ִ֕ ׾ֵ־ָ߻ ӟָ™ߵ ֓֡

 

ߟ߮ ִ֕֓ ӿָ֮֯ ֵ֮ ׾ֿ ֻ֮ ״ִֻ ׿ִ֟ ׾֮֫ӓ ִ֕־ָ߻ ׾׾֬ ӿ֮ --- ֟ ֚ ָ֓ ӟ ß־ Ɵ ״׾޵֓ δ ׾֪֯ߚߵ ßָ־ָ 껵 10 --- 15 կ ꚵ δ֟ ֻ. ו δӓ ӿӮ Ɵ ־, δӓ ס֟ ֮ ׾ָ֓ ־ ߻ ӿ֮֓ þֹ־ָ ׾ָ֓׾׮ִֵ ־, ָܵ Ӯ ׸ ײΕ פ. 27 29 1985 ֻ־֬ߟ ִ֕ ׾ֵ־ָ ƻ ӟָ™ߵ ӟָ׾ֿ֪ߵ ֓֡ ָ׾޵֟ ֻ.

 

֓֡ ָ׾޵֟ ײΕ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ִו ֮־ֿá ׾ֳ ָ ֻ ; ָ 껵 15-20 կ ׾ֳִ֬ ֟߻ ׮ ܵ ׿™֯ ִ֕ӓ ֵ֮ ӿ֮ ޵־ָ ָ ޵֟ . ™֟ ָ֟߻ ִ֕ ӟ Ƣ֓ ܵ ִ֕ ֻ֮ , ׾ֳ֮ ִ֕֓ ӿ֮־ָ ֻ֯ ׾ֿ צ ޵ ֟ ӿ֮ --- ֟ ֻ ӓӲӬ ӯ Ɵ ׾ֳֻ֟ ײΕ ӿָ֮֯ ֮֟֯֯ ׮ֵ֟׻֓ ֟ ֟. ײΕ ׾֪ׯ֚֓ ִו ֮־ֿá ׾ֳ ִ֕׾ֵ ӿ֮֓ δ ֻ֮ ֻ֮ ׾ֳ֮ ֟ ӿ֮ ַ ֟߻ ׾֮֫Ӯ Σִ ס֟ ֻ.

 

֓֡ . ־ Ӯ ִ֡

 

׾׾֬ ӓ Ӭָ ׾֪ׯ֚ӟ߻ ӟָ™ߵ ֮֟֯֯ 25 ׾֮֫, ӿ, ֬֯ Ӯ ֚֓֡ ָ֓ ޵֟ ֻ . ֻ֯ ׾׿™ ֟ ׾ֿ ׮ֵ ִָ , ׾֪ׯ֚ߵ ßָ־ָ 15-20 ֮֓, ӿ֮֓, ֮֯֓ ԤԮ֓ ־ ֻ 껵 կ ִ֕ ׾ֵ ׾׾֬ ֟ ӿ֮ ֟ ֮֟֟ ֵ ߟ ֻ ִ֮ܵ֟ ֬֯ ӿ ӓ ִ־ ֓֡֟ ޵֟ ֻ . ׾ֿ ֕ ִ֕ ׾ֵ ӿ֮֓ ֪ ξ֟ ףֵֿ֟ . ׾ֻ ־ Ӯ ֟߻ ׬ָ ֌ ֻ֓֡ ԤԮ ޵֚ ָ֓ ޵֟ ֻ . ֚֓֡ ֮ ޵֟ ֻ껵 Ӭָ ׾ß ׮ֲӬӾָ ֟ ֡Ӵ֬ ׾ßָ ֓ ޵֟ ֻ.

 

֓֡֓

 

ӟָ™ߵ þֹ֓ ƻ ִ֓֡ 港׸ִ ™ ֬ ֻ ׾ֿ . ӓ ִו™ . ׾ֻ ־ Ӯ 껵 ־߮ ׾ֵֻ ӟָ™ߵ ֮֟ ״ֻ, ֓֡֓ ƻ δ ֲֻ . ִ ӓ ִֿ֕áߵ ™֟ ֵ֮ ӿֻ֮ Ƣ ֯ ֻ ןš֤߻ ״ֻ. ֓֡֓ ָ֬־ָ ֵָ ӣ ײΕ ׾֪ׯֱ֚֟ ־ ֿߟ ָ . ӣִ ִ֮֟: ׾֪ꓵ ܵ֟: ִ֕׾ֵ ӿֻ֮ ֯ ׾ֿ ֟ ֯ Ի ӿ֮ --- ֯ ӟָ׾ֿ֪ߵ þֹ֓ ֟߻ Οֵ . ߵ ӿ֮ Ӵ ׾ֵ ִו ִ֮֬ ӟ ֓ ָ ֛ ׿™֯ ִ֕ ִ֕ ֯ ָ , ֙ ӓ ™߮ ן Ƣ֓ .

 

ֵֿ֤ ־ ׸ã֟

 

ֵ֕֯՟ ׿ִ֟ ִ֕--- ӿӓ ָ ָ֟߻ ܵ֟: ֕ã֮ ׾ֳ֯㸟 ֵפ ; ָӟ ִ֕֓ ֣֣ ֮ ޵֚ ܵ ꚵ δ־ָ צ ֻ껵 ָ֟߻ ָ ׾ֳӓ֤߻ ׮֮֟ ־ֿ ֓ ߾ ִ֓֡ ֻ ׾ֳӴ֬ ֯, ֻ, ־ Τ ӯ ִ֕֓ ™߮ ӟ ׿™֯ , . ׾ֻ ־ Ӯ ֓֡֟ ־ծ ֙ פ; ָ ׾ֳ֟ ӓ 10 ܵ צ ֻ ӓ ָ֟ ָ ֜ . ׾ֳ֟߻ ִ֕ ִ֮ܵ ־ֵ ָ ַ ִ֕ ־ִֵ ãָ þֹ֓ ֻ֮ ߓ ֟֟ ֟ ָ ꚵ δ֟ ӓ ֳָ֟ ֻ . ֵ֓, ָּ, ֯֟, ӣָ ָ ӓ ֻֿ ָӯָ ׾ֳ֮ ֓߮ ֯ ׮ִ ֵ֕֟֟ Ɵ֯ ֻ . ֓֯δ ֕ߵ, ִו, ף, , ן ֤ ӟ ִ ֮֟ ־ ׾ Ի דָӟ֮ þֺ֓ ׾ֵ֬ ֵԓ ָӯָ ãׯ֟ ׾ֳ֟߻ ִ֮֕ ֮֓ ã֮ ״׾ֻ . ־ ™ӓ ֵԯ ֮ ׿ִ֟ ӿӮ ִ֓֡ Σִ֓ ֻ֮ ӓ ֯ ׾ֳ֟߻ ִ֕֓ ӿ֮ , ֵֿ֤ ׸ã֟ ׮ִ ֻ .

