פӲָ ӣ֓ ִƟ

ָӟ ֳֻ ֮ Ӳָ ӣߵ Ӯ֓ ֮ . פӲָ ӣߵ ֵԌ ִ - Ɵ ׬ ֮־ֵ ײֻ ֵָ ߟ. ָ ӓ ֟ ־֮ ־߸ӓ ׮־֮ӟָ ־ ־ ƕָ 껵־ָ ôߓ ָ֬־ָ ׻ׯֲ֬ 껵 Ɵ֟ ָ ֟ ָ ֮֬ ־֮ ־߸ӓ ־־ָ ִ׾™ ޵֓ ӳ־ ׬ . ƻ ֙߯ ׸֤ ׻֟ ִ ӣ֤߻ פӲָ ӣߵ δֳ ֮֟ ӣ ߵ ִ֕֟֟. ָ Ӯ ִ֓ ӯ ֮ ֵ֓ ֦ ֻ֯ ׾ֻֿ ֬ӑ ָ֟ ֮֟ ӓ ã֟ߟ ֙߯֓ ƻ ׸֤ ָ . פӲָӓ ִ Ɵ þ֟ӡ ֟ ӟָ ֟ ׻ƻ 껵 ӣӓ ִ־ ֟. ִ Ɵ֓ ָ δ ֛ .

 

1 ) Σִ֮ ----- ֟ ߣ֤ ֯ӓ ׸ӓ ӣӓ ִ־ . . ---- ֩, ׸ӿ֯, .

 

2 ) ֮ ----- ׾׾֖֮׾ֵ ֟ԟ ֤ ӲӬߓ Ԯ֓ ӣ ֟ ֟. . ---- ןֻ֯ע, סָֻ, .

 

3 ) ָ֮ ---- ׮ִ֬ ־Դ ӟ߻ ָ֓֬, ָ֤ ׾֬ ׾ֿ㬤ߓ ӲӬߓ ׮ֺ ָ ӣ ֤֟ ִ׾™ ֟. . ---- ָ֓, ־֟ ָ֮֬, ָ, .

 

4 ) ֮ ----- ߾ - ߾ ֤ ֯ ֢, ֒, ™׾֬ ֤ ֳ ֲӲӬ ׾־֮ ָ ӣ Ӿָ߻ , µ, פӓ ׾ֳ֟ ִ־ . . ֙ӛִ, ֳֵ֯, ξָ֮֓, ִֵָ, ֢֣, ֕־ןָֻ, ־ֻ ֤ .

 

פӲָ ӣߵ ӓ ִ Ɵ ֓߮ ׾ֻֿ ֻ ָ Ӳָ δֳ ֮ߟ ߟ.

 

ε֟ӓ ֱ֟

ߟ߮ ߸ - ֮֓ ֻ ן֮ ε֟ ֤ ֱ ֻ. ֙߯ ֣ ׸֤Ӵ֬ ׻֟ Ɵ ֹ ִ ™ ֻ ֳֻ ֻ껵 ןַ ׸֤߻ ׻֟ Ɵֻ Ӳָ ӣߵ ӓߓ ֜ ֮֟ ״ֻ פӲָ ӣߵ ӓ ֮֟ ִ Ɵ֓ߤ߻ ߓ ֟ ֻ Ɵ Ӳָ ӣߵ ָ֬ ֻ֮ . ֻӟָ֮ Ӳָ ןԯ, ã֮ ֯ӣ ߮ ׮ִ ֻ ֜ Ӯ ׾׿™ ӣӓ þֺ , ִԟ߻ ӣӓ ܵ ֺ ָ־ָ . ָ֯ ִԟ פӲָ, Ӳָ ( ןԯ ), ã֮ ֯ӣ ָ δ ӣ ß֟֟ ֻ. ӣӓ ܵ ֜ 㯯֙

ֻ֮ ־ ӣӓ ӯ ֮֟ ֻ ֤ ָ֬ ִӣ ֲֻ ޵֓ ֌֟ ָ ־ֻ ; ֜ ־ָ ™߮ ָ ӣӮ ׸֤ꓵ ֮ ס֟ ޵֓ ε֤֟߻ . ִ ߸ - ֮֓ ֲ֟ߟ ֳֻ ׸֤ӟָ ֟ ߓ ֟ ׾׾֬ ӣߵ Ӯ ־Դ֮ Ի δֳ ִӣ ֲֻ . דӟ֮ߵ : ׸ã֟ ־֮ ־߸ӓ ׮־֮ӟָ ߓ ƕָ ԯֵԟ ֿߓ ֻ ƻ.

