ִ֫ ֮֓

ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕ Ӯ ֹ׾֟ 껵 ӓ ִԾָ߻ ֫ ׬ ޵֓ ֵ ןֻ ֮֓ ׬š֮ ޵֓ ֵ ָ֯敵 Ӵֳ֦֟ ָ֕ (֮ 19 כӲָ 1891 ) Ӯ ֻֿ֯ ׮֕߾֮֓ ꤸ Ɵ֯ ֻ ֻ . ״ ׿ ӓ ״ֱֻ־ָ ָ֬ ӟ, ֵ㌟ ֫ߓ ׿ ޵ ֮ Σִ ֟ . ֚ Ӯ 1918 ֻ ָӕ ־߸ Ƶִֵ֓ () ã ã֮֯ ֟ ֟Ծָ ֻ ך ֻ Ƶֵ֓Ը () ã 1934ֻ ã֮֯ ֮ӟָ ָ֟ ׾׾֬ ך -ꓵ 9 ӓ ã֮֯ Ӯ . ִӟֳ֦ ָ֕Ӯ ֬׮ ֻ֟ ֓ Ɵ֯ δ ִ֕֟ ָ ӟ ֛ ֻ.

׾־ ֟֓ ֟߻ ֹ׾֟ ֻ ׮ԣ ӓ ָӯָ ׳ִ ޵֓ Ʈߵ ֵ . . ֵ֓Ը ֳ ָ֕ (֮ 28 Ӳָ, 1905) Ӯ . ָ֟ Ƹִ֬ ֻ֓ Դ Τִ֬ ֟Ӯӟָ Σִ֓ ׾ָ ޵ָ ƻ ׮ԣ . ֟ ֵӟ ӻ֓ ָ ֤֡ ׾δ Ӯ ִԓ γ־ ָ׾޵֓ ֵ ָ ꚵ δ־ָ . Ӯ ֳָָ וִ֮פӓ ԫָ Ӿ ־ ֮ ޵ Ʈԓ ןš֮ ޵ Ӯ ㌟ ; ָ֟ ־ԡ ׾㸻껵 Դ Τ֟ ֻ껵 ֓߮ ߣӓ Ӹ Ӿ֬Ԯ ޵ Ӯ ׾ֿ ֮ פ. Ӯ ֵ֕֯ԟ 60 ָ ֮- ӣ ׻ Ɵ֓ ׻ ִԯγ־֮ ־ֿ ֵ Ӯ Ɵ֯ ֻ ֻ .

 

ִԯγ־֮ ֟

ֵ֓Ը ֳ ָ֕ӓ ָ׿µ ֵ֓ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ (֮ 22 ׯλ, 1925 ) Ӯ ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕Ӯ 껵 ִԯγ־֮ꓵ ֵԓ ֟ ֯ ֜׾޵֟ ֻ֯ ߾֮־þ ֻ , ִ֟ ֮ ֯ ֿ ӯ֤ . ֲֻδָ ã פ. 15 ֓ 1946 ֕ ֵ֓ 21 ֬߾֮֟ ξ ֵ . . ׾֪֮Ӥ߮ פ. 25 1963 פ ִ ֵ֓Ը ֳ ָ֕ ׮ӣ ׮֤ ֻ֮ӟָ ֻ֯ ִԯγ־֮ꓵ ֵԻ ӟ ׿™֯ ߟ߮ ֻ֮ ־ֵ ֟ . ׮ӣ ׮ֵ֓ԓ ׾׬־֟ ֻ֮ ߟ ִԯ֤ ޵֚ ׿ִ ָ ָ֓ ꚵ Ƹӟ ֮ ־֟ Ӯ ׾ָ ׾ָ . ָ֓ ֟߻ ִ פ ֵ֮֟ӟ ։ ִԯ֤ ָ, , 1970 ֬ ƴֵֻ ־ԟ֓ 12,300 ӓ߾ָ ֻ֦֣߮֯ ־֕־߻ ׿ֵָ֯ӟ ֤֡ ָ ֬׮ ֟߻ ƻ ׮ԣ . ƴֵֻ֟߻ ֱԴֵ Τ֤֟߻ ֮׮֓ ֻ־ָ ׮ԣ ׮֕߾֮ ֟ߟ , Ӯ þ֟: Ƹ֮ ֻ ־ פ. ׿־ֵ ָ߮ ֿ߸ ֮֕֬ߟ Ե Ӿ ֟ ָ ֬׮ ֟߻ ƻ ׮ԣ ׮ . ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ӓ ׾ß ׾ִָ ƴֵֵֻ֯ӟ֓ ־ ָ ָ֓ Τִ֬ ִԓ ׮ԣ ׮֕߾֮֓ ָ γ־ ֛. Ɵ˯γ־ ֵԓ ׸ ֓ ִ֮֕ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ Ӯ ׮֕߾֮֟߻ ֮֓ ֵ֬ ֤ 1974 ֻ ӟ ןš֤ ֵ֓ ֤ 1978 ֻ ӓ ֯  .

 

׾ִֿ֬ԯ ™ӟ

ֻ֯ Τߑ כ ֻ ֻ껵 ׾ָ֟ ֵ֓ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ Ӯ ִԓ ӗ־֟ Γָ ӟ γ־ ֵ֤ . ׾ֿ ֕ Ӯ Γָ ָ ־ ֚ ׸ Γָ ӡꓵ ׾׾֬ ֬׮ ֮֬֓ ߟ֓ ӟ ֻ֟ ִ֯ ֵ . Ӳ Γָ֮֬ӓ ݵ ֵԯ ֵ ָ ƻ ׮ԣ . ֮ ׌ִ֟, ֜ ׾֫, γ־ ֌韾, β ξֿ֮֓, ָ ™׳ִ֮, ִ֮ ֯γ֟, ߸ӳ߸ ־֕, ߴ ׾ָָ֓, ִ ß׾ ׾ִֿ֬ ֙ ֫, ִ ־ָ ׾ִֿ֬Բ֧ ׮֟ӟ ֤, ֤ ״ ִ㓓ִֵ ӓ ξ֮֓ ןֵֿ γ־, ֻߓ ׯε, ׸ִָ . ӓ ξ֮֓Ӯ ׮ֿ֟: ִָ ƕָӓ ֙ ִֵ֮ ־ԬִԵ ֟, ׾ֿ . ξ֮֓ӟ ִ ׾׿™ ֚ ׾ֿ֟߻ ־ ִ֚֡ ֻ֮ ִԻ ׾ִֿ֬ ִֻ֕ ƕ, ֟ ־׮ֿ Ӯ ֙ ֟. ן ָ֟߻ ִ ߻ ,ߵ ִ ޵֚ ߮ ָ ֤֮ , ׾ָ֓߻ ֻ ξ֮֓ӟ Ӯ ִ֕־ ֟. ׿־ֵ ׾ֿ ׸ ׸ ߾֮֓ ָ֬ ֻ֮ ™֓ Ƣ ֟߻ ׸ӯ֮ Ӿָ ֻӲ ֻ֮, ™ߵ ׸ֻ Ɵ ֟ Ӯ ֤ ןֵ㌟ ָ֓־ָ ָ ־, ־Ʈ ƴ ֟. ׾ֿ ™ߴ Ӯ ׾ִֿ֬ԯ ™ӟ ֤֮ ׾ֿ ƴ ־޵֟ ֟.