 

 

γ׾֟ ߾֮֯֬

 

֓֯δ ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ ָ껵 ׾׳֮ þֺ֓ ܵ ִ֕Ӵ֬ ָ֟߻ ִ֕ ™Ӯ ֤ ׿™ ִ֕ . Ο פ ָ֓ ޵ ӟ ֑֛ ִֻ֕ 껵 ןֵֿ ο֮ߵ ֿþ߸ߟ ֻ֯ ߾֮ ֟ߟ ָ ִ֕ ֻ֟ ִ֕ . ׬š ߾֮֯֬ߓ ֤ ן ׸ã֟ߟ֤߻ ׮š֯ ֻ֮ , ֻ֯ ß֟ ׬֟ ֲָָ ֓ ־ԟָ ִ鬤 ޵ִ֬ ֻ֯ ܵꓵ ֮֮ ߟָ ֙߮ ׾ֻ֮ߵ דָôָߵ ֿ ӯ֤ ַ ܵ ִָ֕ ָ Ƹ ֓ ן֟ ֜ . ׿ִ֟ ӟ߻ ӟ ֺ ִו ֮־ֿá֖ӓ ӓ ־ԣ - γ׾֟ ߾֮֓ ܵ֟: ־ָ ָ֬ ָ֓׮ִֵ, ן׸֕, ָ, ָ, , , ־ֵ, , , Ƹ֮, ֕־֙, ӿ֮֟ ֵ֮ ׾׾֬ ӫָ ޵ ֚ ָ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ Ο ׬ Ɵ ޵ ֟ ; ־Դ֮ ֓ Γ׻֟ ߾֮֯֬ߓ ߾֮δ֓ áߵ ™֟ ޵֚ ׾׾֬ ӿ֮֯ ׿ִ֟ ӟ߻ ׾֪֯ߚ ֯ ־ ֵ׮֟ ߻, ֵֿ֤ ׸ã֟ ׮ִ ֻ . ֚ ו ִ֮֕ ֻ֯ ן ָӯָ י ™߮ ֻ֯ ָ֓ - ׾ָ֓ ִ֮㌟ ֻ Ԥָ ֹߓ , ֓ ߾ ֯ ֻ ƕ ™߮ ־Փ ֟֟ ε֟ ƻ ƕ.

 

 

 

10

 

׫ߵ ׿ֻ : ֮ßӳ

 

֮ßӳ ß׿ֻ֓ ׿™ ָ ֓ ßꓵ ֕־ָ ןִ֬ ֻ . ß׿ֻ֓ ׫ߵ ָ ӟ ֓߮ ֯ Ӵ֬ - ׾ֿ֟: פӲָӣߵ Ӵ֬ - ֜ . ו֮ פִ߻ ִ֬ ӓ ֮ßӳ ޵֓ Σ ָ֟ ־ԡ Γ׻֟ ֻ ָ ִ֮ܵ ָ֟ ֻ ־ ֟߻ ֮־ָ ֿ֢֟á֖, ßá֖ ִ ӓ ֯ ֓ ֮֟֟ ; ֮ßӳ ߮ ָ֓ ־ ָ ֓ ߻ פ , ֻ֮ ֟.

 

֮ßӳ֓ ״ Գ

 

ו֮ פִ ֛־ָ ֲ֕֯ ֻ껵 ӓ, ׮ִ ַ ֓ Ӳ־ָ߻ ָܵ ߾ָ ׾ִָ֮֕ 껵 ֟ ֕ Ο פ ӛ ַ ָ ו֮֯ןִ ֻ껵 ß׿ֻֻ ֮ßӳ Ӗ פ ֟.

 

֮ßӳ֓ ֮

 

ִԿáִ֬ פ껵 Ԯָ֮ ֮ßӳ֓ ֮ ޵֓ Σ ֻ . ֟ ִ־ָ ֲֻ ֻ֮ ו֮ פֻ֓ ִ־ָ ו֮ פ֯߻ ֛ ָ ֮ßӳ Ӭ޵֟ . ו֮ פ֟߻ ֵ֮֓ ԓ ӓߓ ֮ פ֯߻ ֮ßӳ֓ ӓ ׾޵֟ . ֓ , ֟ßӳ֓ ӓ ִ긓 ו֮ פ֟߻ ֵ֮֓ ӓߓ ָ֯֙ ֟. ֮ßӳ ܵ֟: ָ ֟; ד֟ ך ֜ . ֓֯δ ֮ßӳ֓ ߮ ׾ֳ Ӿ ֻ֕ ֓ ֓ ޵֟ ֟, ִָָ Ӿ ֛֓ . ׿־ֵ, ֮ßӳ־ָ߻ ָ ֕ӓ ֓ ߣ֓ ֟֟ ֮ßӳ֓ ־ ֕Ӿָ ֕, ә, ־ָ, ֤ӓ ֮ ֟. ֮ßӳֻ Ӧ֕ ޵֟ . ߻ ֟ ֮ßӳ֓ ֕ ֻ֓ ׾ֳ־ָ ߣ ֟ ֛껵 16 þ֯ӓ ד֡ ޵֟ Α֟ . ֮ßӳ֓ ֮ ֯, ֮Ƹ ֯׸ִ ޵֓ Σ ֻ .

 

־֮ßӳ֓ ε֮

 

֮ßӳ Ο֟ ( Symbolic ) ֮ . ӓ ֮ßӳ֕־ 껵֮ ֯ ֮ , ֓ ֮µֻ ֮ ֓ ־ ־, , ֤, ֮ ֤ ӯ֓ ꙶ ־֮ ֛֟. ֵ֓ ו֮ Ӯ פ ӣ֟ ֻֿ ïֿ ָ ֮ßӳ ׳֟ ֟֟, ™ ֛֟ ״֣֤™ ӓ ־ ߑ ™ ֟ ֮ßӳ֓ ־Ԯ . ו ֮ßӳֵן ן ֮ßӳ: ! ֕ ֓ Ԯ֮ ַ֓ ֮ ( ֤ ) ׮֑ ֟ ֮ßӳ ֣ ־ ß ֛ .

 

֮ßӳ ־֓ ֣ ֵ֓ ן־ֳ Ӯ ןֻ֯ע ӣ֟ ֻ߻֯δ Ի . ֮ßӳ֓ Ԯ ֻ֮㬤 ״֣֤™ ӓ ֮ ׳ִָ֮Ɵ ֟, Ӯ ֮ßӳ ƙ ֟.

 

׿־ֵ ֮ Ӿ ֤ Ƹ ֜ ֮ßӳ֓ ֵפ ε֮ ֟ , ָ ӳ־ ™ ޵ֲָָ ַ֓ ֮֟ ִ ״ ֳ֬־ ׮ִ ޵֓ ִ֤֟߻ ֮ßӳ֟ ֟.

