ִו ֤֟߻ ָּ þß ָ֕ Ӯ ֻ֯ ֙׾ֻ . ִִ֕֬ י׾, ִ֕֓ ־ ָӟ߻ ӿ ӯ , ӓ ֤˾֟Ԯֻ Ʈ ׾ֿ֟: ָӮ 껵Ӯ 㬤 ָ ֵ㌟ ֵ Ӯ ֮֟֟ ֻ ֻ . ִ֕֟߻ ֵՓ ֵՓ  ޵֚ Ӯ

ֳִ֕ ֤ ֵծ ־ֵ֓ ֻ δ ֕־ָ 100 ß ִו ֵӮ ֤ ӓ ֣  ޵֟ ֻ .

״, ִו ֯δ Ɵ֓ ֟㬤 ָּ þß ָ֕ Ӯ ׾ֵ֬ þֺ֓ 港׸ִ ֮ߵ ֵ . ֵՓ ׾ֿ ׾ָ ֕ Ӯ ׸ִ֯ ֻ׾ֻ פӲָ ӣִֻ . ֮ 1937 ֻ ã֮֯ ֻ껵 ӣִֻ ָּ ָ֕ ߚ־ָ ޵֯ 4 ӣ ֬ ֻ . ִ֬ þ֟: ε֟Ӯ 46 ӣӓ ָ ֻ Ӯ ӣִֻꓵ Դ־ ԯֵ՟ 50 ӣ ֬ ޵֓ ֮ߵ ֵ ׾ֻ . ӣֱִֻ ׸, ן, ׾֬, ß ֤ ׾ֵӾָ , ָ֚, ֛ ״ ָ ӟ ֬ ֻ껵 ׾׾֬ ӣӓ ։ ӓ־ָ Ο ָ™ ԙ֟߻ ӓ ָ֟ ֻ . ӣִֻꓵ ִֿ֮֬ ׾ָ֓, ִָֻ֤, ָֻ ֟, ־ָ֓ ֣ ֵ֬ ָܵ ׳֕֟ ӣӓ ִ־ ޵֟ ֻ , ׳ִ֮ï֤ ™ . ׾ֿ ֕ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ־ԟָ ׳־鬤 ޵֚ ָּ þß ָ֕ Ӯ ֯ӓִߓ ִԾָ פ. 4 , 1984 ָ™ Ɵ ׸֤, þ֟ӡ Ɵ ã ߸ ֚֟ ꚶ ִָӳ֯ ã֮֯ . ӓ֓ ֻ֟ ׸֤ꓵ ֟߮ ƻ ָ֚ Ɵ Ӵ֮ ֯ פ. 12, 13 , 1986 ָ ֛ ӓ ԤԮֻ ָ ָ Ӵ֮ 1987 ֻ ֯ , ןָ Ӵ֮ 1988 ֻ Ӵ֮ 1989 ֻ ׮֯ ָ֕ ֻ֮ ָ֚ Ɵ Ӵ֮ ָ׾޵֓ ־߮ Σ ãׯ֟ ֻ .

ߟ߮ ֚֮ ֬׮ ֻ ֺ ׾ֵ֬ ֵ ״, , ִו ֵ֒߮ ӟ ֿþ߯ ֮֟֟ ָ ֛ ָ֟߯ ֻ֙ . ֟ ߓ ֻ ֚֓־֟߮ ־ ֤֟߻ ֣֤ þֺ֓ ָ߾ ֵ ׮ָӟָ , ꓔ !

 

 


('ֵ֡ ֍,' ߯־ֻ ׾ֿӍ,1990)

27

 

וִ֮פ֓

Ʈߵ ִָ

ӓ ןֵֿ ֬ ֻ껵 ׾֡ ߸ ָߓ ߟ߻ 1008 ־֮ ״֣֮ פӲָ וִ֮פ ִ֮ܵ֟ פ֓ ߸ ־ ߾ ֓ ִԯϳ־֮ꓵ ֟־ָ֟ ִ׵ ߟ߮ ־ ϴ֟ ָ֕ , ֮Ӥ֓ ׳ִ֮֓ ֙ . ֻ ֓ ׮״֢֮ ߸ ־ ôָ ֬ , ִ֮֬֓ ™ ; ָ ôָ ӣִ Σִ֓ פӲָ וִ֮פ֓ ֤֮ ֟߻ פӲָ ִ֕֓ ן, ꛶ δ֟ Ԯ, Σִ֓ ֿ֟ . ן־ֺ ߟ߻ . ״֣֮ פӲָ וִ֮פֻ ֯֟߻֓ ־ ָ ָ™֟߻ פӲָ ִִ֕֬ Ƣ֓ ׿™˵֯ ã֮ ֯ ֻ ֓ ֤׿ ׾ֳ֟߻ ָ ִ֕־ָ߻ ֻ ׸ִ . ï™ Οֵ . ו פֿ Ӳ׬֟ ֻ , ֵ, ־ ׾ Ӯ ֻ֯ ִ֬, ָ֓ξ֟ δֿ߻֟ ӓ ־ָ ׾ָ֯ ֵ֕֟֟ 껵 ׸ִ֓ ֵ֮ ׾׾֬ þֺ֓ Ʈߵ ִָ ן֓ ָӯָ ֮֟֟ י ָ֤֓ ֮֓ ã֮ ״׾ֻ .

 

פ֓ ׮״ԟ

߸ ִ֮֕ 渤™ פ֓ ׮״ԟ ֻ ֮־֤ ־ ֜ . ֕ . ָ֕Ӯ פ. 15 ָ, 1896 ׾ֿ ߸ִ ֜ ־ ָ֯ ׮־ Ɵ ã֮֯ ޵֓ ߸ ֻ֯ Ε֮֕Ӯ Ɵߟ ޵֓ ־Ʈ . ָ֮ 1898 ֻ ã֮֯ ֻ껵 ָ֯ Ɵߟ Ӯ þ֟: ֚ ֻ. ֜ ־ ָ פӲָ וִ֮פ֚ þ֟ӡ 1902 ֻ ׾ ֻ. ן֣ Ӧ Ӯ פ פ֓ ָӳ ꛶֓ ֬ߟ פ֓ Ӭִ ֤֟߻ ; ָӟ 1914 ֻ פ֓ ֳ֓ Ӭִ ֻ֮ӟָ љ򌙸 ֻ껵 ֤֮ ־ ֻ֮ Ӥ ֛ Ӭִ 1922 ֻ ָ ֮ ޵֟ ֻ 1926 ֻ ޵֟ ֻ. ߟ߮ ־ ֟֓ ֻ־֬߮ӟָ ӟ ד֙߮ פ֓ ׮״ԟ ֻ, ִֻ֕ ־ .

 

פ֟߻ ԓ ןš֮֯

פ֓ ־߮ ß ߣӓ ԯ ֮֮ ָ Γ׻֟ ֻ껵 ߣ ־֮ ״֣֮ ӓ ֓, ֦ ׸ִ, ֮ ׾ֻֿ ã֮֯ ޵֟ ֻ ן֓ ןš֮֯ ִָ ןֵֿ ־֟ ־ δ֟ 1927 ֻ ָ֕ ޵֟ ֻ, ׾ֿ ֮ߵ ֙ ; ָ ӓ ֯þ ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕ ӓ ִֵֻ ׮֬֟ š ָּ ֵּ֓ ָ֕ ӓ ֻ ׬ֻ֯֟ ӯ֮ ֻ. , ߸ ֯֟ ִָ֕ ָ֕ ӓ   Բָ פ ִ֕֓ ޵ . ӓ ֬ ã֟ ׻ ԤԮ ֓ ֳ ֲֻ ֻ . ׿־ֵ ֓ ָ™ ֳ 29 ׬־֮ ִ֕֓ š ׾ָ֓ӟ . ߟֻ֤֯, Ӳև ӓ ֻ֟ ֮־ָ ֵՓ ã֟ߟ ָ . ו ־ ™Ӵ פ֓ ןš֮֯ ִָ ָ γ־ֻֿ ֻ ִ ִ֕֓ ןš ָߓ ֜.

