ߟ߮ ӟ ֱ֟֯ ӯ֮ ֻ ֓֡ ™߮ ׿™ . ߾ֻߓ ™ߵ ֮֓ ׮Ը ֟־ָ, ꤮֯渓 ߮- ߣ֓ ־֮ ׸ָ, ָ֟֯׮֬ ֵ֓ ׾ִָֻ ָ֕ ӓ γ־ ӑ ӓ ֻ ׮֬ ӟӸ™ߵ ֮֟֯֯ ָߵ

֮֯ߚ ã ָ, ֵ֓ ׮ָ ôָ Ù ׮ֵו֟ ־ã֮֯, ׾֪ꓵ ׳־֚ ׮Կ ָ֙ ִ֕֓ ׯִ֟ ֤֯ ӓ ݵ ԤԮ ָߵ ֮֯ߚ֓ š ׮֤ . ߓӤ ןš֯֯ ߣ ֓ ӯ֤ . ߓӤ ӵ ֻ ӵ֮, ִã֓ ִ׬ָ ߸ ֛, ֫ ֯֟ ߣ ״֙ߓ ֻ֓Ӥ Ƹ֓Ӥ ֵԾ . ֵ֓Ӥ ֛, ־ ֵ ߴ֟ ֲ ߓӤ , ָܵ ֮־ָ ֵӓ ã֟, ָ ֳꓵ ִ֮ܵ֟ -ӓ׻ . ָ ָ֟ ӓ ֤׮֤ ε ן֣, . ָ , Ӳև, . Ԥ פ, ֛ . ֳ ӛ ֯ ָܵ ֮־ָ ׾֪ ӿӓ . ֤֟ (ߣ ָ֚) , Ӥִֻ Ѥ (֕֟, Ӳև) . ֳև ֯כ (-״֡, 渟) ָܵ ףֵֿ֟ ֡-ӯ֤ӓ ׮ָ ã֟ , š š á-כ ָ֤֯ ׾֪֯ߚ-ד֡־, ӓ ִס֟ Ƴ ׾֮֫ ס֟ ã֟, ד֡־ ֿ־ ־Գ ֯֡ Ӯ þֹ֟ פ ׮ ֫, Ƴ ׾֮֫Ӯ ׾ֻ ӿ֮- ֤ δ ™ߴ ֓֡ ׾֪ꓵ ֕־ָ ן֟ ׾ֿ ֮ߵ ֻ, ־ ָ ־߮ ־ԓ ָӳ ָ ֻ. ׾֪֯ߚӓ ׬׮ִֵ ׬֯֟ ӓ ֓ ֯ ־ԣ ׻֯ ֻ ָӯָ֟ ׾֪߯ߚߵ ׿ ֻ껵 ׬ָ á-כ ӿ-֬֯ š ׾֫Ӯ ס֟ ָ ׾֪ꓵ ֟߻ ƻ ֿþ ֓֡ . ו 港׸ִ ֟ .

l 8 l

 

ִ֕:

ƻ ӟָ™ߵ ֓֡

 

׿ ֟ ֵ֬߮ ֻ֯ ֳӸ ֫ ֻ껵, δӴ֬ ָ֓ ֮ ֮֟֟ ֮֟֟ ך׾- ֵ㌟ ֵԴ֬ ׾׾֬ ׾ֵӟ߻ ׻ ӣӓ ֿ֮֓ ָӯָ ׸ִ֯, ׮š Ɵ֯ ֻ ޵ִ ֟ ֮֓ ã֮ ןš ֯

ֻ껵 ײΕ (ݻӛ) ׾֪֯ߚ֮ ָ : ִ֕ ׾ֵ־ָ ӟָ™ߵ ׸֤ ־ ֓֡ (Internation Conference on the Jains as a Community) פ 27 29 , 1985 ֻ־֬ߟ ֵו֟ . ײΕ ׾֪֯ߚ֟߻ ׿ֵ ֵ֮ ( Centre of South Asian Studies) ִו ֮־ֿá ׾ֵ֓ ׾ֳ (Department of Social Anthropology) ן ֮־ֿá ߟ߻ ִו ׾ֵӾָ ӿ֮ - ן ܵ֟ ֻ껵 ã֓ ӵ㌟ ׾֪֮ ִ֕ ׾ֵ־ָ߻ ƻ ӟָ™ߵ (International) ӟָ׾ֿ֪ߵ (Interdisciplinary) ֓֡ Ӹ׾޵֟ ֻ ꚵ δ֟ ֿþߤ߻ ֻ.

 

            ֓֡֓ Գ

־ ֟֓ ָ֬ԯ ݻ֛, ֮, ִԮ ֤ ׿ִ֟ ӟ߻ ׾֮֫Ӯ ã֮- ו֯֯ ָ-߮-֮֯֯ԟ֓ ԟ ӟ߻ ӓ ׾׾֬ ֕ ֿ ޵ ꚵ ֮ ֟ ֻ ֓׾֪ ֵ֮ ( Oriental Studies) ־ָ֬ ־ פ, ָӟ ־ ֓׾֪ ֵ֮֓ ӟ ׾ß ֻ֓ ׮֤Ԯ ֻ֮ ֓׾֪ ֵ֮֓ ׾׿™ ֯渟 ֵפ ޵֓ Σ ֻ ֟ ָߵ ׾֪ (Indology), ד֮ ׾֪ (Sinology) ״á ׾֪( Egyptoloty) ֓׾֪ þ֟ӡ ׾ ׮ִ ֻ. ߟ߮ ָߵ ׾֪ ֵֻ֮֯ ֟ ״ֻ֮ӟָ ֵ֮֓ ֤߻ ןֵֿ ׾ֻֿ ָߵ ߓ ֻ ֓߮ ֻ֯ ӟ ִ , ™ӓ ׾֮֫ ֡ ֙, ִ ߓ ֵֻ֮ ׾ֿ ֻ֮ ״ֻ ֟֓ ׾֪ ( Jainology) þ֟ӡ ֻ ־ס ֮֟ ֯ ֻ.

ָ ׾֪ þ֟ӡ ׾ֵ֓ ֵ֮ ӿ֮ ׿ִ֟ ֟߻ ָ֟߻ ׾׾֬ ׾֪֯ߚ ֟ ֿ֮ ã Ӵ֬ ֻ. ו ִֵ֮֬ ִ ֖֮֟ ߓ ָ֬ ֻ껵 ׾ֵ֓ ֻ ָӳ֓ ֟ ׾ֿ ֮֬ ״ֻ ִ ׾֪ ֕ ִ ֖֮֟ ӓ ִ ֻ, ִ ־֖֮ ӓ ־ ֵ֚֮ ָ֟ ֮֟ ֻ֯ ־ ׾ֳӟ Γ׻֟ ֵֻ ׾׾֬ ӟ߻ ׾ֻֿ ׻ þֹ֓ Ɵ֓ , ֵֿ, ׮ֹ ֤ ־ ™Ӯ ֤ ֟֓ ֻ֮ Ɵ ׾ֵ ׾֪ ׾ֳ ןšߟ ֻ. ׾ֳֻ ָָ ֮ ״ֻ֮ ֟ ן ׮ ן ׾ֵӾָ߻ ׾׾֬ ӟ߻ ׳֕֟ ӣ ׾֯ δ֟ ׿֟ ֻ֮ ׾֪ ִ֬ Ɵֵ ׾ӵֻ ֮֓ ã֮ ֯ ֻ.

 

ߟ߮ ׾֪ ֟ ֖֮֟ Ɵ ӓ áߵ ӿ֮ӓ ֟ ֻ֮ӟָ ׸֟ ֻ þֹ γ־ ߟ߮ - ß, ׿ֻ, ן, ד֡ ֤ ӓ áߵ ™֟ ֮ ֻߕ ߓ ֣֣ Ɵ ן֮ ָߵ ־ָ ִ ׾֟ ޵֚ Ɵ֯ ֮ߵ ־ָ ִ ׾֟ ޵֚ Ɵ֯ ֮ߵ ֤֮ ӓ ִ ֮ ָ ֓ ߾ ֻ֮, ׾ֵ֓ ֵֻ֮ Ӭֻ֮ ׾֪ ֟ ꟵƮ ״ ֻ. ׾ֿ ֕ ׾ֵ֓ ӿֻ֮ ֵֻ֮ ָ֟߻ ֕ ֮ӓ ָ֟ߟ߻ ֟֟ ׾ֳ ֓߮ ßֵֻ ׾ֳ Ӯ ׾֪֯ߚ ֟ ӿ֮ ã ӓ ָָ߮ ָ ß, ֟ߵ֟ ׮ָӟָ ֤ 껵֮ ׾֪ ֻ껵 ׾ֵֻ ןš ֯ ֻ.