 

ִ ӣ֓ ׮¯֢

 

ӓ ֮֟֟ӓ Τߑ ןִ֬ ־ Ӯ Ӵ֟ Ի ֤ ִӣ ֵ ֺ ßã֟ߓ ָ ִ՟߻ š ׾ָ֓ӟӮ ֤ ߾Ο ־֟ .

 

ßã֟ ֤޵֚ Ο ָ ֡ ־Ɵ. ׾ֿ ֵֿԓ ™ ֲ֟ߟ ָ֓ ֬׮ ֟߻ ӟ ׾ָ֓ӟ ֵ֓ ׾֮֕ Ӯ ָ ֻ֯ ־ ӑֱ֟ ֮: ε֟ ֟ ֤ ꛶ ֻ־֬ߟ ӯԯ ֿþ ֻ. ־Ԥ, ־Ԭֳִִ־ ִֵ֮ ׾ָֻ֓ӓ Ʈߵ ξ֌ š ֵ֓ ׾֮֕ Ӯ Ӥ, ûִ, ο֮  ִӲӬߓ ָ - ֮֟ ִ֮֮ ӣ ֵָ ޵֟ ׾ֿ ֿ ӯ֤ ֻ֮ ִԓ ׸ֵ, ִֵ֮֟ ־Դ֮ ӣ ׮ִ ־ ӓ ӟ׸ ߾ . ֻ֯ ־֮ ֌ ֮ ֵ֓ ׾֮ Ӯ ִֻ֕ ֻ߻֯δ ־Ʈ , ִ֤֯ ִֻ֮ | ־߸ | ָ ִ֕ ׾֫˯׸֤ ׸ ֲ֮߮ ֣ ֮֓ δ ׮ֵֿ δֳ ִ֮ | ִ֕ ׾ֿ ־ | ָ ֮ ָ ֻ ֵ - ׾ָ֓ Γָ ׻֋ ֲ ׻ ֟ , ׬ ֵ |

 

ִ Ժ

 

ֵ֓ ׾֮֕ Ӯ 1972 ֻ 껵 ־Ʈ֓ פ껵 ׾֮֫Ӿָ ™ ׸ִ ֻ. ִֵ֮֟ ™֟ ׾ֵ֬ ֵ ־ Ӯ ߾Ο ֙ ֻ. ֟־ָ֟ ֵ֓ ׾֮֕ Ӯ ֻ֯ ֮ ָ Τ֓ ׮֯֟ ־֓ ֮ ֬, ֲֻʓָ ףֵֿ֟ ָ . ו֮Ӯ ӓ֯ ã֯ ӛ ׾׾֬ ִՓ ֵ֮ 껵 ֮־֤ ָӮ γ׾֟ ֻ껵 ו֮ꮦ ծ ֮ ן֤ ޵֓ ֤֮֮ ֮ . ָ֮ ־ ִֻ ֟ ֻ. ָ֮ 1973 ֬ ־ָ֮ ׾֪ פ֟ ֵ֓ ׾֮֕ . . ו֮ꮦ ԕ ӓ פ ׳֯ ӣ֓ þֺ ֯ ׾ֵ ׾ßָ ֓ ֻ. ֓ԓ ֮ . ԕӮ ӟ ׸ִ 430 ֣ ־ פ. ӣ פ 11 ֯Ӳָ, 1973 ֵ֓ ׾֮֕Ӯ ֤ . Ӯָ֟ ָߓ ־ - ӑ֮ ֓ 1000 Ο ӓ ָ ӣӓ ֵ֓, ׾֮֫ ӓ ׳ֵ֯ ֮ ޵֚ ֚ פ. ־߮ δ֓ ־ծ þ֟ ֬ ןš ׾֮֫ Ӯ ã֯ ֻ ַ֓ ֮ 껵. ƴֲ֤֤ ִ֮ܵ֟ . ֳև ֻ־ֵ Ӯ 570 ֣ Ӿ ֻ ־߮ ֮ ׾ָ֣֓ ֵָ . ׿־ֵ ֟ӟ ֮֕ þִ ӓ ֵ֯渓 ܵ֟ . . ӓӤ ׸ Ӯ ַ֓ ־߮ ֣ ׾ֻ ֯渓 ֬ . . ֻ֓Ӥ ֮ Ӯ ֵ㌟ ֮ 껵. ߟ߮ ֻ껵 ןεӓ, ־߮ ֮֓, ׾ֻ껵 ֣ӓ ֮ӓ ֮ ֯ ׾ָ֓ . ו֮ꮦ ԕ Ӯ 807 ֣ Ӿ ֻ ֮ ֵָ ֻ ִ - ָ ֕ וִ֬ ־ פ.