 

פ֟߻ ׮֟ - ״ע ׾֬

פ֟߻ ׮֟ ״ע ׾֬ פӲָ ֵָ֮֯֬߮ áֿ㬤 ߟ߮, ֮ ֟־ָ֟ ֙긯 ָ ֛ ֟֟ ׾ֿ . ™ , ӓִ ׳, á־֮֓, ָ ֤ ׮֟ ε , ֮֯, ׾֮֬ ֤ ״ע ε ꚶ ׌ֳ־֮ ־ӓ ã֟ߟ ޵֓ ָӯָ פ֮ ãׯ֟ . ־߸ ֵӟ, ֯ӓִ, ֲӬ֮, ־߸ ׮־ ֤ ־ Ư ָ֕ ޵֓ Σ פ֮ ֮֟֟ ֻ ֻ . ־ ׾֬ ׮ִֵָ֮ ֲֲָ֤ߓ ־ ָ ֛޵֓ ֑֛ ֵ 1927 ֻ֯ ֓ ֬ ָ޵֟߻ . ־ ֯ ӓ ƻ ׯ֜, . Ӧו֟ ӟָ־ ӓ ָ ׯ֜ ֬֓ . ׾ֻ Ͽӟ ӓ ןָ ׯ֜ ׾ָ֯ ֵ֮֟ ָ ֛ߟ , ݵ֓ ™ .

 

ֵ֯־ ֵ֡ ־

ӓ ־Ը֕ ֻ ָ ֻ Ӿ ֵ֯־ ִ׵ þֹ֟ ӟ γ־ ߟ߮ ָ֕ ޵֓ ϣ פ֓ ׿™ . ־ԓ פӟ ׳ ֢֣ ֮֓, ָ ׾׾֬ ׾֮֬ ֵ á־֮֓ ֡ ߟԮ, ξ֮֓ ֵ֮ ָ֓ ֵδ ֻ ֟. ֻ־֬ߟ ƻ ׸֤ ָ׾ֻ ֟ áֵӓ ֵδӓ ֵ֮ ֟. ׾ֿ ֕ ־Ի ־ԕ׮ þֹ ޵֟ ֦֤ ™ߓ ׾֡ פֿ ߸ ã֮֟ ָָ Ԯָ֮ ־ԕ׮ ޵֟ פֿ ߾֤ ßߟ ß δ֟ ޵֓ ε֟ ־ ֮֟ ޵֟ ֟. ׿־ֵ פֿ פֱ֟ ׮֑- ־ӟ֓ ָָֻ߲ Ƣ, , ә ֤ӓ Ӳָ ã֮ ־ִ֕ ޵֓ ָ ߸ ֱָָ ޵֟ .ִ פ֓ ־֟ ןš ָߓ ָ ֛ . ߸ ã֮ ׾ֻ߮ ԯֵԟ ָָ ־ִ֕ ƴ ״ . 1966 ֻ ֵ֓Ը ֳ ָ֕ ӓ ֿ߾Ԥ֮ ֵ֯ פֻ ״ֻ Ӥߓ ׾ֻֿ ָָֻ߲ ޵֓ Σ ֻ. ָ™֟

- ֻ֮ ־ֻֿ ߟ߮ ܵ ־-׾ӓ ִ־ ׿ßֲ֫ ֫߮ ߸ ָ֟ ׮ָ֑ ֵ֡ ߸ ִֻ֕ ֟. ו ֵ֡ ִ֕֓ ןš ֲ ֻ .

 

敵 ֵ֓ ֬-֬ӓ ß־

פ֟ ֬ ֬ ӓ ß־ ֻ ӓ ֤֓ ֳ ߻ ־Ӯ ׮ָӟָ ״ , ӓ ݵ . פ֟ 1933 ֻ ֵ֓ ӟָ ָ֕ ӓ ߸ ־ ꚵ ׌ֳ־֮ ָ֕ ޵֟ ֻ, ֵ֓Ը ֳ, ֵ֓ ׾ִָֻ ֵ֓ ӳ־ָ ָ š ֵ֓ ֬-֬ ӓ ֻ֟߮ ß־ פ֟ ֻ. ׿־ֵ ָ ֵ֓ ׵ ӓ ֻ ִָӳ֤߻ פ֟ ָ ֛. ׾ֿ ֕ 1980 ֻ ™ӟ ֵ֓ ׾֪֮Ӥ ׮ִָ֕ ӓ 8 פ ß־ פ֟ , פ ׸ָֻ ִ־ָ֓ þֹ ֯ ֻ .

 

׾ֿ ֙

פ֟ ֮ߵ γ־ ֙ ֛, ׾ֿ . פ֟ ߟԮִ֙ ֟ ֛, . ָ֯֟־ ӑև . Ӥֻ ָܵ ֮֟֯֯ ߟԮָ֓ ־ ߟԮ ֻ . ӟָ™ߵ ߟԓ ׾֪֟֕ . . . ֬ . ׾ֻ ־, š ָ֡ ֟־ָ֤ ֚߻, š ִ֮֕ . ӟ֣߮ ֙ ָ֙ þß ָ֕ ӓ ־֯ ָ֟ פֱ֟ ޵֟ ֻ. ׿־ֵ, 1972 ֻ פӓ ״ ׿ֲ߸ ޵֟ ֻ 1965 1981 ֻ ֫׾֮֬, 1987 ֻ ֵָֻ֬׾֮֬ 1988 ֻ Ӧ֕׾֮֬ ָ ꚴ ׾֮֬ ִָӳ֯ ޵֟ ֻ. ֓ ֟Ծָ 1987 ֻ ֮ßӳ־ָ߻ ֟ ו֮ײӲ֓ ׳־ ꚵ δ֟ ָ֕ ޵֟ ֻ, ֓֯ϴ פ֓ ׸ָ֟ ׾׾֬ Ӭִ ֮֟֟ ֻ 1939 ֻ ֮ßӳ֓ ָ ޵֟ ֻ, 1966 ֻ Ӥߓ ֚ Ӭ޵֟ ֻ 1985 ֻ ׾ֻֿ ֳ ןף׮־֓ ֻ οß ´כ ־֮ ׮ִ ޵֟ ֻ. ׾ֿ ֕ 1974-75 ֻ ־֮ ־߸ 2500 ׮־-־ ԟ ֯֟߻ ִß ִ֕֓ ֟߮ ӟ ־ ֢ þֹ֟ ֯ δ־ָ ֕- ޵֟ ֻ껵 ׾׾֬ ִָӳӴ֬ פ֮ ֓ ֙ ֻ ԤԮ֓ ׾ֵ֬ þֹ֓ ֵ ӟ ïߵ ׳ִ֮ï֤ .

 

ߟ߮ 껵 ֚ ԓ ֻӛ֟ פ֮ ״, ִו ן ֟ Ʈߵ ִָ ֮֟֟ ׾ֻ ֓ - γ־ ֵ ޵֓ ָӯָ ߓ כ֯ ֻ ߻, ׾ ׮ִ . פ֓ ׸ָ֟ ־߮ Ӭִ ־, ֚ ָ ־, כӓ ׿֓ ־, ־֚ ֵפ ֮ ֜־, ׾׾֬ ֵ㌟ ֮ ֌֟ ־ ֵ׮֟ ־֟, פ֓ ׾ßӓ ֵӓ . ӓ ־ Ի, ֿ . ֲָָ֓ פ ã ß׻֟ ӣ Ɵ , ӣֵֻ֓ ־ã , ֵֻ֮֓֓ , Ɵ֓ ӿ֮, Ӹ ֿ֮, Ӿ֬Ԯ ׾ָ֟ ָ ־ֿ Ɵ׾ֵ ֵ δ֮ ֟ ֻ ָ ָ Ի ֙. ־ ™ߴ פ֮ ӯפ פӲָ ӓ ן ß ֜, ֡ ֙.