 

            ִ֕ : þ֟ӡ ׾ֵ

- ֖֮֟ Ɵ ֿӮ ׾֪ ֟ Ɵ ֯ ֮֟֓ ֖֮֟ Ɵ ָܵ דָӟ֮ ן þֹ֓ ™ӓ ׮š֯ ׮״ԟ ߯ ֯ ָ, ε֟֯ ֟ ָ֬ ֵ ָߵ ֮֟֟ ִ ָ ֻ֯ ִ ֮֟֟ ׮ָӟָ י׾ָ ִ֕ ӓ ֮־ֿá (Anthropology) ִֿ֕á ( Sociology) ֬׮ ֟ ׾֟ ֻ껵 ןš ־ֻ껵 ִו áӓ ™֟ ֤ ֟֓ , ֓ ߾ ִֿ֕á֓ ӿӮ ׾ֿ֟: ׾֪ꓵ ׾׾֬ ӓ ֮ 껵 ӿӮ ߾Ο ֻ. ־֓ . ׾ֻ ־ Ӯ ֓ ִו ™֟ ӿ֮ ޵֓ ӟ ֑֛ ֵ . . 1944 1950 ֵԟ ןֵֿ ׸ִ֯ ӓ ִ֕֓ ִו ־ (Jaina Community- A Social Survey) ӿ֮֯ βӬֻ Ӳև ׾֪֯ߚ֮ 1950 ֻ ߋ..֤ Τ֮ , ִ ו ִ֕ þ֟ӡ ׾ֵֻ ֮֟ ״ֻ Ӵ֬ ִ֕ ־߮ ָ ֛.

ִֿ֕áߵ ™֟ ӓ ֮ ׾ָ֓ ָߵ ִ֕֓ Ӥԟ ִ֕֓ ׾ֿ ֻ ִ֕ ָ . ׾ֻ ־ ӓ ־ þֹ֓ ƻ־ƻ βӬ ־ ֫ ־, ֮־ָ ׾֪֟֕ӓ ׿ֱָ ֯δ ֿ֚֮ ֿ֮ ã ׾ß ã ӓ ֟֟ ε֟ ֤߻ ε֟ ֤ ֻ ߟ. ָӟ ӟ ־߮ þֹ֓ βӬ֓ ֿ֮֓ ֓ ™֟ ֻ ֟ן Ɵ ֟ Ӳև ׾֪֯ߚ֮ ֻ֯ ֟Ӿ֟׸ ꟾ־֓ 1956 ֻ βӬ֓ ֻֿ֮ Ɵ ֮ פ ִ 1959 ֻ Ӳևԓ ָ ֿ֮ ãֱ βӬ ֫ ֻ. ִ֕־ָ߻ ׳֮־ ׬ ӣ֓ ֿ֮ӟָ ֡ ִ֕֓ ֵֻ֮ ӿֻ֮ ܵ֟: ֲָ߻ ׿ִ֟ ™ӟ ֟ ֻ ׸, ݻӛ, , ִԮ ֤ ֟ ™֓ δ ׾֪֯ߚӟ߻ ָ֮ ׾֮֫ ӿ ִ֕֓ ӿ֮ ָָ ™ ֻ.

 

- ֵ֮ӟָ ֮֟ ָ֓֯ ָ־ ޵֓ ׮ ӟ ߾Ο ֻ֮ ֟ ֟߻ ׾֮֫ӓ ։ ֻ ו ֟֓ ־ԣԮ ֻ֮ ָ ֻ֟ ֓߮ ִ֕ ִ֕֓ á ™֟ ֵֻֿ֮ Ɵ ֯ ֻ. ׸ִ֟: ׿ִ֟ ӟ߻ ִו ֮־ֿá֖ ( Social Anthropologists ) ִֿ֕á֖ (Sociologists) ִו ן֟֕ ( Social Historians) ָ ִו áӟ߻ , ׾֮֫ ӿ ִ֕֓ ӿָ֮֯ ־ָ ß Ӹ ֻ. 1974-75 ֬ ֳָ ָ֕ ֻ껵 ־֮ ־߸ ӓ 2500 ׮־ ־ִ 1980 ֻ . ׾ֻ ־ ӓ ִ֕־ָ߻ ׬ ׾ִ֮֫ ӣ֓ ָ ׸ ־ ֫ ִֻ ִ֕֓ ӿָ֮֯ ֵ֮Ӯ ׾ֿ ֻ֮ ״ֻ, ִ ׿ִ֟ ׾֮֫֓ ִ֕־ָ߻ ׾׾֬ ӿ֮ ֟ ֚ ָ֓ ӟ ß־ Ɵ ״׾޵֓ δ 껵 ԯ ꚵ δ־ָ ו δӓ ӿӮ Ɵ ־, δӓ ס֟ ו δӓ ӬӮ Ɵ ־, δӓ ס֟ ֮ ׾ָ֓ ־ ߻ ӿ֮֓ þֹ־ָ ׾ָ֓׾׮ִֵ ־, ָܵ Ӯ ׸ ײΕ ׾֪֯ߚ֮ ָ ƻ ӟָ™ߵ ִ֕׾ֵ ֓֡ Ӹ׾ֻ .

 

            ֓֡֓ ׿™

ִ֕ ׾ֵ־ָ߻ ƻ ӟָ™ߵ ֓֡֓ Ӵֲֻ֕־ ӟ ׮ֵו֟ ׿™֯ 港׸ִ þֹ֓ .

1) ײΕ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ 韾 ӵ֮ : ײΕ ׾֪֯ߚ֟߻ ꙸ ։ ׿ֵ֮ Ùߕ ( ׿ֵ ) כ֙˴ՙ ֻ ֕ (ִו ֮־ֿá ׾ֳ) ִו ֵ֮ ֟߻ ׾׾ܵ֟ ߑԯָӯָ֯֯ ןš ӿ֮ ã֓ 㾵־ã֟ ӵ֮ ӓֻ֮ ֓֡֓ ƻ ׿™ . ә ։ ׿ֵ֮ Ùߕ ã֮ ֻ֯ ׬ָ֟ ß֮֯ ױ߯ևԮֵ֯ԟ֓ ׿ֵ ӛ֟߻ ־ ֻ ָ ָ֓ ִו ן֓ ־ ֵ֮־ָ ׾ֿ צ ãֱ ֫ - ։ ׿ֵ֮ Ùߕ ӣִֻ 75 ß ӣ ָ֓ ִו ן֓ ӿ֮־ָ ָ֬ . ָ֓ ִו ן֓ ִֵ֮֬ ׾׾֬ ִԓ ֤֮־ָ ָ ޵֓ ֬׮ ָ™֓ ֛֑֛ߴ֬߻ Ƶָ ߓ ֵԾָ צ ޵֓ ׿ֵ ֵ֮ ֟ ֻײֻ ־߮ ֻ ֹ֓ ִ֕׾ֵ ֓֡ Ӹ׾޵ִ֬ ꙸ ։ ׿ֵ֮ Ùߕ ã ָ ֻ ֻ֯ ֵԻֵ߮ ָߓ ӣִֵֻ֬ ֓֡֓ ӯ ֵ֮ ޵֟ ֻ . ׿־ֵ ֓ ӓֻ . Ԯ ֮ ӓ γ־ 韾 ֻ֓֡ ֳֻ . ׾ֿ .

