2) פ 15 ֓, 1925 : ߛ ֓ ֬߮ӟָ פ 15 ֓, 1925 ִß׳ ֓ ֟־ָ֟ ӯ֮ ֻ. ӓ ӯ ֵ֮ ޵֚ ־ֲ ֚֓ ָּ þß ֹߟ þִ ӓ ֻ֟ Σִ֓

״֙ ã֮֯ ޵֟ ֻ. ״֙ߓ ֛֛ߓ ֻ ֵԾ . . . ֬Դֵ֮, Ӯ ִß׳֓ Γָ ޵֚ ֳָָ ξ ־ Ӯ ֟ Ƴ ־, Ο ־Ʈ . ߟ߮ Σִ֓ ִ֮ Ӵ֬ ִß׳ӓ ׾ֿ ׮ִ ֻ; ִ ־ֻ 30,000 ӓ ã֟ ֳֻ. ָӯָ֟ Σָ 渓 ָ֕ . ָ֕Ӧ כָ ӓ ß ֻ ׳ִֵ ӯ ã֟ .

 

־֟߻ ִו ™ ӟ ֮ߵ ֙ ֕ פ 14 ֓, 1925 Ӥ渓 ָ ֺ֓Ӥ ֓Ӥ ӓ ֻ֟ ָ ֻ ָߵ פӲָ ׸֤ ׬־֮ . ׾ֻֿ ׬־֮֟ ֱִ֕֟ 渓 ָ֕ . ָ֕ꮦ כָ Ӯ . . . ֬Դֵ֮ ӓ ß ֮֯֡ ޵֟ ֻ. ָֻ֤ 껵 ֟ 渓 ָ֕Ӯ ԙ֓ ֟߯ ִ鬤 ַ ӣָӓ ֬ӓ ןֵֿ ֯ ׳ִ֮֮ ӓֲ֧ ֕֓ ֟߮ ֖֟ ֌ . ָ֕Ӯ ־ֲ , ִ ִ֕ ӓ׾ֵߓ ֻ֯ ׮֟ӟ ֤־ . ߟ߮ ӓ ן ֟߻ ֵծ ָ ִ֮֕֟ ״ֻ֮ þֺ֓ ֵ ָ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ ֻ ޵֓ γ־ ִß׳ִ ־ Ӯ ֯ ֻ.

 

3) פ 26 ָ, 1940 : Ӭָ Փ ֻ־֬߮ӟָ פ 26 ָ, 1940 ִß׳ ־ 2 ӓ ã֟ߟ γ־ ߟ߮ ָ֕ ֻ. ־֓ ֵ֮֓ ֵԾߓ ־ ֲֲָ֤ Σִ֓ ָָ ָև ֮֟ þָ ֵ֕֟֟ Σ ֻ . ԟ ֲֲָ֤ ָָ ־ֲ ֚֓ ָּ þן ֹߟ ָ֕, Ӳևԓ ָ־յ פӲָ ߣ ״֙ ָ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ߻ δ ã ӓ ֵԮ ָ ֛. ִ֕֓ ε ֵԓ Σ֤߻ ԙ ָָ ָև ֮֟ ֕־ָ ֻ ֻ .

 

ãׯ֟ ָӯָָ 渓 ָ֕ . ָ֕Ӧ כָ Ӯ ָ֙ Ի Σִ ׳ ִß׳ֻ ֟ . ӓִ־ ֕֯ . ִֵָ֓֕Ӧ כָ ã֟ . ָ׾޵֟ ֻ껵 ֻ ָߵ פӲָ ֳ ׬־֮֓ ˑ֙ פ. 26 ָ, 1940 渓 ָ֕ . ָ֕Ӧ כָ ӓ֓ ß ֻ.

 

־֓ ֮ߵ ׾ֿ ֕ ִß׳֓ 1008 ֻ ֿӓ 51 ֿ, 300 ֟ ֿ, 300 ִԮ ֻƸ ֿ 358 ׯ֟ ֿ ׾ֳ ӓ ׻ֻ־ ׾֍ ϣִ֓ ֟ ֻ . ӟ ֮֓ ƻ ֿ ֙֓ . ־֓Ӧ ָӤ ֮ 8,001 ֵӮ ֻ ־ ֿӓ ׾ߓ 75,000 ֵ ֲֻ ֻ. ־ֲ ֓ Ӹ Ӿ֬Ԯ ޵֚ ׾׮ֵ ־ֵ֓ ׾޵֟ ֻ. ߟ߮ ֓ ׳־鬤ߓ ־߮ ֮ ִß׳ ־֯ ֻ.

 

4) פ 5 ֓, 1953 : Փ ֻ־֬߮ӟָ ãׯ֟ Σ ־ã ӓ ֻӲ פ 5 ֓, 1953 ִß׳ ־ 3 ׾ӓ ã֟ߟ ӟ γ־߯ ָ֕ ֻ. ִß׳֓ 1008 ֻ ֿӓ 900 ֟ ֿ 108 ֿ ֓ ָӟ ׾ֳ ޵֟ ֻ ֟ ֿ Ο 101 ֵ ׮֬׸ ֮ ޵֟ ֻ ֿ ֡ ߸ ׻ֻ־ ޵֟ ֻ. 4 ֟ ¯־™ ֲ Σִ֓ ִ׾™ ޵֟ ֻ ߸ ׻ֻ־֮ ޵֟ ֻ. ӟ ֮֓ ƻ ֿ ײ֮ (֕ã֮) ־߻ ֻ ־֓ . ־ִֻ֮ ֮֓Ӥ Ӯ 18,001 ֵӮ ֻ. ־ ָ ֿӓ ֲӓ ֮ ָ֬֯ 1,00,000 ֵ ״߻, ֮֟ Ο֟ ֡ 1,59,799 ֵ ״ֻ ־ ֓ ֕ ֟ 62,189 ֵ 4 3 ׿ֻ ƻ.

 

ָӯָ֟ ָ֬߮ 渓 ָ֕ . ִֵָ֓֕Ӧ כָ Ӯ Σִ ׳ ִß׳֓ ֟ . ָ ָָ 㸾֚ ӡ ִָ֤ ו֤֟֯ ã֟ . ֻ ָߵ פӲָ ֳ, ֋֮, ֦, ƻ ׸֤, Ӳև ߸ פ, פ ãӓ ׬־֮ ָ׾޵֟ ֻ. ׾ֿ ֕ ׾ ״ֿ֮ ӓֻ . ִ֤֟֯ ӓ ָ֮ פ 5 ֓, 1953 ׾ ״ֿ֮ ָ ׬־֮ פ 6 ֓, 1953 ָ ָ ׬־֮ ָߵ ָ ׾֮֫ӓ ã֟ߟ ӯ֮ ֻ. ו ־ ׬־֮Ӵ Ӵ֬߻ ־֮ ִו ֵԓ ־ֻ.

 

5) פ 30 ֓, 1967 : Փ ֻ־֬߮ӟָ פ 30 ֓, 1967 ִß׳ ־ ָ 5 ׾ӓ ã֟ߟ ӟ ִ֙֙֟ ָ֕ ֻ. ׾ֿ ֕ ָ ֵ֓Ը 108 ֳ ׮ִָ֕ ӓ 韾ֻ ׾ֻֿ ֬ӑ ã֟ ӓ ԤԮֻ ־ ׾֬ ӯ֮ ֻ. ƴ߯δ ִß׳֓ 1008 ֟ ֿ ׾Ӯ ߸ ׻ֻ־֮ ޵֟ ֻ. ӯ ƻ ֮֓ ֿ ֢֯ ( ) ־֓ . . . ו֮֓Ӧ Ӯ 47,500 ֵӮ ֻ . ִß׳֓ ֕֓ ִܵӡ ִָ֤ . ׮֕׻֯, ָ ӡ, š ׬ָ ֵ ã֟ .