׾ֳ 4

 

ֵ֓: ִӟֳ֦ ׾֪֮Ӥ

 

 

28) ߻ ֵ֓ þִ ִӟֳ֦

29) פӲָ ӓ ֵ: ™

30) ֵ֓ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕:

ןָ ׌ִ֟

31) ֵ֓ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ : ֬ ߾֮֓ ֻ

32) ־ԟ֦ ִӟֳ֦

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

| 28 |

 

߻ ֵ֓ : þִ ִӟֳ֦

 

(־֮ ־߸ 2500 ׮־ ־ ׮״֢ ֳ ֱ֟ (ֻ-ָ-֯ ) ߻ ֵ֓ ׾ֵ־ָ ףֵֿ֟ ׾֮֫ӓ ִֻ֮ܵ ֵו֟ ޵֟ ֻ . ß ִֻ֮ܵ ָ߻ ¯ פ. 8 ׯλ, 1975

. ׾ֻ ־ Ӯ ֻ, ֮ן ֚֓ ֳ Ӧ֓ ֟߮ , -ӯ֤ )

 

ӓ ֵ֓ԯָӯָ ָ ֮֟ ֻ֯ ָ֟ ֟֟ ֻ֟ ֻ ֵ֓ԯָӯָ ״, ן, ן, ֤ ׾׾֬ ӟ ָ ֓ ִָ . ָߵ ־ԣԮ ִ ޵֓ ן֓ ִ֮ ֵ֮֟ԟ ֓׾޵֓ Ɵ֯ ֵ ӓ ֵ֓ԯָӯָ ָ֟ ־ ֮֯ ן- ֟֯ ֵ֕֟֟ Ɵ֯ ֻ ֻ . ԟֻֿ ֵ֓ԯָӯָꓵ ֟ߓ ֻ֟߻ Ʈߵ ֵ֓

þִ ִӟֳ֦ ӓ ־ ֿ . ֓ ןֳֻֿ , ׾֮֫, γ־ ִԯָ ֻ ֤׾־֤֙ ֤߻ þִ ִӟֳ֦ ֫ .

ףֵֿ֟ ִӟֳ֦ӲӬߓ ׌ Ɵ ֡ ӟ ֲֻ . ֓ ֮ ־ ֮֓ - ֟֓ ָ֬ԟ סֵ ֕֟ ֻ. ӓ ־ ן־ִ . ӓ ֛߻ ָ֟߻ ִӛ ׾ֳ֟߻ ֯ ֕֓ ֕ . ֯ Ƹ ֕ӓ ֓߮ ֮֕֬ ֫ . ־ߓ ߸־ָ ֻ Ƹ ן ֤߻ ֫ . ֯ ׸ָ֟֓ ִӟֳ֦֓ ֻ֯ ã֕߾֮ ֟ߟ ֻ ֻ ƕ. ӓ ׿, ӓ , ӓ ׾־ ֤ ֲ׾ֵ ֻߓ Ɵ ״ , ָӟ ӓ Ɵ־ֹ ֜ ֡ פ , ӓ־ָ ֤ ֮֯֯ ִԓ ׾ֿ γ־ ֛ ֓ ׸ִ Ӯ ֕־־֓ ־ ןֵֿ ׮ԣ ׮֤ þָ . ׮ֆã֓ ӓ ֮֓ ™֟ ִ֮ ֵ ֻ֮ ӓ ӑ ֵ֓ԯָӯָ߻ ά֮ ֵ֓ ӓ׾ֵߓ ƴ ֟.

ӓ ӓ ׾ָ֓ ֮ פ , ״ ӓ ִ擓ֵ ӓִ֬

ֻ , ־ֲ ׿ֻ֤֟ ֟ ߿: ׾ֿ֮ ӓֈ ޵֟ ֻ . ִӟ֟ ֦: ֕ ӟֲƵ ־ ™ӟ ֦þֹ . ֦ ֲ , ֻ, , ֮, ֮ ֤ Ԯ ָ֯ ֟. ִӟֳ֦ ֦, ֦Ԯ ֦ ֦־ָ . ֦׸ִߤ߻ . ־ֻ껵 ֦ ™ӓ γ־ִ Ӯ ִֵ ִӟֳ֦ ־ ޵֟ ֻ ־ ֙. ԟ ֯Οֵ þֹ֓ ־ Ӯ ןֵֿ ֣ ׾ֻ.

ֵ֓ ִӟֳ֦ , ֯þ, ן ֖֮֟ . ֿá֯ߟ פӲָ ׮֕߾֮֓ ׮ִֵӓ ֙긯 ֻ֮ ޵֓ ֟ ֤ ֟. þ֟: ִԬֵ֮ ִԬ֮ Ӵ֬ ƴ ݮ ֟, ֲָָ֓ ִ֮ ֮ӓ ֮ Ӯ ֮Ծָ ִԓָ֟ ãָ ޵֓ ֑֛ ִ֤߻ ֵ֮֟ ָ ֛ߟ. ӓ Ɵ֓ ׸ֿ㫟 ™ ׾ֿ ޵ָ . ֫ӟ֓ ֜ ִԖ ׾֮֫ . Ӯ ׻ƻ ӛ-־ָ֓, ִ֟ߴ Ӿ ִ, ㌟֮֮, þֵӳ ß ßן׾֪ ֓ ןִ ӣ ֬ ֲֻ ; ֙ӛִ , ԯֳ֙, Ӭß ֳµ, ߾֫ ֢־֮֮ ָ ֓ ӣ ״ ߟ. þ֟ӡ Ɵ׮״ԟָָ߲ , , Ӥ, ָ, ־, ֤ ׾ֵӟ ׮֟ . ָ߻ ӓ ϳ㟾 ָ ֤ ִ֮ . Ɵ֟߻ ӓ ָ֬ ݵ֟ ֟ ־Դ֮ ֻ . ßן׾֪ ӓ ӣ־ֹ֤߻ ӓ ׫ߵ ֲִ֣ԓ ƕ ֮ . ӓ ֕־ָ ־ ӣ ߻֓ . ָ ӟ߻ ӓ ӣ ֲֻ ֻ ߟ. ֻ ָ ӓ דָôָߵ þֹ֓ ֮ ֓ ֻ . Ӳ ָ֟ Ɵ ״ ޵֓ ο֮ߵ ֵ Ӯ ןֵֿ ִ֣ԯ ָ ֛; Ɵ֓ ן֟ ־߮ ֓ ָӳ ӓ֯ ֻ ֮޵֟ .

