־ֻ ָ ֌ ֟ . ִԾָ Ӿ ִ֕ Ӳ ֮Ӿָ ֢֯ ֻ ָ ֮֯ ן֓ ןָ ߻, ִ֚ ָƟ֚ ֟ ; - ָ֟ܵ ß Ի, þָ֤ - ӟ ָ áֵӮ ֟ - ֮ ֮ ׸֓ δ ן׸ ֮ ִ֕ ֣ ™֚ ִ֮֬ԟ ֓ ߻. ־ã ִԟ ן֯֓߮ ֻ֯ - פߣ ־֮ ֳ֣֮֯ ֻ֟ ֻ ֕ ӛ֮ . ִԓ ׿™ . ™߮ ־ , Ӯ ã ִ֟ Ӿ ֟ꮮ֟ߓ ֲ֟ߟ ָ ֳ֟־֮ Ɵ֟ ֻ֯֯ ֌ָ߮ ֵֺ֡ ִԓ ֻ֮ ߟ ֟׾ ֬֟֟. ִԸ֮֬ ֲָָ áֵӮ㬤 ִԮ ׾׿™ ֵԤֵ՟ ִ֮ ׬ָ פ . ߣ ־ӟ֓ ӑ־־ã , ׵, ־ ׾ ָ ֙ Σִ֯ ׾ִ֪֮ . ֟ꮮ֟ ֮ , ֟, ׻ ֵ, ׸ ߴӟ ֛ ֵ ִ ֮ ֟ þ֟ӡ ־ծ Τ֮ ; ִ ֻ֯ ֻֿ ß֟ י . ֜ ־ ָ ֮ ִ֕֟ ֤ߵ ֻ ֟, פ Ի.

ִԓ ã ָ . ֓ ׾ß þֺ ֢֣, ޛ ־ָ֓, ָ ָ ִԴ ֤ ӣӾֺ ֟ Ի. ו֖ ֿ ־.

 

( ֮ן , Ӳָ, 1952 )

 

 

 

3

 

ִԓ ֓߮֟

 

þ֟ӡ֟ ֓߮֟

 

ִ Ӥã֮֟߻ ֓߮ ִկ ִ . ™ߓ ߾ ־ծ ֻ פ֟ . կ ӓ ִ֕ ֟ , ִ ־ ֮֯ ־ ֟֟ ־֮ ־߸ Ӯ ן֯פ ֯ ֵ֕֟֟ ߆׬ δ֟ Ӥã֮֟ ß֟֟ . ־֮ ־߸ӓ ִ Γ׻֟ ßã֟ Ӯ ߟ ־Ɵ ֻ֟ ָ ֮ ֟ ; ָ ßã֟߻ ֲ ן ־ ֲֻ ־Ɵ; ָӟ ֕ ׾֮֫ ֓׾֪ - ӿ ןָ ִԓ ֻ, ֟ ִԓ ֓߮ ן ֟ ֻ. ִԓ ֻ֢֯ ָָ֓ӯָ δ֟  ִԿ ָ ֻ֮ ִ ִԓߓ , ӓ פӯ ֮ ֻ , ־߮ ӿ֮֮ . ֯δ ִ  ִԓ ֯δ Ӥ ִԓ , ӿӮ ָ֬ ־ פ. ִԓ þ֟ӡ ß֟ ߟ߮ ֮ ֻ֮ӟָ ִԓ ֓߮֟ ο ִ֮ܵ ֻ ־ ֲֻ ֻ껵 ִ֮֬߾ֺ ׾޵֓ ε֟ ӿ ֻ ֻ .

ßֲ ֚ ֟֟߻ ִ

ӿӓ ׾ָ ε֟Ӯ ־ ֿ ֻ. ֮ ן ־׮ֿ ׬ ׾ֻ , ־֮ ־߸Ӯ ִԓ ã֯ ֮ ִԓ ֟ ־ ֮֯ ־ ֟֯ ֻ ֮ ־ԣ ; ָ ־֮ Ԯ֣ ִԓ ξ֟ ִԓ ֮ ߟ . ־֮ Ԯ֣ ן ֌ ן֮ ִԓ γ־ Γָ ֬ ֻ֮ ו ִԓ ֓߮֟ ־ ֮֓ ֚ ֵ֟֯՟ ޵ ֮֟ ־Ӯ ֛.