 

־֓ ֿ ¯־™ ֯ ӟ ߵ ֙ ֛. ֚ ֺ֯ ָߵ ƾև ֓ ׻򯙸 ֵ ޵֟ ֻ. ִß׳֓ ׾֬ ֻ ֮֟ 10 ֕֟ ׻򯙸 ֻ ־֮ ֙֓ ִԓ ָ ֕ ָ 20 ӟָ־ָ ãָ Ծָ ׾׾֬ ߲ ¯ӓ ™ . ӟָ ׻򯙸 ִԻ ׌ֳ־֤ ߮ Τ ֻ֟ ׾׿™ ã֟ߟ ִԓ ָ ֕ ãָ ֻ ן֣ ִԾָ ֛ ֮ ׾׾ָ֬ ¯Ӳָָ ָ״֟ Ӳ֛ ׯ־ ־֛ӓ Ծ . ִԾָ ׾ָ֯ ָ ׾׾ָ֬ ֤֣Փ Ο վ ã֟ 5 ׾ӓ ӓ ָ ױ Ӯ ־֮ ֻ ֵ, ָ֙ ־֮ ֵ ñ ֵֵָ֕ ָ֮ . ֿ ¯־™ߓ ׿™ ָ֮֬ ֙ Ӯ ߾ ֮ ִ֮֬ ״ֻ ֻ ־ֻ .

 

־֓ ߤ߻ ִו ״ ãӓ ׬־֮ ָ׾޵֟ ֻ. ӯ ֻ ָߵ פӲָ ֳ 72 ׬־֮ ןֵֿ Ƣ֯ . ׬־֮֓ ˑ֙ ֮ ָ ָָ ֕ ׿ ִ֕ӡ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ . . . ߴ Ӯ ׾ֻֿ ׾֪ꓵ ׾׾֬ ӓ ׮ ֬߮ ޵֓ ׮֟ӟ ־ֿ ֙ פ ֚ ־ ׾֪֯ߚӟ ׾֪ ׾ֳ ޵֓ ߓ ־Ʈ . ־߮ ֵ㌟ ֮ ִ֕־ָ ָ ֻ ׸ִ ֻ ֯ ñ ֻӟָ֮ , ֕ã֮, ֤ ׾֪֯ߚӟ ׾֪ ׾ֳ ֓ ߟָ ã֮֯ ޵֟ ֻ. ו 1967 ־ִ ׾֪ ׬ ֵ֮, ӿ֮ Ӿ֬Ԯ ִו ™ ӟ Ƣ֯ ™߻ ֻ֮ ״ֻ ןֻ ãֵ þֺ ֯ ֻ.

 

Ӥ֓ ׿™

6) פ 22 ָ 1981 : Փ ֻ־֬߮ӟָ ׮־ָ, פ 22 ָ, 1981 ִß׳ ־ ӟ ־ δ֟ ֢ ֟־ָ֟ ָ ֛; ֜ ־ ָ ™Ӯ ֯ ׾ֿ ן Ƣ֓ . ןֵֿ ׾ֻֿ ־֯ ־֓ ֟ ־ָ, פ 9 ָ, 1981

ֻ ׾׾֬ þֺ֓ ־֮־߮ ֵ㌟ δӮ ׾ôָߵ 껵 ִ ן Ƣ ֯ ֻ껵 ִß׳ ־֓ ֟ ִָӳ ־ָ, פ 15 ֓, 1981 ֯ԓ ֟ꓵ ֮Ӥ֟ ӯ֮ ֻ. ß ִןԯןš֮֯ ƕָ ֻ ֻ֮ ִß׳ֲָָ ־֮ ֻ ִ ןš֮֯ ֲ ־ ߻ ™ߵ ßָ־ָ ןֵֿ ׳ִ֮֓ ֓ ֟־ָ֟ ָ֕ ޵֟ ֻ. ו ־Ӵ ־ ֵδӮ ָ֮֬ Ƣ ֯ ֻ.

 

׾ֿ ֕ ן׾ֻֿ ־֓ ֬׮ ֬߮ ӯ ֵ֮ ԤԮ ޵֓ ӟ ֑֛ ֲֲָ֤ߓ ֵ ׾ִֿ֬ԯ ™ӟ . . 108 ֵ֓ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ Ӯ ֻ֯ 韾ִ ןִ ӑ֙ - ִֻ ֱ֟֯ γ־ ߟ߮ ָ ֛, ־֓ ֮ߵ ֲ . ן֓ ָ־ ֟֟ ֓ ׾ֿ ֛. ׮״֢֮ ־ծ ־ֻ. ֬ӟ֓ξ֟ ֵ֓ ״֓Ӯ ӓ 韾ֻ . . 981 ֻ ־֮ ֻ ִԓ ןš֮֯ ׾Ӭָ߾ָ ޵֟ ֻ ֓ ֯֬ ִԓ ײ ־֤߻ ֮֬֓ξ֟ ֬߮ ֵ֓ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ ӓ 韾ֻ . . 1981 ֻ ָ֕ ֻ, ӓ ߑֻ߮ ן֟߻ ״ .

ִß׳ ִָ ־֮ ֻ ִ ןš֮֯ ֲ ִָ ־ӓ ˑ֙ ־ָ פ. 9 ָ, 1981 ָ ָָ ־ ӡ ֓ š ֮֮ߵ . Ù߱ ӓ ß ֻ. ֓ Ӯ ־֮ ֻӓ ִԓ ֻ ןߙ ׿֟ . ӓ ֪ 敵 ԓ ֱ֮֟ ֻ ןߙ ֜޵֓ ӓ Τߑ ן֟߻ ƻ֓ ֻ֮ ־߮֯ ִָӳֻ ׾ֿ ן Ƣ ֯ ֻ .

 

ָӯָ֟ Σδ ִß׳֓ 1008 ֿ ֮֟ ֲֻ ޵֟ ֻ; Σִ֓ 1008 ֿӓ ֻ߻֯δ Ծָ ӓ Ο 滵 ׮׿֟ ޵֟ ֻ.

 


. . ֿӓ ָ ֿӓ ܵ Ο ֿ֓ 滵

1) ֲ֟ ֿ 10 1,00,000 ֵ

2) פ ֿ 4 50,000 ֵ

3) ֿ 4 25,000 ֵ

4) ֿ 200 11,000 ֵ

5) ֟ ֿ 200 5,000 ֵ

6) ִ ֿ 140 2,500 ֵ

7) õ ֿ 200 1,000 ֵ

8) 㻻ֵ֕ ֿ 250 500 ֵ

_________

1008

 

־ ֿ ӓ ֯ ִ ֲ֛ ֻ֯ . ֿӟ߻ ֻ׳ֲָָ ָ֓ , ֓ , , ־֬, פ״֟ ֻ, Ӭ״֟ ֻ ָ״֟ ֻ ӓ֤߻ ִԾָ ׳ ޵֟ ֻ. ¯־™ פ. 22 ָ, 1981 ִß׳ ӯ֮ ֻ.