 

֓֯δ ֮ßӳֻ ִו ֕߻ . ֮ßӳ ӓ ֻ֮ ֓־ָ߻ ו֮֯ןִӓ Ԯ ַ֓ Ӳ ӟָ־ֺ㬤 ꛶ִ֬ ָ ־ִ֬ ֕֕擵 Ӵ֬ . ִ ֻ֯ ־ Ӿָ ָ֓־ָ ֓ ֤ ָ֕ ֓ ־֮ ޵֯ þ֟: ָ־ ޵֓ ӳ־ ß ֟. ֵ ׮־ ֵ֟ ξ ִֵ֕ ־֮ӓ ׮״ԟ߻ ֳֵ ֮ßӳ֓ ןָ δ ε֮ .

 

־ ָӴ ֮ßӳ־ָ߻ ־ԟ֦ ֕ ־Փ ַ Ӿ ֦ ׸ִ ִֻ֕ ֟֟.

 

֮ßӳ֓ ׯε֟

 

ָߟ߮ ֮ßӳ Ӿ Ӧ֕ ӓ ״ ִו Ӵ֬߻ ֵ㌟֟ ֮֙ ֓ ֯ ֮Ƹ ֮ ã֮ߵ Ӥԟ ֓ ָ ֻߟ ֻ֮ ֓ ָ ޵֓ Σ פӲָӣߵ Ӵ֬ ןֵֿ ׯε ֻ. ִ ָ ֓߮ ֻ֯ פӲָ Ӯ ߣ־ָ߻ ָ ־֟߻ ו֮ פִ ֮ ֮ßӳ Ӭֻ֓ ֟ Ƹ ָ֓ ־ ӟ ׾ֿ֟: ָ֟ ꚶ δ־ָ ֜ ֟. ֮ßӳ֓ ־՟ ן ־ ָ Τ֟߻ ֯ וֻ֟߻ Ѿ ־ ״ֻ . ֮ßӳ 㯟 ֻ֟ . . 460 - 61 ֻ Ӭֻ ־ָ ִ֙ ִ㯟ӓ ֤֤߻ 긻 . ָ Τ֟߻ ֿ וֻ֟߻ ־ ֤ߓ ַ־ָ߻ ִ֛֬ ֻ껵 ֜ ߣ־ָ ֚ ֟֯ ָ־ ֵ֟֯՟ פӲָ וִ֮פִ Ӭֻ ֯ ֮ßӳ פ ֟. ך ֮ßӳ֓ ֮֬ ֤ ֻ֓ ־ֵ ״. ߻ ֮ßӳӾָ γ ֻ껵 ƴߓ ֟ ו֮ײӲߕ ֻ֓ ֓ Ӿָ ֻ֯ ӓ ָ ןִ ָ ֕Ӯ 긻껵 ֜ ֟. ֮ßӳ֓ ־ָ߻ ֟ ו֮ײӲֲָָ ßӳ֓ ֻ֓ ־ָ߻ ןִ ޵֓ ֵפ þֺ֓ ֬ߓ ӟ ֻ ׾ָ ֕ã֮֟߻ ד֟ ־֓ ןßӳ ־ ֮֓ 12 ֟֯ Ӭֻ ־, 15 ִ֟֬ ӓ ָߤԟ ֓ ß ֛ ޵֟ ֻ ־ ßá֖ӓ ֟ . ßӳ ׿ָӤ וִ֮פִ Ӭֻ . ßӳ ָ 80 ӓ ֓ ֓ 31 ָ ֓ 15 . ßӳ֓ ֟ ֻ֕ ֓ γ Ӭ þֺ֓ Ӭֻ . ߕ ֛֮ ꛻ , ָӟ ָ ֮ ָ 80 ƕָӓ ֓ Ծ֟ Ӭ׾ֻ. ־ָ߻ ׿ָ֓ Ӭߴ֬ ׮׿֟֓ ֟ פӲָ וִ֮ ֻ ƕ. ßӳ־ָ߻ ־ ֟ ֻ֕ӓ ָ ֕Ӯ פ֣ ߣӓ ݮ ןִ ׾ִָ֮ . ־ֺ ֮ßӳ־ָ߻ ֟ וִ֮ פ֣ ߣӓߓ ֻ ƕ ßӳ פ֣ ߣӓ֓ ôָ ֻ ƕ.

 

֮ßӳ֓ ֟ Ƣ

 

֮ßӳ ß׿ֻ ָ ָ֟ ־ԡ ׾ֿ֟: ֟ ӟ ׯε ֻ֮. ֜ ־ ָ ֟ ™߮߻ ָߵ ßꓵ Ӥԟ ןֵֿ ׿™ . Ӯ ֕־ָ Ӭֻ껵 ֮ßӳӓ ָ֟߻ ָ֟߻ ףֵֿ֟ ßꓵ ִӮ ֤ ㌟Ӛ֮ ß . . ׾Ʈә ô֣ Ӯ ֻ֯ ָ ֻ ӣִ֬ ָߵ ӯԯ ׾ָ֓ 껵 ׳ֹߓ ֲ֟ߟ ָ וֻ֟߻ ֮ßӳ֓ ָָ ָ ָ ֟ ß ָ֛֯ , ׮־ פ .

 

ߟ߮ ß껵 ֟ ֮ßӳӮ ׿™ Ƣ ֯ ֻ Ƣ֓ ã֮ י׾޵֓ ָӯָ ֻ . ָӯָ ֕ ֯֟߻ ֚֓ ׾ß ֟ Ӧγ ߣӓ פִ 36 ӓߓ ӛ և ֓ ֯ ֮Ƹ ֮ßӳ ָ֟ ָ ֜ , ֚֟߻ ֮ ֮ßӳ ֯渓 ִ鬤 ß׿ֻ ־ ֜߻ ־ ָ ָ֟߻ ܵ ֮ßӳӴ֬ ׫ߵ ֟ .

 

 

11

 

׿ֻ ־

( ֻ ߻ ӓ ןš ־֯ פ. 13 ֓, 1984 828 Ե ֓߮ ֮ ־֮ ֻ ןִ ß׳ ׿ֻ ִָ ־ δ֟ ָ֕ ֻ. ָ߻ ׾ֵ־ָ . ׾ֻ ־ ӓ ˲ Ɵ߯ ֻ, ֟ן ֚֓ Ӯ ß ֺ֮ ׻ ֚׾ֻ ֤ ֮־֤. - ӯ֤ )

 

׿ֻ Ƣ

 

ߴ֬ ׿ֻ ׾ֿ Ƣ ޵֟ ֻ . ו֣ ו֣ ֻ, ֜, ן֣ ן֣ ׿ֻ֤߻ ׬֟ ־ֻ פ . ִ ݵ, ֮ ֯ : - ֮֬ ™Ӯ Ƣ ָ ֻ ָ ӓ ן ָӯָ ꓵ ֮ Ƣ֓ ã֮ ״ֻ . פ׿־ֵ ֟ ִ ֮֟ ֟ , ֵֵԮ ݵ ׾ֻ. Ɵִ֬ ךך 72 ӓ ֜ ִ־ֵ ִ֬ 72 ӓ ӯ ִ־ֻ פ . 72 ӓ ָ֯ , ӟ ޵ ֯ ޵֓ ןִ ׮ִ ޵֓ ָӯָ ָӮ ãׯ֟ ֵ֕֟֟ ֻ . ו Ӥԯ ֮ ןֻ ֓ ׾׾֬ ߴ֬ ֮֓ ã֮ ֯ ֻ . ׾ֿ ֕ Ӵ֬ ܵ֟: ׿ֻӴ֬ Ӥԓ ִ ׳־֌ ï™ פ . ֜ ־ ָ ִ֬ ӤԲָָ ߾֮֓ ןײӲ֤߻ γ־߯ Οֵ . ׿ֻ ָ ӯδ ִ׬š ֻ ָ ™ Ƣ֯ ָߵ ־ ָ ֓ ִ鬤 ޵ִ֬ ן֓ ָ ֙ , ֟ ֮ ֻ .