ֻ߮ ִ

־ ֮֯ ֚ ֟֟ ִ ַ֓ ׮š ֟ , ֻ֓ ֬ Γ׻֟ Ӿ ֵ, ™ ӿӓ . ן - á֯δ ֻ֯ Ӯ ׻־ֵ֓ ׻֯ߓ ֮ ֟ ֻ ֻ֯ ֟ ָ ׻֯ߟ ׻ƻ ׻ ״, ֻ֯ ן ֻ֓ ֟ ԓ ֻֻ ֕ ֻ ׻ ֲֻ ֻ껵 ֻ ן ֻ ֟֟. Ƥã֮֓ ן ֻ ־ ֮֓ ־־ 1500 2000 ӯ ; ָ
ֻ֟ ׻ƻ ӣ ֲֻ ֓ ֻֻ ֻ ֟֟. ֻ Ӥã֮֓ ן ֻ֟߻ ƻ ֻӛ ֻ֮ ִԓ ß֟֓ ™߮ ֻ֓ ־ֵ ӿӮ ֟ . ־ֺ ™꟯֢ , ֻ ׻ƻ껵 , Ɵ, , ׮֤ ӣ֟ ָïָ׾ֹ ׾ָָ֓ӯָ ף֟ ֻ껵 . ӯ ָӯָ ֖ ֖֟ ֿӓ ׻֤֮ ™Ӯ Ƣ , ָ ָ ָӯָ ֵ֖֤ ֟߻ ׮ . ָ ָӯָ ӓ ܵ֟
: ֬ ֟ ß βֻ . ָӯָӟ ֜ ַ ׾ָ֓׳֮֟ ֵԓ ֓߮ ӣӟ - ӓֻ ֟߻ ӿ ӲӬ ֵ ֮ פ껵 פ ֟. ַ ָӯָ ܵ֟ ֵԟָ . ֓׸ ֻ ִ ־֮ ֳ֣֮ Ӯ ãׯֻ . ִ ã֯ ־֮ ֣֮߳ ӓ ֻ ָ ִԯξ֟ ߣ Ӯ ƻ ָӯָꓵ ֻ֯ ִӣӟ ï™ ֮֟ פ . ݾ֟ ֳ֣֮ ׸™ ߣӓ ֜ ; ֕Ԥ֟ ֳ֣֮, ו֣֮֟ ׸™ ߮ ߣӓ ִ׮֤Կ . Ӯ ֓ ־, Ɵ ָ޵֟ ; ָ Ο ָָ֓ ִ֕ ֟ ִ֕ ֤ Ο ָָ֓ ָ ֵ֖֤ ָ ; ֓ ־Ծꤟ ֻ
־֟ ֲ ֳ֤֚ ָ֯ ־ ִ֕޵֟ . ׾ ־֟֯ ӣӴ֬ ֳֻ֣֮ ־֮ ׾ Գ־֟߻ ָ֟ ֮޵֟ ֻ ֟ פ ֳ֣֮֓ ׸ Ӯ ׻ƻ껵 ׸ֿ ӟӟ . ־ δӾֺ ֻߤ߻ ִ Γֻߟ ֮־ֵ Ο־ֵ פ֟ . ֓ , ־ ֮֯ ֚ ֟֟֓ ־ ָ ־ ֮֯ ־ ־ 2000 ֕ Ӥã֮֓ ן ֻӛ֓ ֟߯ ִ ß֟֟ ֟ ֮ ޵ ןӿӓ ξ פ .

ןֻ֯߮ ִ

ֻ ן ֻӛ֓ ֟ߓ ׸ã֟. ן ֻ ֕ ־ ֮֯ ־־ 3000 - 3500 Ӥã֮֟ Ӭ ֤ߓ ׾ֻֿ 귵֟ ִ鬤 Ӥ , 귵֟߻ ӕָ Ƹ ־֓

ֻ껵 ֮֮־ֺ ֜ ֻ . Ӭ־ Ӥã֮֟߻ ־ԟ ֓߮ Ӥã֮֓ ן ֟ ֵՓ ִ֮֯ ֕ ־ ֮֯ ־־ 1500 կ ן Ӭ־ ߯ . Ӭ ֤ߓ 귵֟߻ פ ߯ ӿ ׳֮ . ƻ ָ , ָ ִ þֺ֓ . ƻ ִε õֵ ֻ֟ Γ׻֟ , ָ ָ ֟ ָָ֙ ֻ. ֕ߵ, ף ִו ֲӯ ״ ֲ֟ߟ ӟ ָ ֱ־֟ ֟. Ӭ־ ߟ פ֮ ָ ֤֟ӓ , ׻֯, ןԯ ֳ֯ ™Ӯ פ ߟ וֲ֟ ָ ־Ɵ; פ Ӥã֮֟߻ ָ ֮֟ ֵԟָ ƾֿӓ . ָ Ӭ־ ָ פ ߯ ָߓ ֟ԓ , ָ Ӥ ߓ ׾ֹ ֵֿ֓ ߓ ־Ɵ. Ӳ ן֯֓߮ Ӭ־ Γ׻֟ Ӥ Ӵ֬ ָ ߳־ ( Organic Relaction ) ; ָ Ӭ־ ߟ߻ ֟֟ ( Mother Goddess) ֕ ִ֤֟ӓ þֺ֟ Ɵ ֻ . ߟ߻ ֤ ( Male God ) ƻߓ ׿־֓־ Ԥ ( Prototype ) . ֯, ׻֯, ןԯ ָ ֵ֕֟֟ þֺ֟ פ ֟. ־ ™ӓ , Ӥ ִԟ ֬ Γ׻֟ ֻ껵 ״ ָ֓ӓ ִ Ӭ־ ߟ ֜ ֓ Ӥ ִ ֓߮ ִ ִֻ֕ ֟.