־֓ ֮ߵ ִָ

ִß׳֓ ׿™ ֮ߵ :

1) ִß׳ ԓ ֟֟ꓵ ™߮ Σִ֓ ӟ ߟ ޵֟ ֻ , ֤ ֤֣Փ ׾ֿ ָ֯ ޵֟ ֻ .

 

2) ִß׳֚ Ӭ޵֟ ֻ ֓ Σִ֓ ӛ֓ ןֵֿ ֲ֕ ֟ ߟ߮ ֕־ֻ .

 

3) ִԓ 㜓, ־ ־ ן֮ ֕Ӯ ӛ ӲӾָ ֛ ׾ß ԓ ֮ Σִ֓ ޵֟ ֻ ; ִ ָ 5000 Ӯ ־ ִß׳ ޵֓ ݵ ֳ .

 

4) 500 ָ ִ- ֬ ֬ ã֟ Ꟶ. Σִ֓ ֜ ִ ִ ָ֟ ך ֟ ֻ֮ ֲִ ִ֮ܵ֟ ֣ ֬ ֻ.

 

5) ִß׳֓ פֿ ָ ߮֓ ָ ֮ ׾ ֵԙ ã֟ Ӥ֕ . ֜ Γӛ ֮Ӵ֤ ֲִ ן֟ Σִ֓ ס֟ ֻ.

 

6) ִß׳֓ ӯ ִָӳ . . Ӿ 渤Ԯ־ָ ׾޵֓ Σִ֓ ޵֟ ֻ . 渤Ԯ ֓ ꕛ ԙ ֬ߓ ֻӲ 껵֮ ־ֲ ֓ ߙԓ ׸ָ֟߻ ܵ Ӯ ִ ֵδ ֻ ֮֟ ï™ Ɵ ֻ. ֚ ӳָ ׬ . . ˓ δ ך ޵֟ ֻ .

 

7) ִß׳ ֓ Ο ־֟ Ԯ ֿ־߾ֺ Σִ֓ ִδ ޵֟ ֻ. ֿ־ߓ ֻ ־ֺ . ӯ ֵָ֕ Ӯ ֛֮ߟ . ߓӤ , פ Ӯ Ӥ߯ ־֯ Ɵ߯Τ ־֟ Ԯ .

 

8) ִß׳ֻ ֮֯, ׸, ݻӛ, ִԮ ֤ ׾׾֬ ӟ߻ ִԓ , ֵԙ ꚶ δ־ָ Σִ֓ ã֟ Ӯ ֵδӓ . . ױ ֚ ӓ ֟ Τ׿ԟ ޵֚ ֻ.

 

9) ִß׳ Σִ֓ ןֵֿ ꚶ δ־ָ ן ֵδӓ ָӯ׸ ֬׮ ֬Ӯ ֵ֮ ޵֟ ֻ . ֚ ן׾ֻֿ ־ Ӯ ㌟ ִӛֵ ӛ ן ֵδ֚ ֦ ӛ ָ޵֟ ֻ . ׾׾֬ ֵδӴ֬ ߸ִ ָߵ , פ ã ֤ . ׻֟ ֯ ֻ ֮ þֺ֓ 韵 - ֙, Ӳևԓ ִ֮ܵ֟ ױߟ - פݤ . Ӧ Ӯ ֤ ׌ ִ þֺ֓ ֌ߟ ֤ ֵδ ׾ֿ ֮ߵ . ӟ γ־ ֵδ ֻ ־Ɵ.

 

10 ) ִß׳ Σִ֓ ֢֟׾ֵ ֿӓ, ߣӓ, ӣӓ ߓ ׾׾֬ ӓ Ɵ ָ ΤԮ ꚶ δ־ָ ֵו֟ ޵֟ ֻ .

 

ָ֓ ִӡӓ ִ֮

 

11 ) ִß׳֓ ִ ֲ ־֓ ׮״֢֮ ֤־, ׌ֳ־ ֌ ޵֚ ָ֓ ӟ֯ά֮ ߴ֟ פ֕ Ӭ Ӯ פ. 21 ָ, 1981 ָ ߮ ֕֟ ׻򯙸֬ ־֮ ֻ ִԾָ ֿ֯¯־™ ֵו֟ 껵 ִָӳ֟ ֟׾Ԭ ӑֻ ׾ֻֿ - ִֵֻ ߸ . ֬ ֬, ָ ָ ԙ ָָ š ӡ, ָ֤, ִָ֤, ߵ ׬ָ ִו ֵ ꚶ ã ã֟ . ָ֓ ִӡӮ ִ֟׳ ã֟ ޵֓ ߸ ꓔ ֌ ޵֓ ן֟߻ ƻ֓ .

 

ִֻ֮ ֿ֓ ֵ֮,

 

12) ־֓ ׮״֢֮ ׾ֿӟ, ™ߵ ֟֟, ן 滵 , ׸, ӵִ, ֤ ֢ ӓ ־ ֮֟ Γָ ޵֚ ӟ ׳֮־ ִֻ֮ ֿ ֮ ξ֟Ԯ ָ֓ ӟ֯ά֮ ߴ֟ פ Ӭ ӓ ß פ 29 ֯Ӳָ, 1980 פߓ ֻ ֮־ָ ޵֟ ֻ. ֬֯Τ ־߸ Ù, Ӥ Ӯ פ, Ӥ渓 ֻ ָ߸ . ƴ֤ ߕ Ӯ ֵָ , ִ ֟, 144 ֮֕֓, 6 ֓ 6 ӓߓ ִֵֻ ֿ ׮֤ ד֡Ӯ ΟӮ ֕׾ֻ껵 ָ ޵֟ ֻ . ָ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ߻ 255 ƸӴ֬ δ ֵ֡ꓵ ֮ γ־֮ ׮ִ ߟ ָ ֵӓ ָֿ֮ ִֻ֮ ֿ פ 20 ָ, 1981 ־ֲ ֻ. ִß׳֓ דָӟ֮ ô ֮֟ ޵֚ ִֻ֮ ֿ ã֮֯ ־ֲ ִֵ þֺ֟ ޵֟ ֻ . ֿ֓ ׾ָ ״ֻ껵 ָֿ֮ߴ֬ ָ֙ ֮ Ù ׮״ԟ ޵֟ ֻ Ùֱԟ ־ֲ ִӟ֟߻ ִ ִ֬߻ Ի ֚֙ ׾׾֬ ֬׮ ָ ֮ ֵ׮֟ ޵֟ ֻ . ִß׳֓ ־׬ ׾ֿ ֲֻ ƙ ƕ.

 

׾֮֫ӓ ֓֡

 

13) ִß׳֓ ׮״֢֮ ִו™ ӟ 港׸ִ ־ֲָ߻ ֻ ָߵ ֓֡ (All India Seminar on shravana - Belagola)

߮ פӓ ֵδ פ 13, 13 14 ָ֮, 1981 . . . ֑֙ ӓ ӓֻֻ ָ׾޵֟ ֻ . ָ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ߻ ׾֪׾ֿ-

֖, ףֵֿ֟ ָ ֬֯, כ ׾ָ֓ӟ Ӯ ֓֡֟ ֮ ֻ . ־ֲ ֟ӓ ן֟ ֌ ꚶ δ־ָ ׮ֵו֟ ׾֮֫ӓ ־ Σִ֓ ָ . ׾֫׸֤ ־ֲ ӟָ™ߵ ׾֪ (International Jainology Centre ) ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ ׾֪ꓵ ֵֻ֮ ε ֻ֮ ־ ָ֟ ׾֪֯ߚӟ ӿ֮ Ӵ֬ ֻ ֻ껵 ׾֪ꓵ ֵ֮֟ ӿ֮֟ ֟ ־, ִ ׻ ֮ . ֮ ׸ Ӵֲֻ֕־ ֻ ָ 1981 ־Ե ִß׳ ־֮ ߻ פ ӟ Ƣ֯ ֤֮ .