 

ӓ ׸ִӮ ָ ֻ ִ֬ ֮ ־ - ӑֱ֟ פ פ. 29 30 Ӳָ, 1974 ӓ ָ ӣӓ ֵ֓, ֬, ֬, ׾֮֫, ֵ ӓ ָ׾޵֟ ֻ껵 ן׮׬ ׸֤ ־Փ ׾ָ֣֓ ޵֟ ֻ. פ ׸ ן þֺ֓ ןֵֿ Ƣ֓ . ָ ӓ ן֟߻ ןַ ֳֻ ׸֤ӟָ 1500 ծ ָ ן֓֟ ־ ӣӓ ֮־ָ ־ ־־ 300 Ƴ ֻ . פ ׸֤ ָ ֯ӣߵӓ ꮦã֮ ִֻ פӲָ ӣߵ ׾֪֮Ӥ, Ӳָ ( ןԯ ) ӣߵ . ߻ָ, ã֮ ӣߵ . ֮׾ֵ֕֕ ֯ӣߵ . ִֻ֣֕ ӓ ֻ֟ ӯ֮ ֻ. ָ Ӵ֬ וִ֬ ֮ ӣ֓ ֣־ָ ֮֓ ޵֟ ֻ ־ ֻ껵 ׾ß ֓ԟ ã֟ ֵ֓, ׾֮֫ Ӯ ׾ֿ ã ־ ֻ֯֯ ִ֟ ִֻ֮֟ ׾ָ֓ ß . ׾ֵ֬ ֮ ֤ 껵. ֓ԓ ֮ וִ֬ ӣ֟ ׸֮ Ӿ 긲֤ ֵָ ַ ӣֻ ִִ ֕ ִִ ֣ ־ ׮׿֟ פ ׸֤ פ 30 Ӳָ, 1974 ֻ֯ ӯ þ פ ׸֮֓ ִ֓ ־ ֲֲָ֤ ָ ӓ ֻ ָ ӣӓ ֮־ָ ׮ ӣ - ֮ . ו֮Ӧ ԕ ӕ־ָ ׾޵֟ ֻ. ־Ӯ פ 1 כӲָ, 1974 ֳָ֛֚ ָӾָ ןֵֿ ӳ߸ ׾ָ֓ ׻֟ ־ֵ֓ ֣ӓ ׮־֛, ܵ ׾ֵ־ָ δ ׾ֻ 756 ֣ Ӿ ֻ ִִ ־Դ֮ ӣ פ 7 כӲָ, 1974 ӯ ֵָ . ִִ ӣֻ פ 12 כӲָ, 1974 ֵ֓ ׾֮֕ ӓ þ ״ֻ ӣ ָߓ ־ - ӑֱ֟ 2500 ׮־ ־ ԟ߻ ־֮ ־߸ ֵӟߓ פ ֕ 㬤 13, ߸׮־ Ӿ֟ 2501 Ӿ 24 ׯλ, 1975 ֳָָ ך ֓ ׿֟ ޵֟ ֻ. ߟ߮ ִ ׮¯֢ ׮־ִ־ ԟ߻ ־ԟ ֮ߵ ֵ㌟ ֲֻ .

 

ִ þֺ Ƣ

ִԟ߻ ־ ӣߵӮ ֮ ֻ껵 ֯ ӣֻ ִָ Ӿ וִ֬ ־֋֕ ִִ Դ֬ - ߻ ־ ־Փ Ӵ֟߮ ޵֟ ֻ. ִ ֲ֓ ӟָ ִִ ֓ ִ ־֮ ־߸ ӓ Ӿ 挟 Ӿ Ӿ Ӿ δ־֌ . ־֮ ־߸Ӯ ֬ ֟߻ Դ֬ - ִ֮ ֮Ӯ ִԯ֤ ֻ֮ ֓ ӣ֓ ־ ׮׿֟ ޵֟ פ ׸֤ ד֟ ׾ֻ. ӣ֟ ׻֟ 껵 ֣ Ӿ ߻ ־֮ ־߸Ӯ ָ֯ 껵 Դ֬ - - ָ ӟ߻ . ӣ֟ ׻֟ 껵 ֣ ӟ 㬤 þֺ֟ ޵֓ ֮ ε֮֟ ޵֟ ֻ ִ . ֓Ӧ á, . ָ֕ ׮ ִֻ֣֕ Ӯ ׸ִ ֻ. ׿־ֵ ־ ֣ӓ ӟָ ߻ ޵֟ ֻ ӟָ ײ֮֓ ޵֓ ֟ . ָ֕ Ӯ ֻ. ֓֯δ ֣ӓ Ʈ ֤ ޵֓ ֑֛ ִ . ֓Ӧ á Ӯ ָ ִ֮ ֤ ֤ ֿþ ߟ߮ ָ ֛.