ײΕ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ִו ֮־ֿá ׾ֳ ã ֟߻ ִו ֮־ֿá ׾ֵ֓ ӿ֮֓ 껵 ߛ ԓ ןִ֬ ןֵֿ Ɵ֯ ֵ ֻ֮ ã ֮֓ ã֮ ֯ ֻ . ݻӛָܵ Ɵ־֤ ִ֕־֤ ֢ꓵ ׬ֻ֯֟ - ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ߻ פ ֻ껵 ִ֟ӓ ӓ ӓ ӯ ߾֮֓ Ο ӿ֮ ֵ֮ ӓ ׾ֵֵߓ ־ִ֮ ֮֟ οֻ֮ ֵ㌟ ׬ Ɵ áߵ þֹ֓ ӣָ֫ ޵֓ ֮ߵ ֵ ײΕ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ִו ֮־ֿá ׾ֳ֮ . פ ִ֟ӓ ֻ֮ӟָ ׾ֳ֮ ׾֟ ׾ֿ֮߻ ӟ߻ ִ ִֵ֓ ֵ֮ ӿ֮ ָ ꚵ δ־ָ . ִ-ִֵ֓ ֵ֮ ӯֻ֮ӟָ ߻ 15-20 ԯ ׾ֳ֮ ֟߻ ֬׮ ܵ ׿™֯ ִ֕ӓ ֵ֮ ӿ֮ ޵־ָ ָ ޵֓ ׾ֻ . ™֟ ָ֟߻ ִ֕ ӟ Ɵ֓ ִ֕ ֻ֮, ׾ֳ֮ ִ֕֓ ӿ֮־ָ ֻ֯ ׾ֿ צ ޵ ֟ ӿ֮ ֟ ֻ ӓӲӬ ӯ Ɵ ׾ֳ֓ ײΕ ֯ ӿָ֮֯ ֮֟֯֯ ׮ֵ֟׻֓ ֟ ޵֟ ֟. ִ ײΕ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ִו ֮־ֿá ׾ֳ ִ֕׾ֵ ӿ֮֓ δ ֻ֮ . ֓ ׾ֳ֓ š ֬ׯ . ׻֮ Ʊ ӓ ֻ 韾֤߻ ֻ֓֡ ֳֻ, ׾ֿ . ו ײΕ ׾֪֯ߚ֟߻ ã֓ ׬ָ ֌ӓ 韾ִ ִ֕ ׾ֵ ֵֻ֮ ӿֻ֮ ן ןš ֯ ֻ.

 

2) ο֮ ׾ß ׮֬ߓ ף ֵ : ӟָ™ߵ ֻ֓֡ ף ָ ӟֿ ײΕִ֬߻ ο֮ ִԵӓ ׾׾֬ ׾ß ӛ֮ ֤ ֮Ӥ֮ ֻֻ, ֓֡֓ ָ ׿™ . ײΕ ׾֪֯ߚ֮ 껵 ֻ֓֡ ָ ף ֮ ޵֓ ײי ׮ֻ 꿻 ֵ֮ ׸֓ ݻӛ֬߻ þֹ֓ ־ԓ ã ꤸ ֮ , ָ֟ ֻ껵 ߵ ֟߻ ִ֤ ֟ ֮ ֻ֮ ־ ֓֡ ޵֓ ׸ãן ׮ִ ֻ , ָӟ ײ ׸ã֟ߟ ײΕ ׾֪֯ߚֻ ߻ ô֙ ׸ֻ ӛ ֻ (כ) Ù ֮ ӛ ο֮ӓ ״ þֹ֓ ׾ß ӛ֮ ֻ֯ ׮֬ߟ ָ ָ ף ֤ ֜. ߟ߮ ο֮ӓ ״ ׮֬ߟ ִ֕ ׾ֵ ƻ ֓֡ ָ ֻ ִ֬Ե֓ ִו ӿֻ֮ ӟָ™ߵ ßָ־ָ ݵ ׮ֵו֟ ָ֮ ο֮ ֻ֮ ״ֻ, ׾ֿ .

 

3) ֟߻ ׾֮֫ ӿ֓ Ƴ: ׾׾֬ ӓ Ӭָ ׾֪֯ߚӟ߻ ӟָ™ߵ ֮֟֯֯ ӓ־ ׾֮֫ ӿ, ֬֯ ӓ ε Ƴ ֓֡֓ ןָ ׿™ . ֻ֯֯ ׾׿™ ֟ ׾ֿ ֮ߵ ִָ , ׾֪֯ߚߵ ßָ־ָ 15-20 ֮֓, ӿ֮֓ ֮֯֓ ԤԮ֓ ־ ֻ  ԯ ִ֕ ׾ֵ ׾׾֬ ֟ ӿ֮- ֟ ֮֟֟ ֵ ߟ ֻ ִ֮ܵ֟ ֬֯ ӿ ӓ ִ־ ֓֡֟ ޵֟ ֻ . Ƴ ֬֯Ӵ֬: 1) ײΕ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ִו ֮־ֿá ׾ֳ֓ ߴ֟ . ׻֮ Ʊ, 2) ׻ֱ׮ֵ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ׿ֵ ׾ֳ֓ . ֳ֪ . 3) ֱ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ׸ә ׮㙓 . ָ. . ׾Γ. 4) ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ֮־ֿá ׾ֳ֓ . ֵ ׸, 5) ӛ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ן ִԓ ֖֮֟ ׾ֳ֓ . . ֛, 6) ײÙ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ״ ׾ֳ֓ . . ׻֮, 7) ֕ã֮ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ִֿ֕á ׾ֳ֓ . . . ӑ 8) ׿־֕ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ӿ֮ ֓ . ׾ֻ ־ δ . ׾ֿ ֕ ִ֕ ׾ֵ ӿ֮֓ ֪ ξ֟ ףֵֿ֟ . ׾ֻ ־ Ӯ ֟߻ ׬ָ ׌ ֻ֓֡ ԤԮ ޵֚ ָ֓ ޵֟ ֻ .

4) ׾׾֬ ֟߻ ִו á֖ӓ Ƴ : ִ֕ ׾ֵ ӟָ™ߵ ֓֡ ӟָ׾ֿ֪ߵ þֹ֓ (Interdisciplinary Charater) , ֓֡֓ ׿™ . ֓֡֟ ֖֮֟֓ ָ ֓߮ Ɵ֓ ִ ӓ ƴ߯δ Ƴ ֓, ӓֲָָ ִו ֮־ֿá֖, ִֿ֕á֖, ִו ן֟֕ ֿá֖ ӓ֤߻ ִ־ ޵֟ ֻ . ߻ ֟ ׿ִ֟ ӟ߻ ־ ׾֪֯ߚӟ߻ ִԓ ֖֮֟, ִ׾ֵ ֵ֮, ׮ ִ ֤ ־Ӯ Γ׻֟ ֻ껵 ׾ֳӓ ֵԻ ß ֻ֮ ״ֻ . ִԖָ֮֯֟ ֬֯Ӯ ־ ִԓ ֮֟ - ׾֮֫Ӯ ֓֡֟ ־ԕ ִ׻֟ ޵֟ ֻ ׾ֿ . ו ӟָ׾ֿ֪ߵ þֹ֓ ׾׾֬ ִו á֖ӓ Ƴ ֻ ƕ ֓֡ .

 

            ֓֡֓ ӵ֮

ןֵֿ ׿™ ֓֡֓ ӵ֮ Ο ӓֻ֤֮߻ ӟ ο֮ߵ ֵ㌟ . ֓֡֓ ־ ֤ ֟ߓ ֮ ײΕ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ߴ֟ . ׻֮ ӱ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ . ֵ ׸ ִ֕׾ֵ ӿִ֮֬ 껵 ֯ ׮š ֮ ֵԸ ֻ껵 ֚ ָ֟ ß־ ֲִָָ֕ Ο ֟ߵ֟ ӲӬ Σׯ֟ ֵ ִו ֮־ֿá ׾ֵ֓ ־ ֬֯ ӿ . ִ ֓֡֓ ׮ֵ֮ Ӵֲֻ֕־ Ӵ֬ ™ ׾ֿ ïߵ þֹ֓ ָ֟ פ - ָ Ꟶ.