 

׿ֻ ׿™

 

1 ) ֓߮֟ : ׿ֻ ƻ δ ׿™ . ӓ Σִ ߣ ־֮ ֳ֤ Ӯ Ӯ ֕׾ ޵֚ ֵ㌟ ԓ ָ Ӵ֬ ׿ֻֻ ã֮ פ . ֵ֓ ו֮ ӓ פ ӣ֟߻ ֻ߻ Ӿֺ פ Ի ---

 

״: ׾Ԫ ֕ ׿ִֻ

ߴ׮ õ: Ε֕߾֮־

֡ ֵ ׻ׯ׾֬ ô

ֳ ꌟ ׾֪ á֕߾֮

֕ ֕ ׿ֻ õ֟ ִֻ

֓ ד֡֯֡֔פ ôִ

1)                 16 / 179, 181, 182

 

֓ ã֓ פ þֺ֓ մ֬ ׿ֻ Ի ׾ֿ ã֮ ޵֟ ֻ ׿ֻ ֕ ßֻ ֯ ד֟ . ו ן֯ ָ ֮֟ ֻ֯ ׿ֻ ߓ ׾ֳ֕ ָ֟ ֻ ; ִ ׿ֵֻ֓ ־֓ þ֟ӡ Ɵ֟ ֜ .

 

2 ) ׾׾֬֟ : ׿ֻ ָ ֮ߵ ׿™ . ׿ֻ Ӗ ָ ֯ ִ֬ ד֡ ߾ ӓ ִ֮ܵ ִ־ . ߾ ִ ָ ׿ֻ֤߻ ןֵֿ ׾ß ׬֟ ן֓ ----

 

2)     ן׿ֻ ( Iconography )

3)     ß׿ֻ ( Architecture )

4)     פ׿ֻ ( Temple Architecture )

5)     ׿ֻ ( Rock - Sculpture )

6)     ֮֬׿ֻ ( Bas Relief )

 

֓ ׾ֳ ֮֟ ־ֻ . ׿ֻꓵ ־ ׾ֳӴ֬ ׿ֵֻ֓ծ ӟ ׾ֻ֮ߵ ׮ִ 껵 . ׾ֿ ֕ ׿ֻꓵ Ο ׾ֳִ֬ ָ, ߾֟, ִ, Οӓ ָ֯ ֤ ™Ӯ ֻ֮ ֌ ָ ׾׾֬֟ ־ԡ ׮֤Ԯ .

 

3 ) ִ鬤 : ׿ֻ ןָ ׿™ . ׿ֻ ֓߮ ׾׾֬ þֺ֓ , ֜ ־ ָ ִ鬤 Ӿ ӯ֤֮߻ . ׿ֵֻ֓ծ ׮ִ פ, , , ß ֤ӓ ܵ Γӛ ׾ôֵָ ֙־ . ִָ֕ܵ ֮ ִ֮֕ ֜ Γӛ δ־ָ 껵 ׿™ ӓ ׮״ԟ߻ ֓ ן֟ . ܵ ׿ֻ ָ֓ ־ ӟ ã֟ߟ ֜ ֟ ֲָָ֓ פ ֟. ־ ™ ׿ֻꓵ ִ鬤 ï™ ֟.

 

4 ) Ӥ : ׿ֻ ֮ߵ ׿™ . ׿ֻ ־ ™Ӯ ӤԵ㌟ ֟֟ ֮־ָ ִֵ֓ ֙׾ַ ֟֟, ׮־ . ׾Ʈә ô֣, ݵ֮ ։ ָܵ ִ֮ܵ֟ ֢֟ - á֖֮ ֻ֯ ־Դ֮ ӣӟ פ . ָ, , ָ֤ ָܵ ӟ ׮Ը ֻ֯ ׿ֻ֚ ׮־֛޵ִ֬ Ӯ ־ ֟ ָ ֑֛ ָ ָ֟ ׮ӤԮ ֙껵 δ Ӯ ֻ֯ פ ָ ׾֡ ß ƴ ׮ִ 껵 , ï™ ֜ . פ ֻ֟֓ ׮ ׸ָ ӓָ ֮ ״ֱֻ ָ ד֟֓ פ ; ִ ӓ ߣ פ ןִ ׮Ӥ ã֮ ֤߻ ָ֟ ןֵֿ ֬ .

 

5 ) כ ָӯָ : ׿ֻ ֓־ ߵ ׿™ . ׿ֻ ֟ӯ Ɵ֯ Γ׻֟ ֻ ָߤ߻ ןִ֓֬ 㬤 ֛ פ . ן׾֖֮ Ӿ Փ ׮״ԟ ־ֺ ™ ï™ Οֵ . ן׮״ԟߓ ֤ ָӳߓ ֕ ֟ӯԓ ׮ִֵ ֵ֕֟֟ ӟ ֮ ֟֟. ߣӓ մ֬ 껵 ֟ӟ ֛ ֟ ֤ פ֟ . Ӥ ֟ӓ Դ֬ ãָ֮֯ ָֻ֯ ־֟; ׾׳֮֟ ߣӓ ՟ Οֵ . 㛻 ָ ֻ ִ 㬤ֵ֓ ך ֜ ; ֻ וִ֮ ֡ ֜ ָӯָ֟֟ ׿ֻ ãֵ߳־ ֻ .

 

6 ) ִֵ֮֟ : ׿ֻ ׾ֻ֮ߵ ־ ׿™ . ׿ֵֻ֓ծ ָ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ פ ׿ֻ֓ ß׿ֻ֓ ֟ ןִ ׮ִ 껵 ֻ ָ Ӯ ӓ þ֟ӡ פ - ׿ֻ ָ ß׿ֻ - ָ ׾ֿ . ֟߻ Γ׻֟ ׿ָֻ֯ ׿ֵֻ֓ծ ֟֟ . ֜ ־ ָ ֟ ָ ֟ ׾ֻ. פ ׿ֻ־ֺ ™ ƕ֯ פ ; פӓ ֮֬ ָ ָ֟ ָ פ ָ Ӿ ( Vertical ) ָ ָ֟ ׾֛ פ ָ Ӿ ִֻ֟ ( Horizontal ) ָ ִ֮ܵ Οֵ ֟. ӓ ӟ߻ Ӵ֬ ִָ ޵֓ ִֵ֮־֤ ξ ׿ֻδ Ɵ, ߟ, 韵, ֙ ֤ Ӵ֬ ߾֮֓ ׾׾֬ Ӵ֬߻ Ԯ ï™ Οֵ . ֤ þ֟ӡ ß - ׿ֻ ָ ( Jain School of Architecture ) ß֟֟ ֻ .

