӯָδ ׬߮ӟָ וֳ֦֮ ִִ Ӿ֓ ׾׿™ ֵ֓ ֻ. ӓ '׾ֿ־ֿ µ' ߓ ӣ . ӟ ԯ ߟ߮. ֮֓ Ӥ ֓ . ֣֟־ָ µ . ׾־֮ þ֖ ֮֟֟. ־ָ ֓ӵ ֬ ӓ ֣֟Գµ ׾ß . ״ Ɵ־ָ ֲֻ . ־־עָ . ֵ֤ Ӯ 9 ִ־ָ ӟ 㤸 . ֤™߮ ֻ֬׸ Ӧӓ Ӿ ֮ߵ . Ӯ ״ Ɵ־ָ ׾־֢֯ ׻ƻ . ׾־ֿ µ־ָ ֻ ӓ ָ Ӥ .

Ӳָ ӯΤֵӟ ׾ֵ Ɵ ָ . ӟ 'ԯן', ӓ', '֓߮ ־߮ ӣ' ֮ߵ . 13 ֟ӟ . ӦӮ ־߮ ӣӓ ֮ þ֖ ꓵ ָ֬ . ӟ Ɵ֓ ׾֯ ִ ׻ . ֵ ׾ֵ Ɵӟ ֬ פӓ ֵ־ָ֟ ֵ֮֓ ֪ӣ ֻ֮ ֟. ӓ '֮ן֟ ' Ɵ֯ ӣ . ӟ ״ ֮֟ ԓ ߾ָ ޵֓ ε֟ . ӣ־ָ ֵ֤ӓ Ɵ֯ . ӯΤֵӟ ׸֦ Ӿ֓ ܵ֟ ׾־֮ ֻ. ֟֟ Ӯ 1400 ӣ ֻ . ӓ ֲֻ ӣ֟ '֮־֤ ξ' ӟ ֵ֯֟' á־ִ֟㓓ֵ Ӿ ֮ߵ . ֣֟־ָ Ӯ ׻ƻ . פӓ 'δֵָֻֻ֢֮֟ ֓ 'þ֖ ע' , 'õ־֤ ' ֵ֓ ֓Ӧӓ 'δִߴ' ׻ӓ 'õ־֤ ӕָ' ֵֿáӟ߻ Ӥ ӣָ . 17 ֟ӟ ֵ֓ ֿ׾ֵ֕ ֻ ׵ ֻ. Ӯ ׾֪֮Ӥߓ ™á߾ָ י ׻ƻ ֵ֤, ִֵ-ָ, ԯ׸ . ӣ ׻ƻ . ִ֬ԓ ֬ӟ־ָ Ӯ ־ ™֮ ׾ָ֓ . ־ֵ֮֓ ߮ ӣ ׻ƻ .

Ɵӟ ׾ִֻӓ 'ֈ֓׸' (֩׸) ־ . ן ֓߮ . ӟ ִ֓Ӧӓ . ' ޛ ӟ߻ . ֓߮ ӟ ֳָ֓ . ֵ֓ ֓Ӧӓ 'ס™߿ֻ֯֓׸' ֮ߵ . ָ ӣ .

־ӟ ֓Ӧӓ 'ִֵ־' ֵ֤ӓ 'ֵӟ׾ֵ֕' ׮֓Ӧӓ 'ן֣֮ ׸' ֻ ־ . ֪־ӟ ֻ֮֯ ߓ 'ןֻӕָ' 㤸 ܵ׵ ӣ . ֙ӟ ִ֓Ӧӓ 'ֻ׾ֻ', '֟ ׸Ӧ' '֑־ֳ㤵', '׮ֳԵ־ֵ' . ֮ߵ . ӟ ㌵ ֕ ߸־ֻ֮ ƴ߸ Ӿ֓ ־֮ ׯ֙֓ .

ӣӟ ֵ֓ ֓Ӧӓ '־֮֮' ߵ ָ . ־ִֵ֛ Ɵӓ ӛָ . ֮ߓ 'ִֵֻֻ' ׸֦ӓ 'ִָև' ֤׻֯ӓ 'ָ־֌' ן֯֬ . ִֵֻֻ Ɵӟ߻ 滵 . ꓵ ָ ֵ . ֯δ ֵ֓ ֬ ӓ '״ןֳ־֯ίӓ' ָߵ Ɵӟ߻ Σִߓ -ӣ ֻ֮ ֟.

ӟ ֵ֓ ֓Ӧӓ '֬־' ָ ֬ . ֓ ֚ ֵӟ ֯ ָ ֻ ӣ ӟ ֕ ֲֻ . ӟ ֓Ӧӓ '׳֮֬דӟִ', '֣', 'ִִֻ֮', '׮֑ә–', '׳ָ֮֬ ֕Ӧ' 'և ֧־' -ӣ .

βӬӟ Ӧγӓ 'γ־׸', ӓ 'βӬדӟִ', ָֿ֕ӓ 'βӬ ו֮֯γӓ '׾׾֬ ߣ' Ɵ֯ ӣ . ָ ׾ֵӾָ ָ Ɵ ֲֻ . ֳӿ Ɵ ִ֬ ֻ֮֯ ד֟ ׾µ֤ ֬ ß Ɵ ָ .

Ӳָ ӯΤֵӓ ֵ ׬ δӟ ָ֣ӓ . ִ ָ֣ ӟ Ɵ ׻ƻ . ֓ ׸ֵ ' Ը ׾ֆ' ӣ֟ ׾ßָ פ .

׾֤ ӟ Ɵ ֲֻ . ִԮ ׾־֮ þ, ƴԮ Ӯ ӣ֓ ӯ֤ . ӓ ֓ ß־֮ 'Sacred Books of East' Ӿ ӣִֻӟ ׿֟ ֻ껵 ӓ ß־֮ ֮֓ߵ . ִԮ ׾־ .ݻ֮֯ ӓ '׮ִ֗' ֻ . þ. ߸Ӧ ֑֓Ӧ Ӭ Ӯָ ׸ӟ ׿ ָӟ ֻ껵 ־Ԭִ-Ӵ֮ӟ , ' ן֟' ӓ ӕ ֤ ֻ . , , , , ӯֵָ֟ Ӯ ֲ֟ӟ ֮ߵ . ־־ָ߻ γ㟾 ï֤ .