1) פ։ ִָӳ ֫ߓ ־: ֻ֓֡ ֟ ߟ߮ ֪ ־֓ ־ԕ׮ ִָӳ֓ þֹ ޵֟ ֻ ־Ɵ ƻ ׾ֿ ߵ ™ . ֓֡֓ ˑ֙ ִָӳ ִָ Ӵָӳ ׮״֢ ׾֪֯ߚߵ ߵ ֤֯ãӓ ָ ֓׸ Ӳֻ֓ , ָ-ΤԮ ָ ֤ ֵδӮֿ ӯԯ ֙ פ . ֓֡֓ ӵו ߴ֟ . ׻֮ ӱ Ӯ ֻ֯ þָ֟֯ ״׮֙ӟ ӯ׾ֻ . ׾ֻ ־ ӓ ã֟߮ ִ֓ ֮֮ ֻ . ָ ֜. ֯߻ ס ֟ ד (껛) ӓ ֵ . ֜ ־ ָ ֯֓ ãӓ ־ԕ׮ ãӮ , ׮Ը ך ƻ, ֮Ӹ֮֓ ֚֯ԓ ֵδ ָ ־ֿ ։ ֲӓ ֓֡֓ ֵδ֟ ֮ ӟֳԾ ־Ɵ. ׿־ֵ ִ֛, ֯, ֕־֙, ֫ ָܵ פ։ ֲӓ ִ֤߻ ֓֡֓ ֵ֟ פ ־Ɵ. ו ֲֻ ֵ֓ ßߟ ß ݵ ֵ Ի. ӵӮ ֻ֯ ־ צӟ .2) ֵ㌟ ֓ԯ֫߻ ֮֬ : ֓֡֟ ֤-׾־ֻ֤ ׾ָ֓׾ִֿԻ ־ԓ ֮֬ ޵֟ ֻ , ָ ׾ֿ ֮ߵ ™ . ֓ԓ Ο ֚֡ ӯδ þ֟ӡ ׾ִֿ ־ ֵԻ (Discussant) ׮ֵ㌟ ޵֟ ֡֟ ִ׾™ ֻ껵 ׾ֵ֟߻ ֕ ־ ֬֯֓ ׾ִֿ ׮־֛ ֟ . Ο ׮ֲӬ-֮ ֻ֯ ׮ֲӬ֓ ӯ ָ ָӿֹ֮ ֮֓ ޵֓ Σ ֮ ֟ ־Ɵ, ָ ֓֡֟߻ ־ ׮ֲӬ֓ ן ֓֡֟߻ ָ ֬֯Ӯ ָ֡ӳ֓ פ ֬ ״߻ ֲָָ ־֕Ԯ ֻ , ִ ֓֡֟߻ ־ ׮ֲӬ֓ Ɵ Ƴ ֬֯Ӯ ֬ߓ ֻ ֻ֮ Ο ׮ֲӬ־֮֓֓ ־ֿ֓ ֻ . ׮ֲӬ־֮֓֋֕ ׾ִֿ֮ ֯ ã֟ 껵 Ӿָ ӛ껵 ™־ָ ֓ ޵ Ɵ ޵֟ . ֫ߟ ׮ֲӬֻֻ ֟߯֓ ֓Ի ִ ־ ֟, ο֯οӮ ֲ֛ ִ֯ ָ ־ ֟֟ ֻ֯ ׮ֲӬ֟ 껵 ן֤֯֓ ׾׾֬ ݵ ָ֬ ִ֣Ԯ ־ ֟. ו ֻ ֤׾־֤Ӵ ׮ֲӬӓ ӓ ӓ ָ . ֓ԓ ßָ ֤ ӓ ֻ ֟ ֬Ӭ ֻ֮֬ ׮ֲӬִ֬ ־ֿ ָ ޵ ׸ ޵ ׾ֿ ֤ . ֓֡ ӓֻ֮֓ ־ԣԾ ֵ㌟ ֫ ֓֡֟ ֤ ֮ , ָ ֻ껵 ֟ ֚֡ ֻ껵 ֟ ֮־ָ ӿӮ ֻ֯ ׾ִֿ֓ ״ ָ ™ ߟ߮ ָ ֛.

3) ãן֤ ׮ֲ֬֯֫ߓ ֻӲ : ֓֡֟ ׮֬׸ ׾ֵֿ ӲӬߟ ׮ֲӬ ӿ ֬֯ ߻ ֓ ֟ ӵӮ ֬߯ ֻ , ֓֡֓ ןָ ׾ֿ ïߵ ™ . ֚ . ֵ ׸ ׻֮ ӱ ӵӮ ׮ֵו֟ ֓֡֓ ֬ ָ ֓ Ʈ - ִ֕ ׮֬׸ ׾ֵ־ָ߻ ӟָ™ߵ ׸֤ ־ ֻ֓֡ ֹ ׾ß þֹ֓ ãן֤ ׮ֲӬ (Position Paper) ֓֡֟ Ƴ - ־ ӿ- ֬֯ ֚׾ֻ . ãן֤ ׮ֲӬִ֬ . ׾ֻ ־ ֮ 1950 ֻ ִ֕׾ֵ ֵ ƻ־߻ ִ֕áߵ ӿ֮֓ Գ߾ָ ִ֕֟ ֬ Γ׻֟ ֻ껵 ִו ׸ã֟ߓ á ™֟ ׾ֿ ָ֟߻ ӯ ִ֕׾ֵ ִ֕ ӑ ֵ? ִ֕ þ֟ӡ ִ֕ ֵ? ִ֕֟ ֓ ־֮ βֻ ֵ? ִ֕֟ ֯ ָ ִ֕ ָ ֵ Ӵ֬ ־ָ ֻ ֵ? ִ֕ ֻ֯ þ֟ӡ ß֟ י׾޵֚ ֮֟֟ ׮š ε֟ ֵ? ָ ֳ þֹ֓ ο ã֟ . ו ãן֤ ׮ֲӬ֓ ֮ Ӯ ֻ֯ ׮ֲӬ ֚־, ׾֮ӟ ޵֟ ֻ . ָ֮ ֻ껵 Ӭָ ׮ֲӬ־ָ ֟ ֡Ӵ֬ ֓ ޵֟ ֻ.

 

            ֓֡֟߻ ׮ֲӬ

1) ӓ ָ : ֓֡֓ ֟ . ׾ֻ ־ (֤֮ ӓֻ, ӿ֮ , ׿־֕ ׾֪֯ߚ ֯, ָ) ӓ ֬׮ ָ֟߻ ִִ֕֬

ֵֻ ָ ׮ֲӬ־ָ߻ ֓Ԯ ֻ. ׮ֲӬִ֬ ׬ָ ֤֮ áִ׾ָ Ӥ֮, ֻ֤ ןֲӬ Ӥ֮, ֵ֓ Ӥ֮ ָ ״-ִו þֹ֓ Ӥ֮ ֻ׾־ ןֲӬ, ӛֲӤ, ӟָ֟ߵ ׾־ ָ, ׾־ ׾֬ߓ ֻӲ, ִ֕׾ָ ӓ ׮ִԻ֮ ָܵ ִו ο֚

ֻ Ӥ֮ ӓ ׾ßָ ׾־֮ ޵֟ ֻ . - ִו ָ ӲӬߓ ס֟ Ɵ Σִ֓ ֤ ޵֟ ִֻ ִ֕ ֤ ָ֮֟ ãןֿ߻ ָ־֤ ׸֟Ԯֿ߻֤߻ , ֵ֕֯ԟ ֟ ֵֻ ִו ׸ã֟ߓ ߾ ãӟ ӿӓ ֻ.

2) ִԟ߻ ׯε ֲ : , ֳ֪ (ָӕ ֓ ֕ ׾֪֣Ӹ ֬ ִԵ ֓ ֬֯, ׻ֱ׮Ե ׮־֙, Ի, ׸) ӓ ׯε ִ ֵ? ׮ֲӬ ןֵֿ ־߮ þֹ֓ ׾ָ֓ξ֟ . ִ֬ ִԟ߻ ֆ פ ֟ߓ ״ ׾֬ ӟָ ִָ ӓ ӯԴ ֻ ״ ׾֬ ӓ ָ֬ ׾־֮ , Ӥԟ ָ֟߻ ִ ִֻ֬߻ ִ ִ Ӵ֬ ִԓָ֟߻ ֻ껵 ֤ӓ ׮ ִ . ֵ֬߮ ֻ֟ ִ֬Դ֬ ֮ ֤֟ ӓ ׯε ֟ ӟ ־ þֹ֟ ו֮֯ ׳ ޵֓ Α֟ , ִ֯ ߟ߮ ־ פ, ו ִ Ӥ ִ Ӵ֬߻ ׯε ֲӓ áߵ ׾ֿ ã֟Ӯ ָ ˲ ֙.