 

 

22

 

־֮ ֻ ִԓ ӓ

 

߻ ֗ ֚ פӓ ß־֟ . . ֵ֓ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ ӓֲָָ ׾Ӭָ߾ָ߻ ׾֡ ßӓ ӸӲӬ ֓ ߟ ֟ ִֻ֕ , פӯ ָ֛ ԙ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ן ׾ֳ֓ δ . . 꼸 ӓ 韾ֻ ֻ껵 ֮֟ ֿ ӿ֓ ֣֮ ָ ס ּߓ ֵ֮ ־֮ ֻߓ ִԓ ӓ ֻ ӓ ֟ ӓ 58 .

 

־ ֟֟ ԓ ӓߓ Ӥԟ Ӥ֕ ֟׾޵֟ . ָ ֵԙ ֮֮ ӓ ֟ ԓ ӓ 70 3 ӓ ֟, ָ ָ Ը û Ӯ ן֓ ӓ ״. ԕ ӓ ֺ֖ ԕ־ ֺ פ 1 ָ֮, 1865 ָָ ׬ַ ԓ ֯ Ο ޵֟ ֻ ֟ ԓ ӓ 57 ֜ ֻ; ֮ 1971 ֻ ֻ껵 ß׳֓ ָָ ֵԙ ֌ כ֙Դә ׬ָ ״. ћҮ Ӯ ԓ ׾׾֬ ӓ Ο ֯ ֻ ֟ ԓ ӓ 57 ִֻ֕. ֯ ԓ ӓ 57 ֮ ޵֟ ֻ ԓ ׾׾֬ ӓ ֯ 渓 򯙮 Ӯ כ֮ י ֓ 1873 ֟߻ ֻ֯ ־ֲ ָ߻ ӟ ֬ .

 

ߟ߮ ֵ֕֯՟ ԓ ӓ 57 ֮޵֟ ֻ . ׸ã֟ ֟, . 꼸 Ӯ ԓ ӓ 58 ־ . ָ ßã֟ ֵ ԓ ӓ 57 58 , ֓ ׮Ե ָ ָָ ֢֟ ֮֟ ׬ָߟ ־ ־ֿ . ֟ ִß׳֓ ׮״֢֮ ָ ַ ӛ ԓ ֵ ָ ָָ ֲֲ֟ߟֻ ֻ֯ ׮Ե ־ ֙. ֕ ׾ָ֮ ֤ ָ֜ ԓ Ο ӓ߻ ߵ ׬ ֮֟ Σִ֓ ״.

 

23

 

Ӧָ߾ָ߻ ִӛֵ ׿ֻ

 

־ֲ, פ. 27 Ӳָ: ִӛֵ ׿ֻ ־֮ ֻ ָ ׿ֻ ߻ Ӧָ ־ԟ־ָ ןֻ ןֵֿ ־׮ Ƣ ; ָ ֟߻ ָ֮֮ ׿ֺֻ ߸ ִӛֵ֮ ִ߻ ׾Ӭָ ־ԟ֓ ֣־ָ߻ ָܵ ֻ ָ ֟ ֻ ֟ . ֻߓ ׾ֵֻֿ ֻ. ֟ ߓ ƻߓ ־֮ ָ֙ӓ , ֗ ־ֲ ß־֟ ׿ֻ ޵֚ ֻ Ӧָ߾ָ ֟ ߻ ֮֟ ßӓ Ӹ֚ ֻ껵 ԓַ֮ ָ ׿ֻ ߟ ֻ֓ ֻ֟ ߻ ßӓ ߵ ֌֟ ׿ֻ ֜ . ԟ ־Ɵ. ־֟ Ӯ ֓ Ɵ פ ֻ. ֙ 鬤 Ӯ ֿ ׿ֻ ֟ ֻ֓ ֻ֟ ָ֬֟: ׿ֻꓵ ã֮ӓ פ ד֟ . ֯δ ֕ Ӧָ߾ָ ֙ ֻ껵 ׮ָ ֕ ։ ֤ ֛ ֟ þ֟: ־ֺ ִӛֵ ׿ֻ ֜ ӣ֟߻ Ԯָ֮ ־ָ߻ 긻껵 ׿ֻ ֡ ֮֙ ֤ ־־ ֮Ӥ

ֻ. ׿ֺֻ ִӛֵ֮ ׾Ӭָ߾ָ ꛻ ־ ï™ ־֟. ܵ ß־ֺ Ӧָ߾ָ ֮֟ ָ 100 ֵַ ֮֜ӟָ ־߻ ֕ ֓ פ Γӛ ׿ֻӛ , ӯ ִӛֵ ׿ֻ . Ӧָߓ ֵֿ֣ ã֮֯ 껵 ߟ ߻ ֕ ַ֓ ָ ӟָ־ָ ׿ֻ .

 

׿ֻ ޵֓ Ӭ־, ֱ ־ ן֣

ִӛֵ ׿ֻ ֙ ־־, ׾֮ӟ ޵֚ ֮ ֕ ã֟ ֻ껵 ָ ָָ ֟֓ ߱ ԙꌙ ׳ֵӟֻ ꙻ Ӯ ׿ֻ Ο ׾ֻ; ָӟ ߵ ֵ ޵֓ ָ֬߮ ־ ߻ פ֟ ; ֕ ֻ ֻ ָߵ פӲָ ߣ ״֙ߓ ֻ֓Ӥ ߸֓Ӥ Ӯ ִӛֵ ׿ֻ Ο ׾ֻ. Ӯ ןֵֿ ֮Ӥ ֻ ֲ֟ߟ ߣ ״֙ ־ã Ի , ޵֓ Ӯ ֮ .

 

. . ֵ֓ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕, þִ ָּ ֹߟ ָ֕ ־ծ ִӛֵ ׿ֻ ֲ֧֜ ӟ ִ֮֬ ֌ Ӧָ߾ָ ָ ֵԙ ׾ ִӛֵ ׿ֻ ߻, ֌ . ָ ־ֲ 껵֮ӟָ ־ծ ִӛֵ ׿ֻ ޵֤֓߻ ӟֳԾ ־.