 

־֓

γ־ ξ֌ ֓ ־ ָ Ɵ֓ ֟ ־֓ ִ ӿ ֤߻ ֵ֓ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ Ӯ ֵԯ ܵ֟ ֯ . ֓߮ ִӣ ִ׾ֵ ָ ӣ ӓ ֵ֮ דӟ֮ ֮֮ ӓ ׌ִ֟־֓ ׾ֳ֕ ֻ֮ . ֟߻ ֬׮ ֢֖ ֮־ָ ׾ָ֓ӟ ӓ ӣӓ ֮֓ ӓ ֟ӓ ֮ ׮ӓ ׮֟δ ֻ ; ִ ӓ ֮֟ ־, ָß֯ ִֵ֤֮™ Ԯ ֜ ֟. ֮ 1978 긯ֵӟ Ӯ ׻ƻ 33 ӣ ֫ ֻ , ӣӮ ִƟ֟ ֮֟ ״ֻ . ӯ : ׾ִֿ֬,

פ ׿ ߣ פ֣, ׮ ִ֙ Ӥ, ߣ ֬Դ֮, ֣, ׯדӛ, ׾ִֿ֬ ָ ־Ԥ ߣ ׾ֿ ֮ߵ ӣ ׮ӓ ׾׾֬ ׾ֵӾָ߻ ӿ֮׬šߟ ִ ׾ָ֓ ִ֕޵ ӟ ֵ㌟ .

Ɵִ ֻ֮

ӓ ξ֮֓Ӿָ ָ֬ ־, , ֤֮߯ ֻ, ֻ ξ֮֓ ־ӓ ׻֟ þֺ֓ 7 ß ָ ֻ . ׿־ֵ ӓ ׾־ ԤԮֻ ׾ָד֟ ִֵָ ָ ִָ֟ ׾ָד֟ Ɯֻ ָܵ ֢֖֮֓ ™߮ Ɵ֯ ֻ껵 ӣӓ ־韵 ӯפ ޵֟ ӟ þֺ֟ ֫ ޵֟ ֻ . ֓֯δ ׮ӓ ֮־ָ ןӮ ֮ 15 ™ ӣ ֫ ֻ . Ӵ֬ ףֵֿ֟ Ӥ . ߸ꮦָ ד֟ ָ: ߣ ־߸ ָ ӛ֟ Ɵ֤Ӳָ, . ֪Ӧ ׻֟ ߣ ֬Դ֮ ־߸ ָ֬ ׸, ֫ ִֿ֕á֖ . . ׾ֻ ־ ׻֟ Life and Legacy of Mahavira : A Social Study ־֮ ־߸ӓ ִו ֵԓ ֜־ ָ Ε ӣ . Ƹ߮ ׾ָד֟ ָߵ ִ Ӹָ ӿָ֮֯ ӣ, ָܵ ִ֮ܵ֟ ӣӓ ִ־ . ӣָָָ֮ ׾֪ꓵ ֟ ֳ ӿֻ֮ ֮ ޵֚ ָ, פ; ߴ֟ ָ ӿ֮ ã, ײΤ ָܵ ׿™֯ ã ã֯޵ Ӯ ޵ ׮Ӯ ָߓ ֻ֮ פ. ֮ ӿ֮ ӯδ ֿ֮֓ ֤֟߻ ׮ӓ ߸ ׮־ ӣ ֿ֮ ״֟, Ӥ; ߸ ׮־ ָ, 긚 ָܵ ֛֛ߓ δֿ߻ ֿ֮ ã ã֮֯ ֻ , ӓֱִԟ Ԥָ ӣ ӟ þֺ֟ ֟ߟ ֫ ޵֓ ֵ Ɵ֯ ֻ . ߟ߮ ׾׾֬ ֵ㌟ Ӯ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ Ӯ Ɵӯ֤ ִ ޵ִ֬ ӟ ֓ ִָ . ߻ ֟߻ -֓ Ɵ׮״ԟߓ ָ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ Ӯ֓ פ ƕ.

 

׾֫ ד֟ 

׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ Ӯ Ɵֻ ֮ פ ֜ ־ ָ Ɵ ׮ִ ָ á-כ, ӿ ӓ ޵֓ ִ֕֓ ™ ָ ֤ . ׾֮֫ ִ֕֓ š ֮ ߓ ֟֟ י ִ鬤 ޵֓ ֵ㌟ ֵ ׮š ֤ ָ ֛ߟ ִֻ ִ֮֕ ӓֲ֧ ֤־֮ ֮ ׾ֿ ֮֮ ׾ֻ ƕ, ־ ™ ׮Ӯ ִֻ֕ פ ִ֮֕ ׾֫׾ֵߓ ֻ֯ ־ֿ Ծ ׮ֿ֟: ֕־ֻ ߕ, ָ . ׸ִ֟: ׮ӓ ԤԮֻ ã֮֯ ֻ껵 ߸ ׮־ ָ, 긚 ן ֵ ַ ֮־ָ ãֱԟ ָ ׾֮֬Ӯ ߸ ָ ָ Ӯ ׾ֿ ޵֓ ׳֮־ Σ ֻ. ָ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ Ӯ Ɵ֓ ֟ ֯ ֮ ׮ִ .

 

׌ߟֻ ןָ ֮

Ɵ֯δ ߟ֓ ֲ֟ߟ֤߻ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ Ӯ ӟ Ƣ֯ ֵ , ָ ־߮ δ . ߟֲ֧֓ ӓ ã Ӯ ε֟֯ ߴ֬ ߟֻ ֮֓ ã֮ , Ӯ ־ פ. ֤ ׌ߟ ߾֮֓ ׾ֳ֕ ֮ ֓ ָ ָ ֻ ƕ Ӯ ֓ ָ ƕ, ӓ ָ . Ӯ ִִ ׌ߟӓ ׸ֵ ־ Ӯ ߣ ֿԮ֣ ׌, ߣ ־߸ ׌, ״ָ֕ ׌ ָ ־-֮֟ ӣ š ן ӯפ þֺ֟ ֬ ޵ ֻ֮ פ. ֯ ׌ָ֮ ׳֕֟ ߟ֓ ָ֤ߟ ֻ֟ ־ֵ ֳ ־ ׾ß ֮ ֻ ߟֿ֟ ׳֮־ ӣ ׮ӓ ֵָ ޵֟ ֻ. ׿־ֵ, ִ֮ ֮ӯֵ՟ ׌ߟ ־ Ӯ ֓ ֳ ־, ׮ӓ פ ֮֕ ָ ӑ ã ã֮֯ ޵֟ ֻ. ן֓ ֱ ۟֯ ߟ ׾׾֬ Ӵ֬ ִ ֜޵֟ ֻ. ׿־ֵ, ׮ӓ ֬ãߴ ָߵ ֿ־߾ָ ׌ߟӓ ξ ֻ ֮ßӳ ָ ׌ߟ֓ ™ߵ ֵδ ޵֓ Σ ֿ־߾ָ ֻ. ׾ֿ ֕ ֢֖֮׾ֵ ִִ ӣ ־ þֺ֟ ָָ ־ ָܵ ӟ ֬ ֓ Ӯ ֮ ־, ֚ ׮Ӯ ׸ִ֯ ִֵָ ָܵ š ӣӓ ֣ - ֵ֮ - ׮ֺ ֵָ ֻ. ߟ߮ ׌ߟ֓ ֟ ן֤ ֵ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ Ӯ . ӓ ִָ ֤ ׾ôָߵ .