ָ:- Ɵ ׿֟ ֻ ־߮ ֟Ԯ ӓ ӯ֤ . ֓߮ Ɵӓ ֮֟ ן ׾־֮ ޵֓ Σ ֻ . ֓ ־ ִ֣ , . ֻ ܟָ, , ֻֻ, ׮ ו֮׾ֵ֕ . ׾־֮Ӯ . ™߮ ߕߓ 'Ɵ ן' ܟָӓ ' ֮֟ ֌ ß־֮ 'ִӟֳ֦' ӣ ֮ߵ . '֙ӛִ' 'ֵ֯' 'ִӟֳ֦' ӣ ֮ߵ . '֙ӈִ' 'ֵ֯' 'ֵ 㤓Ӧӓ' Ӥ ß־֮ ֮֟ ן ™֚ ֵ֮ ޵ֵݵ . ו֖Ӯ ӓ ֵ֮ ־. ӿ֚ Ɵӟ ׾֯ ֵ֮ ִ .

 

֬ ֵ֓.

 

־֮ ־߸֮ӟָ ֬ ֵ֓ ӣָ ֻ Ӯ ֻ֯ ָ֤֓ ׾ָӮ ִ֬ԵӮ֓ ־, ָ ֻ֯ ָ ߮ ָߵ ֵ֛ Ӯ ִ鬤 ֮׾ֻ . ӯ ֬ ֵ֓ԓ ӣָӓ ׸ֵ ֮ פ .

ִ ָ֬:- (.. 557) ־֮ ־߸ӓ ά֮ (׿µ) , ӓ Ӿ 'Ӧן' ֟߮ ꤯ָ֟ ׮֑. Ӧ דӟ ֻ. ֓ ָ Ӧߕ־ ׌֯ε㌟߮ Ӯ Ӯ ִָֿӟ ֻ. ӓ ӓ ֮ӟ߻ ־ ׾ָ ӿֵ Ӧ߮ ֻ ־ӟ֓ ά֮ ָ֬ ֻ֮. ֟ӟӓ ֤ ִ֕ Ӯ ֤ ֓ ֮ . ֮ ll 30 ֟: . ־߸ӓ ׮־ ֻ ֓־ ִ þִ߮ ֻ֖֮֓ ׯ ֻ ֮ӟָ 12 ծ Ӯ ׮־ï֤ ֯ ֻ.֦:- (... 325) ןִ ֻ . ӓ־ ֬ӟ 12 ֵ ֛, ֬ӓ ꚶ ӑֲָָ Ӯ ׾ָ . ֬ ִ֙ Ӧ㯟 ֻ֯ ־ָ ֳָ֕ ־ ӓֲָָ . ן ӟ֟߻ ־ֲ ך ֻ֯ ӟִֵ ־ ֻ ֦ Ӳֻ ; ӑֻ ׾ָ ޵ פ. ֚ Ӧ㯟 ӓ ָָ ƻ. ߻ Ӧָ ־ԟ־ָ ӟ ֦ þִߓ ֻ. ӱ '֦ ӱ' Ӿ֮ ֬ ӓ ָ֤֯ . ӓ . ӓ ӑֳ֓ ߕָ ֮ӟָ ֟Ӳָ פӲָӓ ׮ָ׮ָ ֵ֓ԯָӯָ ֻ. δ פӲָ ֵ֓ԓ ׸ֵ ޵ӟ .

ֵָ֓ :- (׾., ָ ֟)- ԓ ֟ ™ ӟ߻ ָָ ־ԟ֓ ӱ ֮ ߟ ֟. ֻ֯ ֿ֟ ֖֮֓ Ի דӟ Ӯ ƴ ָߓ Ӵ֮ ֡ פ ӓ֕־ ֻ. ӓ 㬤ߓ ָ Ӯ Ӯ ֬ӟ֓ ׿ פ.

¯֤ӟ ֲ׻:- ֵ֓ ָӕ־ ֻ .. ֜ ll 11 ֵ֮ ֟ӓ ֵָ֓Ԯ Ӯ ׮ָ פ. ӟָ ׿µ ָ ֻ Ӯ ֟ . ¯֤ӟ ָ ֮־ Ӯ ו֮֯׻֟Ӯ פ. ֤ ӓ ֮ Ӯ ׿׾ֻ ֲ׻ ־ ֚׾ֻ. ֲֻ߮ ¯֤ӟӓ ֵµ ׿ֻ ƻ ߻ ӣָ֮ . ֯δ ¯֤ӟ ֲֻӮ '֙ӛִ' ִ ֬ӟ ӣ ׻ƻ. ֙ӛִ ׻ׯֲ֬ š ll 5 ӓ á֯ . ןף ӟ ֯ӓִ Ӿ֮ ֬ ֻ.

ָ֬:- (׾.. ָ ֟)- ֵ֓ ָ֬֟: ֓ ֻ. '֮֯ξ֤' ִ 5 ԟ߻ ־ ß ׬ָӟԟ 'ֵ֯' ָӟ ָ֟ . ֓ ׾ֿ֮ ֵ ֵ֯ Ӿ֓ Ɵ֯ ֬ӟ-ӣ ֣ӓ Ӯ ֻ.

ֵ֓:- (׾..ָ ֟)-ֵ֓ ִ֬ԟ߻ ӟ γ־ ֵ֓ ֻ. ӓ ӲӬ ֬ , ׾֤ ӟ ߴӬָ þִߓ ָ֕־ ։ ӓ פ֮֬ ޵֓ ݵ Ӯ ֯ ֻ. ӓ ƻ Ӿ ֩Ӥ . ߻ ƾ ִֻ ӛֵ֓ Ӿ֮ ֻ ֟ ֓ӓ Դ֬ ӟָ ֵ֓ ֻ. ӓ 'ξָ֮֓', ӓßֵ' 'ִֵָ' Ӿ֓ ӣ ׯ֯֬ 'ֵ֙' Ӿ֮ ֻ ֟. ׿־ֵ Ӯ 'ֳ' ֮ . ֚ ֳ ֲֻ . ֳ֯ӓ ֙ ֣ӟ Ӯ ֯ ֻ ֦ӓ ׿µ ֻ֓ ֻ֟ . ־ֲ ߻ ׿ֻֻӟ ӓ ָߓ ן ևԻ .