 

 


('֟ ם ו֭׾ֵ֕' ֯,פ 5 ָ֭,1981)

 

 

 

 

24

 

 

ִ׬ã ָּ þִ

 

þß ߴק, ֯, ו֮ӓ, ׯ֮כ ֟:֮֬֬߿ָ ߴ׳֮־ ָּ ֵּ֓ þִ ã֮ ֚ ֯, ֲֵ (־) Ӯ ֻ֯ Τߑ ߾֮֟ ָ™֟߻ ֓ ָּ ߚӓ ֟ӯ ןƟ֯ ֻ֟ ֻ ָӯָ ֻ , ־ ָ ָּ ߚֻ ָ֟ ֮֓ ã֮ ״ פ. , , ֛, ״ ֤ ֓߮ ӓ , Ӿָ Ӯ ֻ֯ ִ֮ γ㟾 ãׯ֟ . ֓֯δ ָ֚, Ӥ ֤ Ӯ ֻ ֟ ֻ. ׾ֿ ֕ ־ ӟ ֲֻ ֻ껵 ִԵ ֵ֒֓ Ӯ ߑ ֵ֮ ־ ִԿáӴ֬ ֮ߵ ָ֟֟ ӯ֤ ; ִ ֵ֟ ִӴִ֮֬ ƕ Ƴ . ׾׾֬ ִԵӓ ׸֤Ӯ ִӡָ֮ ֟֯ ã֟ ן֣ ִ ӓ Ƣ áָ֬ ׬ָ߮ ֙ ִԓ γ־֮ ֑֛ ־ֿ ֵ ֮ ӟ γ־߯ ָ ֛. ӓ ׾ָ ΓֵָԴ ִԻ ָ ִ֕֟ ןš ֯ ֻ Ӳ֧ ֤־ ׮ִ ֻ, ׾ֿ . ߟ߮ þԾ ָ֕Ӯ ִԓ ן׮׬֟ ָ ִ֣ԯ ӳ ִ֬ԵӴ֬ Ӳ֧ ֟ߵ֟ ׮ִ ޵֓ ׮š ӲӬ ãׯ֟ ޵֓ Ʈߵ 港׸ִ ֵ ֱ ׾ֻ.

 

ִԓ ׿™ Ɵ ӓ ־ԡ Γָ ߟ ֮֟֓ þԾ ָּ ָ֕Ӯ ӓ ָ֓Դ ևԻ, Ƣ֯ ֲ ׾ֻ ֚ ׸ִ֯ δ . ִ֮ Ӵ֬ ִԳ־֮ ޵֚ פ֓ ןֵֿ ֵ , Ӯ ׮Ӯ ־߮ פӓ ָ ޵ ֤ פ; ֲָָ֓ ֛ ã֟ߟ ָ ֟ ֻ껵 ֓߮ פӓ ԫָ ޵֓ ־ֿ ֵ ֤ ֳָ֟ ־޵ ߓ ׾ָ ߟ. ן - ןš ӓ ֯ á׾ָ֬߮ γ־ ֬߮ ޵֟ ӟ ׮֟ . ӓ ֵԓ ־ֻ ־ԡ ֻ֮ ָ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ ֮ ꚴꚶ ӓ ӓ ׬֯֟ þָ޵֚ ׮ִӡ ֟. ԟ ָּߚ֓ ֣֣  ; ָ ןԯןš ӓ ׾׬ֵ㌟ ָ ֛޵֟ ָ ָּ ߚӓ ָӯָ֟ Ծ . þ. ָ֕ӓ ֻ ֟ 韾ֻ ׾ֻֿ ӓ֯ ִָӳ֯ ӯ֮ ֻ ֵ ִԓ ָ ꚶ δ֟ γ־֮ ֻ. ֻ֯ ֯ ߻ ֚֓ ׾ß ֟ ֳ֤ ߣӓ ֮ ָ֤ פ֓ ã֮֯ ӓ ׾֮֬ ־֮ ָӯָ֟ ֬߮ ָ֕ þ. ָ֕Ӯ ֻ֯ ֟߻ ֵԾָ ֜׾ֻ. ִָӳ ֯渓 ן֟ ôָߵ .

 

ןԯןš ӓ֯ ӓֲָָ ָ ״ ִָӳӮ ֵծ֤߻ þ. ָ֕ Ӯ ׾ֿ ֻ֮ פ. ӓ 韾ֻ ׾׾֬ Οӓ ֮֯ ִָӳ ֣ ָ ֛. ßӟ ִָӳ㬤 ӓ ԤԮֻ ָ֕ ֻ. ׿־ֵ ־Ӯ á֯ן֯פ ״ ָ ƴ ־ ׮ֿ֟: ִԓָ֓ ֻ֮ ־, ӓ . ִ Ӯ ㌟ ޵֚ ӕ߲Ӭ֮, ׾־ ֤ ִָӳӮ ã֟ ־Ӯ ֿ־Ԥ Τ֮ ߟ ֟. ã Ӯ ִֵָ ׾ָ֬߮ ֻ֮־Ο ־, ִԓ Ƣ֯ ָ֓׮ִֵ . ־ֿ ִָ֓ ޵ þ. ָ֕Ӯ Ӯ ׮ָӟָ ׮ָ ֤ . ֲ֟ߟ ӓ ֵ ֜ ׸ִָ ֮:ן֯Τ ֬ ־ ָ֕ӓ ã֟ߟ ֻ֮־Ο ָ ޵֓ ߟ. ߟ߮ ӓ ִԾָ߻ ׮š ֜׾޵ ãָ ޵ þ. ָ֕Ӯ ӟ ֵ㌟ ֵ .

 

ִӣ Ӹ ֿ֮ ָӯָ֟ Ƣ֯ ֵ߻ þ. ָ֕ Ӯ ׾ֿ ׾ֻ. Ӯ ֻ֯ ָþ֟ ӣֳӛָ֟ ״ ֟׻֟ ӣ ߾֯ ֮֟ ֻ . ӓ ֵՓ ο . ֻ긕 ָ֟, . Ƹֻֻ , . . . ֬ ӓָ ӛ כӮ ꚶ ㌟Ӛ֮ . ӣִֻ ֿ֮ ã Ӯ ִ֮ Ӯ ֵ㌟ ִӣӓ ֿ֮ . ӓ ֵԓ Ӿָ ןֵֿ ֻ ׸ִ ֻ.

 

״ ֯δ ִו ֟㬤 þ. ָ֕Ӯ ־Ӯ ԤԮ . ִָӳӮ ã֟ ־Ӯ ԤԮ . ִָӳӮ ã֟ ֵ㌟ δӟ Ƴ Ӯ Ӯ ӑ֙ ֟ߓ פ ־ծ ֵԯξ . ß־׮֬ ֮ 1938 ֻ ָ껵 ָ™ ֳ 38 ׬־֮֓ ֤֯־ֹ ֮ Ӯ Ӯ ֻ֯ ִו ֲֲָ֤ߓ ߾ פ ִֵ֕ ꚶ Ƹ߸߮ ޵ Ӯ ֮ פ. ֮ 1944 ֻ ֯ ֲ ֡֓ ߸ ־ ӓ ֻ֟ ӯ֮ ֻ. Ӯ ָ֡Ӯ ֮־֤ ֟Դ֮֯֡Ӯ ֵ㌟֟ ֜־, Ư ־Ʈ . ׿־ֵ ֮ Ӵ֮, Ӵ֮, ߟԮ Ӵ֮ ־ ן ן ־ӓ ã֮ þ. ָ֕ Ӯ ׾ֻ . ־ ־֯ Ӯ ԤԮ ֵ֤ . ֲָָ֓ ִ֕֟ ׿ã ꚶ δ֟ ׮֑־֟ ӓֱִԟ ״ ׿֓ Γָ ־, ӓ ƴߓ , þ. ָ֕ Ӯ ֵ֓Ը ֳ ׿ ָ ӛ ־߮ ִו ׿ãꓵ ã֮֯ ־ԟָ ֤ . ӛ֓ ƻ ֳ ֚֟ ־ֻ .