 

־ ֚ ֕, ֕ߟ, ד֮

ִԯΓָ, Ɵ, ֮ ׌ߟ ָ ֵղָָ ִԓ ӣ֯ӣߵ ֵӴ֬ ꌵֳ־ ׮ִ ޵֓ ן Ƣ֓ ֵ ָ ֛޵֟ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ Ӯ ָ ָߓ ֟ ׾ֻ . ִ֚ Ӯ 1974-75 ־ ־߸ 2500 ׮ִ ־ ןֵֿ ֻ ֵ ֻ. ӟ֓ ԤԮֻ ӓ ן֟ Σִ֓ ־ ֚ ֕, ֕ߟ, ד֮, ־֌ ֤ ִ֮֟ - ã֯ ™ Γָ֟ ֻ. ӓ Ʈִ ӟ߻ ׾׾֬ ףֵӓ ֵ֓ ֤ ֻ Ӵ֬ ־֮ ֮ ֻ. ־֮ ޵֚ ׮Ӯ ָ ߟ, 韵, ֙, ד֡, ֻ֟ד֡, ֵד֡ ֤ ӓ ִ֬ӟ γ־ Γָ ޵ ֮ פ. Ӯ ׾ֿ Ƶ פִ ֬ ָ ו֮Ӧ ־ԯӣߵ Ӯ ׬ ֻ֮껵 ִ ןִ ӣ ׻֟ . ׿־ֵ Ο ξ֮֓֟ ׾׾֬ ״ ֵδӴ֬ ׾ֿ Ƴ ޵ Ӯ Ӯ ƻӮ ㌟ .

 

׮ֵ֮֯ ִ֕֯׸֟Ԯ

ߟ߮ ֬ן ִו, ָӯ׸ ֬׮, ן ־׸ ׾֫ ӓ ״ ִ ֕ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ . ִִ ׮ š ֵ֓ ָӯָ߻ ֯γ־ ™ӟ ֻ֮ . Ӯ ִִ֕֬ ׮ֵ֮֯ ׸֟Ԯ ֛ ޵֓ δ ן δ֓ ִ֕־ָ ™ ׸ִ Ի, ֿ ׮ִ

ֻ .

 

 

31

ֵ֓ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ:

֬߾֮֓ ֻ

(.. 1946 1982)

ָ֯敵 ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ ӓ ֮ ־ָ, פ 22 ׯλ, 1925 ꛲ (ֻ , וֻ ־, ֕ ԙ ) ־ ֻ. ӓ ֮֮־

Ӧָ . ӓ ׯ֟ . ֯ ֯ ֬ ӓ ֟ . ָþ֟ߤ ֯ ֬ ӓ ָֻ ꛲ ֵ֓ ןָ ã ׿ ֮֟֓ ִ֮֬ ߾ ݵֳ־֮ ֮ ֻ֮ Ӯ ֲֻʓָ ã֓ ֵ֓ 21 ֬߾֮֟ þꓔ ֟׾ֿ֯ ξ . ֯ ֕ 15 ֓, 1946 ֻ껵 ӓ ֬߾֮֓ ߮ ֯

( 36 1946 1982 ) ӟ ֿþ߯ ֻ ӓ ߻ ֬߾֤֮߻ ןֵֿ γ־ ߟ߮ ֻ ߻, ־ծ ֡ ֙; ӓ ߮ ֯ӓ ֵֿ֯ԓ ִ ֮ ޵֚ ӓ ֣ ֬߾֮֓ ֻ ֺ֮ ֻ פ .

 

-

פ : פ 15 ֓, 1946

: ֵ֓ ־߸ ߟ ָ֕

ã֮ : ִ֤ ( וֻ - ־ )

ִ : ߟ

׮ԣ ׮֤ -

פ : פ 25 , 1963

: ֵ֓Ը ֳ ׮ִָ֕

ã֮ : פ

ִ : ׾֪֮Ӥ

 

ֵ֬ ֤ - ןš

ß : ֵ֓Ը ֳ ׮ִָ֕

פ : פ 17 Ӳָ, 1974

ã֮ : פ

 

ֵ֓ ֤ - ןš

ß : ִ֕, פ

פ : פ 17 Ӳָ, 1974

ã֮ : פ

 

֮֬ ξ֟ ֤ - Τ֮

ß : ִß פӲָ ִ֕

פ : , 1981

ã֮ : ־ֲ

 

ã ( 1946 - 1962 ) 17 ֟

1) 1946 ( ԙ ) : ֿþ ߾֮֓ ָӳ

2) 1947 ֓ ( ԙ ) : ִԯγ־֮ ֟

3) 1948 ֻ ( ָ™ ) : ִӟֳ֦ ָ֕ӿ ӯ ӓֻ֮֓ ™.

4) 1949 ( ԙ ) : ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕ӿ ӯ ߻ ֓ ֵ֤ ӓֻ֮.

11) 1956

12) 1957 ֓ ( ԙ ) : ֓ ߻ ӣֵֻ ӓ 㾵־ã

13) 1958 ֮֜ ( ֕ã֮ ) : ָ ־ԓ ָӳ, Ӥ ֵ֮ Ӥ

14) 1959 ӿ ӯ - ã֮֯

15) 1960 ־ ( ԙ ) : γ־֯ ξ֮֓ ָӳ, ֛ ֻ ״ָߓ ֮֮.

16) 1961 ֦ ( ԙ ) : ֵ֓ ӓ ׾֡ ֯ߟ ֬ן ֟ߓ ߕ.

17) 1962 ׿ִ ( ԙ ) : ׮գ ޵֓, ָ ָ֟ ֤֯ ޵֓ ִ γ־֮ ֬׮ ֬߮ ޵֓ .

 

׮գ ׮ֆã (1963 - 1982) 20 ֟

1) 1963 פ ( ֮֕֬ ) : ֵ֓Ը ֳ ׮ִָ֕ ӓ ׮֤ þֵ֬ ֵָ֟.

2) 1964 ֵ֯ ( ֕ã֮ ) : ֯γ־ֻֿ ξ֮֓ӓ ָӳ ףֵֿ֟ .

֤֕ ӓֿ ׮š ӯ.