þִ:- (׾.. ןָ ֟) ֵ֓ ӓ ׿µ . Ӯ ֬ӟ ӟ ׮ֲ֬ ֣֟ ִ ӣ֓ ֮ . Ӯ '鬤ׯֵ֓֓' ֟֟. ־ֲ ߻ ׿ֻֻ . 108 ֬ ֵ֓ԓ ׾֡ ӿӟ ־ ֤֣ԓ ֟ . þִ ֻ. š ֟. Ӯ ו֤֮֯ߟ ־ áӓ ֹ֮ ׮ֲ֬ . ߴ֡ӓ ӟ ן ־֮֬ . ־ ׯӔ ִֻ 鬤ӓ ӓ ׯ ׯӔ ֮ Ӯ ֵӟ ֻ, ֯ Ӯ 鬤ׯֵ֓֓ ޵ӟ ֻ. ָ֬֟: פӲָ ִ ߾ָ֚ ӓ ӓ ׯӔ ־ ֟֟.

Ӵֳֵ֦֟֓:- (׾.. ןָ ־֣ ֟) ִ֕ӟ߻ γ־ ֵ֓՟ þִ ִӟֳֵ֦֓Փ ã֮ ӟ š . Ӯ ֿ֮֓ ־ ߣ ֻ֮ . Ӯ ™֟ӟ, ׾֪֮ӤӮ áߟ, וֵ֮֓ծ פӟ, וӮ ׸ӿ֯ӟ, ֤߸֕Ӯ ׾׮ֵֿ ׾־ָ Ԯ֣ ׸ӟ, ߸Ӥ߮ Ӧγ ׸ӟ, ßִֻӮ ׾ӟ ֙ӟ ַ ӣָӮ ֻ֯֯ ӣָ֯ӳ ӓ ן ֤ ôָ Ӯ ִָ . ߾֮ӟ Ӯ ô ֻ . ޵֚ Ӯ ӓ Ӿ ֿ ߻ ֕ߵ ׿־ֵֻӟ ַ֓ ִ ֟ ߻ ׯԟ ֻ֯ ™ ָӮ ִֻ֕, þֵӳ ß֓ ֮ ֿ֮֓ Ɵ Ο ֙ פ. ӓ 'ִ֯ߴ' , 'Ɵþֵӳ', '㌟֮֮', 'ו֮ßן ֟' 'ӛ' ӣ ֲֻ ߾׬ . ӣ ֲֻ . ָ ֻ ֤ . Ӯ ӟ ױ ׾֯ߵӮ á֣Ԯ ו.

֬:- (׾. . ӓ־ ֟) ֵ֓ þִ δ ֬Ӯ ӯΤֵӟ ֮֟ ״ֻ . פӲָ ӯΤֵ֟߻ וֵ֮֓ծ ָ ֤֮ ӓ ôָ . ӓ ׌ . ֳ֤֓ 挟ָܵ֓ ֻ֓ ֻ֟ . ןֲ֤߹ Ƣߓ ִ ׾ֹ áֵ㌟ ָ ִֻ֕ . ֲӸ ӯΤֵӟ Ӯ 'פ' ׾ֿ ־ֻ ֟. ӓ '֮ן֟' ӣ ן֯֬ ֮ ֣ӟ ׻ƻ . ָ ֵ־ָ֟ ׾Կן ӣ ִ֬ ׻ƻ . ־ ӣ ӳ߸ ֟֓֓Ԯ ׸ . ֬ ן֖ . ֻ ܟָ Ӯ ֻ֯ ӟ֓ ֮ן ֬ӟ (9-11) ֵ֮ ӿ֮ ֬ , ־ ן ֓ ֬ӓ ֬ Ӿӓ ׾־֮ ֻ .

֮Ӥ:- (.. ӓ־ ֟) ־ֲ ߻ ׿ֻֻ֮. 40 (64) ֬ ׻ƻ , ӓ ƻ Ӿ '֮Ӥ' . 㬤ߓ ߾Ο Ӯ 'ו֮Ӧά' ֟.. Ӯ ӓ ָӓ , ־ֹ ӓ Ӿ '敵֤֯' . ֟: '' Ӿ . ֵ֓ ו֮Ӯ פӟ ֤߸֕Ӯ Ԯ֣֓׸ӟ ֯ Ӿ֮ ӓ ôָ . ׾ ֮ӕֵӮ ֵֻ֯ ִִֻӟ 敵֤֯ӓ '׿ִ ֵ֡' ֯ Ӳ׬ֻ . ӓ ' ' ӓ ƻ . ӓ Ӗ ֯ . 'ݬֲ' . ֤Ӯ ֚ ӟ ԓ .. ׿־ֵ ӓ '־ԣ׬' , 'ִ׬֟ӡ' , '™' 'ֳ׌' () ָ ֲֻ ӣ . Ӯ ֻ֯ ־ָ . ־ӿߵ ֕ ׾Ԯߟ ӓ ׿µ . ӓ ֻ .. 482 512 ֵ՟ ֻ֮ ֟. ֡׸:- (.. ־ ֟) Ӯ ֡þִ ֟֟. Ӯ ӓ ֤֓ ӛ ޵֚ סֻԮ Ӿ֓ á֓ ׻ƻ ֲֻ ֟֓ ֻ֮ ֮֟ ֻ֯ ֟ӟ ֡þִߓ ֟֓ ֻ֮ Ӯ ׸ ־ԯ֓ ֮ ׻ƻ . ӓ ֻ߻ ן֯֬ .