ߟ߮ ״, ִו ӟ þ. ָ֕ Ӯ ֤ ֮ߵ ִָ ; ӓ ߾֮ ִ鬤 ߾֮ . ӓ ־֮ ô ִ.

 

('ֵ֡',ô ׾ֿӍ,ָ֭,1978)

| 25 |

 

߸־ ֚

 

߸ ־֟ ָ ֻ޵ַ ֯ ״ Ƣ֓ ßӴ֬ ֚֓ ִ֮ܵ ֮ . ן ™ ֓߮ ֯ ֯ Ƹֿ ӓ ׮ ӲӬ ãׯ֟ ֻ ֻ֮ ֯渓 ֯ ӓ ֟ צ ֻ ֻ֮ ֯ Ƹ ֕ ֬ӓ Ƹ ־֮߻ ֻ ֟ . ֟ߓ ã֮ ״ ӑ֙ ־ֿ ֻ֮ ֚ ״ ã ־ ֮֓ ƻ ֟֓ ָ ã֮֯ ޵֟ ֻ. ־֓ δ ֚֓ פ ־ ֮֓ ƻ ֟֟ ã֮֯ ޵֟ ֻ ӟָ ֚֓ ֯ (׿ִ ָ), ו֮ӓ ( ״֛ ) ׯ֮ӛ ( Ӭ Τ ) ך ֜޵֟ ֻ, ־ָ֬ ֮֟ . ֚ ӟ ֮֟ ֻ ƕ, ֓ ָߓ ֹ֤߻ פ . ӓ ֤ߓ ֚֕־߻ ɯ ֯ Ƹ֓ ִã֮ . ן֓ ־ ӛ Ӿ ֯ ָ꿾ָ Ӿָ ֯渓 ־՟ ֟ ־ ֮֓ ַ ֵ֟֯՟ ֕ ֟־Ʈ ִ֙ ִ ֟ ӓ ָߤԯֵԟ Ƹ ӟ ָָ֙ߓ ã ֓ ֮ ִֿ֕ ָ֯ ן þֹ֓ ׮ ӲӬ , ɯ 껵 ֮֮־ֹ ֬ ֻ . ɯ ߮֕ ֯ ӓ ߓ ֣־ֹ ֚ ß֟ ֻ ֻ֮ ֚ ֯渓 㮵 ֟ߟ ִ׾™ ֻ , ï™ .

 

ߟ߮ ֓߮ ֻ֯ ֯ Γ׻֟ ֻ껵 ֚ δ ִӮ þß ָּ ֵּ֓ þִ ֓ ־֓ Ӳ׬ֻ ֟ ӓ ֮ ----

 

þß ߴ֟ ֵָ֕ ӛֵ֓Ծֵ ־֤־֤߿ָ ---֕־֤ ׯִ֟---׾֮֫ ־Գפ ײֹ־ֻ ׾ִָ֮֕---׮֑֕יã֮ פ, ֯, ו֮ ׯ֮ӛ ֟:֬ ֮֬߿ָ ߴ֟ ׳֮־ ָּ ֵּ þִ ã֮ ֚ ֯, ֲֵ ֣

 

Τߑ ײֹ־ֻ ƴ ָ֯ ֟. ֚֓ ԓ ֯ ã֮֟߻ ֲֵ ־֕־߻ ־ ӟָ ׮ֻ֑֮ ӓ ײֹ־ֻߟ ޵֟ . ײֹ־ֻ߾ֹ ֚ Ƣ֯ ã֮֓ ֮ . ֚ פӲָ ֚ Ɵ֯ ã֮֓ ֮ . ֚ פӲָ ӣ֓ ӑ, ֓ ֚֟߻ ָּ ֵּ֓ þִ ӓ ָӯָ ֵ֕֟֟ Ɵ֯ ׮ִֵָ֮ ֻ ; ִ ֻ֚ ߸ ֟֓ ־ ָ ־ ָ֟ ןš ֯ ֻ .

 

֯渓 ֯ ֟߻ ξָ ֙ ־ ӟָ 2733 , ֚֓ ־ ß ֓߮ ֯ . ß ֯ ߓ ֣־ָ Ӭֻ ֻ ָ ξָ֯ ӓ ַ ܵ ß֓ ַ֓ ֻ֟ ֕ ֻ֮ ִ֮ ӓ ָ֕ . Ƥָ߯ ׻֯ ָֻ֮ ־ ß ׾ֿ ߾ .

֚֓ ܵ ָ Ӳ֚ ָ֓ ָ֬֯ 30 Ӥ 150 Ӳ . ֛ ָ 㮵 ֬߯δ Ӭֻ ןֵֿ ֲ֕ . ֻ֕ ָߴ֬ οß , 㻵 ַ, ꚶ 껵 ֤ӓ ִ ޵֟ ֻ . ӟָ ֟ ֕ ־ ֮֓ ־ ֟֟ ֚֓ ß ׾ßָ ޵֟ ֻ ֚֓ Ԯ דָӤ ֛ ־ ָ֮֟ Ӭֻ . ָ֮ 35 Ӳ, 21 Ӥ 65 ӓ . 㮵 ֕־֛֯㜓 ָ֮֟ ָ ִ ӓ ֛ ־־ ָ , ָ ֛֓ . , ָ֮־ָ ָ֛ Ӭ޵֟ ֻ , ־ԟ ӓ ֛Ӳָ ֵ֣֯ 90 ߾ָ . ָ֮־ָ߻ ߾ ׿ִֻ ִ , ַӓ ֻ֯ ֻ׿־ֵ ן . ӓ ־ָ ֑ ִ֑֯ ֻ פ, ֕־֛ ֚ ֻ֮ Ӯ ׾ֿ Ƣ ֯

ֻ .

֚֓ ׾ß ֓ ֵ㌟֟ Ӥ ֜׾޵֓ ε֟ ߻ ֟ ֻ . פ֟ ָּ þִ Ӯ ֮ 1950 ָ ֚֓ ׾ֻֿ ξִָ֫ 1008 Ӧγ ߣӓ ָ֤ פ֓ ֮ . Ӯ ֚֓ ׾ß ֟ ׾ֵֻֿ 28 ӓߓ, ִָָ ֓ 1008 פ֣ ߣӓ ֮ ֮ 1962 ֻ ׾ֻ ן֓ ןš ־ ָ ־֯ ָ֕ . ָ ֵ֓ 108 ֳ ָ֕ ӓ 韾ֻ ֯֟ ֕߸֕ ӓ ã֟ߟ ָ֕ ֻ ןš ־ ֯渓 ן֟ ôָߵ . ֚ ִָָ 20 Ӥߓ 50 ӓߓ Ƹ ׾ֻ .

׾֪֮ þß ָּ ָ֕ Ӯ Σ ֻ ֻ . ֚֓ ֟߻ Ӭִ ֻ껵 ָ֤ פ֓ ß֬ ־ ֮ 1969 ֻ 1008 Ӧγ ߣӓ Ӝ ִָָ ־ ן֓ ןš ־ ־ ߟ߮ ָ֕ . פ֓ ַ ֻ֕־ָ ־֮ Ԯ֣ ߣӓ ց֝ ןִ ׾ִָ֮֕ פ֓ ׿ָ֟ ־֮ פ֣ ߣӓ ׿ָ֓ ߻ ֕ 24 ߣӓ .

