. ֬ ӓ ƴߓ ߻ ֮־ָ ִֵ֓ ֙׾ָ ֮ߵ . ӓ ޵֟ ƕ֟, ןֿ֣߻֟ ֟ߵ֟ ֯ ָ ֻ֯ ָ ַ ־տ ֤ ִ֮֟ꓵ ־֮ ֟ ֟; ӓ ޵֟߻ ִΟ ׾֪ ׾ֵ֮ ֟ ֮֓֓ ֙ . ׾ֿ ֕ ӓ ־ã֟ ( Correct Behaviour ) ӓ ׿™ . ִָ֕ ֟߻ ֬֯ ִ ߟ ֮֟ ӓ ָ ֬֯, ׾֪֣ ԓָ ӓֿ ָ ֟Ԯ ֤Ծ֟ ִֻ֕ ֟ . ־ծ ݵ ֻ , ׾֪֣ծ ֟ ԤԮ , ַӮ ֵ , ׾׾֬ ״֟Ӿָ ֮ ־ ִ ֤ ™ Ӯ 껵. ִָ֕ ִ֬ ֤ ָ Ο ֵ֓ ־ ֲ֟ӟ ӓ ֻ ֟ ֯δ ֓ ο֮֓ ־ֻ ֻߟ ֟. ָ߲ ׾֪֣Ӯ ֤ ״ ֲָָ ׮ֿ֟: ֟. ָ ֱֳ ׿µ־颵ӓ ֙ ֤֮߻ ָ߲ ׾֪֣Փ ֕ ꚶ Ƹ߸߮ ן֛߮ ӛߟ ֟. ׿µ־߾ָ þ֟: ׿ ޵֓ Ӭ Ӯ ״ֻ, ™ ־ծ ־֕Ԯ ֟ ֟ ־֓ ָ߲ ׾֪֣Փ ׿֓ ֟. ߟ߮ ӓ ߴ֬ ֙֓ ־ֻ פ ; ֮֟: ן֮ ָ ִָ֓ ӓ ߴ ӓ ״֡֯׸ָ ָ ֜ . ־߮ ӿ ӲӬ ֟ ׾ֿ ֕ ֛ ӲӬ י .

׾ֻ֓ ׮š, ָ ׸ִֿ߻֟ ӛ Ծָ֟֟ ׾ֿ . ֬ ӓ ׌ִ֢֓ ׾ֳ֕ ֻ֮ . ןֵֿ ׿ßֲ֬ ߟ߮ Ӯ ֻ֯ ߾֮֓ ׮ֵ֮֯ . ׾ֵֻ֪߮ ׿ ֮֟֓ Ӯ Ɵ֓ ӿ֮ ޵֓ ׾ָ֓ӟ ׮׿֟ ֵ֙՟ ֿ ׮š ƻ. ־ ָ ֯ ޵֚ Ӯ ִָ֕ ִ֬ 1930 ֻ Դ֬ߓ ֤֬֯ þָ֯֓ ׸ִ֓ ָš ޵ ֟ ߾֮֓ 긓 ֵ֙՟ ָ֬־Ο ׾ָ֯ ֻ ֻ. ֮֬ Ӯ 1937 ֻ ֕ ֵ֓ ֑ 31 Ӳև ׾֪֯ߚ֓ . ׻֙. ־ԓ ״ ֤ ״ֻ. 1966 ֻ ֻ ָߵ ֓ ׾֪ ׸֤ ֮־ָ ã ׾ֿ ֤֮֟ 1975 ֻ כӓ ֮֕ ֤ ޵֓ ׮ִ ָꓓ ™ߵ ֮֮ ֕ ™ү֟ ָ ״ֻ. Ɵ ׸ִֿ߻֟ Ӯ ׾֪֯ߚӓ ֮־ָ ָߵ ãӓ ԯ֤ ״ֻ. ӓ ӟָ™ߵ ֓׾֪ ׸֤֚ ָ֓ ן׮֬ ׮־֛ ֻ Ӯ ָ ָָ, ׾׾֬ ֕ ָָ, ׾֪֯ߚ ֻ ָߵ þֺ֓ š ã Ӵ֬ ׾ֿ ֮֮֮֓ ֤ ֯ ״ֻ.

־ ߾֮֮֬ ֻ ֮֟ Ӯ ֻ֯ ִו Ծ֤߻ ָ֟ ׮š ָ ֛, ׾ֿ . þ֟:ָ ֛껵 ִו ֲֲָ֤ߓ ߾ Ӯ ֵ֙՟ ֻ ָ֮ ָ ֳꓵ ־ ֵ㌟ δӓ ֟֟ ֚־ ֿþ ޵֟ ־ԟָ ֤ . ׾ֿ ֕ ִו ֲֲָ֤ߓ ־֓ Ӯ 1972 ֻ ָ ֳꓵ ֤֯־ֺ ߓ ֟֟ ׬֟ ޵֚ Ӯ þֵ֬ ָӯָ ֮ ƕ, Ӥ פ ָ ֳ ן ׻ ֨ ޵֓ ֮ ε ֻ֮ פ. ӓ ԤԮ Ӵ ָ ֳ ן ӣ֓ ֮ ֳ וָ֤֮ . ן֣֮ ֙ ӣӓ ֿ֮ .

־ ֕Ӯ . ֬ ӓ ׌ִ֢ ִ֮ . ׾ֿ ֕ ִ֮ ׌ִ֢ ֟ ִ֕֟ ֟֓ ֻ־֬ߟ ֪ ߓ .

 

34

. : γ־ ִ֮֕

ָ֟߻ ִ֕֓ ߑֻ߮ ןִ֬ ָ֟߻ ִ֕֓ . ֲ֕ ֚˚ (1878 1950) Ӯ ӟ ֮֓ ã֮ ; ָ ןֵֿ ֑֛ ׸ã֟ߟ ߻ ӓ ִו ׸֟Ԯ þ֟: 韾֮ ԟ֮ Ӯ ֛ ֻ.

 

ֻ֟߮ ִ֕֓ ã֟

֓߮ ֻ֯ ןֵֿ γ־ֻֿ ִ ן ָӯָ ֳֻ껵 ָ֟߻ ׾ֿ֟: ָ™֟߻ ִ֕֓ ã֟ ֵ֬߮ ֻ֯ ֻ־޵ ֟ ֻ ־ ֟֓ ָ֬ԟ ֤ ֮֟ ֻ .׍ ֟֍ ׿ց֝ց֟ ӟ - ִִ֕֬

֮֓ Ӭָ ָ . ׾־ ֟֓ ֟ ָ֣ ׾ֳ֟߻ ӓ ָ δ 70 ָ , ָ ָ™֟߻ ӓ ָ δ 15 áֵӓ ָ δ ָ ƕָ ߓ . ֟߻ á߻ Ε ־Ɵ. ׿֓ ֲ֟ߟ ָ™֟߻ ֤ ׮™ ã ֻ .

ף ֤֟߻ ֟߻ ӓ ӟ 㸾ã ָ ӟ߻ ӓ ֮֮ ׸ã֟ ָ Ԯ ־֟ . Γ׻֟ ף ã֟ ֿ߲ י׾޵֓ ֻ ֟߻ ӓ ֻ֕ ֟ ־Ɵ. ִו ֟ ֟ - ꙕ֟ӓ ֓ ֻ . ֟ߵ ־֮ ־ֻ껵 Ꟶ ֻ׾־, ָ - ָ ׾־, ׾ε ָܵ ևԙ ӓ ֲֻ ָ ֜ . ״ ֟ ָ ׸ã֟ ӟ דӟ֮֕ . ־ӓ ִԓָ־ָ , ָּ ֵ֬ Ӯ ׮ֵӡ ޵֓ ִ֕֓ ָӯָ֟ γ־ ־ã ִ֬ ӯԯ ִ֛ ֛ . ־Ӯ ֻ֯ ִԓ ֤ ־ֿ ָ ߾ ꛶ δ֤֟߻ ־Ɵ ו ִԖ֮ ִԓָ ӯ ԟ: ד֟ ֻ . ܵ ־ӓ ֯ . ޵ֻ֯ ִԿ ӲӬ ƻ ־Ɵ. ״ ӡ֯δ ֕ߵ ֟ ӓ ã֟ ӟ ִָ֮֬ . ԓ ֕ߵ Ӵ֬ 㯟 ֻ Ꟶ ֕ߵ ™ ִֻ֕ Ƣ ƻ ־Ɵ.