 

֣֮֮֯֟ ֡ ֡ ֵ l

֣֮֮֮֯֟ ֡ ֡ ll

 

פ֕ ӟ־ߵծ ׻ƻ , ӓ ס֓ ӛ ޵֚ ֩־֟ Ӯ . ߴӬָ þִߓ ִָֿӟ ։ ӓ ָ֬ӓ ֤֮ ֵָ ָ֡Ӯ פ . ־ֲ ߻ ׿ֻֻ 54 ֬ .

:- (.. 620 680) Ӯ ֵ ֻ þֹ פ. ӛ כ Ӭָ á֣ ™ ׾ָ֓ . ֵ Ӯ פ, ־ָ 㜓 ӣָӮ ֻ֯ ָ֤ ֻ. Ӳָָ ӓ ӑ ֻ. þִ ִӟֳ֦ӓ ݵ ָ׬ָ ִֻ֕ ֟֟. Ӯ ӓ ִ֯ߴָ '™֟' Ӿ֓ µ ׻ƻ. ӓ ߾֮ ׸ֵ ӓ Ɵ 'ֵ㤓Ӧ' ß־֮ӟ . ӓ ӳ߸ . ӓ '™֟', δ, 'ֵ׾׮ֵֿ', '֬ߵáֵ' '֣֟Ը֕־ן' ӣ ׿֟ ֻ . ׬׾׮ֵֿ ׿֟ ֻ .

׾֪֮פ :- (.. 9 ֟) ׾֪֮פ ֟׻֮ ןִ֣ ׾־֮ . Ӯ ӓ ™֟߾ָ ™á Ӿ֓ ֮ ӣ ׻ƻ. ִ֕ ޵֓ ֻ ֻ ׾־֮Ӯ ™áߓ ־ . ־ Ԯ-áӟ ֻ ָ֟ . Ӯ '™á' , ָ֯֯, 'δָ֯' , ָ֡֯, ֣֟Կן' '㌟֮֙' ӣ ӟ ׻ƻ .

֌֮פ :- (.. 9 ֟) Ӯ ӓ ӣ֓ ֵ֮ 'ִָ' Ӿ֓ ֲ֬ ӣ ׻ƻ. ӟ δ δֳ֓ ֯ ï™ ָ Ԯ .

֮־ߵ :- (. . 790 825 ) ֬ӟ ӣ '֙ӛִ' ֵ֯' ӓ ִԖ . ƻ ӣ־ָ Ӯ 62000 δ ״֟ ־ֻ Ӿ֓ ׻ƻ ֵ֯־ָ 20,000 δ ׻ þԾ ֻ. ֬ӟ־ָ߻ Ʈ֓֓Ԯ ׸ . ־ֻ֓ ß־֮ӟ ӓ ׬֯ן. ξ֟ ξ֤߹ ƢӮ ָ ֻ֓ ֻ֟ .

ו֮ :- ( . . 800 880) ָӓ ׿µ . ֻ֯ þԾ ֻ֮ӟָ Ӯ ֻ֯ ӓ 'ֵ֬־ֻ . Ӯ þ֟: '׾־' ׻ƻ . ־ֹ פ Ӯ ֵֻ֟ӟ֓ ֻ. ׾ , Ӯ ֻ֯ ֹ޵־ã֓ ׻֤֓ ֻ֤ ӟֳԟ Գ㤵 Ӿ֓ 㤸 ־ ֻ . ֤ӟ ו֟ ӟ߻ Ο֓ ֙ ָ ָ ָӯ Ӿ ֻ֯ ӟ ִ׾™ Ӯ ֻ֯ ־ָ֮ . ֯ ӓ ӣ . ӟ ™ ֻ ӓ ׸ ׻޵ ֮ ָӳ . ָӟ ֬ þԾ ֻ־ָ ӓ ׿µ ֳֵ֦֓ Ӯ ӣ . ֕ ־ ӓ ׿µ ֕ Ӯ ֮ .

γ֓Ӧ (.. 11 ֟)- ֿ׮ ׾־֮ ֟. ־ Ԯӟ߻ ־ ֻ ׻ ӣ֓ Ӯ , ™ Ӯ ׻ƻ껵 'ֵ㤓Ӧ' 'δִֻ֟՛' Ӿ֓ ֿ׮ ӣ֓ ֻ־ֹ ï™ . ӟ߻ ƻ ӣ֟ ֵ֓ ֌֮Ӥߓ ִָ ӣ־ָ µ . ־ֲ ߻ ׿ֻֻ . 40 (64) ֬ Ӯ ֵ֮ ־ָ ׾ß ӣ ׻ƻ . ֓ ֲֻ . ӓ Ӿ ֮֩Ӥ ׮ .

פ֕:- ( . .11 ֟) פ֕ ߓ ׾ . Ӯ ֙˟ִ޴, õ־֤-׾֪֯ן ֻ֤־֤ ֬ Ꟶ. ָ ֻ㌵ӟ߻ ׿ֻֻ . 39 ֬ ׻ƻ , ֳӟ , ן֤֯ӟ ִן, ޵֟ ïן ֵֿáӟ ֤֯ . Ӯ ӓ ֵ׾׮ֵֿ־ָ 20,000 δ ӻ µ ׾־֯ . 947 (.. 1025) ֬ Ӯ Ԯ֣ ׸ ׻ƻ . ӟ ָ . ָ ָ ӣ ß Ӯ ׻ƻ . ӓ ӓ Ӿ 'ןָ' .

֬ ֵ֓ԓ ׸ֵ ֻ . ֟ Ӳָ ֵ֓ԓ ׸ֵ פ ֟ . ӯ ӯΤֵӟ ֮֟ ֻ껵 þִ ֬ ӓ ׸ֵ ָ ֻ .

׮ֵ׌ָ ֦:- ֦ Ӿ֓ ֵ֓ ֻ . ָ ֦ ׾δ֓ 6 ֟ӟ ֻ. ֟߮ ֬ ן ָ״Ƹ ӓ Ӭ . Ӯ ִ־ָ ׮ֵԌӓ ֮ ָ ӣ ׻ƻ.