֚֓ ׾ֻֿ ִ֬ Ӧγ פ֓ ִ ֮ ֮ßӳ ֚֓  ֜־, ׾֪֮ þß ָּ ָ֕ ӓ ߾ ֮ ֚ 1972 ֻ֯ εֿ֟߻ . Ӯ ִ֚ ݵ ָ֜ 36 Ӳߓ ӛ և ֛ ֮ 1978 ֻ ֦ ӟ֟߻ Ƣ ־֕־ ִָ֬ ״ֻ. ״ Ӹ ־ָ ֯ ׿ָֻ ޵֟ ֻ, ־ָ ޵֟ ֻ. ַ ӛ 36 ӓ ֮ßӳ ָ֟ ד֟֓ ֛֯. ֮ßӳ־ָ߻ Ӧγ ߣӓ ֟ ו֮ײӲ֓ ןš ־ . . ֵ֓ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ ӓ ׬֮韾ֻ פ 17 ֓, 1983 פ 25 ֓ ӯ֟ . ֯, ֮Ƹ ӛ ֮ßӳ ֯渓 ֓ ־ , ֟ .

 

֟ ֻ֯ ֟֟ ׮ָӟָ י׾ַ ߸ ֚֮ ״, , ִו, ן ֤ ӟ ֮ߵ ִָ ׿™ ֻ ָӯָ ׮ִ . ֚֓ δ֤֯ ֻ껵 ־ ָּӮ ִԯγ־֮, ִԯΓָ, ִӸ ִӾ֬Ԯ ָ֬ ׾׾֬ ָ ־ֿ ֵ Ɵ֯ ־ãָ֟ߟ ֻ ֻ. ӣֻ֮, ӣ ӣָ֯ ֤ Ɵ׾ֵ ֵ ֚ ֻ׾, ָ֟ ӣӓ ֮֯֓ , ָ ָ Ɵ֯ ׿Ӳ׬֟ ֵԤ߻ ֚֓ ָּӮ þ֟: ֻ ׮ָ֯ . ߕ, ֻ֯ ֵӿ ֟֟ ӯ , ӓ ֟Ԯ־ָ ָ , ӓ ֟-ӓֵ֟Ӿָ ׮ֵӡ , Ӯ ֬ ָݵ׾ֵ ֮ , ֣Ӯ ֵ , ֚֓ ֵ㌟ ־ԕ׮ ִ֚ ֵ , ֤ ן- ִו þֹ֓ ִ߻ ֚֓ ָּӮ ׾ָ֯ ָ ֛.

 

׾־ ֤֟֟߻ ׾ֵ֬ ֵ ޵֓ ֚֓ ֻ ָӯָ ӛ ֻ . פ֟ þß ָּ ָ֕ (. . 1896-1965) Ӯ ־ ־ Կֵ֟֯՟ ֯ ֚׬֯֟ ״, ִו ӟ ӟ ֮ߵ ï֤ ִָ . ֓ ֵԓ ָָ ׾ß ֟ ־֮־߮ δӓ ָ ָ ֻ ֚֓ ֵ㌟֟ ׬֟ ָ֟ ֻ֚ ֮֓ ã֮ ״ ޵֓ Ʈߵ ֵ ׾֪֮ ָּ þß ָ֕ ֮֟֟ ֮֯ ָ ֛ߟ .

 

ߟ߮ ֚֮ ߸ ־֟ ֓ ָ ֻ֟ , ָ֟߻ ֚Ӵ֬ ֮֓ ã֮ ״׾ֻ .

 

('ָ',׭֍,פ.17 ֓,1983)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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֚֓

ן ֻ֙

 

 

֚֓ ֿԳ

þß ߴ֟ ֵָ֕ ӛֵ֓Ծֵ ־ָ֤֤-֕־֤-ׯִ֟ ׾֮֫ ־Գפ ײֹ־ֻ ׾ִָ֮֕-׮֑֕יã֮ פ, ֯, ו֮ӓ, ׯ֮ӛ ֟:֬ ֮֬߿ָ ߴ֟ ׳֮־ ָּ ֵּ֓ þִ ã֮ ֚, ֯, ֲֵ ֣ Ϥߑ ϳ־ ײֺ־ֻ ֳֻ ָּ ߚ פӲָ ִֵ֓ ӑ, ӓ ӟ ֓߮ ןš֯֯ ߚ . ָּ ߚ ָ ָ֟ פ, ׿ִ ָ֟ ֯, ״֛ Τ֟ ו֮ӓ Ӭ Τ֟ ׯ֮ӛ ָ δ ך ֻ֮ ן֣ ã֮֯ ֻ껵 ָ ֚Ӯ

֚ ִ׳֮֬ ֯ ֻ Ο ֚֓ ׬֯֟ ֵ ָ ֬ ָּ þִ ִ֮ ־֮ ޵֟ ֻ. ֻ֓ ֟ ָ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ߻ ֚ӯδ פ ߻ ֚߻ Ӥ ֛; Γӛ ִֻߟ㬤 ߸ ֚֓ ß֟ ׬֟֯ ִֵ ƻ, ׾ֿ Ƣ֯ ™ .

 

֚֓ ָӯָ

ָ ֻ֯ ֟֟ ׮ָӟָ י׾ַ ߸ ֚֮ ״, ן, ִו, ן, , ӟ ֮ߵ ִָ ׿™ ֻ ָӯָ ׮ִ . ֓ ׬֯֟ ֻ ָּ ֵּ֓ þִ Ӯ ִԯγ־֮ ־ֿ ֵ ׾׾֬ δӫָ ןƟ֯ ־ã֟֯ ֻ ֻ. ־ ״ ִָӳӓ ׮ֵ״֟֯ ֵ֮ ־Ӯ ִָ á׾ָ֬߮ ֯ ߻, ־ã ׮ִ ָּӮ ״ þֺ֓ ֵ כ֯ ֻ ֻ. ׿־ֵ ߣӓ Ӹ ꚶ δ־ָ ߣԵ֡ ֜ ָ ִԕߓ ֵ Ӯ ֟֟ ָ ֛. ֓֯δ פ, ִӣ ֿ֮, ֻ֚, ׾֫˯׸֤ ֤ ֵ㌟ ֲӿ Ӳ׬֟ ãӓ ׮״ԟ ӓ ݵ ־ã֮֯ , ן, ן ִו þֺ֓ ִ߻ ָּӮ ׾ָ֯ ָ ֛.

 

ߟ߮ ׾׾֬ ָ ־ֿ ֵ ״ ִו ™ ֮֟֟ ָ ֛޵֓ ָӯָ ָּӮ ׮ִ 껵֮ ו ״ ִו ִָӳӓ ָ ãӓ 韾 ޵֓ ֲֲָ֤ Ӯ ™ ָ ֛֓ ֻ ֲֻ . . ӳָ ԯ פ. 14 ֓, 1887 ָּӮ þ֟: 韾ֻ ־ֲ ߻ ֙꿾ָ֓ ־ ԓ ִß׳ ꚶ δ־ָ ָ֕ ޵֓ Σ ֛.

ָּӮ ָ™ ֳ ӓ ן׮׬ ã ã֮֯ ָ ֻ ӓ֓ ֻ֟ ֳ ƻ ׬־֮ פ. 3 ׯλ, 1899 . ֮Ӥ ӯ֮ ֻ.