 

ִ ӣ֟ 756 ֣ ִ׾™ 껵 . ִԟ ֢ӓ Ӥԟ 7 ӓ Ӥԟ 108 ׾֡ ֻ֮ . 7 108 ӓ ָ ֻ껵 756 ܵ ׾ֿ Ƣ ֻ֮ ִ ӣ֟߻ ֣ӓ ܵ 756 ׾޵֟ ֻ. ׾ֿ ֕ ־ ֣ ֚ӟָ ޵ ןֵֿ ݵ . ֣ӓ ֮ ܵ֟: ӟ ֓߮ ӣӟ , ִ ӣ ִ ӣ֯δ ָ֬ Ӿ δֳ ֻ .

 

ָ δ ӛ

ִ ӣ֟ ֢֖֮֓ ֳ ָ ™ δ֯ ꛌ֟ ׻֟ ޵֟ ֻ . ׾ֵ׮ֺ֓ ™֟ ִ ӣ֓ 1 ) ןִ, 2 ) ִ, 3 ) ֢ - Ԯ 4 ) õ֤֫ ָ δ ӛ ֛ ӓ 44 Ӵ֬ ׾ֳ ޵֟ ֻ . ӣ֓ ןִ ƻ ӛ֟ ֮־֮ ן Ӿ ŵ ߾֮ ־ָ ׮ֵӡ ӟָ ߾ֻ֮ Ƣ ־ פ ; ָ ִ ַ ӛ֟ ֯֯߻ ־ֿ ִˤԮ, ִ˖֮ ִ˓׸ ֵ֡֓ ׾־֮ . ֤Ԯ ןַ ӛ֟ ߾, ߾ ֤ ֟ ֢ ֙˦ ӓ ׸ֵ ׾™ӲӬߓ ׾׿™ ™ ׾ֿ֤ ֻ֟ . ֓֯δ ֤֫  ӛ֟ - Ԯ֟߻ ֳ֯, δ, ֵ ׮ ָܵ ӳ߸ ׾ֵӓ ָ ꯵ ֯ ߟ߮ ׮ֺ ޵֟ ֻ . ֙ ß־֮ ִִ ӣ֓ ִ֯ ޵֟ ֻ .

 

ߟ߮ ִ ӣ֓ 4 ӛ ָ 756 ֣ Ӵ֬ ִ, ֢֖֮ ָ֓ ӓ ־ ׸ֵ ֮ ޵֟ ֻ . ֵ֒ ןֵֿ ׾֯ ִ鬤 ֟ Ο ׾ֵ־ָ ׬ ֵ㌟ ӣ ֲֻ . ִԓ ַӮ ־ ӣӓ ֵ֮ ֤ ־ֿ ֟. ָӟ ӣ ִԓ ӯΤ׵ ™֟ ׻ƻ ֜ . ׸ã֟ߟ ֟ ӯΤ׵ ׳׮־ ֟ ִԟ߻ ֮֬ ָֻ֓ ӓ ִ֮ Ӯ ׸ֵ ַ ֪ ׻ ן׮׬ ӣ֓ ӟ ־ֿ . ִ ִþֺ ־Դ֮ ӣ֮ ־ֿ .

 

Ƣ֯ ן ֙

 

־Ӵ֟ ӣ֓ ׮״ԟ ӓ ֮֟֟ӓ ן֟ , ޵֓ ߸׮־֮ӟָ 2500 ծ ֻ ׾ֿ . ִ ӣ֓ ֮ ן þֺ֓ ӟ Ƣ֯ ֙ . ֯ ֙ ־ ֮ 1974 ֬ ֛޵ ™ ָ߳ ֻ. ־֮ ־߸ӓ 2500 ׮־ ־֓ ֮ 1974 - 75 Ի ־ԯӣߵ ӓ ™߮ ָ֮֬ Ƣ ֯ ֻ ־֮ ־߸ӓ ־ ֵ ס֯ ֓ ֟־ָ֟ ָ֕ ߟ . ו ־ Ӵ֬ ִ֮֓ ״ β ֻ . ִ ӓ ֤ ־Դ֮ ן׮׬ ӣ ־ ֵֿ֓ ֵ֓ ׾֮֕ӓ ӟ: ־Ʈֻ Ӯ ִ ן֤ פ. ן֤֓ ݵ ֵ ޵֚ ָߓ ־ - ӑ֮ ִ֯ ӡ ׮ִ ӣ - ֮֓ ֮׮֬Ը֮ ֟֟ ֚־ . ֮ ޵֚ š ָ . ו֮Ӧ Ӯ ֮֓ ֑֛ Ƣ֯ ֵ ֤ ֟߯ ֵ֙՟ ןֵֿ ׮š ׸ִ֯ . ׿־ֵ ֵԟ ָ ӣӓ š ֵ֓ Ӯ ã ׾ֻ, ԤԮ ã֟ 韾֤߻ . ֓֯δ ָ ӣӓ δ ןš ׾֮֫ Ӯ ֵԓ ׸ ֕ ֟ߵ֟ ӳ ִ֕֟߻ δ ã, ֵ Ӯ ֮- ֮ - ֮֮ ε Ƶ פ. ־ ָӴ ִ ׮¯֢ ֵָֿ ֙ ֮ 1974 ֛ ֻ.