 

ִ ε֟ ָ 韾

ߟ߮ ߾֮֓ , ף, ִו, ״, ֕ߵ ֤ ӟ ӟ ֮֟ ã֟߻ ֻ껵 ִ֕֟ ִ ׸֟Ԯ ֛ ޵֓ ׮֟ӟ ־ֿ ׾־ ֟֓ ֟߻ Ԯ ־֟ . ָָ ָ ֻ ִ֕ ֻ껵 ִ֕֓ ӯ ֵֻ֯֙ ֓ ޵֓ ֹ . ־ ָ ֓ ָ . ָ ׾޵֚ ִֻ֕ 渤, ׮š, ׾ָ֓߻ ֵԯξ 韾 ƾ . ִ ׸ִ ָ 韾 ָ™֟߻ ִֻ֕ . ֲ֕ ӓ ֮ ׾־ ֟֓ ֟߯ ׾־ ֟֓ ֵ֬֯՟ Ɵ֯ ״ֻ, ݵ . . ӓ ֮ ׾־ ֟֓ ֟߯ ׾־ ֟֓ ֵ֬֯ԟ Ɵ֯ ״ֻ, ݵ . . Ӯ ִֻ֕ ־ ™, ־ ӑ֙ ־ ֵԯֻ ֓ ӯ ׸֟Ԯ ֛ ֯޵֓ ׾ֻ ֯δ ׾֪֣Ԥ ֮֟֓ Ӯ ִ ֟ . Ӳևԓ Ƹ֓Ӥ ֮֕ כִ֬ . . ߟ ֮֟ . Ӯ ֵ֓ 24 ֕ ֮ 1902 ֻ ָ™ ֳꓵ ֟߮ ֻ֯ ӯֻ֤ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ־֓ ־߮ ֡ ֟ ִֻ֕ ־߮ ֵ㌟ ׾ָ֓ ־ֵ ָӳ .

 

 

 

ו֢֮֟ : ׾־֮֓ ־ֿ

ׯλ 1902 ו֮׾ֵ֕ ƻ֓ ֓ ӯ֤ߵ ֟ . ֚ ׻Ɵ֟ :

ו֢֮֟ ֵ , ӟ߻ ֨ӟ ֟, ӓ ָ ֟, ִו ־ָ־ָ ֨ӟӓ ׸ִ ֵ , ֨ӟӓ ֵ ߟ ֟ Ο ִӕ ֮µ , ֤ οӓ ׮ֻ ־ֻ׿־ֵ ׮ֻ ־ ִ֕־ פ׿־ֵ ܵ ֨ӟӓ ָ ָ . ׸ ֟ ֣־ֿ ֨ӟӓ ֵ֮ ï™ ꯵ ޵֟ Ի. ֕֓ ֻ֟ ֱ ޵ֻ ֓ ֟ ־߮ ׾ָ֓ ֻ֟ ֺ . ִ ֕ ֻ־֟ ֻֻ , ָ , ֟֓ ִԾָ ßן ׸ã֟ߓ ƻ . . Ε ׾֪, Ε ֢֖֮ Ε ׾ָ֓֨ Ӵ ԟ ꤬֮ߴ֬ ָ ֤ ֻ . ֤֟ ָ֬ ֓ ׾ָ֓֌ ֪ ָ֙ ־ ֪ ֛־ָ ָ ӳ־֮ߵ . ו֢֮֟ ־ ָָ , ֨ ӟ ֿ ...... ִ ִ֓ ƕָ ִԲӬӓ ֵ ֛־ֵ֓ ָ Ӯ ֮־ ׾֟֓ ߾ ֛֟ ו֢֮֟ ֵָ ֟, ׾ֻ ƕ. ՟֓ ָ֓׾ֵ ׾־֮ ִ֓ Ƣ֓ Ծ .

 

ֹ ֮֓ ׾֚

ָ ִԟ ãָ ֤߻ ֵ㌟ ־߮ ׿ִ֟ ׾ָ֓ ֯ ֟֟ ƕ ֚ Ε ׿ ޵֓ ָӳ ֯ ƕ, ־߮ ֻ֟֯ ӛ־ֵ . Ӯ ׾ֿ Ƹ߸߮ ֟ ; ֜ ־ ָ ֚ ַ ן, ׿µ־颵, ß ֤ ־ֿ þֺ֓ ׾֬ ׮ִ ־ֵ ָӳ . . ֚˚ Ӯ ׾ֿ ָ ִֻ ֯֟ ָ֕ӓ ֵ ם֍Ӥ ֓Ӥ ӓ ֭֭ ֯ ڛ֓ ã֭֯ ֻ. ڛ֓ ׾֭ ß擵 פ. 9 Ù, 1905 ֯֟ ָ֕ӓ ß ֻ껵 ˑ֙ þָ֟֯ ֮ . Ӯ כֲ֧֓ ֻ֯ ֻ߻֯δ ӟ ִ֯ ֲӟ ֌ 껵:

ָ֕, ֯ ָ ֟ ָ֛ ֟, ן֓ Ƣ ן֓ Ӥԟ . ֓߮ ԓ߮ Ӯ ־ ֳָ ִ ָ ָ, Ƹ֟߻ Ӳֲևԓ ֵָֻ, Ӭ ; ָӟ ִ֓ ֮ ֕֓ ָ ֿ α׻֟ ֻ , ֿ ߟ. ֓ ָ , ֓ ך ִԮ ׿׾ֻ껵 ֮־ 긯֓ ־ ִ ָ ޵ ִ֓ ֹӓ ֮ ֵָ ߻ ֓ ך 򌙸, ֵ֤כ, ו׮ֵֆ ֧ ־ ָ Բָ Ծ֤ ִ֓ ִ֕֟ ֵָ ֓߮ ־ ״׾֟߻ ֕ ִ ֙. ֕֓ פ ֵԓ ָӳ֓ ..... ָߓ ִֻ֯ š ִ֓ ׾֪֣ ӯ֤ ߻, ߓ ֿ ִֻ ־ֵ֓ . ִ֓ ־ ֿ ֟ ֱ ޵֓ ִ ׾֪֣ ־ֵ֓ .

 

Ο כ ן ־

. ֽ ӓ ֿ־֤ ָ . ӓ ֵ֤ δ֓ ָ ָ ֟֓ 1909 ֻ , 1910 ֻ ֻ 1911 ֻ ־ כӓ ã֮֯ ֻ. כ ã֮֯ ޵ Ʈ ޵ֲָָ כӟ߻ ׾֪֣վָ ׿ß ӓ־ָ ֻ ָ ޵֓ ֑֛ ׸֚߻ . ֚˚ Ӯ ֯ כ֓ ׸әӛә ֤־ֺ ֻ פ. Ο כ ן ־ ӓ ֜ ָ . ׿־ֵ ֮ - ӛ, ׿µ־ - ӛ ֤ ֮ ֵ׮֟ ׾֪֣ծ ݵ ֵ ׾޵֓ ֵ㌟ ֵԓ פ Ӯ פ.

֓֯δ, Ӥ׿ á׿ ӓ֤߻ . ֚˚ Ӯ ֮ ָ . ™ߓ Ƣ ޵֚ . ֚˚ ӓ ִָ ָ™ ֱֳ ֯, כ֟ 1909 ֻ ΤԮ, áֵӓ ֻ֓ ΤԮ ־߮ þֺ֓ ΤԮ Σִ֓ ָ׾޵֟ ֻ . ΤԮӓ ˑ֙֯ . ֚˚ ֮ ֻ֯ ׾ָ֓ ֻ߻֯δ ֌ 껵 :

 

ΤԮӴ߻

ָ™֟߻ ӿ ֻ . ӓ Ӥ Ӿ ָ֯ . ӓ֟ ־߮ ַꓵ ׿֓ ָ ֻ . ԟ ׸ ָ׾ֻ ΤԮ Ӯ ׿ ־ ־߮ ִ֛ӓ Ӯ ׸ֵ ־, ָ׾ֻ . ֟ Ӯ ׾ֿ ֻ֮ 껵 ו֮ӓ ƙ ָ ֻ. ׮ָ׮ָ ָ ו . Ӯ ӓ֯ ֵ ׿ Ի, ׾޵֓ ֮ ֻ . ֻ ߓ , ӡ ߓ ִ֮ ָ ֵ֤ Ի.