3) 1965 ױֲ֤ ( ָ Τ ) : ™Ҭִԯֻ֮֓ ָ֤֓ ߾֮δ֓ ־Ʈ

4) 1966 פ ( ֮֕֬ ) : ֬ Ӳָ ׮ ߻ָ ӓֿ ׾ֿ ӯ ׸ ֤֮֯Τ֮.

5) 1967 ( ָ Τ ) : ֹӿ ӯ ã֮֯ ֿ֌߻ ִו ״ 㟣֮֓ ־Ʈ.

6) 1968 ֛ ( ָ Τ ) : ָ Ӯ ָ㌟ ״ ߾֮ ޵֓ .

7) 1969 ָ֯ ( ָ Τ ) : ׾֮֫ ן Ӯ ִԬֵ֮֓ ִӡ ƴֵֻ֓ ־ֻ ׿ָӓ .

8) 1970 ָ߮ ( ֜ ) : ƴֵֻ ׾ָ֓ Σִ ֮, ָ ֬Ӳָָ ֤˳־֮֯ ӯ ָ߮ וֵֻ֮֓ Ԭָ.

9) 1971 Ӥ ( ֬ Τ ) : ֿ֮ ãӓ ã֮֯, ִו ֹ߾֮ֆ Ɵ ׮״ԟ Ʈ.

10) 1972 ־߸ ( ֕ã֮ ) : ׾ִ֬ Ù ã֮֯, ׳֕֟ ֮֓ š ן ֮ ן 㸹֚֮ ݵ ֟־ָ֓ ׮״ԟ.

11) 1973 긚 ( ָ Τ ) : ߸ ׮־ ָ ã֮֯, ׾֮֫ӓ ד֟ ֮֮, ־֮ ־߸ 2500 ׮־ ־֓ ׾־֯ ֮ 渤 , ִԓ ׸δ֓ ָ־֯ ֵδ֓ ׮׿֟ ־ ӣӣӮ ֯ߚ־ָ ޵֓ ֲ֮֬ ε֟.

12) 1974 פ ( ֮֕֬ ) : ߸ ׮־ ֿ֟֟ ־ ֚ ־ ӯΤֵӓ ֱ Ƶ֯֯, ִִ ׮״ԟ֚ Ƣ֯ Ƴ, ָ ã֮֯ ֵ֬ ֤ ןš.

13) 1975 ָ֬ ( ׸ ) : ׻֯ ӣ֓ ֿ֮ ׾֪֣ԾԻ ִԓָ֓ ־Ʈ.

14) 1976 פ ( ֮֕֬ ) : ִֵָ ӣ֓ דӟ֮ ӿ֮ ӣ֓ ׸ ӯ֤֚ ӿ֮ ӣ֓ ׸ ӯ֤֚ . ֳֻ֦ Ӯ ԤԮ.

15) 1977 ֛ ( ָ Τ ) : ִֵָ ӣ֓ ֚ӓ ׮׿֟, ֿ֮ - Οߓ ֵָ ׾֮֫Ӯ ־Ɵ ׮״ԟߓ .

16) 1978 פ ( ֮֕֬ ) : ִֵָ ӣֻ ߟֲ֬ ޵֓ ָӮ ׸ִ֟: ֓ ֓ ׮״ԟ ָ ӣ֓ ֚ӓ ׮׿֟.

17) 1979 Ӥ ( ֬ Τ ) : ִֵָ ָ ֤ ӣӓ ֿ֮, Ɯֻ ӣ֓ ֚ ׮׿֟, ׾ֿӟ Ӵ֮Ӯ ã֟ ޵֚ ָ ޵֓ ָּӮ , ֙ ־Ե ִß׳ ־֓ ӵ֮

ָ֤ ֮֟ӟָ ־ֲ ן ֻ ׾ָ֓ ָӳ.

18) 1980 ־ֲ ( ԙ ) : ־֮ ֻ ִ ֲ

ִß׳֓ ן

19) 1981 ן Ƣ֓ ־֓ ӯ ֵ֮, ֻ ԤԮ γ־֯ ִ֮֯, ִֻ֮ Ù ã֮֯ ֵ δӓ ֟. ִã ߻ . ֻ ִ ןš֮֯ ־֓ ӵ֮ ã֟

ָ߻ ֻ ׾ָ ָӳ ־ԡ ִ ߓ .

20) 1982 ןָ - ( ԙ ) : ָ ֳ, ֳ ִ ֤ ãӮ ԤԮ, ו֮֯ וִ֮פ ӣ֓ ƻ֮ ֿ֮, ֻ ߻ ן þֺ֓ פ־֤֮ ִָ֓ ӵ֮ ֯ ߻ ֚֟߻ ֮ßӳ ןš ־֓ ԤԮ ֚

֮֟ӟָ ָ™֟߻ ֻ ׾ָ ָӳ.

 

 

32

־ ן ֟ߓ ֮ :

־ԟ֦ ִӟֳ֦

ָ֟߻ ֓߮ פӲָ ֵ֓ԯָӯָ ׾־ ֟֟߻ γ־ֻֿ ָ, ֓߮ ׿ֻ֯ӓ ֬׮ ֟߻ ֹ߾, ״ ׿֓ ݵ ֛ ֻ ־ֿ ׸Ӿ֬Ԯֻ ׾ֿ Ƣ ָ š Ԥ, ֮֮֬ þֵ֬ ӓ ӛ ָ γ־ ֤, ָ™֟߻ ֻ ʓִֵ (ֻ - ) ־߸ ʓִֵ ( ָӕ, ַ֛ ) ףֵֿ֟ ׿ãӓ ֮־ָ ã֯, ׾֪֣ Ӯ ñ ӓ Γӛ ֌ ׾ֵ֬ ֵԻ ־ָ ™ ִ֕ןָ ֤ ֻ֯ ָ ֻ ֿ߾Ԥ ־ծ ֮ ֮֮ ָ ֮־Ɵדӟ ־ԟ֦ ֵ֓ ִӟֳ֦ ׮ִָ֕ Ӯ ֻ֯ 97 Փ ( . . 1891 1988) Τߑ ߾֮֟ ִִ֕֬ ־ ן ֟ ӟ ׾ָ֓ ׮ֲֵ֮֬ ߮ ֛ ޵֓ ןֵֿ ֑֛ ֵ ֿþ߯ ָ ֛ ִ֕֓ ן ןִ֬ ֻ֯ ־ ָ .

 

ִԯγ־֮ ָӯָ

ָ֟ פӲָ ֵ֓Փ ָӯָ ןֵֿ ֮֟ ןֻ ָߵ ߟ ӟ ֮֓ ã֮ . ָ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ߻ פӲָ ֵ֓ծ ִԯߟ ָ֓ ֟ ׸ã֟ߟ ׮ָ־֤ ֻ ֻ; ׮ָӟָ ־ԡ ֵ ׾ָ ߟ ӛ ־ծ ִԯ֤ ִԓ ֟֟ י׾޵ Ƣ֯ ֤ ; ֜ ־ ָ ׾֯ ֵ㌟ ӣӯ֤ Γ׻֟ ֤׿ ӟ ׮ִ ־ ӟ߻ ִ鬤 ޵֟ ןֵֿ ֓ ָ ֻ֟. פӲָ ֵ֓Փ ׿™ ֵԓ Γߟ ָ֟ ֤ ծ ֜ ; ָ ֟ ־ ֮֯ԓ ֟ӯ ֵ֓ ָӓ ׿µ־ָ - ¯֤, ֲֻ, ֵ֓ , þִ, ִӟֳ֦, ״֮֓, , ߸, ו֮, ֳ֦ ָ ׾ֿ ןֳӯ֮ ӣָ γ־ֻֿ ִԯΓָ .