3) ִ֬߻ ֓ ־֮ : . ֵ ׸ (ִֻ֬߻ ִԓ ӿ, ֬ ֮־ֿá֓ ֬֯, ׾֪֯ߚ, , ݻӛ) ӓ ָ֟߻ פֲӸ ִ֕֓ ָ֬ ׾ß ׾ֿ֟ ׮ֲӬ Ӯ ֯ ֟ 1982 1984 ִֻ֬ ß־ 껵 ִ֕֓ Ο ֵ֮־ָ ָ֬ . ׮ֲӬ֟ ֯, ֻ ־ וֻ֟߻ ִִ֕֬ ֓ ־֮ ׮ִ 霴 ޵֓ Ɵ֯ ֵ ֟߻ ӓ ן׮׬ ã ֻ껵 ָ ֳ ߾֯ ׾׾֬ δӫָ , ֓ áߵ ׾־֮ ֵ ֬ ߸ ֳ ε֟֯ ֻ־ߟ , ִ֯ ߟ߮ ־ פ . ֟߻ וִ֮פ, ֵ֬ , ֬ -- ֬ ӑ ָּ ֚ ã֤߻ ִ֕֟ ֓ ־֮ ׾޵ִ֬ ֮֟֟ י׾޵ִ֬ ֵ㌟ ״ ׮š֯ ׮ָӟָ ֕־ߟ , ָ֬ ֙ פ ; ִ ֲִָָ֕ ãׯ֟ 껵 Ο ӲӬӓ Գ߾ָ ָ֬껵 ׾־֮֟ Ɵ߯ ׮ֲӬ֓ ã֟Ӿָ γ־ ֛.

 

4) ߣӾָ߻ ֡ӓ Ƣ : . ߴ֟ ׻֮ ӱ (׻ֵ֟߻ ִ֮ӓ ӿ׬, ֬ ִו ֮־ֿá ׾ֵ֓ ֬ׯ, ײΕ ׾֪ׯ֚, ײΕ, ݻӛ ) ӓ ֕ãִ֮֬߻ ӓ ֡ ӟ߻ ִָ֟ ־߮֯ ׮ֲӬ Ӯ ֕ãִ֮֬ 껵 Ο ־ָ ָ֬ . ׮ֲӬ֟ ֕ãִ֮֬߻ פӲָ ӓ ־߸ (וֻ : ־և ֑ ) , . ׸֕ (וֻ : ) ֩֕ (וֻ : ֵ֯ ) Ӿָ ӓ ꤸ (וֻ : ָ ) ָ ӟ ֬ ׾֡ ןֵֿ - ӓ, ӟ߻ δ פӓ, ִ֬߻ ִָ֟㌟ ןֵֿ Փ , ӓ ֌ ַ ׾׾֬ ןִ֕֟ӓ, ֓ ӲӬ֟ Γ׻֟ ֻ껵 ӟӓ, ן֣ ַ ֵ֡ӓ Ӯ ַָ ׾ֻֿ ֡ӓ ׾ßָ Ɵ ޵֟ ֻ ״ ף ™֟ Ӯ Ƣ֓ , ֓ ׾־֮ ޵֟ ֻ . ִ ֟߻ ӓ ׸ָ֟ ӟ ׾ֻֿ δ֟ ַָ ד֟ ןִ֕֟ ־ ֟ӟ߻ ־ ָӟ߻ ֮֟֟ ׮š Ƴ ַ ׾ֻֿ ֡ӓ ף ׾ֿ , ӓ ִ֕־ָ ִ ׸ִ ֟ ֓ ״ ׾ֿ ޵֟ ֻ . ׿™֯ ׮ֲӬִ ןֵֿ ֟ ַָ ֡ӓ ִו Ƣ֓ ֣֣ ֮ ִ֕ӿӮ Σִ ֻ.

 

5) ָ ־֓ ִ֕ : . . . ӑ (֬֯ δ , ִֿ֕á ׾ֳ, ֕ã֮ ׾֪֯ߚ, ֵ֯, ָ ) ӓ ֕ãִ֮֬߻ ָ Ƹ֟߻ ִ֕ Ɵ߯ ׮ֲӬ֟ ָ ן Ƹ֟߻ ָ ƕָ ܵ ֻ껵 ִ֕֓ ׸ã֟ߓ ״, ִו, ף, ֕ ֤ ™ӟ ׾ßָ ׾־֮ ޵֟ ֻ . ӯԯ ןԯ Ӳָӣߵ ֻ껵 ׾ ־ֻ, ־ֻ 긾ֻ ߮֓ ֟ ֻ껵 ִ֕֟߻ Γ׻֟ ״ ָӯָ, ָ ׾֬ ִו ן׸֕ ӓ Ɵ ִֿ֕áߵ ׸ ׮ֲӬ֟ ™ߟ߮ ޵֟ ֻ . ׾ֿ ֕ ָߟ 1920 ֻ ã֮֯ ֻ껵 ӛ ׮Ùו޵ ӑ֙ ֬Ӯ ךך ָ, ִ֕־ָ ף ָ, ׾ֹ ׾ָ ִָ֮ Γָ ֤ ֲӓ ָ֬ ָ ִ֕ ִ֬߻ ӲӬ֓ ׮ֲӬ֟ ָևԮ ׾ֿ ޵֟ ֻ . ִ ׾׿™ ־֓ ִ֕֓ ß׮™ þֹ֟ ֵԯ ߟ߮ ֮ ޵ ֻ ֤ ֻ. ו ַ ִ Ɵ ָ δ ־֓ ִ֕ӲӬ ֲֻ ־ֿ , ־ ӿӓ ֟ ֛.

 

6) ݻӛ ״ֲָ֛ Ƹ֟߻ ִ֕ : ״Ù (ӿ֮ ׬ָ, ִו ֮־ֿá ׾ֳ, ײΕ ׾֪֯ߚ, ײΕ, ݻӛ ) Ӯ ֤ ݻӛ֬ ã׵ ֻ ִ֕ ֤ ׸ã֟ߟ ָ֟ ַ Ӳ֬ߓ ׮ֲӬ ןֵֿ ׾־֮ ׾֮ Ɵ ָ . ײΙִ֬ ַ ָ 25,000 ӯ ֟տ ױ߻ ӛ, ֗׮ֵ ׮ֵ ߮ ӟ ֻ ָ֟ ןԯ Ӳָ ӣߵ ܵ֟: ӛ Ƹ֟ ß־ ָ . ӯ ݻӛ ״֛ћ ׾ֳ֓ ״ֈֲָ Ƹ֟߻ ׾ ־ֻ ׾ ߴֻ ֟ ֻ껵 Ӳָ ִ֕֓ ״ ֬, ָ֓ ã Ӵ֬ 껵 ԯ ֛ ֻ껵 ׸ԟ֮֓ ׾׾֬ ӓ δӓ ֣֣ פݤԮ ׮ֲӬ֟ ֤ áߵ ߟ߮ ޵֟ ֻ ; ִ ָ֤߻ ִ֕ ֻ֯ þ֟ӡ ß֟ ô֟ י׾޵֚ εֿ֟߻ ֟, ֓ ִ ֮ ׮ֲӬ־ֺ ־ ã֟Ӯ ֻ.

 

7) ֟ ׮ֵ ֟ : . ߴ֟ ß֮ (֬ׯ, ִו ֮־ֿá ׾ֳ, ׾ßָ ִ ׾ , כ ׾֪֯ߚ, כ, ݻӛ ) ӓ ֕ãִ֮֬߻ ׮ֵ ֟ Τߑ ׮ֲӬ Ӯ ֕ã֮֓ ֵ֯ ׾ֳ֟߻ ƕָ ֟ ֻ껵 ֮ ָ֯ ӓ ־ 껵 Ο ־ָ ָ֬ ֻ֮ ׾׾֬ ָ Ɵ ָ Γ׻֟ ׸ã֟ߓ áߵ ™֟ ׾ֿ ָ . ׮ֲӬ֟ ֮֕ Ӿ ׮ֵ ֟ߴ֬߻ ־ ׮ֵ ׮ֵ ֟ӓ ֮, ׿™ ָïָӲӬ ӓ ׾ßָ ׾־֮ ޵֟ ֻ ׮ֵ ֟ߓ ӓ ӓֻ֮ ֤ ™ӓ ֮ ׮ֵ ֟ ָ ׮ֵ ֟ӯ ן ™֟ ֯֟ ׾׳֮ , Ƣ֯ ֲӓ ֓ ޵֟ ֻ . ִ ׮ֵ ֟ߓ ׾׾֬ ֕ӓ ֣֣ ֮ ޵ ָߓ ֤ ֻ.