ֵ֓ ִӟֳ֦ ӓ ״ Ɵӓ γ־ ӓ֮ӟָ ֵ֓վָ ֟ӯֵԟ ָ ꚵ δ֟ ֛ ֜ . ־ ֮֓ 10 ֟֟߻ ֫ ֵ֓ ו֮ Ӯ ִӟֳ֦֕־߻ ׾֟, ִ, פ ֟ ָ ֓ ׾ֿ ӓ Ɵ֟߻ ߟԻ ִ ֣֣ ִ ֟. ӲӬ ֻ֯ ֯ ӣ֟ ֵ֓ ו֮ Ӯ-

߮ ִ֮ פ ִ֮ׯ |

ֿ: ִӟֳ֦ߵ ׬ ִߵ֟ ||

֯ . ־ ֟֟߻ פ֕, ֓Ӥֵ֓, וֵ֟֓ ֤ ֵ֓Ԯ ִӟֳ֦֓ ӓ  ֻ֯֯ ӣӟ ꚵ ֤־֮ ; ׿־ֵ ־ֲ 13 ֟֟߻ 105 δ֓ ׿ֻֻ֟ ӓ ֵԓ ӓ ß . ־ ™Ӿֹ Ɵӓ ָӯָ ӓ ã֮ ִ֮ , ֓ ֮ .

־ ִ㓓ִֵ þִ ִӟֳ֦ ӓ ׌ִ֢ ֤ ָ֬ ֻ֮ . Ӯ ֻ֯ ׌֟֓ ׾ֿӮ ָ ֻ ָ ï™ . þ֟:׾ֵ ֟֟.

ֵ֓s ׾ָƴ פ֙ כs |

֖s ׳ƴ סßסs ||

֮֕õ ֻ׬־ֵֻ ֵֻ״ֵֻ |

֖֫: ״ן ָ֫þ֟sƴ ||

֓ , þִ ִӟֳ֦ Ӯ ֵ֓, , פ֙, כ, ֖, ׳ , ס, ס, ֖֫ ָ֫þ֟ ֤ Ꟶ.

þִ ִӟֳ֦ ӓ ׾ֿӴ֬ פ֙ ֕ ־֤ ׾ֿ ָ Ɵ֯ ; ָ ֻ֯ ֤׾־ֻ֤֮ Ӯ ָӓ ֟ӓ ӵ׌ ӛ ִԓ ָֻ ָ ֳָ֟ ־ֻ . ֻ֟߮ ֫߯δ כӓ ־ ։ ߟ֛ Ӯ ֤֚ ߸ ־֮ ֟. ֳ֤֚ ײָ, ӕֲ, Ӭ, , ָ™ ԙ 渤渓 ӟ Ӯ ׾ָ . ӓ ֤֟ ޵֓ ֫ õ֤֫ ׾ָֻ֓߾ָ ָ֬ ֻ֮ ןֻ õ֤֫ ׾־֮-֫ ־ ֛. ֫ߟ þִ ֳִ֦ ָ֟ ֻ֮ Ӯ õ֤֫-׾֪ ֻ. ִԓ γ־ Γִָ ӓ וֿ֮֮֯ ֯ ֻ.

ߟ߮ ֵ֓ ִӟֳ֦ ӓ ֓ ԟ֓ γ־ ָ . ֓ Οֵ ֓: ִӟֳ֦õ ߸õ ׾֕鴳֟ 800 Ԯӟָ ֻ껵 ֵ֓ ו֮ӓ ׾֮֬֟ . ӓ ֟, ֵ֓ ִ֟ӳ֦ӓ ֮֓ ־֮ ־߸ӓ ָ֮֓ . ִ ֵ֓ ֳִ֦֟֓ Ɵֻ ִӟֳ֦-ָ ׿™֯ ןš ־ ״ֻ . ִӟֳ֦֓ Ɵ Ɵ֓ , ־ָ ׾֪֮Ӥ ׮šӮ µ ӣ ӓ ֮ . ־ Ӵ ֵӴ ֵ֓ ִӟֳ֦ Ӯ þִ ֤֮ Ӳ ֻ Ӯ þִ ׾ֿ ־޵֓ Σ ֵ֕֟֟ . ו þִ ֲ־ֹ֓ ֵ֓ ִӟֳ֦ӓ ןš Ƣ .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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פӲָ ӓ ֵ: ™

 

 

(֮֟ߓ ֟ ־׮״֟ ־֟ ™- ӯ֤)

 

׮-ָӯָ 㸹߾֮

 

־ԟָ ִ: ޵ ן֓ ֟֟ Ɵ֯ ֻ ޵ ™ ָ߳ ֻ, Ӵ֬ ӓ ֻ ָӯָ Ӯ ׾֬ þֹ֓ ׻ ֵ ™Ӯ ָ Ɵ֓ ã֮ . ָ֟ ־ ֮֯ԓ ן- ֟֟ ֻ ֦ ӓ֯ ֻ פӲָ ӓ γ־ ָӯָ ֟ ӛ ֻ , ִ֕֓ ݵ . ָӯָ߻ פӲָ ֵ֓ ןֵֿ ־֮ ׸ӯ֮ . Ӯ ֻ֯ ׮ԣ ã߻ ָ֯֓֓ ӟ ֙긯 ֻ֮ ֯ ״ ߾֮֓ ֤ ׮ִ . ԟ߻ ֟֓ ֻ ָ ֵ ֻ֟ ։ ־ԡ ӛ ׾ָ ãִ Ӯ, ־ ׾ Ӯ ִԯߟ ָ֓ ޵ ㌟ . ֓֯δ Ӯ þ֟: ׾֫ ֜׾ֻ ״ ֛:ֵ֟ ֓ ָ ֻ֟; ־ ָ ׾׾֬ áߵ ׾ֵӾָ ׾֯ ӣָ֮ ֮Ӹ ֮Ӿ֬Ԯ ޵֟ ֓ ֳָ֟ ־ֻ. ׾ֿ֟: ־ ӣӯ֤ Ӯ ׾֮֫ Ӳָָ ֛֮, ״ Ӹܵ ֤׿ Ӵ֬ ֮֓ ִ֮ ӯֵԟ Σִ Ɠ׾޵֓ ״׾ֻ Ӯ ֮֓ ã֮ ״ פ. Ӳ ӓ ׾ָ Ɵ֯ Ɵ ֤׿ Ӯ ף ӓ þֹ ֯ ֻ. ֿ ߟ߮ פֲָ Ӯ ״, ן ֵ ׮ָ֯ ֮֟֟ ִ֮֮־ָ ׾ֻֿ γ־ ֛ ִ֮ ӓ ߾֮ ֟ ޵ִ֬ ֿ ӯ֤ .

 

γ־ֻֿ ׮֯Ӹָָ ִֻ֮ ֻ֯ ֡ ֑֟ ޵ ֟ ֻ. ߮ ׾ֿ֟: ׮ԣ Ӯ ֮ ־ԡ ׾ָ ӟ ֻ. ֻ֯ Ɵ׮״ԟ ֻ , Ӵ֬ ִ ן , ׿ָֻ֯ ֮ , ן δӮ ֻ֮ ֤ ֵ㌟ ֵ Ӯ ֌ֵ֯ ֻ. ו ׮ԣ ӓ ã γ־ֻ ָ ֻ ׸ִ֟: ִֻ֮ ִֻ֬ ׮ԣ ӓ ָӯָ ֵ: ִֿ ֻ. ײΙ߿ Ӵֻ ԯֵԟ ã ֤ ֻ . ײΙ߿ ֤֮ߟ Ӯ ״ þ֟ӡ ״ ֻ ִ Ӯ ֻ֯֯ ִԯִ ָ֓ ޵ ״ֻ. ֓ ֻ ׸ִ ִ֬Ե Ӿָ ֻ ӓ ֻ֯ ִԯδ ָ֓ ޵ ֜ ֻ. ָ ־ӓ ִԓָ֓ ׸ã֟ߟ ֛ ָ Ӯ ԤԮ ޵֚ ןֵֿ ׮ԣ ӓ ָӯָ ָ כ֓ ֻ . ־ ֮֓ ־ ֟֓ ָ֬ԯ ֡ ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕ Ӯ ׮ԣ ׮ָ֯ӯָ ֹ߾֮ .