 

֓ ֟Ծָ ִԓ ֓߮֟ ׾֟ ޵ָ ; ָ ־ ߓ ֮֮֟ ִԓ ß֟ ד֟ ָ ֿ ֜ ֻ . Ӭ־ ߟ ֤֟ӯ ( Male Deities ) áߤ֟ӓ֓ ( Female Deities ) ß ֜껵 פ֟֟ ֤֟ӓ , ־ԣ ݮ ֻ껵 ֜ ֟. ֮֮֟ ִ֮ܵ ֻ껵 . Ù ӟָ™ߵ ߟԓ ׾֮֫, ֢֟ - á֖֮ ֲ֟ߟ ֻ֯ The Indus Civilization ־Դ֮ ӣ֟ ֻ߻֯δ ן֤֯ :

For some reason, which it is dificult to understand, figures of male deities in pottery are distinctly rare and are enrirely nude, in contrast with the female figures, which invariably wear a little clothing, necklaces and bangles may be worn, but this is by no means always case.

. ӓ , ֟ӓ 껵 ֟ߓ ָ δ֟ ֜ ֟ ӯ ݮ . ӓ ֟ ֟֟ פ֟֟; ß ֟֟֓ ֻ֟ ־ - ־ ֓ ָ ִ֕޵ . . Ӯ ֻ֚ ָ ֛ ӓ ־֟; ָ ִԟ֓ ԯ ݮ ԓ ޵֓ Α֟ ֻ ӓ ܵ ֕֓֯δ ߤ߻ ޵֓ ӳ־ ֻ֮ ָ ݮ ָ ꛶ δ֟ ֛֯ ֻ ־ֻ . ֟ߓ ݮ Ծֺ ִԓ ß֟֓ ֢ ֟, ֢ ֮֮֟ ꚶ δ־ָ ֛֯껵 ( Seals ) ָ 긻껵 Ӿֺ ֟. ֮֮־ָ߻ δ ׬ָ ָ ֿԻ Ӯ ׻ƻ껵 ׬ ֻ֮ 껵 Mohenjo - daro and the Indus Civilization ӣ֓ ןַ ӛ֟߻ 118 ד֡֯š־ָ ( Plate ) פ B 426 Ӳָ ד֡ ƻ ָ ӟ ݮ ӓ 긻껵 פ Ի. ӟ߻ Ο ֵ ־ , ֟ ֕־ ֚ , ݮ ã ִ֮ݮ ã֟ߟ ֻ ׾ֻ ־ , ָ߻֯δ ֮ ޵֓ ֬ ӓߓ ןֻ ֵ ã֟

( Standing Posture ) ֟֟. ݮ ֵ ֮ ָ ֮ ߟ , ߣӓ֓ ־֟ ֮޵ Ƹ פ֟ .

 

֓ ӣ֓ ןַ ӛ֟߻ 116 ד֡֯š־ָ߻ 29 Ӳָ ߟ 118 ד֡֯š־ָ߻ 11 Ӳָ ߟ ֤ӓ ֮ã 긻껵 פ֟֟, ߣӓ ־֟ ֙; ָ ָ ծ ӛ ׾ֻ ֻ ֮ ߟ ֻ껵 ߣӓ ԯδ ֟֟ ָ ֕ ׿־֤֓ Ԥԓ ־ ֟ , ׿־ֻ֤ ߮ ӛ, ߮ ߮ ׿ ֟֟ ׾޵֓ ӓ Σ , ֓ ӣ֓ ƻ ӛ֟߻ 12 ד֡֯š־ָ߻ 17 Ӳָ ߟ פ Ի. ׿־ֵ ݮ 긻 ֓ ֻ ֓ ד֡ ׾ֻ . ֳ֣֮ ߣӓ ־֟ ֡߮ ֟ Ի; ָ ֳ ֕ ӓ ד֡־ֺ ֳ֣֮ ߣӓ . ֳ֣֮ ߣӓ Ӕ ֓ . ֲָָ֓ Ӯ ׾֡ ֻ껵 þß ד֮ӓ ִ ֮֮֟ ֛֯ . ָ ֻ껵 ָ ֿԻ ӓ ӣ֓ ןַ ӛ֟߻ 14 ד֡֯š־ָ 500 515 Ӳָ þß ד֮ ӯ 502, 503, 506 514 Ӳָ Ӿָ 긻껵 þß ד֮ӓ ֬ ӓ þß ֜޵֓ ֬ . ־ δӾֺ פ Ի , Ӥ ֤֟ӓ ָָ ߣӓ ׾ֿ֟: ֳ֣֮ ߣӓ ޵֓ Σ Ӭ־ ߟ ֻ ןֻ֯߮ ֕ ־ ֮֯ ־ ־ 3000 Ԥ߻ ִԓ ß֟ ֮־ֵ Ƹ פ֟ . ֓ , ִ Ӥã֮֟߻ ֓߮ ִ ן ֻ֯ ֵ֕֟֟ ֻ .