 

8) ָ֤֮ ־ָ : ִ֕֓ ף ־ָӿ ӲӬߟ ָ ׮ֲӬ ״Ù ֛ (ӿ֮ ׬ָ, Կá ׾ֳ, ׾ßָ ִ ׾ , כ ׾֪֯ߚ, כ, ݻӛ ) ӓ . ӓ ָ֤֮ ־ָ ׮ֵ ׮ֲӬ ֕ã֮֓ ָ וֻ֟߻ ָ ƕָ ܵ ֻ껵 ִ֮ܵ ׳ֻ פӓ ֟ ֻ껵 ֮ ꛵֓ ӯ ף ִ֛֛ӓ Ο ־ָ ָ֬ . ׮ֲӬ֟ ָ֤֮ ־ָ Ӳӟֱ ֤ ꚵ δ֟ ַ ֓׸ ֟֯㸾֚֓ ߻ ִ ף ߾֮֟߻ Ƣ֯ ã֮ ׾ֿ֤ ޵֟ ֻ ִ þ֟ӡ ״ ן ߾֮δ ֟ߟ ַ ִֻ֕ ֟ ׿™֯ ןš ֯ ֻ , ӟ ִ֯ áߵ ™֟ ־ ޵֟ ֻ .

 

9) áֵӓ ֵ : ָ . (ӿ֮ ׬ָ, ִו ֮־ֿá ׾ֳ, ײΕ ׾֪֯ߚ, ײΕ, ݻӛ ) ӓ ׮ֲӬ ִ֕֟߻ áߓ ״ ׾ֵӲӬ . ӓ áֵ ִ֕֓ ֟֟ (Ӿ ֹ֤ ) ׮ֲӬ Ӯ ֕ã֮֓ ֵ֯ ֟֟ ( Ӿ ֹ֤ ) ׮ֲӬ Ӯ ֕ã֮֓ ֵ֯ Ƹ֓ Ƹ ָ֕ ֟߻ ןԯ Ӳָӣߵ ӓ 껵 Ο ߾ָ ָ֬ ֟ ִ֕֓ ״ ָӯָ ִו ן׸֕ ӓ ׮ֵ״֟֯ ֻ֮ ӓ ֟֟ Ɵ֯ ֻ ޵֓ Ɵ֯ ֵԴ֬ áֵ ֵ㌟ ״ ָ ֛֟, ֓ ָ֬ ׾־֮ ޵֟ ֻ . Ӥԟ ֬ ߟ ֻ껵 ֵԓ Ɵ ָ ˲ .

ָ߻ ׮ֲӬӯδ (10) ״Ù .ָ. ָ߻ ׮ֲӬӯδ (10) ״Ù .ָ.ָ߻ ׮ֲӬӯδ (10) ״Ù .ָ.Ԯ (ӿ֮ ׬ָ, ֓׾֪ ׾ֳ, ײΕ ׾֪ׯ֚, ײΕ, ݻӛ) ӓ ִָ֮ ־֓ ״; (11) . . ӛ ( ׾ֳ, כӲ ׾֪ׯ֚, כӲ, ݻӛ ) ӓ פֲָ ֬; (12) . ׾Ӥ ָֻ (ֵ ֬֯, ִֿ֕á ׾ֳ, ֕ã֮ ׾֪ׯ֚, ֵ֯, ָ) ӓ Ӥ Ӵ׬ֻ ״, ן׾ֵ ӲӬ (13) . ....֚ (֬֯, 滱֮ , ֱ ׾֪֯ߚ, ֱ, ݻӛ ) ӓ פֲָӣߵ ־ָ֓ ӣ ָ ׮ֲӬ֤߻ ӟ Ɵ߯ ֮ߵ .

 

6) ֓֡֓ : ֓֡֓ ε֮ ק™, ֓֡֓ ӻֲ֕־, ֓˸ֻ֡ ״ֻ ךӲ ן֤, ֻ֓֡ ֳֻ 韾 ӓֻ, ֓֡֟߻ ׮ֲӬ֓ ׾׾֬֟ ־֢ ֓֡֟߻ ֤׾־֤֓ ßָ ׸ִָ ֤ ׮ӓ ™֟ ִ֕׾ֵ ӟָ™ߵ ֓֡ ָ ꚵ δ֟ ֿþ

ֻ. ֜ ־ ָ ַꓵ ƻ ִ֓֡ ׸ִ þֹ֓ ™ ִָ֮֬ߟ ֬ ֻ.

 

1) ִ֕ ׾ֵ ֮֟ : ֓ ִו™ . ׾ֻ ־ Ӯ Σִ 껵 ־߮ ׾ֵֻ ӟָ™ߵ ֮֟ ״ֻ, ֓֡֓ ƻ δ ֲֻ . ִ ӓ ִֿ֕áߵ ™֟ ֵ֮ ӿ֮ ׾ֵֻ Ƣ ֯ ֻ ןš֤߻ ״ֻ. ׸ִ֟: ׾֪ ֯ ׾ß ֻ; ָ ׾֪ꓵ Γ׻֟ ֬ ֟ ־ ׾ֵ֓ ָ ֛ . ו ׾֪ꓵ ֟ ֢֖֮, Ɵ ֬ ֻ ֻ껵 ־Դ֮ ׾ֵӲָָ ֟ ִ֕ ־߮ ׾ֵ֓ ִ־ ֻ .

 

2) ԤԮָ֯ ӣ -- ֿ֮ : ֓֡֓ ָָ֬ ֵָ ӣ ײΕ ׾֪֯ߚֱ֟ ׿֟ ָ , ֓֡֓ ָ Ƣ֯ ֲֻ . ֓֡֟ ֤ ޵֟ ֻ껵 ׮ֲӬӾָ߻ ֓ԓ ֮ ׸ ޵֟ ֻ ׮ֲӬ ӣ֟ ִ׾š ޵֟ ָ . ִ֕ ׾ִֵ֬ ִֿ֕áߵ ™֟ ֕־ָ ֻ껵 ӿ֮ӓ ӣ֟ ֜־ ޵֟ ָ , ߻ ֟ ޵ָܵ ӿ֮֟ ֓ þֹ ֯ ӲӬ ֳ Ɵ ޵֟ ָ . ӿ֮֓ ֿ֮֓ ֟ ֟ӯ ޵ 韾֓ ָӯָ ãׯ֟ 껵 ײΕָܵ ֮֮ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ֟߮ ׿֟ ָ ߴ֟ . ׻֮ ӱ . ֵ ׸ ӓ ֻ ӯֻ֤ ֵָ ָ ӣ ִ֮֟: ׾֪ꓵ ܵ֟: ִ֕׾ֵ ֓ ֟߻ ן þֹ֓ ןֵֿ Ƣ֓ ֙ ָ . ֕־ָ ֟ ׾֪֯ߚ֮ ׾ֵ־ָ ַ ִ־ Ԥ þֹ֓ ӣ ֮ ָ ꚵ ָ֟ ֵ֕֯՟ ֬ ֻ֮, ו ײΕ ׾֪ׯ֚֓ ֟߮ ׿֟ ַ ׻֟ ӣֻ ׾֪ꓵ ӿ֮֟ Ӵ֬ ָ֮֬ Ƣ ֯ ָ .

 

3) ӿ֮ ֟ ӳ־ ֜ : ִ֓֡ ִ֕׾ֵ ӿֻ֮ ֯ ׾ֿ ֟ ֯ Ի, ֓֡֓ ןָ ֵ㌟ ߵ ֲֻ . ִ֕׾ֵ ֓֡ ӟָ™ߵ ßָ־ָ ֵו֟ ޵֟ ִֻ ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ߻ ӿ ׾ֵ־ָ ꚵ δ֟ צ ߻, ׸ã֟ ׮ִ ֻ . ִ֕׾ֵ ֓֡ ӟָ׾ֿ֪ߵ þֹ֓ ֻ֮ ֢֖, ן, ֿá֖ ֟֕ ӓֲָָ ִו ֮־ֿá֖, ִֿ֕á֖, ִו ןָ ָ ׾׾֬ ִו áӟ߻ ֕ ֬֯ ֮־ָ ӿ߻ ִ֕֓ ׾׾֬ ӓ ޵֚ ־ ֟ ӿ֮ ֟߻ ׾֪֯ߚӓ δ ӿ֮ ãӓ־֟߮ ֵ׮֟ ޵ ξ ߻; ֵֿ֤ ã ׮ִ ֻ . ִ ִ֕׾ֵ ֓ ӿ֮֓ þֹ ָָ ֯ ։ ׾ֵֻ ׾ֿ ֮֟ ןš ֯ ևԻ, ד֮ פ ֻ . ߵ ӿ֮ ִ ִ֕׾ֵ ִ֮֬ ӟ ֓ ָ ֛ ׿™֯ ִ֕ ִ֕ ֯ ָ , ֙ ӓ ™߮ ן Ƣ֓ .