ֻ־֤:- ן . ֵ֓ ֓ӦӮ ֻ֯ ӟ ׻ƻ ־ ֻ־֤߮ӟָ ֻ ; Ӯ ׻ƻ ֵ֓ ן Ɵ֯ ֓ Ӿ ָ֤ ֵ֓' . ӣ ֲֻ . ָӟ ִִӮ ־ָ ״. ֵ֓ ӓ  . ־ֹ ׾δ֓ 8 ֟֓ ꤸ ֻ ־.

וֳ֦֮:- ( . . 6 7 ֟) וֳ֦֮ ִִ ӟ ִ֣ ִִֻ ׾־֮ . '׾ֿ־ֿ' Ӿ֓ ӓ Ɵ֯ µ ӣ . ־ֹ֓ 'µָ' Ӿ֮ ӓ ׬ ֻ.

ӣ֟ Ӯ ֬ӓ ׾ָ֓ӓ ӛ ӻ . '׾ֿ־֟' . ָ ӣ Ӯ ׻ƻ . ™ ܵ֟ ֻ֓ ֵ֓ ֓ӦӮ ׻ƻ .

׸֦:- (.. 700-750) ֟Ӳָ ӯΤֵӟ߻ ӟִ֮ ׾־֮ . Ӯ ӟ ӣ ׻ƻ . ӯ ֮־֤ ξ, ֵ֮֕֯֟,׻֟׾ßָ, ֛ˤԮִ㓓ֵ ִָև ן ֬ . ֻ֯ ӣ֟ Ӯ ֻ֟߮ ӓ ָ ֻ֮ .

ֵ֤:- ( . . 11 ֟) Ϊ㴮ӓ ׿µ. Ӯ ֬ӓ ֮ן֟Ծָ ӟ ׾־֯ ׻ƻ ֿ׮ ӣ֓ ָӿ ֓ ָ . פӲָ ָӯָӟ , ׾֪֮פ γ֓Ӧ Ӯ ã֮ , ӓ ֲӸ ָӯָӟ ֻ־֤, ׸֦ ֵ֤ ׸ ӓ ã֮ . ׾־֮, ֿ׮ ֟߻ ִ֮߯ ֮ ָ .

֓Ӧ:- (13 ֟) ׾־֮ ӛߟ ֵ֓ ֓Ӧ֓ ã֮ ן . Ը ָ ֬֕ ֵ ӓ ֻ ֌ . ӓ Ӿ־ָ Ӯ ֻ֯ '֬־' ׻ƻ ֓ ֵ ' ' . ן֯֬ . ֵ֓ԓ ֮ Ӿ֟ 1145 ֬ ֻ. 9 ԓ ֟Ӯ֓ Ӯ ֻ Ӿ֟ 1162 ֬ Ӯ ֵ֓ԯ֤ ״ֻ. Ӿ֟ 1229 ֬ ӓ þԾ ֻ. ֵ, , ־, . ־ ׾ֵӾָ Ӯ ӣ ׻ƻ . ֵ֓ ָ׬ָ ֕ ָֻ ӓ ׿µ .

ֿ׾ֵ֕ :- ( . . 18 ֟)- ֵ֓ ֓ӦӮӟָ Ӳָ ָӯָӟ ֿ׾ֵָ֕ ָ ־Կáָ֯֟ ׾־֮ ֻ . Ӯ ֿߟ ֵ֮ ־ֵ֮֓ ֟ ׾־֮ ־Ɵ, ָ ߟ ӣ֓ Ӯ ֮ . ӓ ֟γ, ֮ײӤ, ֵָõ, ֵ֯Τ߯ . ӣ ֵ֮ ޵ָ . ӓ ׾ָָ֓ ן ׾־֢֯ ִ֟ .

 

 

5 .

֓߮ ֟֟.

(֓߮ ן ִ)

 

-֮֟δ ׯ ֻ֓ ֳߓ ã֮ Գ߮ ֻ ־ . ֳ֤Ӯ ֮֟ꓵ ֚ ӓ ָ֢ ֻ áֵӓ ™ ֻ֟. Ɵ֓ 13 ־՟ ֓ ׾ßָ Ԯ . ָӟ ֟ ™ ֻ . ־ֹ פ , 㸾֟ ָ ׾ß . ӟ ߾ן־֯ ߾֮ꬤֵָ֯՟֓ ־ ε֟ ִ׾™ . ƙӓ ,

 

Ƣָ , ִ ָָ l

߾ ן, ߾-ָ ll

 

ִ֬ԓ ܵ ߾֮׾ . ߾֮׾֚ 껵 ַ ε֟ӓ ׾֓ Ӿ֓ ִ֬ ָ ֻ֮, ָ ד֟ ָ . '֟ ׿Ӿ Ӥ' ֕ ֟ , ָ , Ӥ . ߻ ׸ ָָ ֛. ָ ִ֬Կ Ӳ֬ ד֡, ן ã֯֟ ־ Բָָ ָ ֟֓ Ԯ ֛׾֟֟, ӓ ׸ֵ ֮ ӟ.

 

ד֡

 

ָ ֕ӟ߻ ֯߯ 12 Ӿָ 'ִָ ֛ . 'ߴָ' ӱ . ӱꓵ ߾ָ ӟ Ӥ ד֡ 긻 . ן ™߮ ֓߮ ִ֬Կ Ӳ׬֟ . ָӟ Ӹ֓ ־ ӓ ãן ָ ֲָ ֻ . ֕ӟ ֮֕֬ 9 ־ָ ӱ-פ . ֮֟־ֻ Ӿ֮ ֬ . ӓ '֬־' . ֓ ֬ӓ ׮־ . ֓ ׳֟Ӿָ 'ԯֻ־ ֕ӓ ߓ ד֡ . ִ ן Ɵ֓ ֮ ֬ ָ ֕ ƻ Ӧ ִ (֮ 600-625) Ӯ ֮׾ֻ . ןӤ ־՟ ֓߮ ד֡ . Ӵ֬ ߓ , וӚ ߻ ־™ ד֡Ӳָָ ֮֟־ֻ ߻ ד֡ӓ ֮ ֵ֓ Ի. ָӟ ד֡ӓ ָߵ ד֡ꓵ ןӟ Ɵ֓ ã֮ . ӓ ֿ֮ וӚ֓ ׳ӟ߾ָ߻ דֿ֡ ָֿ ״ߕ . ֬ ׳ӟ Ӿָ߻ ָ֓ ד֡ӓ ֻ ã֟ӟ ׿ֻ ƻ . ד֡ӓ ׾ֿ֟ , ߤ ꛶ ָӟ ãָ Ӯ ӟ Ӥ ֟ ֜ , ו־ӟ ֙֟. ִָֿ֓ Ӥ ֮ דָ֟ ־ ӱ ֻӮ ׳֟ ֻ . Ӳ־ָ ֟ߓ ד֡ . ָߴ֬ ־ָ ֳ֬ ֜ ޵ӟ ֿ ֻߛ ߟ ֻ ׾ֻ . ־ ֕ ߮ ֮µߓ ד֡ Ӥ . ӱ ֮֩־ָ ִ֮ӟ ֻ껵 ֌ ӓߓ ӓ ߣӓ . ß׾ ֻ־ֻ߮ ד֡ ָߵ ׾־֮ӓ ֓ ׾ֵ ӟ.