 

ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕ ( . . 1873 1955 )

 

Ӥߵ ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕ Ӯ . . 1920 ׮ԣ ׮֤ ֻ. ֙ ӓ ֬׮ ֟߻ ןִ֬ ןֵֿ Ɵ ; ָ ׮ԣ ֟ כ ֻ ׮ԣ ִߓ ָӯָ ָ ֻ. ׮ԣ ִԮ ֻ פ껵 ןֵֿ ָ֓׮ִֵӯδ ֟Ԯ ׮ԣ ӓ ߾֮ ׾־ ֤֟֟߻ ƕ֯ ֟ߟ , ֫ ֻ.

 

ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕ Ӯ ׮ԣ ׮֤֯֓ ֹ߾֮ ; ֜ ־ ָ ֻ֤ ־ ִ֕֟ ֮֓ ã֮ ״ פ. Ӯ þ֟: ׮ ָ֮֓ ׮ԣ ߾֮֓ ֤ ׮ִ ־֮ ֬- ޵ ㌟ . ֯δ ־ ־ Ӯ ן֕߾֮֓ ֮Ӥ֮ ֟ ו þֹ֟ Ӯ ִԯ֤ ޵֓ ־ֿ ֵ ֻ. ֬ ו ӓ ӑ ׮ִ ֻ ӑ֓ ֵ֓ԯ֤ ןָ ָ֕ ֻ. ָ ֮֟ӟָ ׮ӣ ֵ֓ӓ ׬ֻ֯֟ ׮ӑ ß֟֟ ֻ. ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕ Ӯ ׮ӑ ã֮֯ , ־ ָ ӑֻ þ֟: ֙ ֟Ԯ֮ ֻ 㟾֮ ־ Ӵ֬ ןš ״ פ. Ӯ ֻ֯ ӑ ָ ָ֟ ׾ָ ־ֵ ָӳ ִ ן߻ Ӵ֬ ֯ ֮ ׮ִ ֻ; ָ ֵ֓ӓ ֮ Ӯ ֟ӓ Τߑ ֻ־֬߮ӟָ ׮ԣ פӲָ ӓ Ԯ ޵֓ ݵ ֳֻ. ־ ߣӓ Ӥ ޵֚ ֵ֓Ӯ ֻ֯ ׾ֻֿ ӑ ָ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ ԓ ײΙ߿ ӟ Ӥ ã֮ ӓ Τ֟ ֟֟ ׾ָ ׮Σ ӓ ׮ֲԬ֯ ׾ָ ޵֓ ׬ָ ãׯ֟ . ԟ ֵ ןֵֿ ֑֛ ꌵ֓ ; ָӟ ־ ӟ Ԯ ӟ ד֢֮ ӛ ֵ֓Ӯ Ӥ ֕ӓ֯δ ִֻ֮ ֕ӓ ã֮ Τӟ֤߻ ײָ ޵֟ ֿ ״׾ֻ.

 

׮ԣ ׮֤֯֓ ןš ֜׾޵ֲָָ ־Ӵ֬ ִԕ ޵֓ ֵԤ߻ ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕ Ӯ ӟ ׮š ָ ֛. ִ֮ Ӵ֬ Γ׻֟ ֵֻ , Ӭ֫ ִ׾ֹ ֻ߸ߟ ӓ ޵ ֵ֓Ԯ Ӯ ξ . ӓ εִ֟ Ӿָ߻ ִ֬ԓ ֓þ ״֣֟֓ ֛ ֻ. Ӯ ִԯδ ־ֵ ־޵֓ ֵԤ߻ ӟ ֑֛ , ָ ֵ֬߮ ִֻ֬ ָ֓ ׾׬׮ֵӴ֓ ־־ ֻ . ֮ ִԓ ֟Ӯ ִԯߟ ָ֓ ޵ ㌟ ޵֓ ֵ , ָ֫ ִԯγ־ ־ԡ ֜׾޵֓ ָӳ Ӯ. ֚ ו֮־ ԫָ ӑ ָܵ ֵ㌟ ã ֵ׮֟ 껵, ִ Ӿָ - ָӓ δӮ ׮֬Ը֮ ֻ֯ ֻ ־ ֮֟֟ ׾ָ . ִ Ƥ ִԓ þ֟֡ ִ , ֟ ָ֓ ֿ֮֕ ãׯ֟ ֻ. ߟ߮ ֵ֓߮ ֯ξ֟ þֹ֓ ֵ ׾־ ֟֓ ֵ֬֯ԟ Ӵ֬ ֯ ִԕ . Ӯ ֵµֳָ ִԯߟ Οӓ ֙긯 ֻ֮ ֙ ִԮ ֻ פֵ ־š ֻ֮ Οָ֮ 1955 ֻ ִ׬ִָ þָ. ߟ߮ ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕Ӯ ִ ו־ӟ ִ , ־ ֻ ֛ פ.

 

֬׮ ֻ֟߻ ߓ ןֻ ֙ ָ ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕ӓ ֵ ֮ ֻ׾޵֓ ִ ޵֓ Ɵ֯ ֵ ִӟֳ֦ ָ֕, ֵ֓Ը ֳ ָ֕ ֵ֬ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ ׮ ӟ ִ֣ԯ ֵ֕֟֟ ָ ֛ߟ , ׾ֿ ִ֮֬֓ ݵ֓ ™ . ӓ 渤 ԤԮ ׾ָ ׸ִ Ӵ ִ֕֓ ״ ן™ ֵֻ֯֙ ֻ ε ֻ .

 

ִӟֳ֦ ָ֕ ( ֮ 19-12-1891)

 

ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕ Ӯ ֹ׾֟ 껵 ӓ ִԾָ߻ ֫ ׬ ޵֓ ֵ ןֻ ֮֓ ׬š֮ ޵֓ ֵ ִӟֳ֦ ָ֕ Ӯ ֻ֯ ׮֕߾֮֓ ꤸ Ɵ֯ ֻ ֻ . Ӯ ӓ ֮־ָ ֮֯֯ - ָӓ Ɵ 긻 ָ ׮ֵ֮֯ ֮֟֟ ޵֚ ֓߮ ִ Ӿ ֫ߓ ׿δ֓ ָ . ״ ׿ ӓ ״ֱֻ ߾֮ ןֵֿ ֵ㌟ . ֟ Ӯ ֻ ָ֮ Ӵ֬ ָ ׿ ־ָӮָ߳ פ. ־߮ þֹ֓ ׿׾ӵ ׾ָ֓Ӯ ޵֚ ִӟֳ֦ ָ֕ Ӯ ã֮֯ ֵ֪ (Pioneering work) ֟ ֻ. Ӯ 1918 ֻ ӓ ן ן֟ Ɵ֯ ã֮ ֻ껵 ָӕ (ו. -׾֤ ) ־ ־߸ Ƶֵ֓Ը () ã ã֮֯ ֓ ֟Ծָ 108 ֻ ׮ִָ֕ ӓ ß־֮ ߟ ֻ껵 ןֵֿ ֵֻ ָ ߟ߻ ֻ ( . ֻ֟, ו. ֯) ך ֻ Ƶִֵ֓ () ã פ 13-7-1934 ã֮֯ . ӟָӸ֟ ׾׾֬ ך -ꓵ 9 ӓ ã֮֯֟Ӯ . ִӟֳ֦ ָ֕Ӯ ֬׮ ֟ ӓ ־߮ δ ִ֕֟ ָ ӟ ֛ ֻ. Ӵ ָ߲ ׾֪֣Ԯ ׿֓ ֲֻ ֻ, ״ ׿֓ ָ ֻ, ־߮ ֵ ׮ִ ӻ ֤˻֓ ӓ ֤ ׫֟ ֻ. ߟ߮ Ӯ֓ ן ֹ߾֮֓ ׿™֯ ֵ ִӟֳ֦ ָ֕Ӯ ׮š ָ ֛.