֓߮ ֟߻ פӲָ ֵ֓Փ ֻ ָӯָ ֵ֬߮ ֟ ֕ ִ֮֟: ־ ֮֓ ־ ֟֯ ִֻ֮ӓ δִ ãָ ֕ߵ ׸ã֟ߴ כ ֻ. ו ִֻ֮ ֕ӓ ׮ֵס֟ ֢ ֻ껵 ֵ֬߮ ֻӛ֟ ִԯߟ ָֻ֓ ӟ ן ׸ã֟ ׮ִ ֻ֮ ߓ ׾ֿ֟: ׮գ ӓ ܵ ֤ ֻ ֵԵ֮ ӓ Ӿָ߻ γ־֤߻ 㯟 ֻ. ִ ӓ γ־֮ꓵ ™֟ ןֵֿ ֵ־ ꤕ֮ ֻ ׸ã֟ ־ ֟֓ 긯ֵ՟ ꛶ֱָ ֮ Γ׻֟ .

 

ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕ӓ ִԕߓ ֵ

׸ã֟ߴ ߑ כ ֻ פӲָ ֵ֓Փ ָӯָ ׾־ ֟֓ ֟߻ ֟: ôָߵ ׮գ ׮ָ֕ ָ֯敵 ׸֓ξ֟ ֵ֓ ׮ָ ָ֕ (. . 1873 1955) Ӯ ֻ֯ ִԯߟ ִָ֓ γ־ ׾ֻ. Ӯ þ֟: ׮ ָ֮֓ ׮ӣ ߾֮֓ ֤ ׮ִ ־Ӯ ֬ - ޵ ㌟ . ֯δ ־ - ׾ Ӯ ן֕߾֮֓ ֮Ӥ֮ ֟ ׵ þֺӟ Ӯ ִԯ֤ ޵֓ ־ֿ ֵ ׮š ֮֟֟ ֻ. ָ ֟Ӯӟָ ׮գ ֵ֓Փ ׬ֻ֯֟ פӲָ ׮ӑ ß֟֟ ֻ.

׮գ ׮֤֯֓ ןš ֜׾޵ֲָָ ־Ӵ֬ ִԕ ޵֓ ֵԤ߻ . . ֵ֓ ׮ָ ָ֕ Ӯ ӟ γ־߯ ָ ֛. ִԯδ ־ֵ ־޵֓ ֵ ןֵֿ ֑֛ ; ֵ֬߮ ִֻ֬ ָӓ ׾׬׮ִֵӓ ־־ ֻ . ߟ߮ ֵ֓Ӯ ֯ξ֟ þֺ֓ ֵ ׾־ ֟֓ ֵ֬֯՟ ִִ֕֬ ֯ ִԕ .

 

ִӟֳ֦ӓ ֹ߾֮֓ ֵ

ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕ Ӯ ָ ӟ ׸ã֟߻ ꚶ Ԯ ӵִ֮ ӛ ִִ֕֬ ֟Ӯӟָ ׮ִ 껵 ִԕ߻ ãָ ޵֓, ןֻ ã֯ ãֵ þֺ ޵֓ ן֓ ִ֕֓ ־ ָӯֵ՟ ߾֯ ׾޵֓ ן Ƣ֓ ֵ ִӟֳ֦ ָ֕ Ӯ ׾׾֬ ã ֜ ׮ָ׮ָ ׾ֵ֬ δӓ ֻӲ ִ֣ԯ ; ֜ ־ ָ ִִ֕֬ ָ ן ӟ ֛ ֻ ֵ ߓ ־ ֟߻ ֟ߓ ֵ ֻ޵֓ ӟ ֑֛, ־ֿ ֵ ׾׿™ ֻ־֬ߟ ׮ֵ֮֯ ׿ßߟ ־ ™ פ, ִ֕֟߻ ֟韾֓ ׿ֵ ׾ֻ, ִִ֕֬ ־֮־߮ ã ã֮֯ 껵, ִ֕֕߾ִ֮֬ ֵ㌟ ׳֮־ δӓ ֟ ־֤ ׸ִֿ߻ ֵՓ ӓ ׮ִ . ִ֕֓ ן ֟ߓ ™߮ ™ ӟ ־ֿ . ӓ ֻ֮ ݵ ߟ߮ ׸ Ӯ ߻ ֻ֯ þֺ ֯ ޵֓ ׻ ֳֵ ֵ . ׾ֿ ֕ ޵֓ ֓ ָ . ֯δ ־ ֮֓ ־ ֟֓ ָ ߻ ߸, ו֮, ֤ ֤ פӲָ ֵ֓ծ ִԓ ִָԵӓ β δ֯ ׾׾֬ ֵӓ ֻӲ Ӹ ִԓ ß֟ י׾޵֓ ן ֵ , ֓֯δ ׾־ ִ֟֬ ִӟֳ֦ ָ֕Ӯ ןֵֿ 渤׿ԟ ־ ־߮ δӓ ֟ ߻ ָߵ ߓ ֜ ׮™ γ־֯ ֓׾޵֓ 霴 ޵֓ ן ֵ . ߓ ־ ֟߻ ֟ߓ Ӵ ֻ .

 

ן ֹ߾֮֓ δ

ߓ ֹ߾֮ ( Revival of Jain Culture ) ߓ γ־ ֜׾ þֺ֟ דָãֵ ӓ ߾֮֬ ֻ֮ ֬ ޵֚ Ӯ ״, , ִו, ן ֤ ӟ ׾׾֬ ׾ֵ֬ δ , ־߮ ã ã֮֯ 껵, ӓ ֵԯ֬ פ, ӓ ݵ ӓֻ֮ ִִ֕֬ ֟ ׸֟Ԯ ֛ ֻ. ־֮־߮ δӴ֬ Ӯ ־֤ ™֟ ֻ֯ ׾ֵ֟ ߾֯ 껵 ֻ߻ ™ ׾ֿ ֮ߵ Ƣ֯ :

 

1) ִ֬ ֮֓ : . . ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕ Ӯ ִ֮֕ ֻ֯֟ ߑֻ Γ׻֟ ֻ껵 ״֣֟֓ ָ ״֣ ֤֟ӓ ָ֮֬ ޵֓ Σ ִ˟֓ ָ־ ߟָ ִԾָ ֬ ־, ֤ ֯δ ָ֓֟ ֤ ־ ε֟ . ߟ߮ ֵ֓Ӯ ֹ׾֟ 껵 ִ֬ ׬ ޵֓ ֵ ןֻ ֮֓ ׬š֮ ޵֓ ֵ ִӟֳ֦ ָ֕Ӯ ߾֮֓ 긯ֵ՟ Ɵ֯ ֻ ֻ. ֚ Ӯ ־Ӯ ִӣ֓ þֵ֬ ޵֓ Ο ޵ ꚶ δ־ָ ㌟ , ֟֓ ִ֕֟ þֵ֬ ޵֓ Σ ãׯ֟ ֻ. ֵ֓ ӟֳִ֦. ޛ ־ָ֓, ״֓Ӧֵ֓ , . ꛸ֻ֕׾ָד֟ ִԯֿ . ִָ֟֕߸ד֟ Ɯֻ ָܵ ™ ִ ֢֣, ִֵָ ξָ֮֓ ӓßֵ ָܵ ָ֬ ֻ֮ ֻ. ־ ε֟Ӵ ִ֕֟ ִԖ֮֓ ־ֿ ָ ޵ ֤ ֻ.