֮ӟָ ִ֬Կ Ӳ׬֟ ד֡ Ƹ 10-11 ֟֯ 25 ֵ֟֯՟ ״֟. ׾־֮ӓ ֟ , ֻ֬߮ (߮) ד֡ ֿ ӯ֛֟. ֳӛִָ. ָ ӟ ָ֬֟: 1000 ԯֵ՟ ִ֬ԓ γ־ ָ־ԟ ꚶ ӟ ָ֓ ָ . ָ ™ , ꚶ δӟ Ӯ ״ ӣ ֛֡߾ָ ׻ƻ דס֟ . . 1157 ֬ דס֟ ׮ֿߣ֓ԓ Ο ֕ ֲֻ . ֟ ן֯֓߮ Ο . 15 ֟֓ ꤸ ֟ ד֡ ־ֵ ״֟ ӣӟ֓ ӯ֛֟.

ֵ֟֯՟ ֓߮ Ɵ ֲֻ . ֓ ֛֡־ָ ׻ƻ ֜. ָߵ ד֡ ׾ ֛֡־ָ ָ֓ ֻ . ו֮׾ֵ֕֕ ׻Ɵ֟ 'ד֡ ן ֵ֮֓ ™߮ ֛֡֓ ד֡ ß ӟ ־֮ ß . '

֦ ־ƮԴә חֱִֵ֟ 'Tirupatti Kunram. ' Ӿ֓ . . . ִ֓Ӧ Ӯ ׻ƻ ־ָ֮ ӣ ׿֟ ֻ . ӟ߻ ד֡Ӿֹ ָӟ߻ ד֡ꓵ ֬ߓ þֹ ֻ ӟ . ֯ ׬ ד֡ . ֳ֤ ־߸ӓ ߾֮ ֙Ӿָ ֿ ֟. ־ֹ ־ , 韵, . ֻ Ɵ ״.

֛֡ ֟ ־֟ ӟ ֵ ֟ . ־ָ ד֡ Ӥ ִ ־ֵ ״֟. ד֡ꓵ ֲ֟ӟ ד֡ ֮־ָ ׾־֮ . , , Ɵ ׻Ɵ֟ , 'ד֡ӟ ָ ׮ִԻ֟, ñן ן־ . ד֡ӓ ָӯָ וӚ, , ֑ ֮֟־ֻ֓ ׳ӟ-ד֡ӓ . ִֻ߮ ߓ ֵ֮֮ ד֡֯ ֮־׬ . ׾ֿ֟: ִ֮֯ ֵӟ ַ ׮ָ׮ָ ß . ֲ ֻ ߟ߮ ӟ ֟. ' (ָߵ ד֡ . 33.)

 

ן

 

ִ֬ ׮־ע֯ά֮ ִ . 㸾֟߯ ֵ֕֯՟ ӓ ן-֮ӟ ָ֬֟: ָӓ Ԯ .. . 㸾֟ ֮ ֕ ֯ןִ ֲֻ , ӟ ֮ӟָ Ԯ ֮׾ֻ껵 ԟ ™߮ ָ ӓ ӟָ . ןִ ־ ־ 2000 ԯֵ՟ ֓ þֹӟ ִֵ ƻ . ֮֩ Ӿ ֛֮ã ԟ ָ֓ ׮֑ 껵֮ӟָ ӟ ׾ֿ– ֜ . ֟ߣӓ ׾ָ, ӟ ֮ ֟֟. ִ֬ ֮µ֓ ֮ӟ߻ ׾ָӮ וֲ֟ ָ ֟ . ԓ ֵ֓Ծֹ֓ ו֮֯ןִ ֲ֛ ֻ ։ . ֛֮־ָ߻ ԓ ӛ־ָ ֮֟ ֟ 㛑ֵ֯՟ ֻ ֟֟. ִ֮ݮ ָ פ֟. ֻ껵 ןִ ִ֮ӟ ֮֩־ָ׾ִָ֮֕ ֟֟. ӟ ӛ߾ָָ ֻ ֟֟. ߣӓ ןִӓ þֹӟ ֻ֓ ׌ֳ ִֻ ӓ ֮־ָ ׮ָ׮ָ˸ ד֡ ֜ ֟֟. ־ֹ ֟ ߣӓ ןִ ֻ ։ . פӲָ Ӳָ Դ֬߻ ӓ ָӓ ֓ ßӟ ӑֳ ӟ .

ֻ֬߮ ִןԾָ Σδ ־ָ (ӓ ׾׿™ ָ) ꌵ־ָ ֟߾ָ ߾֟ ד֮ ֜ ։ ֻ. ָӟ ӓ ֮ þֹӟ ֛ .

׻ ־՟ ֓߮ ִן ֙޵֓ Ʈ߯ ך ״ֻ . ׮׿֟ ֻ߮ , ֙ חִִֵ֬ ֻ . ֓ ׻ֿ ִָ ꓵ ִֵ . , ֣, ֮, ε . ך֓ חִִֵ֬ ִ ־ֵ ״֟. ֯ 㯟ֻ߮ . . ֵ֬ ׻Ɵ֟. ֣ӟ 24 ߣ ֬Դ֮ ־߸ ӓ ן ״ֻ , ָ㯟֓ ֵָ ֻ , ß׾ ֣ӟ ןꓵ ™߮ ִ ֻ . . ֵ֤ ֻ֯ 'ָߵִן' ӣ֟ ׻Ɵ֟ ֣ӓ ֻ߮ ܵ֟: ӯΤֵ֓ .