 

߸ ֚֓ ֵ㌟ ֻ ָӯָ ׾־ ֤֟֟߻ פ֟ ָּ þִ (. . 1896 1965) ӓ ׿µ ָּ þִ Ӯ ӟ ִ֣ԯ γ־ֻֿ ߟ߮ ֻ ןֵֿ ֮ ַ֤ ֬׮ ׸ã֟ߟ֤߻ ִ, ִ֕ ӓ ןš י׾޵ ֜׾޵ ָ ꚶ δ֟ ֳָ֟ ־ֻ .

 

þß ָּ (. . 1896 1965)

 

֯渓 ֚֟֓ ִԬֵ֮ ߟ ֮֟֓ . . 1916 ֻ ָּ ֯ ֻ ֲֻɓָ ָ֕ Ӯ ־־ Կֵ֟֯ԟ ߸ ֚׬֯֟ ״, ִו ӟ ï֤ ִָ ߸ ֻ֚ ָ֟ ֮֓ ã֮ ״ פ. ӓ ׬ֻ֯֟ ָ֓ δ ך 59 ןԯןš ־ ־֯ ָ֕ ֻ. ֻ֯ ֚֓ ׾ֻֿ ξִָ֫ Ӯ . Ӧγ ߣӓ ָ֤ פ֓ ֮ . ׾ֿ ֕ ֚֓ ׾ß ֟ ׾ֵֻֿ 28 ӓߓ ִָָ ֓ . פ֣ ߣӓ ֮ 1962 ֻ ׾ֻ ן֓ ןš ־ ֯渓 ן֟ ôָߵ . ״ ֯δ ִו ֤֟߻ Ӯ ־Ӯ ԤԮ ׾׾֬ ׾ֵ֬ δӮ פ. .

ֵ֓Ը ֳ ׿ ָ ӛ ־߮ ׿ ã ֮ 1963 ֻ ã֮֯ ޵ ן֓ ֻ֙ ޵ Ӯ ־ԟָ ֤ . ׿ ӛ֓ ƻ ֳ ֚֟֓ ׾ֻ .

 

ָּ ָ֕

 

׾֪֮ ָּ þß ָ֕ Ӯ ֚֓ ָ׬ָ פ. 2 Ù, 1965 ׮־֛޵֟ ֻ פ 18 כӲָ, 1965 ӓ ֚׬֤֯֟߯ ׮ֵ㌟ ޵֟ ֻ. ֤ ֮ ֵ֟ ֚֓ ֲֲָ֤ ӓ ׿ָ־ָ ֛. ײ ׸ã֟ ֻ ָ ꚶ Ԯ ֟׾ֿ֮ Ӯ ֻ֯ ֵ ֟ ״, , ִו, ן ֤ ӟ ־֮־߮ ֮ ֿ֬߸ ׮ֵֿ֮ ֵ׮֟ ޵ ֮ ָӳ .

 

֚֓ ֟ ָ 60 կ ֵ ֻ֟껵 . Ӧγ פ֓ ןš ־ Ӯ ֮ 1969 ֻߓ ꚶ ־֯ ߟ߮ ָ֕ ֻ֯ ָߤԟ ־ֵ֓ ׾ֵ֬ ֵԴ׻ ָӳ . Ӯ ָ֟߻ ־ ָּӓ ֬׮ ֬߮ ӑ֙ Ӭ޵֟ ָ ֮ 1969 ֻ ָּ Ӵ֮ ־߮ ן׮׬ ã ã֮֯ ޵֟ ֿ ״׾ֻ. ֓֯δ ֮ 1972 ֻߓ

ֵ֡ Ӯ ֻ֯ ן ֵԓ ֵ ֻ֟. ָ֚, ֛֮ Ӥ ߮ ӟ ׮ֵ״֟֯ ֬ ַ ׮ֵ֟׻֮ , ӯ ӓ ָ ֵ㌟ ֬ ޵֓ ָӯָ ׮ִ ־߮ ֵָ ׮ֵ֟׻Ӵ֬ ӟ ׿™ ã֮ ״׾ֻ . ׿־ֵ ֵ֡ ֻ ָ֚ߟ ִԯγ־֮ ֛֮ߟ ֿ߾Ԥ ׮ֵ֟׻߻ Ӯ ֵ㌟ Ɵ ׾޵֓ ־ֿ ֵ ߟ ƻ .

 

֓ ֟Ծָ ׿֤֟߻ ־߮ ãӓ ִ֬֟ ׾ֵ֬ ֵ ޵ ֛֛߮ ָӳ . Ӯ ֮ 1975 ֻ ֲֵ ֮ ֵ֙ߓ ã֮֯ ן֓ ֟߮ ־߸ ݻֿ ״כִ ݻֿ ֬״ ׾֪֣Փ ׮־֓ ִ . ׿־ֵ Ӯ 1977 ֻ ֯ ׾֪֯ߚ ã֮֯ ֻ ߵ ӕ ״׾ֻ. ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ֟߮ ֚, ֻ־֛ ָ ֣״ ֬ ־ã֟ ִ ߟ .

 

׾ֿ ֕ ԓ ןš ־֓ ׬֮颾 ޵֓ ֚֓ ָ Ӯ ִ֣ԯ ֮֟ . ӓ ֻ ԤԮֻ ׾׾֬ ӟ ӓ ־ ןֵֿ ִ ߟ߮ ָ֕ ֻ . ׿־ֵ ־ֲ ߻ . ֻ ԓ ִß׳ ֱ֚֟ ޵֓ Σ Ӯ ֻ ֻ . ԓ ֲ ִ֟׳ פ. ִß׳ ־ ־ֻֿ þֺ֟ ָ֕ . ִã . ֻ ִןԓ ןš ־ ß׳ ִָӳ פ. 4 ָ, 1982 . ӯ֮ ֻ֮ӟָ ֯ ֚֓ ֟߮ ַ פֿ ֕ פ. 5 ָ, 1982 . ִß׳ ִָ ƕָ ӓ ã֟ߟ ޵֟ ֻ. ֜ ־ ָ ֯ ֓ ַ פֿߓ ִß׳ ޵֓ ֮ ֻ֚ ִֵ֓ ֯ ֻ . ָ ־߮ ָӯָ ޵֓ ֤߻ ֚֮ ״׾ֻ . ו ™ ֻ֚ ־ ï֤ .

 

֓֯δ ֚֓ ֟ . Ӧγ פִ֓ ӛ ֓ ֮ ֮ßӳ ޵֚ þß ָּ Ӯ ֮ 1972 ֻ֯ ׾ָ ε֟ ֮ 1983 ֬ ֦ ֻ. ָ֟ ׌֓֟֯ ַ֛֯ ӛ ֓ ֮ßӳ־ָ߻ ӦΤ ߣӓ ֟ ו֮ײӲ֓ ןšִ־ פ. 24 ֓, 1983 ֮֬֓ξ֟ ֵ֓ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ ӓ ׬֮韾ֻ ӟ ־ δ֟ ָ֕ ޵֟ ֻ. ׾ֿ ֕ ֓ פֿ þß ָ֕ Ӯ Ӯ ֕־ָ 껵 ָ֯ ִꓵ ֣֮֮ ָּ Ƣ֯ ֤ ־ ִ֕֓ ֟߮ ꚶ ִָӳ֯ ޵֟ ֻ. ו ֚֓ ן֟߻ ߵ ïߵ ֙ .