 

2) ֻߓ ã֮֯ : ״ ֯δ ׿֓ ֤߻ Ӯ ־߮ δ : . δӴ֬ ׿֯λߓ : ã֮֯ ޵ ֮֬ פ ָ֮ ߑֻ߮ ֮ ֵ׮֟ ޵ ָӳ . ֚ Ӯ ָ֢ կ ֕ ֮ 1918 ֻ ָӕ ( וֻ - ׾֤ ) ־߸ ʓִֵ ( ) ã ã֮֯ ֓ ֟Ծָ ֮ կ ֕ ֮ 1934 ֻ ֻ ʓִֵ ( ) ã ã֮֯ . ֮ӟָ ӓ ԤԮֻ ָ™, ԙ ֬ Τ ֕ӟ ӓ ã֮֯ ޵֟ ֻ.

־ ׿ ãӴ֬ ֕ ֮֯ߟ δָ֮ ׾׾֬ ָ ס ׿ ִָ֯ ޵ֲָָ ׾֪֣ծ ־ֿ ״ ן ׿ ׸Ӿ֬Ԯ ָ ָ ӓ־ָ ׮ֿ֟: ™Ӿָ Ӯ ׾ֿ ָ פ. ֚ ߻, ֮, , ־ã ׿ֻ֯ߓ ӓ ãׯ֟ ֟ ׾֪֣Փ ָ߸, 㬤 ֮ ( Hand, Head and Heart ) ӓ ִ֟ ׾ ֬޵֓ ӛ ε֟ .

ִ ׿ ™ ָïָ׾ָ ָïָ ־ ׯ֜ߓ ֛֑֛߻ ׸Ӿ֬Ԯֻ ־ֿ , Ӯ ֻ֯ εӟ ֯δ ֬ ׾ֻ ִו 滵ӓ ָ Ӳ޵֚ߤ߻ ״ Ӿ ן ׿ ַ ֻ֯ߓ ֻӲ ־ֿ , ™ ִ֕ ֙ פ. ֬ ™ߓߓ ִֻ֕ ׮֟ӟ ָ , ׾ָ֓ӟ ׿֟֕ ֟ . ו . . ӓ ׿֟߻ ִָ Ʈߵ דָãֵ þֺ֓ ֻ ӓ 港׸ִ ֤֮ ™ֻ ֓ߟ֓ Ԥ .

 

3) ָ֚ Ɵ׮״ԟߓ : ״ ֯δ ן ֟㬤 ִִ֕֬ ֻ֮ ־߮ δ ޵֚ ָ֯敵 Ӯ ןӮ ֤ פ, Ӯ ׾׾֬ ָ ׾֬ ֲֻ פ ӓ Ɵӓ ݵ Ӯ Ɵ׮״ԟߓ ֟ ׮ָӟָ ֵ ޵ ֮֯ Ʈ פ; ִ ִ֕֟ ߻ ֟ ןӓ ־ ׯ֜ ֵָ ֻ Ɵ - ׮״ԟߓ ӟ 껵 ֟ӓ ֮֮ ָ ꚶ δ־ָ ֟ ֻ. 港׸ִ ־ֿ ֵ . . ӓ ־֮ ָ֚ Ɵ׮״ԟߓ ֟ ֻ, Ԯ Οֵ . ֓ ™ Ƹ ֕ ָ׿־ - ֲ֤ ִ֮ܵ֟ ן þ. ߻ֻ Ƹ֓Ӥ Ӭ Ӯ ֟ ־֮ ָ֚ Ɵ֟ ׾֯ ׻ ӣ׮״ԟ ן֓ þ֓Ԯ ֿ֮ . . . Ӵӟֳ֦ ָ֕ ӓ ֺ . ֟ Ӯ ֮ 1934 ֻ ָ֚ ֮ ׻޵֓ ӟ ֑֛ Ƣ֓ ֵ ֟ ֻ 50 Ɵ֯ ׸ִ ֿ֮֓ ֯ ִ Ꜿֻ껵 ֓ ß׻֟ Οߓ ֿ֓ ֵ ֻ Ԯ ӛ , ֮֓ ָ ӛ ֮ ֵָ ޵֓ Γӛ ֵ ֬ . ƻ ӛ 1972 ֻ, ָ 1974 ֻ, ןָ 1981 ֻ ӛ 1984 ֻ ֯δ ֬ . ׿־ֵ ߣԾӤ, Ο, ־߸ ׸ ָ 20 ӣ ׻ ֻ֯ þ֟: Ù ֟߮ ֬ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ׳־鬤ߴ֬ ָ ֓ ָ ֻ֟.

ָ֚ Ɵ׮״ԟߴ֬ ӣֲָָֻ֮ ֡׸ ֮֬ ޵֓ Ƣ֯ ֵ . . Ӯ ӟ ֱ֟֯ ָ ֛ . ӓ֓ ֮ 1950 ֻ ףֵֿ֟ ן Ӥ ӓ ָ ӓ 韾ֻ

ן ԓ ָ֚ ֓ ָӳ ޵֟ ֻ. 껵 ߮ ֯ ß ֬ߓ ֻ֟ ֮ן ֮ ָ֚ Ɵ֟ ִ֕֟ ןš ״׾ֻ; ֜ ־ ָ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ֟߻ ׾׾֬ ָ ֤ .

ָ֚ Ɵ֟ ӣֻ֮ ֡׸ ӯδ ӿֻ֮㬤 Ƣ ޵֓ ֮ߵ ֵ ֻ ֮ ֯ߚ ã֮֯ ޵ β . . Ӯ ; ִ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ֵ֮, ӿ֮ ֿ֮ ֟ Ƣ֯ ֵ ֟ ״, ֿ ׮ִ ֻ .