ӛָ ָ . . 188 30 ֵԟ֓ ֻ߮ ן ׿ֻӟ߻ ˳ ֟ ֟. 긻껵 ־־ 100 ӱ ӟ ן׿ֻ . ָ֓ ִֻ ִ ã֮ ꤻ껵 ִן ֲֻ ֻ껵 . ӓ . . . 300-200 ֯ ֻ֟ ֟. ן þֹ כ֮ Ӵ֬ ן 㤸 ֻ֮ ֟֟. ־ֲ ߻ ֬ ִן ָӟ߻ ˳ ß ֻ ֟. ֻ֯ ִ Ԯ ˳ ӟ߮ Ο ֌ߓ ֮ ֻ֯ ™ . ִן ִ .

 

ã֯֟

ԣӓ ֬ ןִӓ ׮־ã֮ ׳֟ ޵ӟ ֟ Ӯ ֻ . ָ־ԓ ָ ַ֮ӟ ִפӓ ׾ߵ ָ ֕ . ֕֓ ֮ וֻӟ ߻ ִפ ֻ֬߮ ־־֓ ֟. ָ֣֓ פӟ߻ ã֯֟ Ӹ , ָ ֟֓ ־ ֙.

׾Ӭ ӟ֟߻ ָ ֕ӟ '֕' ã 9 11 ֵ֟֯՟ ןӤ ֵֻ ֻ֮ӻ ֓ כ כ ֯ןִ ־ֵ ״֟. Ӥӛ֟ ֻ껵 ִՓ ֻ ֲ֤ ߻ ׮ֻ֯ ֵֻӟ ־ֵ ״. Ӥӛ -֟֟֓ 긑ָ . ֮ ׿ָֻӮ ֣ꓔ ׮ִ 껵. ӓ ֮ ֕ ֛ ߻ ֡ ֓ . ߓ ßӳ . ֓ ӓ 80 ֻ֯ ׿ֵָ֯՟ ־ָ Ӥ ֜ ֕־֙ . ־ָ ׻ƻ껵 ־ֹ ӓ 896 . . . ßӳ ߣ פֿ֣ Ӳ׬֟ ֆ. ־ָ ӓ ן 긻껵 . ݾֻ긓 ֛־ָ ֓߮ ֮ߵ ִ . ֛֓ ֓߮ ֮ߵ ִ . ֛֓ ָ ֕ . ӓ ֟֕ ߮ , '׾ֿ֟: ã֯֟ꓵ ӟ Ӯ ԟ ֯ , ד֟֓ ӓ ָָ ! '

ã֯֟ ־՟ ֓߮ ֿ ׸֓ ߻ ָ ӛָ ־ԟӟ߻ ֛ ָָ ־ԟӟ߻ ӱ ״֟. ָ ӛָߓ ӱӲֲ֟ ״. ݵ֮ӓ , ӓ ׾ד֡֟ ֓߮֟ ך ַ֜ ԓ ָ ָ ִ ӓ ׾ֿ Ɵ . ָߓ ֣ӱ ָӓ ׿ִֻֻ ן֯֬ ֻ . ã֯֟ꓵ ™߮ ӱ ӱ ֮ߵ . ִ֬ ã֯֟֬ . Ԯ֣ӓ ߾֮ ӟ ןֻ֮ 긻 . ꓵ ™߮ ֣ ֵ֯֙, ꛮß ֮ߵ . ֯֟ӓ ߻ Ƹ . ã֮ ֓ ã֮ ןӤ ִפ . ӟ߻ 10 11 ֟ӟ߻ ֕ ߻ פ֯δ ןӤ . ״. ݵ֮ӓ , '֮֕֯ӟ ƻִ ӓ פ֓ 㸾ã ֻ . ָӟ ָߵ ꓵ Ӯ ( ֮Ӯ) ָ ֵ㌟ ߻.

ӓ ã֯֟ ָ֣֓ ֜׾ֻ . ־Ԯ ֮ , ־ ã֯֟ ו־ӟ ƻ ֟ ָ ûߴ Ӥ ֟ ֻ ֟. ״. ױݵ֮ Ӯ ã֯֟־ָ ӣ ׻ƻ ӟ ׻Ɵ֟, ָ־ ֟֓ ִԵ פ , ָ֣ӟ߻ ֻ껵 ߓ Ƹ . ߻ ִפӟ߻ Ӳ־ָ߻ -ִԖ ֵֿԴݬ ֟. ӟ ִԓ ã֯֟ӓ Ƹ ֕ ֲֻ . ӯ ߻ Ӧֳ ֳ֣֮ δ . ָ֬֟: ӓ ִ ֻ㌵ӓ ִ֤ Ӿ ™ӓ ֵֻ ֻ ־. ָ ִ֤ ֓ ָ ӱ . ֟־ ֟ӟ߻ ִֻ֕ ֟.