 

ӣ֓ ִו Ƣ

 

ִ ֮֟ ӣ֓ ׮״ԟ߻ ן Ƣֲָָ ִו Ƣ֤߻ ָ . ӓ ָ ӣӓ Ӯ ָ δֳ ָ֙ ִӣ ֲֻ ־Ɵ. ִ ׾׾֬ ӣߵ Ӵ֬ ע ֲ֟ߟ ָ ִ֮֟ ־Փ ֻ . ׸ִ֟: ָ ӣӓ ֵӴ֬߻ ӟָ - ״ ִו™ - ֜ ֻֻ . ־ ׮ִ ַ ׸ã֟߻ ֲֵӤ ֻ ־ Ӵ֬ ־֮ ޵֓ ָ ֹ . ־ֿ 港׸ִ ִו ֵ ִ ӣ֓ ִ֮֬ ֻ ָ ָ֛ . ִԓ ָ ִԵӮ ָ֬ ׸ֵ ָ ӓ ָ ӣߵӮ ֮ ָ ӣ ֲֻ ־Ɵ. ִ ӣ֓ ׮״ԟ߮ ׸ã֟ ߿ ֻ . Ӥ ִִ֕֬ ־֤ߟ,  ִִ֕֬ ִ֤֯, ִֻ֮ ִִ֕֬ , ο֮ ִִ֕֬ ֲֵֻ, ָ ִִ֕֬ Ӥ ß, ִִ֕֬ ӣ Ʋ ӣӮ ן׮׬ Ƣ֯ ã֮ ֟ ִִ֕֬ ִִ ֮֟ ӣֻ ״ֻ .

 

14

 

ָ™ Ɵ ׸֤

 

ָ™ Ɵ ׸֤ ־߮ ֵ㌟ ã ã֮֯ ӓִ ־ԓ Ծָ µ ֡ ֮֟ ־ָ, פ 4 , 1984 9 ֕ 25 ״׮֙Ӯ ֻ, ӟ Ƣ֓, 港׸ִ ן þֺ֓ ֙ . ֟߻ ߓ δ ֻ껵 ןֵֿ ֓ ֟ ֳֻ껵 ׾֡ ߸ ָߟ߻ ֓߮ ָӯָ š ֻ껵 ֚֓ ־ ֟߻ ֮ ֮ßӳ־ָ߻ ֟ ו֮ײӲ֓ ߮ Ӧγ וִ֮פ֓ ֛߾ָ߻ ִֻ׻֮ ߓ ֯׸ִ ׾ִָ֮֕ ֻ껵 ׾ֻֿ ξ֮֓ ӛ֮ ָּ þß þִ ָ֕ Ӯ ׾׬־֟ ֯ 껵־ָ ֻ ׾֡ ֟־ָ֟ ׾׾֬ ӟ߻ ִ֕֓ ֮־ָ ߸ ֤֓ ׮š ֵ ӓ ƕ֮ ֮Ӥ֬ ã֟ߟ ã֮֯ ִָӳ ֤ ׿™ ߟ߮ ӯ֮ ֻ. ָ ־֮ ß֟֟ ֻ껵 ָ™ Ɵ ׸֤ ָ֚ ߻ Ɵ֓ ־ԟָ ׳־鬤 ޵֚ ֲ֮֓֬

ֻ껵 ־߮ ã ִ ֮: þ֟ þ֟ ޵ ™ ָ߳ .