ߟ߮ . . Ӯ Ԯ þ֟: ӣֻ֮ ֻ ָ ֮־ָ ן ׳֕֟ ӣֻ֮ ܵ Ӯ Ʈ , ӣֻֿ֮֯ ֻ֮ פ ֡׸ ןš ֯ ָ֚ Ɵ׮״ԟߓ ֟ ֯ ֵ . ӓ ֵԓ ׸֟ ָ™ Ɵ ׸֤, ֯ ־߮ ã ã֮֯ ןֱִ֓ԟ ָ֚ Ɵ׮״ԟߓ ֟ ֯ ֵ . ӓ ֵԓ ׸֟ ָ™ ׮״ԟߓ ֟ ֯ ֵ . ӓ ֵԓ ׸֟ ָ™ Ɵ ׸֤, ֯ ־߮ ã ã֮֯ ןֱִ֓ԟ ָ֚ Ɵ Ӵ֮ ן־ ֵ֮ ִ֬ ֱ֟֯ ֻ.

 

5 ) ׾֡ ß - ֓ ָ : ִ׿ Ɵ ӯδ ߓ ֤߻ ־ԣ ־ δ ß ֛ . . Ӯ ׫ߵ þֺ֓ ֵ ֻ . ֵ ֕ ןֵֿ ֻߓ ֵָֻ֣ 渤™߮ ׮ֲֵ֮֬ ߟ߮ ׮ִ ߟ߻ Ӥߵ ߣã֮, ֵֻ, ßӳ, ׮פ, ֤ ֤ ֻ ־֮ ßӓ ֮֓ ֓ ־ָ֟ ֮ ֟־ָ֟ ֻ ׾֡ ß - (The Sacred Complex) ׳֮־ ֮ ׮״ԟ . ןֵֿ ֻ ֮ 1934 ֻ ֻ ʓִֵ֓ ã֮֯ ֻ֮ӟָ Σִ ֮ ָ֤ ֮Ƹ ֻ וִ֮פ Ӭ޵֟ ֻ ծӟָ ֓ ֕ ꛶ ӟָ־ָ ־߸ ִ־ָ פ ӟ ־߮ ֟ԓ פ ָ޵֟ ֻ. ֮ 1963 ֻ פӓ ֬߻ ӓ־֙֓ ־ָ ָ֓ ָߓ ֬־ָ ־֮ ֻߓ 28 ӓ ִָָ ֓ ֮ ִ ׾ִָ֮֕ ޵֟ ֻ. ֮ӟָ ֮ 1970 ֵ ־֮ ׸ָ֟ 1 ) ִ׿ָ, ָ, ָָ, ־֯ ӯ֯ ߣ ֣ Ӳ׬֟ ֬ӓ ־ ן, 2 ) ߟ, ֕֯ӣ, ㌟ָ, ָ, ָ ־ָ ָ ֬ӓ ֑ ן, 3 ) ֵ֡ פ, פ ״֣֮ פ ו֮ ֵֻ, 4 ) Ӭ, Ӥָ ӓִ ֮, 5 ) ָ ך ֻ ָ֤֯ - ׮פ, 6 ) ֮ßӳ, 7 ) ֯ ןßӳ, 8 ) ןָ ξ֮֓ פ 9 ) ӓ ָ ׾֡ ßӓ ׸ִָ ָ δδ֮ ޵֟ ֻ ֵԟ ׮ֿ֟: ӓ ִ ׾֡ ӣ ִָָ ־ָ ޵֟ ֻ ׸ָ֟ ־ԡ ™߻ ֛߻ ך ִԾ֮֓ ָ֚, Ӥ Ӵ֬ ׻ƻ .

ߟ߻ ׾׾֬ ֻ ™ ׾֡ ß - þֺ֟ ֓ ׸ָ֟ ֤ . . ִӟֳ֦ ָ֕Ӯ ׫ߵ ׿™ ֵ ָ֟ Σִ֓ ׾ֻ ֻ ֻ ִ֕֓ ֮ײӤ ã֮ ״ פ.

ߟ߮ ִ֬ ֮֓ , ׿ֻ֯ߓ : ã֮֯ , ָ֚ Ɵֵ׮״ԟ߻ ֮ ׾֡ ß - ֓ ָ֟ Σִ ָ ӟ Ƣ֯ 港׸ִ δ ӓ ׮ֲֵ֮֬ ߟ ׳־鬤 . . ִӟֳ֦ ָ֕Ӯ ߓ ֹ߾֮֓ ן ֵ ӟ ֿþ߯ ָ ֛ ; ӓ Τߑ γ־ ן ןִ֬ ִӟֳ֦ ָ֕ Ӯ ָ߻ ןָ þֺ֓ ֵ 껵ֲ֧ š ԓ ֮֓ ã֮ ֯ ֻ . ӓ פ֟ ֟ ֤ ׳־֤ .

 

 

׾ֳ 5

韾: ן ִו

33) . . . ֬ : ִ֮ ׌ִ֢־

34) . ֚˚ : γ־ ִ֮֕

35) Ե ֬Դ֮ : ׾ֵ֬ ֵ

36) . ֙߻ : ߸־ Ρָ

37) . וֿ֤֮á : š ן

38) Ծ߸ ։־ ֙߻ : ӟָ ִ֮֕

39) ָ֡ Ƹ֓Ӥ ֓Ӥ : ִָ ֲֻ

 

 

33

. . . ֬:

ִ֮ ׌ִ֢

ָ ֳ ִ֮ܵ֟ , ָߵ ׾֪ӓ ӛ כ, ӓ ִ֮ܵ֟ ֕, ӟָ™ߵ ߟԓ ׾֮֫ ӿ, ֻ ָߵ ֓׾֪ ׸֤ ֮֮ߵ , ֛ ӿ, ֻ ָߵ ֓׾֪ ׸֤ ֮֮ߵ , ֛ Ɵ Ӵ֮ӓ Ԣ֮ , ָߵ ֮֯ߚ֓ ֮֮ ã֯ ֤õ, ״ ֓߮ ӣӓ ֮־ָ ӯ֤, ֿ ß ӿָ֮֯ ׮ֲӬӓ , ָ֟߻ ֲָ߻ ׾׾֬ ׾֪֯ߚӓ ֮֟֯֯ Ԥ, ԟ־֮ ׾֪֣Փ ָӯָ ׮ִ ָ γ־ ֬֯, ן ãӓ ֻ ο, ִ ֢֖֮ ӓ š ֤, Ɵ֓ Ƣ ֙ ָ ֬ Γָ, ߓ ׾׾֬ ӓ ֤ þֹӟ Γӛ ׻ ֵ ־ ־ ֮ ׾ָ֯ ׮š֯ . פ֣ ״֣֮ ֬ ( . . 1906 - 1975) Ӯ ֻ֯ ߾֮ ֣ ׾ֻ . ֓׾֪ꓵ ֵ֮֓ ׾ֻֿ ִ֬ ׾֪ ( Jainology ) ־֮ Ӳ׬ֻ ַ ֵ֮֓ þ֟ӡ ֻ֮ ׮ִ ׾֪ ׾֪֯ߚߵ ִ֬ ֮֓ ã֮ ןš ״ . ֬ Ӯ ִָ . ֓֯δ Ɵ֓ ӿ֮, ӯ֤, Ӹ, Ӿ֬Ԯ ֤ Ƣ֯ ֵ ןֵֿ ꚶ δ־ָ, áߵ ֬߮, ӟ ã֯ ֮֟֟ . ֬ Ӯ ֻ֯ ־ Ɵ֓ ֟ ָ ֻ .