ΤԮ֓ ָ ƙ ֕ ֬Ӫ֓ ִ֮ . ֮ Ӥã֮֟߻ ֟ ã֟ ָ־ֵ֓ , Ӯ ֟ ߓ ã֟ ֺ ֻ־ֵ֓ . Ӯ ӓ ߓ ֮֟ ֮֓ ָ ֻ֟ ƕ. ַꓵ ֮ӓ ״ֱֻ Ӯ ׿ ״ֻ ƕ. ߓ ִ֟ ֻ껵 Ӯ ָ ƴ ָ ߓ ָ Ӫӟ߻ Ɵָ ׾޵֟ ֻ ָ Ӯ ӓ ߿ Ɵ Ի, ִ֓ ִ֕ ִֻ ִ Ӫ֟߻ ִ֮ ΤԮ֟ ӛ . Ӥã֮֟ ָ ֟ ֪ ִ֣ԓ ֵ Ӿ ֵ ֟ ָ áֵӓ ֓ ִ֣ . Ӯ ֻ֯ ߓ ׳ִ֮ ֙. ִ֓ áֵ ꚶ ™, ׿ Ʈֿ߻ ӓ ֤ ָ֟ . ã֟ߟ  ֟. áֵӓ ֻ ׳ֹ ָ ֻ ָ ӓ ֮ ֻ֯ ָ֜ ֵ? ֲ֟ߟ áֵ ֤ ֻ껵 . Ӥߓ ֮֮ ׾ָ֓ , ָ™֟߻ Ӯ áֵӓ ԟӲӬ ӓ ԾӲӬ ֻ껵 ֮ ַ֓ ָ ƕ. ޵֟߻ Ӳևԟ߻ á߾Ԯ ΤԮ֟ ֻ֯ ßֻ֓ ֤֣ ֚׾ֻ . ָ ִ֓ áӵӮ ӯ֤ ־ Ի, .

 

ִָ֕ꓵ ֟߻ ִ 韾

׿ָ֯֯δ ִָ֕ꓵ ֤֟߻ . ֚˚ ӓ 韾 ןֵֿ ִ Ӳ߸ þֺ֓ . ֮ ִ֕֟ ָӓ ִ ׿ָ껵 ևԙ ֻ߸ߟ߮ ֛ ׾ָ . ־ ֻ֟Ӵ֬ ׾־ӲӬ , ֤ ֮ ֵ֟ ӓ ݮ , ןֵֿ ׾֕ ׾־ , ֙ ־, ׾ε ֤ ִ֕֟߻ ™ ӓ ֙ ־ . ֚˚ Ӯ 긤ָ Γָ ; ׾֬־ - ׾Ծ ӟָ֟ߵ ׾־ ָܵ ־߮ ָӓ Ӯ ֮ ָ . ־ ָ ӓ ߾ ׾ָ ֮֟ ֻ֯ ָ޵֟ ӟָ֟ߵ ׾־ ֛ ֻ. ׿־ֵ ֮ 1905 - 06 ֻ ֟ ֛껵 ֓ ֣ ӓ Ӹ ޵֓ ֮ . ֚˚ Ӯ ӛ ֱֳ ֵԾߟ ֻ. ֣ Ӯ ־ֵ֓ ֤ ָ ִԤֵ þֺ֓ ֮֟ Ծ֓ Ӭ㟾֓ ״ פ ֤ ֮־, ï™ ׾־ָ . ֚˚ Ӯ 껵ִ ֣ ӓ þ׳ִֻ֮ ֌ ֟ Ӯ ֤ ׾ ֌ ֻ. ֓֯δ ֬Ӥ Ӵ֬߻ ֬׮ ӡ֖֮ ֟֟ Ӯ ֻ֯ ף ֟ ֬޵־ָ ֮ ָ ˪־, ־߮ ֟֓ . Ӯ ꤤӸ ָ .

 

ָ ֳ ׿ָֻ

ִָָָ֕ ִִ֕֬ ӑ֙ ׮ִ Ӵ֬ ꌵֳ־֮ ֜ ֻ ƕ, . ֚˚ ӓ ָ . ֚ Ӯ ֮ 1899 ֻ ã֮֯ ֻ껵 ָ™ ֳꓵ ־ ִ֕֟ ꚶ ã ־ֵ ֟ . ֜ ־ ָ ֳꓵ ֵδӮ ãֵ ֳ ֵ㌟֟ ֜׾޵֓ ߮ ֮֟֟ ε֟ . Ӯ ӟ ׸ִ֯ ֳ ֙ Σִ ֵָ . ן֓ ִ֕֓ ׮ִֵ ֻ פ. ֳ ׾׾֬ ֵδ γ־ ߟ߮ ָ ֛޵֚ ־ þ֟ӡ ׾ֳӓ ֤׬ַӓ ׬ֻ֯֟ ֮ . ִ֕֟߻ ׾׾֬ ֙Ӵ֬߻ ־ ֳ־֮ ֜ ӓִ֬ ꌵֳ־֮ ã֮֯ ߟ߮ ָ ֳ ֟߻ ־ ӓ ן׮׬ ã ֮׾ֻ. . ӓ ָ 颾 ӓ ޵֓ Ӵ ã֯ã֮֯ ֑֛ ִ ֌ ֻ. ׾ֿ ֕ . ֚˚ Ӯ ֻ פ ׮ִֵ ֵԯֻ ӓ ֤ ָ 껵ִ ָ ֳ, ָ ֤׿ ֳ֯δ ִֿ , ֕־ָ י ֓ . ֚˚ Ӯ ָ ֳ ׿ָֻ ֯ ֬߮ Ӳ׬ֻ ֟.

 

֮ ִ֕֟߻ 颾

. ֚˚ ӓ ִו 颾 ִ֕֯㸟 ֵפ ־Ɵ. ִ֮֕֓ ׾ֿ֟: ָ ִ֕֓߻ ֮־ָ . ֯֟ ָ֕ӯ ñ . ֚˚ Ӯ ָ ߟ ε ־ֵ ֟ ꛶֓ ֬ߟ . ־ ֬־, . . . ָ, . . . ӕֲָָ ָ ߓ Ԥ ָ ֻ֮; ֯֟ ָ֕Ӯ ֯ ֿ֟ ִ֕ ã֮֯ פ. 11-1-1911 , Ӯ . ӓ ִ֕֓ ֤֬֯ ׮ֵ㌟ . ָ ִ֕֓ ׸ ™ . ӟ γ־߯ ӛߟ ֟. ֟߻ ӓ ֵԴ 1924 ֻ ָ דִֻֻ ꙻ־֛ ӓ ֻ֟ ֻ껵 Ӳև ׾֪֯ߚ ָ ״֟ ָ ָ ֮־ָ ֳ֤Ӳָָ . ӓ ׮ֵ㌟ ֻ ֟ ״֟ߴ֬ . Ӯ ß 껵 ֮ ִ֕֓ ״  ״֟ߓ ָ ֤õ ִ֮ܵ֟ ֵ֤כ . . ָ. ֵ Ӯ ֗ ߾֮ ( The Story of My Life ) ֻ֯ ֟֓׸ָ֯ ӣ֟ ָ ֻ ߟ߮ . . ֚˚ ֮ ִ֕֓ ָ ִֻ Ӯ 1937 ֻ ã֮֯ ֻ껵 Ӳև ӟ֓ סִӛ֟ Դӡ֤߯֓ ֮֓ ã֮ ״ֻ. ӲӬ֟ Ӳև ֟ӓ ƻ ָߵ ׿ ӓֻ, ԙ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ӕֲ֓ ֻ֕֯ . . . ־֙ Ӯ ׿ ӓֻ ( Memories of an Educational Administrator ) ֻ֯ ֟֓׸ָ֯ ӣ֟ ֻ߻֯δ ֻ֯ ֟ ִ : . ֚˚ ֯渓 פ . ָ ߓ ־ Բָ ָ . סִӛ֟ ָ֚ӓ ן׮֬ . ԙ֓ Ӿ ׻ֵ֟ӓ ָ Ӯ סִӛ֟ ã֮ ״ֻ. Ӯ ָ ꤕ֮ ־ ֻ .