 

ָ֚ Ɵ ֕־ָ ָ֮ ꚶ δ־ָ ֟ ֻ ֻ֮ ֓ ־ ׾ָ֓ ַ ָ֟ ֵֵ֮ ־ ֻ֟ ַ þ֟ӡ Ɵ ã ׮֟ӟ ־ֿ ַ֓ ֻ֯ ֟߻ ִֻ֕ ߾Ο ־֟ , ָ™ Ɵ ׸֤ ã֮֯ ߾ ֺ ׮֑֟ , δ ™ . ָ™֟ ִԓ ָ ־ ֮֓ ֟־ ֟֯ ֻ ֛֮, ״, , ָ֟ ֤ ָߵ ӟ߻ Ɵ ֤ ֟߻ ֓ ߻ ןֵֿ ֵפ , ִ֕ Γ׻֟ . ִ֕ ӯԟ: ߓ , ׾׾֬ ӿ֮Ӿֺ ֬ ֻ . ִ ָ ֓߮ ֻ֯ ָ™֟ ãָ־ֻ , ־Ӿֺ Οֵ . ִԴ֬ ã֮ ֯֯ ֻ, ֬Ӯ ןֵֿ Ƣ ӟ ֓߮ ֻ֮ ֟֟. ַ ֓߮ ֬ ָ™֓ ׿ וֻ֟߻ ֣֕֯, ֤֮ וֻ֟߻ ֟ ôֲ֤֮ וֻ֟߻ ָֻ . ׾ֿ ֕ ָ ֬ ӯ ָ֟ ָ ֜ ߟ.

 

ָ֓ ߟ ֬ӓ ִ֚֮֬ ָ ִפ ޵֓ Σ ָ ֓߮ ֻ֮ ֟. ַ ָ ָ֟ ׸ ӟִ֬ ָ ӛָ ךߓ ֜֟. ָ™֟ ֡ ֲ֤־߻ ֻ ã֟ߟ߻ פ ֟. ׿־ֵ ִԴ֬ ןֵֿ ߻ Ƣ֯ ֻ֮ ֟֟. ָ ִӲӬߓ ֤ ƴ ֿ ׮כ ֻ ֟. ָ™֟߻ ֯, ׾֤ԟ߻ ׿ָ ָ־֛֟߻ ַꓵ ןֵֿ ӓ ™ Ƹ . ֓֯δ ֓߮ ֵ֬߮ ֟ ִӟֳ֦, ߸, ו֮, ֤ ָܵ š ֵ֓Փ ׾ָ ӓ Γӛ ӣֻ֮֓ ֵ ָ™֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ ֻ . ֲָָ֓ ֯, Ӥ, ֟ ָӕ ֯ ָ™֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ߻ δ Ƹ߻ ӓ ֮־ָ ָּ ߚӓ ד֮ ֻ֯ ֬ . ׾ֿ ֕ ־ ֮֯ԓ ןַ ֟֟߻ ֟־Ʈ ֕־ӿ֯ ߓ ֻ挵, ֮ꙓ ™, ָߓ ֤ ֓ ׿ָֻ ֕־ӿӓ ֢ ִֻ֮ ӻ ޵֯ ָ™֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ Γ׻֟ ֮֟ þֹ֟ ָ֕ ״ ִԻ ־ԡ ֮֟ ןš ֯ ֻ .

 

ߟ߮ ָ™֟ ֓߮ ֻ֯ Γ׻֟ ֻ껵 ִԓ Ɵ֤߻ ָ™֟߻ ן֓ ׾׾֬ ֻӛӟ Γ׻֟ ֻ껵 Ӵ֬ ֻ ֻ ƕ, ֛ . ׾ֿ ֕ ֻӛָ֮ ׻ƻ Ɵ ֲֻ . ֟߻ ָš֟ ָ ֻ ָ™ --- ֳ֮ ֳ֕ ֮֟ ־ֻ ֻӟָ֮ ֳӿ ӟ ֵ֓ծ ӣָ֮ ӓ Ƣ ֜ ֻ֜ ֳӿ ߻ ֲֻ Ɵ֯ ־־ ߮ ֟տ Ɵ ֵ֓Փ ׮״ԟ . ן™ ֳӿ ֬ ־ ֮֓ ֟־ --- ֚ ֟֓ ָ ָ֚, ָ֟, Ӥ ֤ ׾֟ ֻ, ׾֮֫ ӿ ֳӿ ™ֻ߮ ָ֚ ִ׳֮֬ ֟. ֚ ֟֯ þ֟ӡ֯ ׾ߟ ֻ껵 ָ֚ Ӯ ꚵ δ־ָ ֵ ޵ ֟ . ִӛֵ ׾ֵֻ ָ֚߻ ߻ ־՟ ֲֻ ׿ֻֻ ִԿ Ӳ׬֟ ԙ ֕֓ ־ֲ ߻ ׾Ӭָ ָ־ָ߻ ָ֙֓ 58 ӓ ֯֬ ִԓ ֵֿ֣, ԓ ׮ִԟ ֯֟ ִӛֵ Ӯ ־ ֮ 981 ֻ 긻 . ֛֮ ֪ ӯ Ӯ ־ ֮ 932 ֻ ׻ƻ껵 ׾δ֕Ԯ ׾ֵ֕ ־֟ ָ֚ ֌ӓ ֵ 껵֓ פ . ֛֮ ףֵֿ֟ ֮ Ӯ ־ ֮ 1210 ֻ ֻ껵 ӟ֣֮ ןִ ־֟ ֬ ֬ ָ֚ ֌ӓ ε . ֓֯δ ָ֟ ֿֿӦ Ӯ ־ ֮ 1128 ֻ ֻ껵 ִ֕֟ β ֬ ־ӣ֟ ָ֚ ־֯ӌ ֕ Ӯ ָ־ ֟֟, ֮ ӟ ָ֮ Ӯ ־ ֟֟ þִ άָ Ӯ ־ ֟֟ ֻ֯ š ӣָ֮ ޵֓ ֬ߓ ֻ֯ ָ֚ Ɵ ׻ƻ ֟ .