 

4

 

ִ ֟֟

־֮֟, ִו ™ߵ

 

־֮֟ ֟֟

 

ִ ָ֟߻ δ ֓߮ ִ ֓ ָӯָ ֵ֕֟֟ ָ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ Ɵ֯ ֻ . ִԯָӯָ ֟֟ ׬֟֯ ׾ָ֯ ֮֟֟ ֻ ޵ ִԮ פ ֟֟ ׿ ܵ֟: ָ߳ . ִ ָ ܵӓ ִ ֻ ָ ִԓ ֵӮ ־ ִ֡ӿ ־֮֟ þֺ֓ ֻ֯֓ ӲӬ ׮Ư ãׯ֟ ־, ־ ӿ ִו ֲ֟ߟ ָïָӮ ֳֵ Ի ֻ֯ פ ָ֓ ߾֯ ־ ָ֓ ™ߵ ꓵ ־֮ ָ ׮š֯ ֮ ־, ַ ֟֟ ӛ ִԮ ӟ Ư ן֤֯ .

 

ִԟ߻ ִ֤֟™

 

־֮֟ ֟֟ꓵ Ӥԟ ִԮ ֮־ֻ ™ פ . ׾ֿ֟߻ ־ ֣֮ ֟ - ֟ ߾, צ ӓצ , ׾׿™ ߟ߮ ޵֓ ™ . ־ ߾Ӵ֬ ִ֮ Ԯ Οֵ ֕

 

־ ߾ ׾ ן ׾ֈ ׸וֈ

ִ ־ ׮ӣ ֵ֕ן

 

׾֟߻ Ο ߾ֻ ƾ ֟ : ֟. ־ ޵Ӯ ֻ֯ ߾ ָ ֟. Ӯ ֻ ֙ ֟, Ӯ ֬ ׯε ֟ ƴ ד֟. ֓ , ־ ޵Ӯ ߾֮ ֤ ׯε ֟ ןֵֿ ֳ ™ . ޵֮ þ֟: ֚ ָ ߾Ӯ : ݵ , ָ ָ ߾Ӯ ƾ ֟; Ο ֮ ָ ִ֡׾ֵ ֵ֟ ־֮ Ӿ ִ֤֟™ ֻ ƕ, ׿™ ߾֤֮™ ִԮ פ .

ִו ֟֟

 

־֮֟ ָָ ִו ֟߻ ꌵ ־֮ ߻ ִԮ ӟ ֮֓ ã֮ פ . ִו ֟֟ ִ֟ꓵ ָ֮ ָ֬ ׾ֿ . ִԓ ִ֟ ֮ ־ִ־ ִ֕ꬤָ . ִԓ ןֵֿ ֯ þֺ֓ ִ֟ꓵ ֮֬ ָ ִ֟ ӟֳԾ . ִԮ Σִ ִ֟֟ ָ . Ο ֟ þ֟ӡ ־ ֟ ִ֮ ֟ӤԮ, ֮, ߵ ӟ ֟™֮ ㌟ . ֜ ־ ָ ־ ֟ӓ ִ֤֟߻ ָ , ִԓ ֮֟ . Ο ֟ þֵ ׸ִֿ֮߻ ֻ֮ þ֟: ԟ֓ ֲ߾ָ ֻ ֤֬ ״׾޵֓ ֻ֯ ןִ ק™ ֬ ֌ ׮־ ִԮ פ . ו ׾ָ֓ӓ ָ ִԮ ִו ֟ ֬ן þֺ֓ ִ֟ ãׯ֟ . ׾ֿ ֕, ֟ - ִ֟ꓵ ֮֬ á - ִ֟ ִ֟ ָ߻ ִԮ . ִԯߟ ׬ָ ָ֓ ӓ ֲ֟ߟ á Ӵ֬ ֻ ꤳ־ ִԮ . ִ֮ Ծ־ã֕ Դ Ծ־ã ִ֣Ԯ ִԮ ׾׿™ ֵԮָ Փ ׾ֳ .