 

׻֟ӓ ԓ ߾

֮ ִ֕֯δ ׻֟ ִ֕֓ ԓ ߾ . Ӯ ֤ . ֟߯ ï鿵ֻ֮֟֯֓ ׾ֹ ï鿵 ԓ ־ԟָ ־ ֚ ƴ ֙ ֟; ֓ 21-5-1932 ׻֟ӓ . ֲ Ӳ Ӯ ߸ ֮֯֡ ޵֓ ִָӳ֯ . ӓ ֤֯ ׮ֵ㌟ ֻ , ֮ӕֵ ߸ Ӯ . ֲ Ӳ ֻ֯ ׸ӣ֟ ִ . Ӳָܵ ֳ֌ֻ ֦ ֣ף֟ ™ߵ ֯֡Ӯ Ӳ ӟ ׮Ӫ ™ . Ӳ ןָӓ ֙֟߻ ָ ֵ, ֻ֯ ײי ֧֮ . Ӳ ׳ִ֮ Ɵדӟ ָ . ֻ֯ Ӫ֟ ֻ޵׾ֵ Ӯ ֻ פ; ָӟ ֗ ׻֟ ִ֕֓ ֕ ֗ Ӫ֓ , ֟֟. ï鿵 ԓ ִ ӟ ֵ ӓ ֚ ֙ ֕ Ӥ ™֓ ׮ ֓ .

ߟ߮ . ֚˚ Ӯ ִ֕, ֮ ִ֕ ׻֟ ִ֕ ־Փ ֚֟ ֻ֯ ־ ԟ ֓ ֻ֮֟ ӓ ִו 韾 ־ִ־ þֺ֓ , ׾ֿ .

 

 

35

Ե ֬Դ֮ :

׾ֵ֬ ֵ

֯渓 š ֵ֤כ, ׮š ־ԕ׮ ֵ, Ծ׮š ™ ֤ ӑ֙, ֟ߓ ݵ Ԥ, ָ ߓ ָ ָ֬ßӳ, ãӓ ֤ ӓֻ, ׾׾֬ ׾ֵ֬ ֮ӓ ξ֟, 渤™ߓ ִו ׾ָ֓ӟ ׳֕֟ ӓ ִԖ . ֻ֮֯ Ӧ ֣ ִ ֬Դ֮ Ӯ ֻ֯ ־֤ ׮ֲֵ֮֨ ߾֮֓ ֿþ ֻ֙ ߟ ֮֟ ӓƢָ ֚ ӓ ִ־ ִָ ꚶ δ־ָ, ־ԕ׮ þֺ֟

ֲ֟߮ ָ֕ ޵֟ ӓ ܵ ״֡Ӯ, ƟӮ ӟדӟӮ ןֵֿ ֮Ӥ . ׮״֢ Ӯ ִו ׬ֻߓ ֤ ֕־ָ ֕ߵ, ִו, , , ֤ ӟ ׮ָӟָ ׮ָ֯ 껵 ֵԓ  ־, ӓ׾ֵ ־ӓ ֮֟ ֻ ֖֟ ־֮ ߸ ֌ ־, ӓ ֤ ߾ֵ֮ԯ ֹ ֵծ ñ ״־ Ӯ 껵 ׾ֵ֬ ֵՓ ָӯָ ֤ ׬֟ ־, ֬Դ֮ ôָ ׿֟ ޵֟ . ôָֺ ִӓ ™ ׌ִ֢, ӓ Ӯ ׾׾֬ ӟ ֳ֮ 껵 ֵՓ ָӯָ ӓ ִ Ԯ ֛, ֡ ֙. ӓִ֬ Ԯ ߟ ֻ껵 ִֵ֓ ֣֣ ֤֮߻ Ի, ׾ֿ ֙.

 

 

֕ߵ ׾ֵ֬

. ִ ֬Դ֮ Ӯ ָ֕֓ ׾֪֣Ԥ֓ ; Ӯ ׯӛ ־֤ ׾ֵ֬ ֵԓ ֻ֮, Ӯ ֕ ֟ ׾ֵ֬ ״ ָ ֛־ֵ֓ ֮֯ ׾ֻ ָ֮ ׮׿֟ ־ֻ ޵ Ο ֵ ޵ ֟ . ִָ֕ ִ֬ 1933 ֻ . . ֤ ӯ֤ 껵֮ӟָ ֕ߵ ֵԓ ֮ ޵֚ 1935 ֻ ָߵ ֓ ׬֮ ִִ ִ ã֟ ƻ. ֓ ־ԕ׮ Γָ֓ ִ֯ ֮ ֮֟ פ껵 ™ ֤ þֵ֢ þֵ ӑ֙ꓵ ׮š־ӟ þ֟ӡ׮ ׮ִ ޵֓ ӟ ӑ֙ꓵ ׮š־ӟ þ֟ӡ׮ ׮ִ ޵֓ ӟ Ƣ֓ ֵԟ Ƴ ޵֓ ִӮ ׾ֻ ֯δ Ӯ ™ ֤֓ Ο ֵԻ ןֵֿ פ߮ ׮š ֟ . ִӓ ד֙, ֵԯ֬ 颾 ޵֓ ִ֟ ӓ ™ ֤֓ ֯ ã֮ δ 1939 ֻ ֻ. ã֮ ֯δ ֤־ֺ ӟָ ã֮ δ ֤־ֺ ִӮ 1952 ֵ՟ ןֵֿ ֻ ִ ֙ ֻ֤ ֟ ןš ״ פ. ִӮ ™ ֤ ׮ӓ ־ ָ׾, ׿ײָ ֵו֟ , ֛, Ꟶӓ ֤ ֵӟ ָ ֻ ӓ ԤԮֻ ™ ֤֓ וֻ ־ ӛ ִ ֻ. ִӮ ֱ֤֟ ӟָ֟ߵ ׾־ Ʈ פ Ƴ֮, ִ֤֮ ֱִև ָ ׾ֵ֬ ֵδ ֿþ ׾ֻ. ֓֯δ 1942 þ֟ӡִ֟߻ ״֟ ֻӻ ׮Ӯ ־ ָ ֤ ײֲ֮֙ ״ ޵֓ ֑֛ ֵԤ߻ ִӮ ֻ֯ ֤ þֵӓ ֵԮ ָ ֻ ߟ߮ ߑֵ՟ ָ ֛. ™ ֤ ֵδӓ ׮״֢֮ ֵ ֵֿ֯ ֵָ, 敵 ֮, . ֮ , . . . ָܵ Ꟶӿ ִӓ ׮š ӲӬ ֻ ӲӬ֓ ִӓ ߾ֵ֮Ծָ ִ ׸ִ ֻ.

™ ֤֓ ֵԲָָ ׾֪֣ ӑ֙ Ε ׸֤ ӓ ֵԟ֤߻ Ƹ߸߮ ޵ ִӮ ָӳ . ֯ Ε ׸֤߻ ִӓ ִ 1946 ֻ 渻 ָ껵 ֻ ָߵ Ε ׸֤ꓵ ׬־֮֟߻ ִӓ ׾֓־ָ , 1946 ֻ ֻ ָߵ Ε ׸֤ꓵ ׾ֳ֓ ִӮ ׮ֵ㌟ ޵֟ ֻ. Ӯ ִ ִ֣ԯ ӳ ׾ֿ ֕ ֵԓ Ӥԟ ֟ Ӭ, כ ־Ƹֻ ƺ, ָָ ֳֳֻև ֙, ֮ ִ ֤֗ ָܵ š ָߵ Ꟶӿ ׾ָ֓׾׮ִֵ ޵֓ Ӭ ִӮ ֯ ֻ. ו ִӓ ׾ֵ֬ ֕ߵ ֵԻ ָ ޵ֻ ׾ָ֓׾׮ִֵӓ ӯԓ ָ ֵ ֻ.