 

ןֵֿ ֻߓ ָ ֻ֯ Գ ֯ ׮־֛ ן֣ ׾׾֬ ֲֻ ֻ Ƶִֵ֓ ã ֻ ׾֪֯ߚ ׾ֻֿ ֯ ã ôָߵ ֟ . ֜ ־ ָ ״ ß ׮ִ ״ δ Ӯ ֻߓ ׸ָֻ ꚵ ׾֡ ֓ þֹ Ɵ ֯ פ. ׾֡ ֻ ָ֓ ֵֿ֣ ־֮ ֻߓ οß פ, ִָָ ֓ 41 ӓ ֮ßֳ, ־ָ߻ ֟ ֮ , ߣ֓ ִԯֳ֤ Ο֟ Ԯ ֛׾ָ ־߸ ִ־ָ פ, ֵ֓ ֓ ֮ ӣ, ׳ӟ߾ָ߻ ־ָ ִִפ ß׻֟ צ ״ ӣ֓ ֻ ָþ֟ פ, ӓִ ־ԟ, Ӥָ ߯ Ӭ ӓ ן ִָָ ֓ 28 ӓߓ ןֵֿ ֮ ־֮ ֻߓ Ʈ, ԓ ־Ɠ ׾ֻ וֳ֮֌ ֙ ֫ ֯֟ ִӛֵ ֓ ֯ , ֬ ֵ ֡֟ ֻ֮֯ ߟ 鿵 ׾ָ ֤ -ִԓ ֯ Ο, Ʈԓ ߻ ֕ ߟ ㌟ָ ֕֯ӣ, ָ, ָ ־ָ ׾֡ ֻ֮֫֓ ן Ʈԓ ־ ߣԸ֕ ִ׿ָߓ ן ־ ֕ ֕֯ ״֣֮ ӓ ׾־Ư ״ָ ׾ָ ןԴӟ ן, ן֓־ָ ֫ ָָ ן, ߣ ־֮ 敵 ־߸ ӓ δ ӯ֯ ־֯ ã֮֓ ן ߣ ־֮ ן֣֮, ֣ Ʈ֣ ӓ Ԯ ֛׾ָ ָ֤ ֵ֡ פ, ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕֓ ָ֯֔ ֡ӵ ָ ӿ֮ ξ֮֓ פ ־֓ ־ ֳִӛ ֤ ׾׾֬֟֯ ן ß ֜ ֟.

 

ӟ ߵ ֳ־֯׸ ׸ָ ׮ִ ޵֓ ֯δ ִ ־ã֟ ָ ֛ ִӟֳ֦ ָ֕Ӯ ߓ ס֟ Ԯ ״޵֓ ָ֟ ־ ֮֟ Σִ֓ ֲֻ פ, ִֵ ָ־ԟ ֓ ִד ӟ ׿™֯ ׮ִ Ӯ ߻ ֟ ߓ ׸ֵ Ӯ ߻, ֕־ߕ ֻ . ׾ֿ ֕ ָ֟߻ ֟ Τ֯ ß ܵ ֵֻ ܓ֮֓ ߟ ֯־ ֓ ã֮֯ ׳־ Ӵֳ֟Τ ָ֕Ӯ ֮ ִ֟֬ ߑֵֻ֯ԟ ãָ , ޵֓ ™߮ ӟ ֵ㌟ ֵ . ֵ ֓ ֮ ֻ , ןֵֿ ݵ֓ ™ . ִӟֳ֦ ָ֕Ӯ , ֻ ִ ׮״ԟ ӓ ֬׮ ֓ ן֟߻ ֮ߵ 㸯׸ִ ֙ .

 

ֵ֓Ը ֳ ָ֕ (֮: 28 Ӳָ, 1905)

 

ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕ Ӯ ֹ׾֟ ׮ԣ Ӯߓ ָӯָ ׳ִ ޵֓ Ʈߵ ֵ ֵ֓Ը ֳ ָ֕ Ӯ . ֵ֓ ֑ 19 ӟ ָ֛ ׮Σ ׮֤ Ӯ ֻ. ֯ 㸤㸓 ך ָ ׾ָ ߟ ־ ָӟ߻ Ӯ ִԓ ޵֓ ־ֿ ֵ Ӯ ׾ָ֯ ֻ ֻ . ָ֟ Ƹִ֬ ֻ֓ Դ Τִ֬ ֟Ӯָ֟ Σִ֓ ׾ָ ָ ֳ ָ֕ ƻ ׮ԣִ . ֵ֟֯ԟ ӓ ָ ֤֡ ׾δ Ӯ , ִԓ γ־ ָ׾޵֓ ֵ ָ ꚵ δ־ָ . Ӯ ֳָָ וִ֮פ֓ ԫָ Ӿ ־ ֮ ޵ Ʈߓ ןš֮֯ ޵ Ӯ ㌟ . ָ֟ ־ݡ ׾㸻껵 Դ Τ֟ ֵֻ ֓߮ ߣӓ Ӹ Ӿ֬Ԯ ޵ ׾ֿ ֮ פ. ־ וֻƵ֟߻ ß־׮֬ ֓߮ ߣ֓ ׳־鬤 ӓ ԤԮ֓ . ֓߮ ӓ ׾ֲָָ ߾֮ ֓ ׮״ԟ Ӯ ׾ֻ ӓ ֕ã֮֟ ֵ֯㸕־ ָ ד֌ ֻ㌵֟߻ -֮־֛ ӓ ֮־֕־߻ ӓ ֛־ָ ־֮ ן֣֮ ߣӓ Ʈ ֻ ןָ ־֓ ־߮ ߣ ß֟֟ .

 

ֵ֓Ը ֳ ָ֕ Ӯ ߣ ׳־ߓ ֵ㌟ ֵԲָָ ִԓ ݵ ׸ֵ ִ֮ Ӯ ֤ ִԯγ־֮ ֬޵֚ Ɵ׮״ԟߓ ־ֿ ֵ Ɵ֯ ֻ ֻ. Ӯ ֵ֕֯ԟ 60 ָ ֮- ӣ ו Ɵ֓ ׻ . ׾ֿ ֕ , ֛ ӟ߻ ֓߮ ׾֮ ӣ֓ , Ӥ, ָ֚ ָ֟ ӟָ ֤׿ ӟ߻ Ɵֵ ִ ֮׾ֻ . ӓ ׸ִִ ״ ß׻֟ ӣ ӿӮ ֲֻ ֻ. ׿־ֵ . ־߸ӓ ߾ֵ֮ԓ ׾ß ׸ֵ ָ ߓ ׾׾֬ ӓ ׾־ָ֮ . ־߸ ֤֟Ԯ ־֓֋ ƕָ ß šӓ Ƥӣ ׻ Ɵ֟ ׾ֿ ôָߵ ִָ .

 

־֮ ־߸ 2500 ׮־ ־ ־ ֳָ ןֵֿ ־ δ־ָ ָ֕ ־ ֵ֓Ը ֳ ָ֕ Ӯ ε֟ . ָ ָָ ߵ ֟߾ָ ׮־ ־ ָ֕ ޵֓ ׾ֻ ֚ ָ֓ ӟ֯ά֮ ߴ֟ פ Ӭ ӓ ֻ֟ ֬־֟ ״֟ ã֮֯ ֻ. ן֓ ƻ ߻ ֵ֓Ը ָߵ ֳꓵ ֳִ֬ ã֟ ƻ. ߟ߮ ֬׮ֻ֟ ָ֤֕ ã֟ ָ ֳ ָ֕ ƻ ׮Բ .