 

4) ֟ ֯ ׾ֳ֓ ִ־ : ִ֓֡ ָߵ ӿӓ ִ֕׾ֵ Ο ֓ ָߵ ׾ß , ֟ ߻ ֯ ----- ֻ ---- ־ ׾ֳ֓ ִ־ Ի, ֓֡֓ ֮ߵ ֲֻ . ֵ֕֯՟ ׿ִ֟ ִ֕ --- ӿӓ ָ֟߻ ܵ֟: ֕ã֮ ׾ֳ֯㸟 ֵפ ֻ , ßã֟ ֓֡֟߻ ӿ ׮ֲӬӾֺ ï™ ; ָӟ ִ֕֓ ֣֣ ֮ ޵֚ ֕ã֮֯δ ܵ ꚵ δ־ָ צ ֻ껵 ָ֟߻ ָ ׾ֳӓ֤߻ ׮֟ӟ ־ֿ , ֓ ߾ ֓֡֟߻ ֓Դ ֻ. ׾ֳִ֬ ָ™ ԙ ֕ӓ ߴָ߻ ֯ ---- ֻ ---- ־ ׾ֳ ӯ ִ֕֓ ™߮ ӟ ׿™֯ . ־ Ӯ ֙ פ. ׾ֳ֟ ӓ 10 ܵ צ ֻ ӓ ָ֟ ָ ֜ . ׾ֳ֟߻ ִ֕ ִ֮ܵ ־ֵ ָ ַ ִ֕ ָ֟ ֡ פ . ׿־ֵ ׾ֳ֟߻ ִ֕ ־ִֵ ãָ þֹ֓ ֻ֮ ߓ ׳־鬤߻ ߻ ִ֮֕ ָ ꚵ δ֟ ֳָ֟ ־ֻ . ֵ֓, ֬, ָּ, ӣָ ָ ӓ ֻֿ ָӯָ ׾ֳ֮ ֓߮ ֻ֯ ׮ִ , ֵ֕֟֟ Ɵ֯ ֻ . ֓֯δ ֕ߵ, ִו, ף, , ן ֤ ӟ ִ ֮֟ ־ ׾ Ի, דָӟ֮ þֹ֓ ׾ֵ֬ ֵԓ ָӯָ ãׯ֟ ׾ֳ֟߻ ִ֮֕ ֮֓ ã֮ ״׾ֻ . ־ ™ӓ ֣֣ ֮ ׿ִ֟ ӿӮ ִ֓֡ Σִ֓ ֻ֮ ӓ ׾ֳ֟߻ ִ֕֓ ӿ֮ ׸ã֟ ׮ִ ֻ .

 

5) ӓ ߾֮֯֬ߓ ֻ֮ : ִ֓֡ ־ִ֮ ӓ Γ׻֟ ߾֮֯֬ߓ ߾֮δ֓ áߵ ™֟ ޵֚ ׾׾֬ ӿ֮֯ ׿ִ֟ ӟ߻ ׾֪֯ߚ ֯ ־ ֵ׮֟ ߻, ֿ֤ ׸ã֟ ׮ִ ֻ ֓֡֓ ֓־ ޵ָ ֲֻ . ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ ָ껵 ׾׳֮ þֹ֓ ܵ ִ֕Ӵ֬ ָ֟߻ ִ֕ ™Ӯ ֤ ׿™֯ ִ֕ . Ο פ ָ֓ ޵ ӟ ֑֛ ִֻ֕ 껵, ןֵֿ ο֮ߵ ֢֓ ־ ֕Ӯ ֙긯 ֻ֮ ֿþ߸ߟ ֻ֯ ߾֮ ֟ߟ ָ ִ֕ ֻ֟ ִ֕ . ׬š ߾֮֯֬ߓ ֤ ן ׸ã֟ߟ֤߻ ׮š֯ ֻ֮ ֻ֯ ß֟ ֮֟֟ ׮ָӟָ י׾ָ ִ֕ ִ֕ . ׿־ֵ ֻ֯ ִֵ ִԓ þ֟ӡ ß֟ ׬֟ ֤߻ ֓ ־ԟָ ִ鬤 ޵ִ֬ ֻ֯ ܵꓵ ֮֮ ߟָ ֙Ӯ ׾ֻ֮ߵ דָôָߵ ֿ ӯ֤ ַ ܵ ִָ֕ ָ Ƹ ֓ ן֟ ֜ . ׿ִ֟ ӟ߻ ӟ ֹ ו֖ ִו á֖ӓ ׾ֿ֟: ִו ֮־ֿá֖ ִֿ֕á֖ ӓ ӓ ־ԣ ֯γ׾֟ ߾֮֓ ܵ֟: ־ָ ָ֬ ָ֓׮ִֵ, ן׸֕, ָ, ָ, , , ־ֵ, , , Ƹ֮, ֕־֙, ֮ӕ֮֓ ֤ ִו ֲӓ ִו ׸֟Ԯ֓ ӿ֮֟ ֵ֮ ׾׾֬ ֻӫָ ޵ ֚ ָ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ Ο ׬ Ɵ ޵ ֟ . ִו á֖ ӓ ߾֮֯֬ ޵֚ ־ ָ ֟߻; ִ ו ִ֕־ָ ֲֲָ֤ ָ ꚵ δ֟ ֜ , ִ֮֕ ָߟ ӟ ־ֿ ֻ .

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

ִ֕ : þ֟ӡ ֵ֮ --- ׾ֵ

 

( ߻ ןַ ָ™ Ɵ Ӵ֮֯ ã֮ ָ™ ן ӛֱ֟ ָ™ ־Ӥ ׾ֿ ֬ ޵֟ ֻ. ֓ ӯ֤ ףֵֿ֟ ׾ָ֓ӟ Ӵ֮֓ δ ָ֬ . . . Ӯ ֟߻ ָ™֟߻ ֬ - ָ ׾֮֫ӓ ӿӓ ߟ ָ ֻ֮ ֮֓ߵ . ™ ß ׾ֿ ד֟֓ Ӵ֮֓ ׾ֿ ֲֻ ֟ Ի. ֚ ӯ֤ ֣ . ן ӛ֮ ֻ껵 ׸ֲִ֧ ֓ Ӯ ֮־֤ פ׿־ֵ ָ . ֟߻ Ƣ֯ ֟߻ ׮ֵ ֮ן ֚֓ ֣ã֮ . ֯ . ׾ֻ ־ ӓ ֳָ ߟ .)

 

֓׾֪ --- ֵ֮֟ ֟

־ ֟֓ ָ֬ԯ ݻӛ, Ϯ, ִԮ פ ׿ִ֟ ӟ߻ ׾֮֫Ӯ ã֮ --- ו֯֯ ָ, ߮, ֵ֮֯֯՟֓ ԟ ӟ߻ ߓ ׾׾֬ ֕ӓ ޵ ꚵ ֮ ֟ ֻ ֓׾֪ ֵ֮ (׸ә Ùߕ ) ־ָ֬ ־ פ; ָӟ ־ ֓׾֪ ֵ֮֓ ӟ ׾ß ֯ ֻ֓ ׮֤Ԯ ֻ֮ ֓׾֪ ֵ֮֓ ׾׿™ ֯㸟 ֵפ ޵֓ Σ ֻ ֟ ָߵ ׾֪ (Indology), ד֮ ׾֪ (Sinology), ״á ׾֪ (Egyptology) ֓׾֪ þ֟ӡ ---- ׾ֵ ׮ִ ֻ. ߟ߮ ָߵ ׾֪ ֵֻ֮ ֟ ״ֻ֮ӟָ ֵ֮֓ ֤߻ ןֵֿ ׾ֻֿ ָߵ ߓ ֻ ֓߮ ֯ ӟ ִ鬤 , ™ߓ ׾֮֫Ӯ ֡ ֙; ִ ߓ ֵ֮ ׾ֿ ֻ֮ ״ֻ ֮֟ --- ׾֪ (Jainology) þ֟ӡ --- ֻ ־ס ֮֟ ״ֻ.