֕ߵ ֵԓ ָ֕֓ ޵֓ ׸֚ ִӮ ֟֟ ֻ ֻ. Ӵ֬ ַ Ԯ ֕ߵ ־ ִӮ ָ 1950 ֻ ן ֯֓ ׮֟ ӟָ ֓ ӯ֤֓ ֤߻ ƻ. ׮ ָ י ; ׮֓ ׮״֢֮ ִӮ ֯֟ Σִ ׻ׯΙ ֻ. ָ֕֓ 1952 ֻ Ӳև ׾ֳ֮֬ ־ס ׮־֛ ֻ֟ ָ֤֟ ӑ֟ ִ֕־֤ ֱ֟ ִӮ ֜׾ֻ ֟ ֿþ ֻ. ֯ ִӮ ׮־֛ ָ֕֓ Ӯ ֻ; ֻ֯ ֕ߵ ֟߻ ׾ֵ֬ ֵԓ ״ ֡ ꛻ ֕ߵ ׾ֵ֬ ֮ ֮ ֻ .

 

ף Ԥ

֕ߵ ֯δ ף ֤֟߻ ׾ֵ֬ ™ ֟֟ ־ԯֵ ֮ ׾, ֚ ݵ ԤԮ , ӓ ֵ㌟֟ Ӯ ߵ ׬ַӮ ֙ , Ο ֵ׮֟ ޵ ֻ ֤ ֤ ׸ þֺ֓ ֑֛ ־ֿ ִ߻ ִӮ ֟ ֛ ׾ֻ. Ӥԟ Ӯ ָ ߓ ׮֟ӟ Ƣ ׾׾֬ ӟ ָ ޵ ־ֺ ޵ ןֵֿ ֤ . . ־߸ - ָי ֯֟ 1937 ֻ ֻ ã֮֯ ִӓ 韾֓ ׸ִ֓ . ־߸ - ָי ַ - ã ׮ ֟ פ ׻״֙ ֯֟߻ ƻ ꛶滛 1943 ֻ ã֮֯ ޵֟ ִӮ ָ ֻ. , ֟㬤 ָ ֬߾ָ ָ֮ӓ ָ ֻ֮ ޵֚ ָ™ ו׮ֵ׸ - ָי ֵ֙, ָ֮ - ָי ֵ֙, ו׮ֵ׸ ֋֮ ָܵ ָ ã ã֮֯ Ӯ ןֿ߻ ޵ ִӮ ָ ֳָ֟ ־ֻ. ֓֯δ ָ ֢־ָ ָ ָ֮ ֜޵֓ ֬ Կá֖ . ֮ӕֵָ־ ֿ ӓ ׳֮־ ֮ ִӮ ֻ ָ ָ֮ ӓ, ָ, ײ֦, כ ֤ ָ ָ ָ֮ ֯ ֟ ã֮֯ ޵ Ӯ 㾵־ã֟ ޵ ִӮ ןֵֿ ֓ ֤ . ־ ָ ָ֮ ӓ δ ָֻ ִ ִ ߟ , ֓ ׳־鬤ߓ ߟ .

ָ Ӳָָ ֯渓 ף ֟ߓ ֜־ ֓ ֵ֤ ִ֕֓ ־ ָӟ߻ Ӯ ֳ֟ ֲֻ ־, Ӯ ׸ ־֛ ָ Ӭ - ֯ 껾 ԓ Ӥ ֛֟ߓ ֮ӓ ֵ㌟֟ ִ֮ ֮֟ ֙ ֮ ֮ ֮ ޵ ִӮ ֻ֯ ׬־þ ֻ ־ֻ. ֚ ֟Դ֮֯֡ӟ ׻ Ӳ׬֟ӓ ־ ָ ־ֿ ׮ִ , ־ ָ Ɵ߮ ㌟ ׮־꤮ ָֻ ߾ ֤ ׿™ӛ֓ 颾 ָָ ™ ֮Ӯ ־ԣ ָ Ƣ֯ ִ ִӮ ꚶ ֮֟֟ ד֙߮ .

־ ™Ӵ ִӓ ף ֟߻ Ԥ ֯ ֻ ָ ֳֵ֤ , ӓ דָôָߵ ֻ . ו ִӓ ֤֮ ֯渓 ף ׾֟ ֳֵ ֻ .

 

Ծָ֟֟

֯渓 ֕ߵ ף ӯδ ֟㬤 ִӮ ֻ֯ Բָߓ ִֵ֓ ֙׾ֻ . ִ ֟֓ ָ ִֻ Ӯ ׾׾֬ ָӟ ֿ ӯ֤ ï֬մ֬ ׸ ƕ֟ ֙־ֻ. ׾ֿ ֕ ִָ֕ ֟ ׾֪֣ ֮֟ ֵ֓ . , ָ֚ߓ ן . . , ֓ ׾֮֫ ֙ ָܵ ִ֮ܵ֟ ֬֯ӓ ןֵֿ ־ ԤԮ ִӮ ֳֻ֮ ӓ ׾֫ ƺ ֻ. ִӓ ָߓ ֟ ֟ ׿ ã ã֯ Ծ߸ ։־ ֙߻ Ӯ ִӮ 1933 ֻ . . ֻ֮ӟָ ַֻ֟ ־ ֻ Ӯ ׿֚ ָ ֚׾޵֓ ֤֮߻ ֻ; ֮ ֦ . ֮ӟָ ִӮ ֕ߵ ף ӟ þ֟: ӟ־ ֻ ָ ֵԲ֧֓ ӓ ֻ ; ֯渓 ԓ ã֯ ֵ֓ . . . ӓ ƾִ Ӭ ״֓ ִӮ 1960 ֻ ֟ ՙև ׾ֵ֓ ֬֯ ׾֪֤֮֓ ֵ ޵ ֟ . ֵ ִӮ 1975 ֵ՟ ӟ ִ֣ԯ ָ ֛. ֜ ־ ָ ׾֪֣Փ ׯ֜ ׮ִ ־߮ ֻֻ껵 ֻ ׾֪֯ߚߵ ֟ ןֵֿ ֮֓ ã֮ ״ ޵ ־ԟָ ֳָ֟ ־ֻ. ׿־֕ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ֟ߓ ֟߻ ֛֑֛֤߻ ֤ . ׿־ֵ ִӓ ִָ ׿־֕ ׾֪֯ߚ ֬֯ ӑ֓ ã֮֯ ֻ ӑ֙ ƻ 㬤 ִӮ ֻ ֵ ׾ֻ.

׿֟߻ ִӓ ׾ֿ ֮ߵ ׳ִ֮ï֤ ֵ ֕ Ӯ 1963 ֻ ã֮֯ ֵ֓Ը ֳ ׿ ӛ, ֯ ã . . , Ծ߸ ։־ ֙߻, . . . և ָܵ ׿ִԓ γ־ ִӓ ׾ָָ֓߾ָ ֛ ֻ֮ ֮ ִ֚֕ ׾֬ ֲֻ ޵֓ ׮ ִӮ ִֻ֕ ֙ פ ִ֮֕ ָ 껵 ֳ ָ ӛ֓ ã֯ ֮֟ ִӮ ã ־ֺ ֻ. ãֱ ֻ׾޵֟ ַ ֬״ ־߸ ׾ֵֻ֪ ӓ ָ֚ ־ ָ ֣״ þֺ֓ ־ ™ ִӮ ֤ ֮Ӥ֮ ֻ; ֜ ־ ָ ־߸ ׾ֵֻֻ֪ ã ֯ ־ ֻӕ ֻ ־ ß ׾ß ֙ ß ։ ״ פ ׾ֵֻ֪֟ ׾׾֬ ׳֮־ δ . ו ֵ֓Ը ֳ ׿ ָ ӛ ֯渓 ן ߾ֻ֮ ִӮ פ . ־ ™Ӵ ֯渓 ֟߻ ִӓ Բָ דָӟ֮ þֺ֓ ֻ .