 

7 ) ֵ : ׿ֻ ïߵ ֟־ ׿™ . ׿ֻ ֵ֕ ״ֻ ָ; ָ ꛶ δ֟ ״ֻ. ֡ ֵ ׿ֻ ӟ ꚶ δ֟ ״ֻ. ׮ ָ֯ ִ֮ ֮֟ ӓ ׸״֟ ךӲ־ָ ׿ֻ ־ԣԮ ׬֟ ֻ. ִ֕֓ ־ ָӟ߻ ֌Ӯ ״ Ծ פ, , ß, , ßӳ ֤ ׾֡ ßӓ ׮״ԟ ֤ ֻ֮ פ. ֜ ־ ָ ӓ Ӹ֓ߤ߻ ֌ ֕־ߕ ִԳ־֮ . ִӸ֓ Ӿ֬Ԯ֓ ָӯָ ֵ֕֟֟ ֻ ; ֓ ׿ֻ ׾֯ δ֟ ֮֮ ã֟ߟ ֜ ֟. ™߮ ׿ֻ ܵ֟: ֟ Ի. ו ׿ֻ ׮ָӟָ ָ ֟֟ ֵ־ָ י ƻ ֯ ָ , ֛ .

 

8 ) ֮ԯξ : ӓ Ɵ, ߟ, ד֡ ֤ ӯδ ׿ֻ߻ ӟ Ƣ֯ ֚ ׿™ . ־ן״ԟߓ ֮Ӥ ™ ָ ꓵ ׳־֌ߓ ֻ ָ ֮ , ־ ӓ - ׿ָֻ , Ɵָ , דָ֡ - ָ ֟. ־ Ӯ ֮ - ξ ׮״ԟߓ δ ק™ ׾׾֬ ֟ӻ ָӮ ֻ֯ ִָ֕ ֻ ; ־ ׿ֻӓ ֮ ֓ ־Ԥ־֤ Ӿ ־ ָ ߓ ֮ ֜ ޵֓ ܵ֟: ֻ , פ . ָ֛֚֟߻ , Ӥ ן֮ ִԵӓ ֯֬ ׿ֻ ָ ׸ - ׿ֻ ֕ ָ֟ 긻 ; ָӟ ޵ִ֬ ֤ ע ־֮ ׸ ֙֟; ֜ ־ ָ ִ֬ ֮ ָ Ӿ ֻ֯ ӓ ӯ ־ פ . ִ ߻ ޵Ӵ֬ ׾֡֟ ӟ֟ ״ ֟־ָ ו ׮ִ .

 

™ ޵ӓ ߓ ™ ߣԵ֡ ݾֿ㬤 ֕ ߾֤֮™ 㬤 ޵֚ ߣԵ֡ ־ ִԮ ֻ פ ֱ ޵֓ ׾֡ ֮ ߣӟ߻ ׾֡ ßӓ ׮״ԟ ׿ָֻӮ ; ֓ ־ ߣӾָ߻ ׾֡ ֟־ָ ֵ֕֟֟ ꓵ י . ֓ ֮ - ξߓ ׸ , פ ֮ßӳ ӓ ׮״ԟߴ֬ ִ֮ܵ פ . Ԯ׻֟ ֵ֮, ™, ο֮ , Ӥ ô֟ ֤ Ӯ ㌟ ֻ וִ֮ ַӓ ֮֟ ƴ ־ ׮ִ ; ֓ וִ֮ ־ԟ֦ Ӿ ֦ ׸ִ ֓ ֻ ֟. ו֮ פӓ Ԯ֮߻ ׾֡ ־֓ ֟ ֓ ™™ ß ֟߻֓

 

™ ו֮ꮦ־֮ ־ָ֟֯

־֮֟ ׾ֳ־ӳ־ֳ׸

 

֕ וִ֮פ ָ֓ ֯ Ƹ ָ ו֮ פ֓ ֣ Ԯ . וִ֮פ Ӭ ׿ָֻ Ӳֻ ߟ ָ Ӯ פ - ָ ( Temple City ) ־߮֯ ׿ָֻ֯֓ ָ . ֪ ׾֡ פӓ ־ ־ ֮ ޵֓ ֬ ׿ָֻӮ ־ֺ ֻ. ָ, ㌟ָ, ָֻ, ־ֲ ֤ פ - ָӓ ™ Ƹ ; Ӳ פ - ָ Ӿ פ - ִ Ӯ ֻ פ .

 

֮ßӳ : ׫ߵ ׿ָֻ֯

 

ߓ פӲָ Ӯ ֮ßӳ ֮ ֻ פ . ֮ßӳ ׫ߵ ׿ָֻ ܵ֟: פӲָ Ӯ Γָ֟ ֻ ׸ԟ . γ ׬š ֻ ӓ ֯ ßӳ ֟ ָ ֜ ߟ. ָ֟ ׾ֿ֟: ָ֟ ִ֮ܵ פ ֟. ֮ßӳӓ ׮״ԟ Ο֟ þֺ֓ ֟. ֮ßӳ֓ ֣֣ ε֮ פ ֓߮ ӣ֟ ֻ߻֯δ -----

 

׬š ׾ָß ֮ßӳ ֳ׻:

֤ ִ֮֟ ßִֵֿ֮ Կִ

ֳï ִ֮ ޙ׳: ׸׸:

ִָ֓֕ : ßִß פ֕׵֟:

פ֟™ִ֟ ßִ֓֟™ִ

֢֤˾֕פ˳ ו֮֮֮֓֟™ִ

Ƹ޴ֵוԮꮦ֓: 㬮֯ןš:

ꮦ: ֵ׮ ô ߸ִ׳֮:

֮ßִ֟ ִ֮ - ֟ ꌵִ֮֮֟

֣Ӗֵ ֕Ԯßִ: ןԟ:

---- 22/95, 96, 97, 98, 102

 

 

 

 

֓ , ֻֿ ïֿ ָ ֮ßӳ ™ ֛֓ ֮ - ״֣֤™ ӓ ־ ™ ֟ ( ֮ ßִֵ׮ ). ֻֿ ïֿ ָ, ֯δ֓ ָ, ә, ִָ, ֕ Ӯ ㌟ ֋ פִ֮֕ ָ פӮ ָ ָ ֮ßӳ ֕ ־ӟ֓ ӟ֓֟™֓ . ֮ßӳ֓ γ ו֮ ־ӟ֓ Դֵ ןִ ׾ִָ֮֕ ֟֟ ߸ָ֓ ֻ֮ ӓ ׳ ֟. ָӿ, ӓ ֻ֮ ״֣֤™ӓ ֮ ( ָ ) ™ . ӓ δ ӓ ֟ ߮ ӓ ֮֮ ֟, ָӮ Ӯ ֮ßӳ ֣ ־ פ . ֮ßӳ֓ Ԯ ӳ־ ™ ޵ ֤ ִˤԮ֓ ֯߻֤߻ ֳֵ . ֜ ־ ָ ֵ׮־ ֵ֟ԯξ ־֮ӓ ׸֤߻ .