 

״ ן ֵԲָָ ֵ ֵ֓߮ ׾ֿ ׾ֻ. ־ ֮֟֬ ׿֓ ָ ޵֓ ׮֟ӟ ־ֿ Ӯ ׿ã֓ ã֮֯ ֮ פ ӓ ֯ 1963 ֻ ֵ֓Ը ֳ ׿ ָ ӛ ã ã֮֯ ֯֟ ֵԻ ֻ֮ ״. ׿ ӛֱ֟ ֬ ֕ ׾ֳ֓ ־߸ ׾ֵֻ֪ ֮ 1970 ֻ . ӛֱ֟ ֬״ ֤߻ ֻ ֵ ߟ . ׾ֿ ֕ ֵ֓Ը ֳ ָ֕ӓ ԤԮֻ ־ ֳ Ƶִֵ֓ Ù ã ã֮֯ ֻ ןֱִ֓ԟ ֫߮ ״ ׿ ޵֓ ִ ԙ֟߻ ׾֪֣֚ ֲֻ ֻ . δִ ֙֟߻ ӓ ןִ֬ ־߮ ֮ ֛ , ֟ .

 

ֵ֬ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ ( ֮ 22 ׯλ 1925 )

 

ֵ֓Ը ֳ ָ֕ӓ ָ׿µ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ Ӯ ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕Ӯ 껵 ִԯγ־֮ꓵ ֵԓ ֟ ֯ ֜׾޵֟ ֻ֯ ߾֮־þ ֻ ִ֟ Ӯ ֯ ֿ ӯ֤ . ָӯ׸ ֬׮ ӓ ִ ֕ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ ִ ד֟֓ ƾֵ ״. ֲֻƵָ֓ ã ֮ 1946 ֻ ֬߾֮֟ ξ ֵ ׾֪֮Ӥ߮ פ. 25,1963 פ ִ ֵ֓Ը ֳ ָ֕ ׮ԣ ׮֤ ֵֻ֮ӟָ ֻ֯ ִԯγ־֮ꓵ ֵԻ ׿™֯ ߟ߮ ֻ֮ ־ֵ ֟ . ׮ԣ ׮ֵ֓ ׾׬־֟ ֻ֮ ߟ ִԯ֤ ޵֚ ׿ִ ָ ָ֓ ꚵ Ƹӟ ֮ ־ӟ ׾ָ. ָ֓ ֳ֟߻ ִ ֵ֮֟ԟ ։ ִԯ֤ ָ ֬׮ ֟߻ ƻ ׮ԣ . , 1970 ֬ ƴֵֻ ־ԟ֓ 12,300 ӓ ָ ֦֣߮ ֻ ־֕־߻ ׿ֵָ֯ԟ ֤֡ ָ ֬׮ ֟߻ ƻ ׮ԣ . ƴֵ֟߻ֱֲԴֵ ֤֤֟߻ ֮׮֓ ֻ־ָ ׮ԣ ׮֕߾֮ ֟ߟ , Ӯ þ֟: Ƹ֮ ֻ ־ פ. ׿־ֵ ָ߮ ֿ߸ ֕֬֟߮ Ե Ӿ֓֟ ָ ֬׮ ֟߻ ƻ ׮ . ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ӓ ׾ִָ ƴֵֵֻ֯ԟ֓ ־ ָ ָ֓ Τִ֬ ִԓ ׮ԣ ׮֕߾֮֓ ָ γ־ ֔, ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ӓ ƴֵֻ-׾ָֻ ָ߮ ֻ֟ ן Ɵ ֯ ֻ .

 

ֻ֯ Τߑ ׾ָ֟ Ӯ 껵 ִԓ ӗ־֟ Γָ ӟ γ־߾ ֵ֤ . ׾ֿ ֵ֕Ӯ Γָ ָ ־ ֚ ׸ Γָӡꓵ ׾׾֬ ֬׮ ֮֬ӓ Ӯ ӟ ֻ֟ ִ֯ ֵ . Ӳ ָ ֮֬֓ ݵ ֵ ָ֑ ƻ ׮ԣ . ֮ ׌ִ֟, ֜ ׾֫ γ־ ֌韾, β㫯ξ֮֓ , ִ֮ ֯γ֟ ߸ӳ߸ ־֕, ִ ׾ָָ֓, ָ ™׳ִ֮ ִ ß׾ ׾ִ֬ ֙ ֫, ִ ־ԯָ ׾ִ֬Ծ֤˻ ׮֟ӟ ֤ ֤ ִ㓓ִֵ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ ӓ ξ֓ ןֵֿ ׯε ֻߓ ׸ִָ . ӓ ξ֮֓ ׮ֿ֟: ִָ ƕָ ֙ ִֵ֮ ־ԬִԵ ֟. ξ֮֓ӟ ִ ׾׿™ ֚ ֟ ׾֟߻ ־ ִ֚֡ ֻ֮ ִԻ ׾ִ֬ ִֻ֕ ƕ, ֟ ־׮ֿ Ӯ ֙ ֟. ָ֟߻ ߮ ָ ֤֮ , ׾ָ֓߻ ֻ֯ ξ֮֓ӟ Ӯ ִ֕־ ֟, Ӯ ׾ִ֬ԯ ™ӟ ֤֮ ׾ֿ ƴ ־޵֟ ֟.

 

γ־ Γָ ־ ָ Ɵ֓ ֟ ӿ ߻ ׮ ׾֪ӮӤ ֵָ֕Ӯ ֵԯ ܵ֟ ֯֟ . ִӣ ִ׾ֵ ָ ӣ ӓ ֵ֮, דӟ֮ ֮֮ Ꟶӓ ׌ִ֟֓ ׾ֳ֕ ֻ֮ . ֟߻ ֬׮ ֖֟ ׾ָ֓ӟ ӓ ӣ֓ ֮֓ ӓ ֟ӓ ֮ ׮ӓ ׮֟δ ֻ . ִ ӓ ֮֟ ־, ָß֯ ִֵ֤֮™ Ԯ ֜ ֟. ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ ӓ ֮ 1973 27ӣ ֫ ֻ ӓ ԤԮֻ 19 ӣ ׻֟ ߫ ޵֟ ֻ. ־ ӣ ֬׮ ™ þֹ֟ ֫ ޵֟ ֻ ֮ߵ ™ . á-כӮ־ ןӮ Ʈ ֟ӓ ׾׾֬ ׾ֵӾָ ׾֯ ׻ ֮ ֫ ޵֓ Ʈߵ ֵ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ Ӯ ׮š֯ ֵ֮֟ ָ ֛ . ӓ֓ ִ֮ Ӳ׬֟ ׾ֵӾָ ӿ֮֟ βӬ, ֯ , γ־ ֤Ӳ- ׻֟֯ ־ӣ ֤ ׻ Ɵ ָ Ӯ ӟ ׸ִ֯ ׮ִ . ־ Ɵ׮״ԟߓ ָ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ Ӯ֓ פ ƕ.

 

Ӯ Ɵֻ ֮ פ ֜ ־ ָ Ɵ ׮ִ ָ á, כ, ӿ ӓ ޵֓ ִ֕֓ ™ ָ ֤ . ׾֮֫ ִ֕֓ š ֮ֆ ߓ ֟֟ י ִ ޵֓ ֵ㌟ ֵ ׮š ֤ ָ ֛ߟ ִֻ ִ֮֕ ӓֲ֤ ֤־֮ Ӯ ׾ֿ ֮֮ ׾ֻ ƕ, ־ ™ ׮߮ ִֻ֕ ֙ פ ִ֮֕ ׾֮֫׾ֵߓ ֻ֯ ־ֿ Ծ ׮ֿ֟: ־ ƕ, ָ. ׸ִ֟: ׮ӓ ԤԮֻ ߸׮־ ָ Ɵ ֕Ԯ ָ ã ã֮֯ ֻ ֱִԟ Ɵ֟ ο֮ߵ ֵ ֵ -ָ֟ ׾֮֫Ӯ ߸ ָ ָ ӓ ׾ֿ ޵֓ Σ ֻ. ָ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ ӮƟ֓ ֟ ֯ ֮ ׮ִ .