 

־׵ ֿþ֟

֯㸟߻ ־ԕ׮ ִ֯δ ִӮ ֻ֯ ߓ ־ֵ֤֟߻ ׾ֻ֮ߵ ֿ ӯ֤ . ֮ 1937 ֻ ߻ ָӳ 껵֯֓ ִӮ ֻ֯ ־ֵֻ ־֤ ִֵ֕ ׬š֮ פ ֵ֕֟֟ י׾ֻ. ֚ ־ ָ ֢֚ ִӮ ֟ ֻ֯ ־þ ֻ. ׸ ֵ֤ ֵ ״֟ ӑ֙ ִӮ 1939 ֻ ã֮֯ ן֓ δ ֮֟ 1950 ֵ՟ 92 ֙ ׾ִ֮滵 ֻ־ ָ™֟ ׾δ ãׯ֟ . 1942 þ֟ӡִ֟߻ ã֮ Ε ׸֤ꓵ ߟ߻ ׮ӓ ֙ ִӮ þ֟: ֻ־ ӟ ꚶ δ־ָ ֿ ״׾ִֻ ִ ־ þ֟ӡ׮ӓ ָ֬ã֮ ֻ֮ . ִӓ ׮:þ֣ ֵ ӓ ־ֵ֟ ׾ôָߵ .

ֻ֯ ־ֵ ִ֕֓ ֟߻ ָ ޵֓ ָӯָ ִӮ ֻ ֻ . ָ ֟߻ , ֟ã, ָ ָ֮ ִ ӓ ֵ֪֓ δ ָֻ ״ ִӮ ָ ãӓ ף ֣ ֟ ֳָ֟ ־ֻ. ֜ ־ ָ ָ ãӟ߻ ׮š־ӟ ֵծ ִӮ ߓ ӟ ֓׾ֻ . ו, ִӓ ־׵ ֿþ֟ ָ ãӓ ݵ ӓֻ֮ ־ԣ Ɵָ .

 

׌ ӯ

־ ֿþ 껵 ֵկδ ִӓ ׌ ӯ֤ ןֵֿ ׾ֻ֮ߵ . ִӓ ֮ ׌ִ֢, ֌韾 ִ֮ ֯γ㟾 ־ծ ָ . ִ׾֮, ׾־ ӛ ֿ Ӵ ӓ ƴ γ־ֻֿ ֟. , ֟, ֻ֗ ָ֚ ׾֟ ӓ ִ֯ ֵ ޵֓ ִӓ ֟ߴ ӓ ֮ܵ ƴ ־ָ֤ ׸ִָ ֟. . . . , ׾. . ӛ, ֬־ ׻ֵ֮ ָܵ Ɵšӓ ׮ ƾ ׾֪֣ - ֯ ֳֻ֮ ִӓ ֵ֒֯ Ɵ׳ֹ ƴ ׬֟ . ִӓ ׬ ־֮ ן ֓ ֟. ִ ֛֓ ׿ ֻ֮ ӓ ƾ ֕ ָ ׿ ׳ֹߓ Ο ß֚ ֟. ӓ ֚ӟָ ָ ß״֟ ָ . , ֙ ֤߻ ִ ֿ . ӟָ™ߵ ֵ֤, ӟָ™ߵ ֪ӓ ߾֙ ָܵ ֑֛ ׾ֵӾָ߻ ִӓ ֬ ֻ ֮֟֯֯ . ׾֪֣Ԥ ֢ ִ ֮ ־ָ ׯε ֙ӟ ִӮ 껵 ״ ο֮ߵ . ׳֕֟ ߟ ָ֚ ֙ ִӓ ֤ ־֛ߓ ׾ֵ . ִӮ ߟ֓ ֙ӓ ־֓ ƻ ֻ֮ ֬ ֵ, ֤, ֙ ָ֙ ӓ ֻ ™ ִ ñԯ ӳִ֬ ע ֮Ӥ ׮ִ ֟. ו , , ׳ֹӯ ֟ Ӵ ִӓ ׌ִ֢ ׸ ֻ .

ߟ߮ ׾׾֬ ӯ ֵԟָ֟ ֻ껵 ִӓ ֟ ֢ã֮־ָ ׬ָ֤־ָ ֮֟㬤 ־ ָ֕ , ֮ߵ ֙ . , ִӓ ԟ֓ ָ֟ ָ֓ ִ֕־֤ ִ֮ܵ֟ ִו ׾ָ֓ӟ ֮֮ߵ . ֮ ӓ ß Ӳև ֵֵֻ֓ ִֵ ֮֮ߵ . ֿ֓Ӧ ӓ ֻ֟ ֓ ִ֮֬ ôָ ֿ֮ š ָ ֟߻ ֮֮ߵ . ֯ ָ ӓ ß , דָôָߵ ֮Ӥֵ ֙ . ׿™ ôָ ־ ִָӳ ֿþ ޵֚ ֳָ֟ ־ֻ껵 ־Փ ӓ ִו ֖֟ꓵ ־֧ פ ׳֮Ӥ . ִו ׬ֻ߻ ߾֮֟ ־š ã֮ ָ֮ Ɵ֯ ֵԸ ֻ Ե . ִ ֬Դ֮ Ӯ ׳־֤ Ӯ ӛ ֵָݵ ֳ, ֣Ԯ .

 

l 36 l

. ֙߻:

߸ ־ ָ֡

֯渓 ׮ ' ֟־֤ ã֯ - ӯ֤, 㮵 ׯ֜ߓ ֕֓ ֿ֟, ִו ãӓ ӓֻ, ִ֕- ֵ δӓ ξ֟Ԯ ׾ָ֓ӓ γ־ Γָ, ֹӓ ݵ Ԥ, ׾׾֬ ִָӳӓ ֻ ӑ֙, Γִָ֬ӓ ֮֟֯֯ ӵ, ׾ָ֓ξ֟ ӣӓ ֮־ָ , ֮ ִ֕֓ ֵԿ߻ ִָ֕, ֢֖֮֓ ֤, ׮š־ӟ ־ ָ™֓ ִ֡ ֩ . ֙߻ ӓ ֡׸ ߸ ־ ֓ ֯ ӟ ִ֙֙֟, ־֯ ֟־ָ֟ ֮־ָӓ ã֟ߟ ӯ ֻ.׮״֢ ߸ ־ ָ֡ . ֙߻ ӓ ׳֮Ӥ ޵֟ ִֻ ןֵֿ ֮Ӥ ׾ֿ ׳ִ֮ ֙ ; ָ ִ֮֕ ֮֡ . ֙߻ ӓ ֿפ֓ ֵ ֻ޵֓ ֮ 1924 ֻ ָ™ ֳ Բָ Ծ߸ ӟָ־ ־֟ ֟ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ֯֓ ףֵֿ֟ ӯ֤ ... ֙߻,߻ (ֻ) Ӯ . . ֙߻ ӟ

֟֯ ֮ ֟. Ӥԟ . ֙߻ Ӯ ֻ֯ ߾֮֓ 1965 ֻ ֬ ֻ껵 ֟֓׸ָ֯ ӣ֟ ׾ֵ ꚵ ֮֮ ֻ߻֯δ Ɵ פ :

ֵֻ֮֓֓ ִָӳ֚ Ծ߸ ӟָ־ ־֟ ֻ .ֻ껵 ִ֕ ׿ ޵֚ ֮ ִ֕֟ þ׳ִ֮֓ ׮ִ ޵֚ Ӯ ֵ .ָ߻ ִָӳ֟ ֗ ֻ. . ־֟ Ӯ ָ ־֛ ֲָָֻ֯ ֻ ޵֓ Ӯ . ֗ כӮ ֻ, ֓ ׬֮ . ֻ ֻ . ֓ ֓ ָ޵֓ ֜߻. . ־֟ ӓֲָָ ֻ . ߴ껻ӑ֮ ֗ ߻ ԓ ֵ .