 

 

Ӯ ֮Ծָ ãָ ޵֓ ָ ֵ ׿ֻ ָ ֛ߟ .

 

 

 

׾ֳ 2

 

Ɵ, ׿ ֡׸

 

12) ӓ Ɵӳָ

13) ִ ( ִִ )

14) ָ™ Ɵ ׸֤

15) ָ֚ Ɵ: ֮ ׾

16) ӓ ָӯָ

17) ָ֚ ׮ֵ֟׻ : ָӯָ ֵ

18) ֲ ֟֓ ֻ֙

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

 

ӓ Ɵӳָ

 

֓߮ ָߵ ִ鬤 ޵֚ ֻ֯֯ ֟ ֵ֓Ԯ ׾׾֬ Ӵ֬ ןֵֿ ֓ ִָ ֕־ֻ . ܵꓵ ֮֮ ׾ָ֓ , ֓߮ ֵ֓Ԯ דָӟ֮ þֺ֓ ֻֻ ִָ ӟ ָ׿־ֵ Ɵ . Ӥ  ֢֖֮ ֢֖֮ ֤ þ֟ӡ ӟ ֵ֓Ԯ ߾-߾֤ ֢֟ӓ þ֟ӡ ™ӟ ׾ָ֓ . ֮ ӓ ׮֟־֤ Ӿ ִԵӓ ׾ֿ֮־֤ ֓ ֮ ֵ֓Ӯ ן֯פ ׮֟׮֟֟ ֮־֤֓ ֬ӟ ֬׮ ԟ ׿ִ֟ ֢ꢵӮ ׬ ֙ ֮־֤ ֕ Ӯ ָߵ ֻ֢֖֮ פ ֮ ֮޵֟ . ֢֖֮֯δ ֻ֓ ֟ Ӯ ןִ ֵ . ֲ ߻ ֯ ׾ֻֿ וִ֮פ Ӯ ß 껵 ο֮ߵ ֟ߓ ֟.

 

־ֲ ߻ ־֮ ָ֙ӓ Γӛ δֲ֬ ןֵֿ ֮ ןִ ֻ ׾ִ֬ ן߻ ׫ߵ ִֻ֕ ֟. ֮ ָ֯ ־ԣ ׻֯ ֻ ӓ ׿ֻ ֮֟ ӵִ, ִ֟ ־֮ ׮ִ ޵֚ ֬ . Ӥã֮֟ ־ԡ Ӥ ֵֻ Ӭ, ׮Ը ׸׿ָӾָ ׾֡ ߣӓ ֮ , ך ֮ ֮ßӳ ןßӳ ֺ, ך ߾ ݵ ֮Ƹ ֮֬ - ׿ֻ֓ ֵ Ӯ ߟָ ׮ִ 껵 ָߵ ֻ֓ ׳־鬤߻ ꚶ δ֟ ֤ . ֢֖֮ ֻ֯δ Ɵ֓ ֤֟߻ ׾׾֬ ׾ֵӾָ߻ ׾֯ ֵ֒ ׬ָ߮ ׮ִ Ӯ ֻ֯ ־ ִָָ ֻ , ӟ . š ֵ֓ծ ׾֮֫ כӮ 껵 ׾ֻֿ ֵ֒ ָ ֮ - ֚ կ Ӯ ָ ֮ ־Ɵ; ָӟ ֕ ӣ ֿ֟ ֻ ԟ ׿ִ֟ ӿ ׾֮֫ ӓ ֻ, ֟ ָߵ Ɵ֟ Ӯ ֵ֕֟֟ ֓ ָ ֻ֟ , ֓ ׾֮֫Ӯ ׬׬ Οֵ ֻ . Ɵ֓ ׾ֻֿ ֟ ֵ֓ծ ׿™ ִָ ֕־ֻ , ן֓֓ ꛌ֟ ׸ֵ ޵֓ ֟ וֻ .

 

1 ) ִ Ɵ

ӓ ֬ӟ׾ֵ ӣ ָ ꚶ δ־ָ ֲֻ ֓߮ ׻ƻ ֻ֮ δ ָ֬ ִֻ֕. ִӓ ֲ֟ߟ ִԟ߻ פӲָ Ӳָ ӯΦֵӟ߻ ֵӓ ־ ֮֟ .

 

Ӳָ ֻ֟֯߯δ ִ֟ ߻ ִӣӓ ִ־ ֟ :

 

ָ ӣ : 1 ) ָ֓ , 2 ) - , 3 ) ã֮, 4 ) ִ־ֵ, 5 ) ־֟ ܵ֯Ζ֯, 6 ) ֟- ִ, 7 ) , 8 ) 9 ) ָ֢֯ן, 10 ) ο - ׮, 11 ) ׾ִ֯ 12 ) ™֤.

 

ָ ӣ : 1 ) ֯ן, 2 ) ֕֯οߵ, 3 ) ߾׳ִ, 4 ) Ζ֮֯, 5 ) ԯΖׯ, 6 ) ִ߯֯Ζׯ, 7 ) ӦΖׯ, 8 ) ׮ָ־ֻ, 9 ) ־ן, 10 ) ¯, 11 ) ¯֓׻ 12 ) ֤.

 

ӣ : 1 ) ֟:ָ, 2 ) ֟㸯Ο֮ܵ, 3 ) ֌֯׸, 4 ) ßָ, 5 ) Ӥ־׻, 6 ) Ӥ׾ֵ֕, 7 ) ꮦß־, 8 ) - ׾֪, 9 ) ֯Ο֮ܵ 10 ) ߸ß־.

 

- ӣ : 1 ) ׮ֿߣ, 2 ) ׮ֿߣ, 3 ) ־ָ, 4 ) ßָ, 5 ) Ɵ 6 ) ӓ. ֙ ӓ ӣ֋֕ וֳ֦֮ӓ ߟ ӣ֓ ִ־ ֟.

 

þ֟ӡ ӣ : 1 ) Ӥ, 2 ) ָ֫.

 

ָ ӣ : 1 ) ֵָ֮֬, 2 ) ־ֿ, 3 ) ־׻ 4 ) ׯޛ - ׮ֵ׌. ך ןַ  ֋֕ - ׮ֵ׌ - ӣӓ ֜.