ӟ ִפ ן δӟ . ־ֲ () ּþִӓ ֬ ִן . ã֯֟ꓵ ™߮ . ָ ִפ . כ֮ ߓ . ָӟ ӓ ָߵ ξכ֮ ߿ ״ Ӿ ָ ָߵ ֬߿ . ײ֦ ߻ פӟ ִ֓ ׬ ֵ ־ָ߻ ִ ߵ . ָӿ, ָ־ԓ ד֟֓ ֤ , ֓߮ ֿ ӯָ֛ ߟ. ֕ ӓ ß ך Ӥ ִ ֜֟. ִ ֬ דָ֡ ׾ֿ ־ ֻ֯ 'Ӭָ ߮ ָ' ( . 95-96) ָ ֟֟ , 'ָߵ ֮ ֵ֤֟, ָ Ӹ ֻ֓ פ . '

þ. . . ֵþֻ Ӯ ִ֬Ӳ׬֟ ßֲ֟ ߓ ™ ֻ֟ . פ־ָ ָӓ Բֲ֟ ֟֟, ''֟ ο ã֟ ,  Ӯ ָ ״ֻ ? xxx ־ָ Ӯ ֮֮֟ Ӥ (פ) ָӾֹ ֻֻ ־֟, ֗ ָ ! ''

ָߵ ӓ ַ ӯΤ׵ ׾ֳ֮֕ ޵ֲֲ֟ ״. ƻָ ӓ ֟ ֮ߵ . Ӯ ֣ ߻ ֓߮ ߻ δ ֻ֯ ֟ ׮׿֟ . '֣ ߻ ӿ֮־ֹ ֻ ֛ ״ֻ , ָߵ ӯ֯Τ׵ . , ִԮ ֻ֯֯ ֓ ӓ ֵ . ꓵ ӟ Ӯ Ο ן ֓ ξӟ ֻ . ־ ״ ֟ ֟ӓ ֮ ,  ֮֮֟ Ӥ ־ծ֓ ָܵ ߟ߮ ! ֟֓ߓ ™ ״. ׾֮ә ô֣ Ӯ ֻ֯ 'פ ß ћ љ׌ߕ ѱ ' ӟ .

֯δ ֓߮ פ , ׿ֻֻ, ӱ ִί֡ . ֮ ֕ -֓߮ ß֟: פ ֟. ֯ ָ ־ ֓ ξӟ ™ ֻ ™ . ״. ݵ֮ ӓ 'ָ Ӳ֓ ֙ӓ ӟ ָߓ ֻ ֻ פ֟. ָ ֙ ߻ ִ֬ӟ ֜ ֵ: ־֣ ֟ӟ߻ . ָ ֑ ߻ ֮ ӱ ֜. 6 7 ֿ֟ӟ߻ . ָ ֙ ӿ֮ 껵 ӯ֛߻. ָӟ ָ ֙ӓ ֟ Ӥ Ӳ ִֻ֮Ӯ ֻ֯ ִӟ ֵӟ ֻ. ״. ݵ֮ ֻ֯ Histroy of Indian and Eastern Architecture. P.209. ָ ׻Ɵ֟ , ִ, פ, , ָ ƴֲָ֤ ߻ ׾ֻֿ ׿֤ פӓ֓ : ֵָ 껵 . ָ֣ ߻ ֬ ֣֮ פ ߟ ? . . 1025 ֬ ƴ֤ ֮֗߮ ꛻ פ֓ ָָ ־ԟ־ָ ֻ껵 . ֣߮ӓ ִפֿ ״ . ״. ݵ֮֓ , ' ִֻ֮Ӯ פ־ָ δ 'ָ פ' Ӿ֮ ֻ ֟ . ָ ֕ ׿־. ָ פ ׿־֓ ָ ׿־׻ ֿ ןš ־ֵ ƕ . ָӟ ûִ ן ֓ , , ֟, ֵ . ã֟ӟ ן ׿־׻ ׾ Ӿ ޵ ָ ߣӓ ־, ־ ָ֣ӟ ־ ִԓ Ӿ ׮ֿ ־Ɵ. ִֻ֮֮7ӟָ פ֓ Ծָ ֕ ߴ֤, ֬֕ ָֻӮ ׾ֻ. ־ . ־ֹ ݵ֮ Ӯ ׮ ֜ , ֣֮֓ פ ִפ .

δ '֟֟ ֲ֓ ן ֯ . ן ֵָ ޵ӟ Ӭ֮ӓ ־ֿ ֟, ־ '֟֟' ִ֬ ׳ԟ . ֓߮ פ, 'ן ӱ ßӳ ֯δ ֓߮ ׿ֻֻ á ӓ ִ־ ֟֟ӟ .

־ֲ () ׿ֻֻ 긻 . ֟֟ ׾ֳ֓ ֻ֟߮ ׬ָ և Ӯ ־ֲ֓ 144 ׿ֻֻӓ ׿֟ . ӓ ß־֮ӟ Ӯ ӓ ן Ɵ ׾־֮ӓ ֻ . Ӧ㯟 ֦ ӓ ָï׸ (֯֟߻) ӲӬ֓ ׾־֮ , Ӯ ׮ ֜ , ִ֙ Ӧ㯟ִծ ֦ ו֤֮ ֻ . ֯δ ׿ֻֻ . 1 ֬ ӓ ָ . ֓ ָ ־ע ־ֲ֤ ָ . ֵָ֓ Ӯ ׿֟ . ӟ Ӯ 500 ׿ֻֻ Ɵ ß־֮ӟ ӓ ן Ɵ֟ ׾־֮ . ָӟ ֛֮ ֮ ׻֯ӟ ִֻ ӓ ־ע ָ֮ ׻֯ӟ . Ƹֻֻ֕ . ׾ִֵ֕ן ӓ . ִ֣ Ӯ ӯפ ׿֟ . ֓֯δ , ֛ . ך ׿ֻֻ, ִί֡, ӣ֯οß, ¯, ּ־ֻ, Ծֻ, ֕־ӿ־ֻ ӣ . ֮ ׾֯ ן ִ ֲֻ פ .

þ . . . . ֵþֻ Ӯ ֻ֯ ӟ ׻ƻ , 'ִ֬߻ 2500 ԓ Ӿ֟ ֮ ƿ ־ Ӥ֡ӟ ־՟ ֻ (֓߮) . ־ֹ ִ֕֟ , ֓߮ ן ׸֙ߓ ֮ ִ֓ ӟ ֻ . ָ ך 㯟 ™ ֻ, ӟ֓ ƻ ӓ ֮ꓵ ָ֬־ָ ן 㬤 ־߸ӓ ֯ ֵ֛ ־ ֙ӓ ֻ ִ ׮׿֟ . ӓ ֻ ߟ߮ ־ ֙ӿ ִ ֻ. ן ֙ӓ Ɵ ӓ ן ּ־ֻӟ ״. ( Ɵ ӿ֮ ӛ 1-. 211).

 

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