ֻߟ Ծ߸ ־֟ Ӯ ָ™ ֳꓵ Γָ֓ ӛߓ ִ ֻ ֻ֟. ӛ ֹ֮֮ ֵ֓ . ֯ ã֮ ־ וֻ֓ ֗ ޵֟ ֻ . ֗ ֵ ԓ . ֭֟ ִ֕֟ ֨ . ֓ ֵ֤ ֻ . ״ֻ.ֳ ֮ ӓ ״ ӣӓ , ֓ ֵ ֻ ֻ. Ʈӓ ֗ -֟ ֿ֓ ֮ ִ׾ֻ. ֮ӟָ ß־׮֬ ָ™ ֳ ׬־֮ ָ ֟ . Ծ߸ ־֟ Ӯ ֻ ֯ߚ־ָ ֬ Ʈӟ ֿ֓ ֮ ִ׾ָ Բָ ֹ ֗ ֯ ׸ֵ פ; ִ ֗ ֟׾ ־ֻ.

֟ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ָ™ ֳꓵ ֯֡֓ ӯ֤ ...֙߻ ִ־ӟ ߻ ִ֕֓ ָ . Ӯ 1924 ֻ ֻ ֡֓ ִ֚ ֻ߻ ־ ֻ.ן֣ ӯ֤֓ ־ã֯֓ ִ ֻ. ֻ ָ™֟߻ ִ֮֕֓ ֻ ֻ . ׻ֻ ֟Դ֮֯֡ ־Ɵ. ã֮֟߻ 򌙴 ޵֟ ֕֟ .

֟ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ߛ ֜. ֗ ׾ָ֓ ָ־֤ ׮ ֻ . ֤ ׮ֳԛ ׻ߟ . ִԟ߻ ֲ֕ ֻ ӟ ־Ɵ. ֗ ׾ָ֓ ӯ֤ ...֙߻ Ӯ ֮ ֟.ֲ֧ ֗ ߟ. ֡ ָ™ ֳ ֯֡ . ֳꓵ ֳ֤ӟ߻ ֮֮֟ Ӯ ֗ ӛ ׾ָ֓ ֮־֟ ן֣ ֻ ֌ ־Ɵ. þ֟: ֡ ֜־ ׾ָ֓ . ֯ ã֮֟߻. ֕ ָ֕ӓ ןָ ֵԴ ֯ ֮ ִ֕֓ ֿ ֻ֮ . ֗ ׯӛ ֓ ׾ָ֓ӓ; ִ ֯ ֡ ֜޵֓ ׮Ե ֻ. 1925 כָ Ʈ֟ ֯ ֻ ֟־֤ ֿ֮ ־ ׾ֻ. ֯δ ֟־֤ ƻ ξָ פ 21 , 1926 ֛.

ߟ߮ ָܵ ־֓ Ӳ֟߻ . ֲӛ ִӛ ֙߻ ָ ׿ ֻ껵, ןֵֿ ו֧ߓ ֹ֮ ָ™ ֳ ֟ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ӯ֤ ӓ ֻ껵 ִ֕ ֡׸ ӟ߻ Ο ־֓ ׿֤, þԟ֓ ߾ ־ ֟߻ ׾ֵ֬ ֵԓ ñ ™ӓ ־ָ ֮ 1924 ֻ ֕ ֵ֓ 22 ֻ֯ ׾֟֬ ֡׸ ֕ 1984 ֻߤ߻ ן֟֌֓ ׮š ֛ Ɵ֯ ֻ , ֮Ӥ ֵ ï֤ ֙ . . ֙߻ ֮ 1926 ֻ 껵 ֟־֤ ֻ 25 ָ, 1927 ™ׯ֟ Ӭ ӓ Ο ֿ߾Ԥ ״޵֓ ݵ ֳֻ֮ ֟־֤ ֡֓ ֟ ָ ֻ . . ֙߻ Ӯ ֟־֤ ֚֡ 1931 ֻ ߸ פ þ֟: ֮֯ 1934 ֻ þ֟ӡ á ׾ֳ . . ֙߻ Ӯ ֟־֤ ֓֯֟1945 ֻ ֯֓ ׫֯֟ פ 1 , 1947 ׮֟ ӟָ . ׿־ֵ ֟־֤ ׮ ֓ ֲ֟ߟ ־֟ ޵֚ . ֙߻ Ӯ 1963 ֻ ꙸ ֿ߮ ֻ, 1972 ֻ ֕ ֓ ׾ֳ פ 30 ׯλ, 1983 ֵ ֟ߓ ֿ߮ ׾ֻ.֓֯δ . ֙߻ Ӯ ֟־֤ ֡֓ ӯ֤֓ ޵֓ ӟ ֑֛ ֵ 1926 ֻ֯ ֵ֕֟֟ ןֵֿ ִ֣ԯ ִו ֲֲָ֤ߓ ָ ־ ׮ָӟָ ֻ ֻ . ֓ ֡֓ ӯ֤֤֯־ָ ֟֟ 58 ֓ ӯ֤֮ ֮֟֟ ֿþ߸ߟ ִ ָ֓֓ ־ ָ ֓ ֯֡ ™ߟ֤߻ ƻ ֙ ־. ן þֹ֓ ״ ֮ . ֙߻ Ӯ þԟ֓ ־ָ ֟ ֓, ӑ֙ ָ ã ֚ ֮֟ ״׾ֻ , ׾ֿ .

ֲָָ֓ ִ ׾ֵ֬ þֹ֓ ׾ָָ֓ γ־ ߟ߮ ֳ ֬߮ ß ִ֕֯β֮ ׿ ֛ ޵֓ ֵԵ֮ ִ֕֯׸֟Ԯ֓ ־ֿ ε ֻ֮ ޵֓ ӟ ָ֛ Ο֤߻ . ֙߻ Ӯ ׮™ Ծֲ㬤߮ ֟֟֯ ֻ ֻ .ӓ ֟ߓ ־֤ ™ , ִ֕Ɵ֓ , ֓ ןָ֯ ֵԯֻ ן֟ߓ ָ γ־ . ־ ׾ָ֓ߓ ִ֕ ׸֟Ԯ֓ ֟֓ ֵ Ӯ ֻ֯ ִ֣ ׿µ֯ λӓ ָ ; ֓ ֟־֤ ֯֡ Ɵ ֻ ֟֯֡֓ ״ֻ . ָ 17 ƕָ λӴ֓ ֻ֯ ״ . ֙߻ ֮ ֟־֤ פ 1 1983 λ֟ ֻ߻֯δ ֌ .

57 ֟־֤ ֡֓ ӯ֤ ߟ ֮֟ 1926 ֻ ִִ֓ ִ ™ , ߓ ִ ™ ֕ ִ ꛻ . ™ׯ֟ ֟ Ӭ, ֟ ןֲ ֕ ֯֟ ָ֕ Ӯ ִ ֟ ֻ֮ ֕ ִ֓ ִ . ֟־֤ ֡֓ ӯ֤ ߟ ֮֟ ָ ӟ Ƣ֓ ״ ֕ ִ ִ ֻ . ״ ֕ ָ ָ߲ӓ ֟߻ Γӛ - ӓ ֟ ִֻ֤֮ ֻ ƕ. ֟߻ ӓ ֟ ִֻ֤֮ ֻ ָ Γӛ ִֿ֌ ƴֵֻ ־ԟ ֤֤ ƻ־ ִֻ ֮֯ ֙ ֻ . 1967 ֻ ִ 㤿Ԯ ־֓ ָ֚ ֯֙ ֜. ִ֯֙֬ ִ ӯ֤ ־, ׾ֵ ߓ ֬־֟ ֮ ֻ ; ִ ֟־֤ߓ ֜ , ־ ֓ ׾֓ 渤™ ִ ֮ ֜ .

 

. ֙߻ ӓ λ ֟־֤ ֡֓ . ׾ֵӓ ׾׾֬֟, ׾ָ֓ӓ ׸֌֟, ӛߓ ֳ֟, ׸ִָ ֤ Գ ӓ ִ㓓ִֵ ӓ λ ׿™ γ־ֻֿ . ִִ ӓ λӓ Ɵ ָ ־֮ ߮ ֕־ָ ֬ ֻ , ӯ 1979 ֻ ֬ ֻ껵 - ֻ ׿־֕ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ֕ þ....֮ ӓ ׾֫֯ ׾־ ß־֮ ֳֻ , ָ™֓ ֯֡ߵ ןִ֬ λӮ ָ֮֬ Ƣ ֯ ֻ , ָ֬ ֙ פ .