 

Ӳָ ӓ ִ - Ɵ Դ֬ ׻ƻ ־֮ ־߸Ӯ ֓ Դ֬ ֤ . ־ ִ ӣ ֓ ׻ƻ ֟߻ ӳ־֮ߵ . ־֮ ־߸ӓ ָ֬Ӯ ӓ ־ ֤ ӣӟ ף֟ ӟָ ָ ִ ӣ֓ ֮ ֻ ֮޵֟ . ԟ, ӣ ׻޵ ָ֓ ֻ־֬ ֌ . Ӳָӓ ָӯָָ ײָ֬߻ ֙߯, ӟָ ָ Τ֟߻ ֣ ֮ӟָ ִָ֟֬߻ ֳֻ ־ ־ ӟ ָ껵 ֵ֓Փ ׸ָ֤ ӣӓ ޵֟ ׻ׯֲ֬ ޵֟ ֻ. . ־߸ӓ ׮־֮ӟָ 980 ֳֻ ׸֤ ֵ֓ ׬ ִ־ ӓ 韾ֻ ָ . ֓ , ־ ֮֓ ־ ֵ֟֯՟ ӣ ׻ƻ ־. ӣӴ֬ ָӯָ߻ ™ ֿ֓ ֿ ף֟ 껵 ׾ֵ  ӣӟ ֿ֓ þֺ֓ ֜ ֟.

 

פӲָ ֻ֟֯߯δ ֙߯, ֣ ֳֻ ׸֤Ӵ֬ ס֟ ִ ӣ ߵ ִֻ֕ ֟֟; ָ Ӯ ִ֓ ֮ ֻ ֵ֓ ֦ ֻ֯ ׾ֻֿ ֬ӑ ָ֟ ֮֟ ӓ ã֟ߟ ֙߯֓ ƻ ׸֤ ָ ; ִ ӟָ ׸֤Ӵ֬ ֵָ ֻ껵 ֵԌ ֈ֤ ִ ӣӮ פӲָ ִԮֵ δֳ ֮ߟ ߟ. ׿־ֵ . ־߸ - ߟ ֤֓ ִָ֬Ӯ ָ֤֓ ָ Ӵ֬ ֮ , ӓ ֤ܵ Ӥ δ ֻ֟ , ™߮ Ɵ ß ִ ӣ ןֵֿ ֮ ֻ֮ ӓ ֟ δ ߟ. פӲָӓ ִƟ þ֟ӡ . ֟ ӟָ ֻ ׻ƻ 껵 ӣӓ ִ־ ֟. ִ Ɵ֓ ָ δ ֛ .

 

1 ) Σִ֮ : ӟ ߣ֤ ֯ӓ ׸ӓ ӣӓ ִ־ . : ֩, ֯, ׸ӿ֯ .

 

2 ) ֮ : ׾׾֖֮׾ֵ ֟ԟ ֤ӲӬ Ԯ֓ ӣ ֟ ֟. . ןֻ֯ע, סָֻ .

 

3 ) ָ֮ : ׮ִ֬ ־ִ ӟ߻ ָ֓֬, ָ֤ ׾֬ ׾ֿ㬤ߓ ӲӬ ׮ֺ ָ ӣ ֤֟ ִ׾™ ֟. . ָ֓, ־֟ ָ֮֬, ָ .

 

4 ) ֮ : ߾ - ߾֤ ֯ ֢ӲӬ, ֒ӲӬ ™׾֬ ӲӬ ׾־֮ ָ ӣ ־ָ߻ , µ פӓ ׾ֳ֟ ִ־ . . ֙ӛִ, ֳֵ֯, ξָ֮֓, ִֵָ, ֢֣, ֕־ןָֻ, ־ֻ֤ .

 

פӲָ ָ֮֟ ߸ ׮־֮ӟָ 683 ֵ֓ ָ ӓ ׿µ ¯֤ ֲֻ Ӯ ֙ޛִ ֮ ӣ֓ ֮ ־ ־ ֓ ֵ֓ ָ֬ Ӯ ֳֵ֯ ӣ ׻ƻ. Ƣ֯ ӣӾָ ֵ֓ծ ӣ ׻ƻ, ӯ ֵ֓ ߸ ӓ ֙ޛִ־ָ߻ 72 ƕָ δ ֻ ֬ ־ֻ ־֓ ֮ ӣ ֕ ֲֻ ֻ . ֳֵ֯ ӣ־ָ ֵ֓ ߸ Ӯ ׻־ֵ ֟ ; ָӟ 20 ƕָ ׻ ֻ־ָ ֻ־ֿ ֻ. ӓ ׿µִ ֵ֓ ו֮ Ӯ 40 ƕָ δ ֮ ӣ . ߟ߮ 60 ƕָ δ ֵ֬־ֻ ִ ӣ ׻ƻ . ִ ֟ . Ӥ ӟָ ֟ ׿֟ ֻ . . þ. ֵ֓ ןָ ָ֕ӓ ָ֤֮ ־ ӣ ִί֡־ָ ޵֓ ִ ֻ .

 

־ ִ ӣӴ֬, פӲָӓ ָ Ӳָ֓, ֬ӟӓ ӟ áߵ ߟ߮ ׾־֮ . ֟֓ ִ֬, ߾ - ߾ ӓ ӲӬ, Դߴ, ָ֓ þֺ ֤ ֳ ׾ֵӾָ ֵ֓ծ ֻ֯ þ֟ӡ ׾ָָ֓ ӣӴ֬ ן֤֯ ׾ָָ֓ ׾ֿ֟ ֬߮ ֳֵָ־֓ ָ֬ ־֮ꓵ ָ ֟ 㬤߻ ־Ʈ ֙ ޵֓ ε֟ . ӓ ֳ ִԟ֢ ֮ ޵֚ ӣӓ ƕ, ֛ .

 

2 ) Ɵ

 

ӓ ָ֬ ֬ӟӣӴ֬ ־ ֢֖֮ ִ־ֻ ֻ֮ Ӯ ִ֕ þֺ֟ ꯵ ӣӓ ׾־ָ δ֯֯ ֻ. ֟ ָ ֢֖֮֓ ִ ־Ԯ ƕƕ ִֻ֕ ֟. ֲֲָ֤ ֵ֓Ԯ כӮ ָ ֻ ߟ߮ ָ ֛; ִ֓ ֻֻ - ӣӮ Ƣ פ ֟.

 

׾־ָ֟ ӣ ׻޵֓ Σ ӟ ָ ԯ Γ׻֟ . ִ ӣ ִ֕ ޵֚ Σִ ׮ֵԌ ־֮ ֻ ַ ֮ ֻ. ״ ִ ׮ִֵ ֟ ޵ ־ ׻ƻ껵 ׮ֵԌ ִ֩ ޵֟ ֻ. ׮ֵԌӓ ־֟֓ ß ׾ֿ֤ ޵֟ ֻ Ӯ µ Ӳ׬޵֟ ֻ. µ֮ӟָ ֻ֤ ָ ׾־ָ֟ ӣ ׻޵֟ ֻ. Դ֬ ֛ Ӿָ ֛ ֻ , ֓ ־ . ӓ ן֓ ߓ Դ֬ פ ֟. ֻδָ֮ Ɵ, Ԯӟָ Ӯ ֟֟ ׾־ָ֟ ӣ ׻޵֟ ֻ. ӣӮ ׯ, , ֓ ־ ޵֟ ֻ. ׾ֿ ֮ߵ ™ ֕ ׾־ָ֟ ӣӯ ӣ֟֓ Σִ ӯԯ ֵ ޵֟ ֻ.