֯ ִ ֻ֯ ־֓ ִֵ֓ ֙׾ָ . ֬ ӓ ׌ִ֢ ֤ ִ֮ . ס֟ ֜ ָ ӓִ֬ ״ ӓ ִ㓓ֵ ֻ ; ӓ ׌ִ֢ ӟ ׿™ ־ָ֤ ֻ֮ ; ִ ӓ , ӓ ָ, ӓ ֿ, ӓ ֡־־ָ, ӓ , ӓ , ӓ ׾ָָ֓, ӓ , ӓ ־֛׮־֛ ֤ ֲ֟ӟ ӓ ï™ Οߟ . ֬ ׾ָָ֓ ֢ӓ ָ . þ֓ ִֻ ָ, Ӝֿ ֤, Ӥ ֓ Ӳ ֮ , ֯ , ֲ֕ Ӭߓ ֟֟ ױֵֻ ޵֓ ֚ ӓ ƴߓ . ֟ ֤ ߟ ֟; ־ֵ׮״֢ ֻ ֮֟ Ƣ֓ ִָӳ, Ӵ֮, ֳ ָ ׸֤ Ӯ ã֟ Ɵ֮ ֡ ӓ ֤ . ꌵ־ָ ־ã֟֯ Ӭֻ Ӝ ֻ, ֟ љ, ߙ ƾ֟ ֓ ֛֯֓ ָ ֓ ֛֯֓ ֻ - , ֳ֟ פ ָ ֵ, ֵ֟ ӯ֮ߓ , ֟֟ ßӮ ֯־ֵ֓ צ Ӯ ָ ֛֟ ָ ֛֯ Ӝ ߴ ï™ Οߟ ָ ֓ ֿ֟߻ - ӓ ָß . ׿™ ֟ ӓ ַӮ ׾֫ ןԴӟ ָ ֻ . ֙ . ו ־ָ֤ ֟߻ ָ ֻ , ֙ . ו ־ָ֤ ֟߻ ӓ ã֟ߴ ֳ - ִָӳӮ ןš ֯ . ַ ׾׿™ ָ ֮֟֟ ߟ ֻ֮ ֯֟ ָ֤߻ - ֻ ֕ . ֬ ׾֫ ִ ֻ . ׾׿™ ֓ ׾֪֣Փ ָӓ ֮־ָ ִֵ֓ ֯ ֛ . ַ ӓ ׌ִ֢֓ ׾ֳ֕ ֻ֮ . ֜ ־ ָ ֮֬֯ ־ã֟ ׾֪֣վָ ֲ ޵֓ ֤ ֟ ֻ ƕ, ӓ ƴ ; ִָ֕ ֓ γָ ֵ֓ ֮֟ Ӯ ֬֯Ӯ ֿ֙ԋ֕ ֻ ֟ ޵֓ ׌ ֻ פ .

. ֬ ӓ ֯δ ӓ ָ, ֮, ֡־־ָ, ֤ ™ߤ߻ ׿™ Ꟶ. ӓ ָ ןֵֿ ֓ - ָ֤ . ӓ ׻޵֓ 㬤 ֮ ֿ֙߸ . ӓ ֮֟ 㬤 ָ ֛ ֛֯ ; ӓ ֮ ֟ ֻ֮ ִ֮֬ ֯ .

֮֟߻ ֲָ. ӓ ֡־־ָ ןֵֿ , ֳָ ָ ׾׾֬ ָӟ߻ ӿ . ֻ껵 ֡Ӯ ־ ־ã֟ ָ ֚׾޵־ָ ӓ ƴ ; ִ ӓ ֡־־ָ ֤ ֜֓ ƻ. ֡־־ָ ܵ֟: ֻ ׳ֵ֯ ޵֓ þֺ֓ ֻ֮ ֓ ãֻ֯Ο ָ Ӥ ־ֿ ; ָӟ וߓ ֲֲָ֤ߓ ִ ꚶ ָ֟ ִֵ֟ ָ ֛ߟ ֟. ֡־־ָӓ ֑֛ ֣ ߟ ִֻ ӓֲ֧ ־ԡ ֤, ã ֟ߵ֟ פ . ӓ ִ֟ ֤ ־ ֵ, Ù ֮֟ ֡ ޵֓ ӓ ֻ֓ ֛ ־ָ ֻ .

. ֬ ӓ 㬤 ׿™ . ƴߓ ӳ֟߻ ӓ . ָӓ ޵֟߻ ֑ Ӯ ײֻ ӟ ֛ . Ӯ ֻ֯ ޵֟ ï™ ־, ֓ ƴߓ ; ֵ ֵ֓ ꛌ֟ ï™ , ־ֵ ֻ껵 Ӯ ֟ ֟; ӳִ֬ ã֟ ֻ껵 ӓ ׮Ӥ - ֻß ֻ ֟. ™ ֯ ָ ֬ ߓ ™ Ο֮ ֻ ƕ, ӓ . ׾ֿ ֕ ޵ֻ֟ ӵִ ֤ ֮ ߟ ֟. ו ӓ ޵֟ ־ ӳ֟ ֜ . ߓ ӳ֯ϴ ӓ ֳ߻ ߻ ֮ ϳ־ֻֿ . ӓ ֵ֭, ֭֯, ӿ֭, ֭, ֭ؓ֟ ֭֭ ׭ָָ֝ ֻ ֻ֭, ӓ ϐֻ ָ֤֭֕ ֻ֭ . ־ֻ껵 ӓ ߸ӳ߸ ־֕֓ ï™ָ֬ߓ ״ֻ֮ ӓ ֤ ָß ׸ִָ ֟; ֻ֯ , ֿ֙߸ ԯ ־ߟ ֟ ƴ ֟ ֚ ֻ֯ ֬ ׻ ֜޵֓ ָ ӓ ֓ ֜޵֓ ׸֚ ֮ ߟ ֟; ӓ ־ ӟ ׯε ӓ ֮֟ ָ ָֻ . ֜ ־ ָ ֟֟ Ӯ ׿־֕ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ֤ߤ֮ ֳָ Ԯ֓ ߻ ׾ֻ γ־ . ӳ ָ ߸ ӓ Ӥԟ ֟ ׾׿™ ֧ ӓ ֟ . Ε ָ ӓ ִ֮ γ㟾 ֻ֮ ݵ ָ֯ ޵ִ֬ ӓ ֟ӛ . ֛֮ ӓ ֟ ֻ֮ ߻ ӓ ֮ܵ ƴ ׸ִָ ֟. ָ֚ ӟ֟ ӓ ӛ ß־ ֻ֮ Ӥ Τ֟߻ ӿ Ӯ ׮ ӲӬ ãׯ֟ 껵֮ Ӯ ָ֚ Ӥ ֻ ֟ ֻ Ꟶ ֟߻ ִ ֌ ֤߻ Ӯ ܵ֟ ״ֻ .