 

ִԯΓָ Ɵ ֮ ֵԲָָ ִԓ ӣ֯ӣߵ ֵӴ֬ ꌵֳ־ ׮ִ ޵֓ ן Ɵ֓ ֵ ָ ֛޵ִ֬ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ Ӯ ָ ָߓ ֟ ׾׻ . ִ֚ Ӯ 1974-75 ־֮ ־߸ 2500 ׮־ ־ ןֵֿ ֻ ֵ ֻ. ӓ֓ ԤԮֻ ӓ ן֟ Σִ֓ ־ ֚ ֕, ֕ߟ, ד֮, ־֌ ִ֤֮֟-ã֯ ™ Γָ֟ ֻ. ӓ Ʈִ Ӯ֓ ׾׾֬ ӣߵ֓ ֵ֓ ֤ ֻ Ӯִ֬ ־֮ ֡ ֻ. ־֮ ޵֚ ׮߮ ָ ߟ, 㟵, ֙, ס, ֻ֟ד֡, ֵד֡, ֤ ӓ ִ֬֟ γ־ Γָ ޵ֈ֮ פ. ӓ ֿ־ߓ ׾׾֬ ֵδ֟ ߓ ׸ֵ Ӯ ޵֟ ֻ. Ӯ ׾ֿ Ƶ פִ ֫ ָ ו֮ꮦ ־ԯӣߵ Ӯ ׬ ֻ֮ ִ ןִ ӣ ׻֟ . ׿־ֵ Οֵ ξ֮֓֟ ׾׾֬ ״ ֵδִ֬ ׾ֿ Ƴ ޵ Ӯ Ӯ ƻӮ ㌟ . ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ Ӯִ֕֬ ׮ֵ֮֯ ׸֟Ԯ ֛ ޵֓ δ ן δ֓ ִ֕־ָ ™ ׸ִ Ի, ֿ ׮ִ˸ ֻ . ־ԓ ׸ ֓ 껵 Ӯ ׮ ߾֮֟߻ ֮֓ ֵ֬ ֤ ִ֮֕ ӓ ֯  .

 

׿־ֵ þ. ֵ֓ ߸ָ ָ֕, þ. . ָ , þ. . ֵָ , þ. . ־߸ן ., . ׾ִָֻ ., . ִָ ., . ָ ., . פָ ., ֵ֓Ԍ ֻ ., ׮ ֵԮӤ ., ֫ . ֤ פӲָ ֵ֓ ָӮ ִ֕֓ ״, ן ׾֟ ֵֻ֯֯ ָ߮ ƾ֬ ֮ߵ ֮ߵ ֤֮ פ . ִ ִ֕֓  ִ ד֟֓ ֜ , ֟ . ־ԓ ֵԓ ־֟ ־ָ ֓ ֟ . ִֵ֣ ָ֟ Ի. ִ֕ ־ ֵ֓ ׮ָ֕ӓ ֮ ֲָ֤ ִֵו֟ ԤԮ ֣ ִԯγ־֤֮˻ ֤ ֖֓ ߻.

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ֵ֓ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ :

ןָ ׌ִ֟

 

ִԯγ־֮ Ӹָ

 

ָ֟ פֲӸ ֵ֓֓ ָӯָ ןֵֿ ֮֟ ןֻ ָߵ ן֟ ӟ ֮֓ ã֮ . ָ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ߻ פӲָ ֵ֓Ԯ ִԯߟ ָ֓ ֟ ׸ã֟ߟ ׮ָ־֤ ֻ , ׮ָӟָ ־ԡ ֵ ׾ָ ӛ ־Ԯ ִԯ֤ ִԓ ֟֟ י׾޵ Ɵ֯ ֤ . ֜ ־ ָ ׾֯ ֵ㌟ ӣӯ֤ Γ׻֟ ֤׿ ӟ ׮ִ ־ ӟߟ ִ ޵֟ ןֵֿ ֓ ָ ֻ֟. פӲָ ֵ֓ ֵԓ Γߟ ָ֟ ֤ Ԯ ֜ , ָ ֟ . ֮֯ԓ ֟ӯ ֵ֓ þִ, ִӟֳ֦, ״֓Ӧ, ֤, ߸, ו֮, ֳ֦ ָ ׾ֿ ןֳӯ֮ ӣָ γ־ֻֿ ִԯΓָ ; ֓߮ ֟߻ פӲָ ֵ֓ԓ ־ֻ ָӯָ ֵ֬߮ ֟ ֕ ִ֮֟: ־ ֮֓ ־ ֟֯ ִֻ֮ӓ δִ ãָ ֕ߵ ׸ã֟ߴ כ ֻ. ו ִֻ֮ ֕ӓ ׮ֵס֟ ֟ ֻ껵 ֵ֬߮ ֻӛ֟ ִԯߟ ָֻ֓ ӟ ן ׸ã֟ ׮ִ ֻ֮ ߓ ׾ֿ֟: ׮ԣ ӓ ܵ ֤ ֻ ֵԵ֮ ӓ Ӿָ߻ γ־֤߻ 㯟 ֻ. ִ ӓ γ־֮ꓵ ™֟ ֵ־ ꤕ֮ ֻ ׸ã֟ ־ ֟֓ 긯ֵԟ ꛵ֱָ ֮ Γ׻֟ .

 

ֵ֓ӓ ֯ξ֟ ֵ

 

׸ã֟ߴ ߑ כ ֻ פӲָ ֵ֓ԓ ָӯָ ׾־ ֟֓ ֟߻ ׮ԣ . . ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕ ( . . 1873 1955 ) Ӯ ֻ֯ ִԯߟ ִָ֓ γ־ ׾ֻ. ׸֓ξ֟ ֵ֓ . ןָ ָ֕ Ӯ þ֟: ׮ ָ֮֓ ׮ԣ ߾֮֓ ֤ ׮ִ ־Ӯ ֬- ޵ ㌟ . ֯δ ־ ׾ Ӯ ן֕߾֮֓ ֮Ӥ֮ ָ֟ ׵ þֹ֟ Ӯ ִԯ֤ ޵֓ ־ֿ ֵ ֻ. ָ ֟Ӯӟָ ׮ԣ ֵ֓ԓ ׬ԯֻ֟ ׮ӑ ß֟֟ ֻ. ׮ԣ ׮֤֯֓ ןš ֜׾޵ֲָָ ־Ӵ֬ ִԕ ޵֓ ֵԤ߻ ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֮֕ ӟ ׮š ָ ֛. Ӯ ִԯδ ־ֵ ־޵֓ ֵ ןֵֿ ֑֛ ; ָ ֵ֬߮ ִֻ֬ ָӓ ׾׬׮ִֵӓ ־־ ֻ . ߟ߮ ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕Ӯ ֯ξ֟ þֹ֓ ֵ ׾־ ֵ֬֯ԟ Ӵ֬ ֯ ִԕ .

 

֬׮ ֟߻ ߓ ןֻ ֙ ָ . . ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕ ӓ ֵ ֮ ֻ׾޵֓ ִ ޵֓ Ɵ֯ ֵ ӟ ִ֣ԯ ֵ֕֟֟ ָ ֛ߟ , ׾ֿ ִ֮֬֓ ݵ֓ ™ .