׾֪ ֵ֮֟ Ɵ þ֟ӡ ֻ ֮֟

ָ ׾֪ þ֟ӡ ׾ֵ֓ ֵ֮ ӿ֮ ׿ִ֟ ֟߻ ָ֟߻ ׾׾֬ ׾֪֯ߚ ֟ ӿ֮ ã Ӵ֬ ֻ. ו ִֵ֮֬ ִ ֢֖֮ ֓ ִ ֻ.

 

ִ ֢֖֮ ӓ ־ ֵ֚֮ ָ֟ ֮֟ ֻ֯ ־ ׾ֳӟ Γ׻֟ ֻ껵 ׾׾֬ ӟ߻ ׾ֻֿ ׻ þֹ֓ Ɵ֓ , ֵֿ, ׮ֹ ֤ ־ ™Ӯ ֤ ֟֓ ֻ ֟֓ Ɵ ׾ֵ ׾֪ ׾ֳ ןš ֻ. ׾ֳֻ ָָ ־ԡ ֮ ״ֻ֮ ֟ ֬ן, ׮ ן ׾ֵӾָ߻ ׾׾֬ ӟ߻ ׳֕֟ ӣ ׾֯ δ֟ ׿֟ ֻ֮ ׾֪ ִ֬ Ɵ ׾ֵֻ ֮֓ ã֮ ֯ ֻ.

 

׾ֵֻ ןš

 

ߟ߮ ׾֪ ֟ ִ ֢֖֮ Ɵ ӓ áߵ ӿ֮֓ ֟ ֻ֮ӟָ ֻ þֹ γ־ ߟ߮ ַ ß, ׿ֻ, ן, ד֡ ֤ ӓ áߵ ™֟ ֮ ֻߕ ߓ ֣֣ Ƣ ן֮ ָߵ ־ԟָ ִ鬤 ׾֟ ޵֚ Ɵ֯ ֮ߵ ֤֮ ӓ ִ ֮ ָ ֓ ߾ ֻ֮ ׾ֵ֓ ֵֻ֮ ӿֻ֮ Ʈ ״ ֻ. ׾ֿ ֕ ׾ֵ֓ ӿӮ ֵ֚֮ ָ֟߻ ֕ ֮֓ ָ֟ߟ߻ ֢֟ ׾ֳ ֓߮ ßֵֻ ׾ֳ Ӯ ׾֪֯ߚ ֟ ӿ֮ ã ӓ ָָ߮ Ƹß, ֟ߵ֟ ׮ָӟָ ֤ 껵֮ ׾֪ ֻ껵 ׾ֵֻ ןš ֯ ֻ.

 

ִ֕ ---- ֿ ָ

 

ַ ִ ֢֖֮, Ɵ ֿӮ ׾֪ꓵ ֟ Ƣ ֯ ֮֟֓ ֢֖֮, Ɵ ָܵ דָӟ֮ ן þֹ֓ ™ӓ ׮š֯ ֟ ָ֬ ֵ ָߵ ֮֟֟ ִ鬤 ָ ֻ֯ ִ ֮֟֟ ׮ָӟָ י׾ָ ִ֕ ֮־ֿá (Anthropology) ִֿ֕á (Sociology) ֬׮ ֟ ׾֟ ֻ껵 ןš ־ֻ껵 ִו áӓ ™֟ ֤ ֟֓ , ֓ ߾ ִֿ֕á֓ ӿӮ, ׾ֿ֟: ׾֪ꓵ ׾׾֬ ӓ ֮ 껵 ӿӮ ߾Ο ֻ. ־֓ ִֿ֕á֓ . ׾ֻ ־ Ӯ ִ֕֓ ִו ™֟ ӿ֮ ޵֓ ֑֛ ֵ ־ ֮ 1944 1950 ֵ՟ ӟ ׸ִ֯ ֓ ִ֕֓ ִו ־ (Jain Community : a Social Survey ) ӿָ֮֯ βӬֻ Ӳև ׾֪ׯ֚֮ ֮ 1950 ֻ ׾ֻ ־ Ӯ ִ֕֓ ִו ™֟ ӿ֮ ޵֓ ֑֛ ֵ ־ ֮ 1944 1950 ֵ՟ ӟ ׸ִ֯ ֓ ִ֕֓ ִו ־ (Jain Community : a Social Survey ) ӿָ֮֯ βӬֻ Ӳև ׾֪ׯ֚֮ ֮ 1950 ֻ ׾ֻ ־ Ӯ ִ֕֓ ִו ™֟ ӿ֮ ޵֓ ֑֛ ֵ ־ ֮ 1944 1950 ֵ՟ ӟ ׸ִ֯ ֓ ִ֕֓ ִו ־ (Jain Community : a Social Survey ) ӿָ֮֯ βӬֻ Ӳև ׾֪ׯ֚֮ ֮ 1950 ֻ ׾ֻ ־ Ӯ ִ֕֓ ִו ™֟ ӿ֮ ޵֓ ֑֛ ֵ ־ ֮ 1944 1950 ֵ՟ ӟ ׸ִ֯ ֓ ִ֕֓ ִו ־ (Jain Community : a Social Survey ) ӿָ֮֯ βӬֻ Ӳև ׾֪ׯ֚֮ ֮ 1950 ֻ ߋ.. ֤ Τ֮ . ִ ו ִ֕ þ֟ӡ ׾ֵֻ ֮֟ ״ֻ ׾֪ꓵ ֟ ִ ֢֖֮, Ɵ ֿӴ֬ ִ֕ ־߮ ָ ֛.

 

ֲָ ׯε֟

 

ִֿ֕áߵ ™֟ ӓ ֮ ׾ָ֓ ָߵ ִ֕֓ Ӥԟ ִ֕֓ ־ ׾ֿ ֻ ִ֕־ָ . ׾ֻ ־ ӓ ־ þֹ֓ ƻ --- ƻ βӬ ־ ֬ ־, ֮־ָ ׾֮֫ӓ ׿ֱָ ֯δ ֿ֚֮ ֿ֮ ã ׾ß ã ӓ ֟֟ ε֟ ֤߻ ε֟ ֦ ֻ ߟ; ָӟ ӟ ־߮ þֹ֓ βӬ֓ ֿ֮֓ ֓ ™֟ ֻ ֟ן Ƣ ֟ Ӳև ׾֪ׯ֚֮ ֟Ӿ֟׸ ־֓ 1956 ֻ Ӳևԓ ָ ֿ֮ ãֱ βӬ ֬ ޵ ֮ פ. ִ֕־ָ߻ ׳֮־ ׬ ӣ֓ 1959 ֻ ֻ껵 ֿ֮֮ӟָ ֡ ִ֕֓ ӿָ֮֯ ֵֻ֮ ܵ֟: ֲָ߻ ׿ִ֟ ™ӟ ֟ ֻ ׸, ݻӛ, ֮, ִԮ ֤ ֟ ™ӓ δ ׾֪֯ߚӟ߻ ֮־ָ ׾֮֫ ӿ ִ֕ ӿ֮ ָָ ™ ֻ.

 

ַ ֵ㬤֮ӟָ ֮֟ ָ֓֯ ָ־ ޵֓ ׮ ӟ ߾Ο ֻ֮ ֢֓ ־ԣԮ ֻ֮ ָ ֻ֟ ֓߮ ִ֕ áߵ ™֟ ִ֕ ֵֻ֮ Ƣ ֯

ֻ. ׸ִ֟. ׿ִ֟ ֟߻ ִֿ֕á֖ (Socilogists), ִו ֮־ֿá֖ (Social Anthropologists) ִו ן֟֕ (Social Historians) ָ ִו áӟ߻ ֕, ׾֮֫, ӿ ִ֕֓ ӿָ֮֯ ־ָ ß ָ ֻ.

 

֮ 1974-75 ֬ ֳָ ַ֕ ֻ껵 ־֮ ־߸ ӓ 2500 ׮־ ß־ִ 1980 ֻ . ׾ֻ ־ ӓ ִ֕ ׾ֵ־ָ߻ ׬ ׾֮֫ ӣ֓ ָ ־ ֬ ִֻ ִ֕֓ ӿָ֮֯ ֻ ׾ֿ ֻ֮ ״ֻ.