 

ߟ߮ ־ ֮֓ ־ ֟֯ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ֟ ֻ ָ ƻ ֿ֓ ՟߻ ֕ ־ ֮֓ ־ ֟֯ Ӭָ־ ֵ֟֯՟֓ ֻӛ֟߻ ָ֚ ӣ ֵ֯՟ ֲֻ ֻ , Ծ֓ ™ . ֻӛ֟ ו ָ֚ߟ ӣ֓ ֮ ֻ ֻ ƕ; ָ ָ™֟ ִԓ γ־ ָ , ֯, , ӕ֮, ֟, ֕߸ ֤ ך ֛֯껵 ֻ֢߮ ׿ֻֻӾֺ פ . ֻӛӟ߻ ָ֚ ӣӓ ޵֓ ֵ ׾׾֬ ãӮ ָ֚ ןӮ ־ָ ־ֿ .

 

ֲֻ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ --- ־ ֮ 1450 1850 ֵ՟֓ ֵ֬߮ ָ֚ Ɵ ־ ֮ 1850 ֓ ֬׮ ָ֚ Ɵ --- ֻӛӟ ׾ֳ ֟ Ի. ӯ ֵ֬߮ ֟߻ 400 Դ֬ 62 Ӯ ֻ 200 ָ֚ ӣ ֲֻ . ִ֬ 3 ӣ, 20 ־ӣ, 26 Ο ӣ, 30 ߟָ֮ ӣ, 30 ָ֤֯ ӣ Ӧ Ɵ ָ ӓ ӣ ׾ֿ ׮ֵ . ׿־ֵ ֢׾ָ֓׾ֵ, ־ָ֓ ׮ֹ֟, ߣ Ԯָ֯, ׾֬ ׾֮֬ Ӳ׬֟ ָ --- ß --- ß֯ά֮ ӣ ߵ . ־ ָ֚ ӣָ֮ ܵ֟: ֻ֢߮ ָּ ӓ ׿µ־ Ӯ , ׾ֿ . ־ ָ֚ ӣӾֺ ֵ֬߮ ֻ֟߻ ָ™֓ ״ ן ִ֕޵ ӟ ֓ ֤ ֟.

֬׮ ָ֚ Ɵ ִ֮֟: 1850 ֻ֮ӟָ ׾֟ . Ε ׿ֻ֯ߓ ֻӲ, ֬ߓ ֵ, ־׾ָ֓ӓ þָ, ִו ׬ֻߓ ߾, ߓ š֓ ß ׳ִ֮ ߓ ׸ֵ ־ծ ־߮ ֬Ӯ ޵֓ ߾ ֤ ָӴ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ֟ ֯ δ־ָ ׸֟Ԯ ޵ ֟ ֻ. ֚֮ ׾׿™ ׾ֵӓ Ӭ֮ þָ ֮ ׾ִֵ֬ ׾׾֬֟ ޵ ָӳ ֻ. ֿá ӣӓ ֟ ֻ ןֲӬ ֹ ֿá֯֟ ִԖ֮ צ ßӓ ֮ ִ֮ ֵ֮֟՟ ׾޵֓ Σ ֛޵֟ ֻ. ׳֕֟ --- ӣӓ ָ ָ֚ ֤ ӯֵ՟ ֻ. ֲָָ֓ --- ןš, Ο --- ֮֯, --- ־, ׮֟ --- ״ע ε, ָ --- ׾֬ ֤ ׾ֵӾָ߻ ־Ӯ ֵ㌟ ӣӓ ֮ ֻ.

 

ן, ֢֖֮, ֤ ׾ֵӾָ߻ ׾ָ֓ξ֟ ֮ ֬׮ ߵ ֬߮ ӯ ӛ޵֟ ֻ. ֚ , ֤Ӳָ, ־, ׸, ֙ ֤ ֵָ֒֯ӓ ֬׮ ֻ ֹ ִ֕ ׸֟Ԯ֓ ִ֚ ָ ֵ ޵֟ ֻ. ו ־ ָ ֚֮ ־׿֟ ֻ.