ָß λӯδ . ֙߻ Ӯ ֜ ֟־֤ ӓ ֡׸ Ƣ֯ ׿™ . ֟־֤ߓ ֤ ƻ ԯ Ӯ ӓ Σ ֵ֕֟֟ ֓ ֮ י . ֟־֤߮ ׾׾֬ ׾ֵӾָ ֜ ֬ , ֜ - ֟ ׮ֵ֟׻֮ ֜ ߟ, ֟ ޵ָ ™ . ݵ , ݵ ׾ֵ־ָ, ݵ ֬߮ ֵ֕֯՟ 200 ָ ֜ Ӯ ӓ ֲ֟ߟ ïߵ ׾δ ãׯ֟ ; ֓ ֟־ָ֤ ֙߻ Ӯ ӓ ֕ ֣ ׳֮֬ ֯ ֻ . ׾ֿ ֕ ֜ Ɵ߯Τ ־ִ־ Ӯ Ӥӣӓ ã֮ ֯ ֻ

ߟ߮ . ֙߻ Ӯ ֡׸ Ӥ ֮֟ ִ ֮ ֵ֕֟֟ þ֟ӡ֯ ֻ֙ , ָ™֓ ָ֡Ӵ֬ þ֟: ӓ ԟ֓ ־ָ ֤ߵ ï֤ ã֮ ״׾ֻ . Ӳևԓ ָ֡ ӑ֓ ֬ԯ֮ פ֓ Ʈߵ ξ֌ ޵֓ ֮ Ӯ ֤ ״ֻ . ָ֚ ָ֡Ùߟ ֮֮ ָ ִֻ֕ ֟; פ 16 ׯλ, 1968 ־ פ ™ү֟ . ߸ Ӯ . ֙߻ Ӯ ֩ ֲ ӓ ֲָ֕ ֵԓ ™ߵßָ־ָ ֮ . ָ ָָ ֬ 껵 ß . ֙߻ ӓ׾ֵ ֻ߻ִ֯ ֯ Ӥ :

ּߓ ӯ֤ ֌ . ֙߻ Ӯ ֻ֯ ֵµ ֤׻֟ӓ ֕ ֻ ָ޵ ֵ ִ֟ ӓ ָ ޵ ƻ . ֯֟ ֯ ׮ֵ֯՟ ֜ ֻ껵 '֟־֤' . ֙߻ 40 ׬ ӯ֤ ߟ . ִ֕֯׸֟Ԯֻ ֬ -׸ ֻ ָ֡ ֮֟, ï鿵֟, ״ ִָ ֟ߵ֟ ӓ׾ֹ ִָ֕ ִ ׾ָָ֓ ӓ -֓ ֯ ֟ ֻ껵 ֟־֤ ßӳӟ ֜޵֓ ӓ ִ ָ ֑֛ . Ӯ ֻ֯ ֌韾֮ ִו ֵӾָ߻ ֻ֯ ƻ ֻ ֻ ׸֮ӓ ƟӾ֬Ԯ סִ ִו ޵ ָ֓ ֳָ֟ ־ֻ.'

׿־ֵ '̯֩' ™ߵ ֮֮ӟָ . ֙߻ Ӯ פ 23 כָ, 1971 '׾֋ ћ ƹ ׸' ӓ ֡׸ ן  ޵֟ ֻ. ӟ֟ꓵ ָ-׿ֵ ߓ קÙֻ ƻ껵 ֲ֧֮ ָߵ Ɵ֟߻ ־֡ߵ ™ߟ߻ ִ־ӟ ֌Ӯ ֻ ƹ ׸ ޵֟ ֟. ָ֤֟ . ֙߻ Ӯ 껵 ֯֡ߵ ֲ֧֮ ׸ Ӯ ޵֟ ֻ. ֯ Ӯ  ֤֮ ޵֟ ֻ ֟ ֻ߻ ֕ : ӟ֟ î ֚ 껵 ִ֮ ֵԲ֧ . ֙߻ Ӯ ׾ֿ ־֢ ׸ ֻ ֮ ׾֋ ћ ƹ ׸ ״֟ ֮Ӥ .

ָ ֡׸ꓵ ֮ ִ֕ꓵ ֟ ִ֮ ԟ ָ ֩ . ֙߻ ӓ ֟ ߻ ן֟ ޵ָ . ӓ ִָ֓ ֟. ֜ ־ ָ ߓ ֣ ׳ִ֮ ƴ ֟֟ ִ֣ԯ ֟֟ ֌ ֟. ' ӟ' ־֮ Ӯ ־ָ֮ ޵ ֟ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ֬ ֟ ָ֡֯δ ֻ֤ Ӯ ׾ֻ֮ߵ ֿ ӯ֤ . ִ֌֓ Γָ ޵֚ Ӯ ״֣֟ ߻' ֮־֕ ֙ ׻ ֓ ε ׾ֻ. Ӯ Ӿָ 껵 ָ֓ӓ Ǥïֿ Ԯ ָ ' ֻ' ӛ־ Ӯ ß֮ ׿֟ . ׿־ֵ ' - ׮' ֤ ֮ܵӟָ ܵ ߟԮ Ӯ ִԓ γ־ Γָ . ֓֯δ ףֵֿ֟ ֵ֓ԋ , ֕, ά֮ ֤ ִ֮ ԟ ֕׾ֻ껵 ֌Ӿָ ׻ ֮ܵ Ӯ ִԓ γ־֮ .־֮ ־߸ӓ ߾֮־ָ Ӯ ֻ ߸ןֻ ׯָ֕߸־ ָև Ӯ և ֛ ןֵֿ ֻ֕. ֓ ֵδ ֻ 'ƕ Ù ' ӯ֮߮ ֛֓ 15 ״׮֙ӓ Ԥ߻ ֜. ֯渓 ꌙ ߕ־ Ը֮֮ ֵָ 껵 ׾ֻֿ ֻ֮ '־֮ ־߸ ֮' ־ ޵ . ֙߻ ӓ ׸ִ ָ߳ ֻ . ן֓ ã֮ ֻ껵 ߸ָߟ ־֮ ־߸ 2500 ׮ִ ־֓ דָӟ֮ ô ֟ ָ ӓ ô֟ ָ ֮Ƹ ֮ ׮ִ ֻ .

׿ ã ־ֹ֟ ־֟ ӓ ָ ֟ ֓ ׮פ֟ ֯渓 ־߸ ֓ ָֻ ӛ֓ ֬ ïߵ ֵ ߟ . ִ֕֓ ߓ ָ ޵֚ ׾׾֬ δ ׮ָӟָ - ' ָ ֳ' ֟ ã׾ֵ . ֙߻ Ӯ ֟߯ ߾ ã ֤ ; Ӯ '֟־֤' ֓ Σ ֮ 1926 ֻ '. ֚˚ ' ֜ ֮ 1934 ֻ ӟ Ɵ߯ ' ָ™ ֳ ' ֜ . ' ָ ֳ ן' ӣ ׻Ɵ֮ ֓ ָ ֵ ֻ.

ߟ߮ . ֙߻ Ӯ ' ָ™ ֳ' (ƻߓ ָ ֳ) '֟ ו֮׾ֵ֕' ӯ ־ ֮ ִ֕ ֡׸ Ƣ֓ Ӵ֬ 껵 ֚ Ӵ֬ Γӛ ֵ . ו Ծ߸ ։־ ֙߻ ӓ֯δ ֩ ֲ ֙߻ ߤ߻ ָ ֳ ֮ ִֻ֕ פ . . ֙߻ ӓ׾ֵ ָ ֳ ֟ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ׸ָֻ ß ׳ִ֮ ֙ . ֩ ֙߻ ӓ ֡׸ꓵ ߸ ־֓ ׮״֢ ִ ӓ ֮: ׳֮Ӥ ӓ ֟ ߓ ֻ ֡ ׾ֵ֬ ֮ ִ֕ ֛ , ӟ׸ ֻ ִ֮ ֌ .