 

 

ֵԌ ӣ Ӯ ꚶ δ־ָ ׻ƻ ןֵֿ ׯε ֻ. ־֮ ֵ֓ԓ ִֵָ ξָ֮֓ ׫ߵ ӣӾָ߻ ֟֓Ӧӓ ӣӇߓ Ƣ֯ ֵ ֻ . þִӓ ֢֣ ӣӾָ߻ ֵ֓ 敵֤֯, ׾֪֮Ӥ Ӯ ׻ƻ Ƣ֯ ӣ ֮ӟָ ֕־ָ ֻ껵 Ӥ , þִ ִӟֳ֦ӓ ޛ־ָ֓ ӣ־ָ߻ γ֓Ӧֵ֓ծ ׻ƻ . ֤֕ Ӯ ׻ƻ Ʈ ׻ þֺ֓ ִ ֤׿ ׻޵֓ Σ ֻ .

 

3 ) Ԯ Ɵ

 

ָߵ ֢֖֮֓ ן֟ Ӯ ֮֓ ã֮ ־. ; ָ Ӯ Ԯ Ɵӟ߻ ֳ ֢ӓ ֣֣ ޵֚ ӟ־֤֓ פ . ֢ ׾ֿ֤ ޵֚ ׻ ӣ ׻ƻ . פӲָ ӯΤֵ֓ ֳ ԮƟ ׻޵֓ ָӯָ ֵ֓ ӓ ֻ֯ ֻ. ӓ ִֵָ, ξָ֮֓ ӓßֵ ߮ ӣ ־ Ӯ ֮ ֟֓ Ӥ ׮ֺ ָ ӣ ִֻ֕ ֟֟.

 

ֵ֓ԯ ֵ֓ ӓ ׿µ ֵ֓ þִ Ӯߓ Σִ ִ֬ ׻ ӣָ֮ ־ֵ ֟ ֢֣׬ִ ™ ӣ ׻ƻ. ־ ֬ӟӓ ָӿֺ֮ ׮־꤮ ָ - ӣ ִԾָ߻ ׬ ӣ ֻ֮ ֟. ִԟ߻ ־ ӣߵӮ Ƣ֯ 敵 ֙ , פӲָ Ӳָ ӣӟ߻ ׾֮֫ ֵ֓ծ כӮ ־ָ ӣ ׻ƻ . ֢֣׬ִ־ָ߻ ӣӯ 敵֤֯ ֮Ӥ ӓ ־ԣ׬, þִ ִӟֳ֦ ӓ ִ֯ߴ, ӓ ֢֣Ը֕־ן ׾֪֮Ӥ ӓ ֢֣Կן ӣ ӟ ֬ .

 

þִӯδ ־ծ ֤ߵ ֻ ֬ פ ӓ ֮ן֟ - þִ ִӟֳ֦ ӓ ㌟֮֮, ׸֦ ӓ ֛ˤԮִ㓓ֵ, ֓Ӧ ӓ ֣֬˵ֵ, ӓ Ԯָ, ֬ӟ֓ξ֟ ״֓Ӥ ӓ ָּ, ֓Ӧ ӓ δִߴ, ߟ ӓ ֮ײӤ ָ֮ Ԯ - á׾ֵ ӣ ׾ֿ ֮ߵ .

 

4 ) ָ֓ - Ɵ

 

ִԯδ ָ ״ֵ֓ ָ ִԓ ֟ ֢֓ ֮ ָ . ִˤԮ ( ֬ ), ִ˖֮ ִ˓׸ ֻߕ ֓ ֮֬ ָ , ִԓ ֮֟ . ִֵ֡֬ ׸ֻ ׾ֿ Ƣ פ . ״׾ Ο ֮µ֓ ןִ . ִָָ֮֕֓ ָ֟ ־ֵ֓ ָ ֚ ԲӬ֮ӟ ֟֓ ㌟֟ ־ֵ ƾ ԯָ ֟ ׾ֻ ޵֚ ֟֟ ε֟ ƕ ֕ 㬤ָ֓ ֻߕ ֮µֻ ״ָ , ִԓ ׿ . ֮֬ ֓ ָ ֻӲ ֟ þ֟: ߾ָ ׮֬׸ 껵֮ ו ָֻ֓ Ƣ ֯ . ӵִ֯ ָ֓ ׮־ þ֟: ԟָ ״׾ֻ֓ Ƹ ֻ֮ Ο֮ ֤ ָ֓ ־ ־ָ ִԮ ָ ָ פ . ԟ ׸ ־, ׾ֿ֤ ޵֚ ָӳ֯ ֵ֓ծ ָ֓á׾ֵ ӣ ׻ƻ.

 

ָ֯ ׾ָ ֻ ִ֮֬ ָ ֬ ֬ ӓ֚ ָ֓֓ ֙ ׮ִֵ ֻ ָ ָ֓ , ָ֓, ָ - ִԴ ָ ׬ ӣ ֵ֓ծ ׾֮֫Ӯ ׻ƻ. ã Ӯ ָ֟ ִԯ ׾֓׻֟ ޵׸ ָ֓ ־ ֓ ׾־֮ Ӯ ׮ָ׮ָ ־ָ֓ ӣӟ . ӣӴ֬ . ӓ ָ þִ ִӟֳ֦ ӓ ӛ־ָ֓, ׸֦ ӓ ־ ן֖ ִ ײӤ, ּ ӓ ָ֓, ״֟ן ӓ ָ֓ פ, ߟ ӓ οָָ֓, Ӥ ӓ ־ָ֓ כ ָֿ֬ ӓ ָ ִԴ ӣ ֬ . ӣӓ ֮֮֓ ֯δ ָ֓ ޵֓ ε֟ 껵ִ Ӵ֬ ֮֮֓ ֯δ ָ֓ ޵֓ ε֟ 껵ִ Ӵ֬ ֮֬߮֟ ֵ ޵֓ δ ָӓ ֮֮ ָ ֜.

 

5 ) ָ֯ Ɵ

 

ӓ ߾ֻ֮ ־޵֚ ־֓ ָ ™ Ӯ ԤԮ ޵֚ ָ֯ ֵ֒ ƴ ׻ƻ ֟. ִԟ ӵִ֯ ׸ֻ ־֮ Ƣ ֻ֮ Ӯ ָ ָ֤֯ ӣ ׻ƻ. ֵ֒֟ ߟָ ָ֯ Ӯ ׻ƻ. ƴ ޵֚ ׻ƻ껵 ־ӟӓ ßӴ֬ Ӯ ָ ֤ .