 

ֵ֬߮ ָ֚ Ɵ ܵ֟: ָּ ֬ԓ ׮״ԟ , ָ ֬׮ ָ֚ Ɵ ׮״ԟߴ֬ ֬ԓ ֙ ӟ כ־ ־ ݻ׿֟־ ӓ ִָ ָ . ׿־ֵ ֬׮ ָ֚ Ɵִ֬ á ӓ Ƴ ָ ֜ Ɵָ þֹ֓ ; ֵ֬߮ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ׮״ԟ ܵ֟: ׾֤ ָ֛֚ ֟ ֻ; ָ ֬׮ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ָ™ ã֮ ֻ֮ .

 

֬׮ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ׿™֯ ™ ֟ ֮֟֟ ֵ ߟ ֻ껵 ־߮ ׾֪׾ֳ֟ --- Ӯ ִ־ ָ, Ӯ ־ԟָ ֵ ָ ֮ ָ ָ™ Ɵ ׸֤ ־߮ þֹ֓ Ɵã ָ™֓ ã֮ ֻ껵 ߸ ָߟ ã֮֯ ֻ, ֻד֟ 港׸ִ ֙ . Ɵ ã ָּ þß þִ ָ֕ ӓ ָ֮ ß֟֟ ֻ ֻ֮ ןֻ ֵ֬߮ ָּӓ Ɵָ֯ӯָ ־֮ ָ֤߻ ״ֻ , ֙ . ׿־ֵ Ɵ ã ִ֮ܵ֟ ӿ ן ӓ ׾֯ ֵ֮, ־߸ --- ָי , ָ֯ܵ ֮־ָ ָ ֯ þֵ ӑ֙ӓ ֵָ֓ ֢֮֟ ״޵֓ ָ߾ ֮ ֟߻֓ ֯ ֻ, ןֵֿ ׾ֵ֬ ƾ֬ ֙ . ֲָָ֓, Ɵ ã ָ֚ Ɵ ֕ Ӯ ָ֚ߟ ׻ƻ Ɵ ִ֕֟ ָ֚ Ɵ ֕ ָ֚ߟ ׻ƻ ׾֪׾ֵ Ɵ ֻ֮, ӟ ֯ ִ־ ֙ ; ָ ִ ֢֖֮, ן, , ִו ã, ןֿá, ָ֓׮ִֵ ֤ ִӲӬߟ ׾ֵӴ֬ ֮ ַ ־ ָ ןӓ ӿӓ ׮™ ӯ ӲӬ ã ֵԵ֮ ־ ִֿ֕ ָ .

 

־ ™Ӵ ִ ָ™ Ɵ ׸֤ ־߮ Ɵ ã פ þ֟ , ןֻ ֿ דן֟ ןֻ ִ֕֟߻ ־ ֙ ָ߾ ֵ ֮ ״ ֿ ֌ . Ɵ --- ׮״ԟ, Ɵ --- ָ, Ɵ --- ָ, Ɵ --- ӿ֮, Ɵ --- ֿ֮, Ɵ --- Ӹ, Ɵ --- Ӿ֬Ԯ ֤ Ɵ׾ֵ ֲӴ֬ ָ™ Ɵ ׸֤ ֤ ֣֟߯־ָ ߻, ִ ֌ .

 

15

 

ָ껵 ןַ ָ֚

Ɵ Ӵ֮֯ߓ ߵ

 

ָ֚ Ɵ :

֮ ׾

 

( ָ™ Ɵ ׸֤ ןָ ָ֚ Ɵ Ӵ֮ פ. 21 22 , 1988 ָ™֓ ן ֮֕֬ ָ™ ן ӛֱ֟ . Ƹ֓Ӥ ֓Ӥ כִ֬ ׾ָ ։־ ֙߻ ָ֟ ™ӟ . .108 ֵ֓ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ӓ ׮֬֟ ָ ֟, ֤֯־ֹ ׿־֕ ׾֪֯ߚ֓ ӿ֮ ֓ ֤֮ ӓֻ, ֮ ֯ߚ֓ Ԥ ֮ן ֚֓ ׾ . ---- ӯ֤ )

 

ָ֯敵 ֮֬֓ξ֟ ™ӟ ֵ֓ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕, ָ™ Ɵ ׸֤ ã֯ ָּ þß ָ֕, ןַ ָ֚ Ɵ Ӵ֮֓ ˑ֙ . ֿ֤á , ׾׿™ ן֣ . . (ֵ) ֻԴә . . . , פ ; Ӳևԓ . ִ֮Ʈ 㯟, ןַ ָ֚ Ɵ Ӵ֮֓ þ֟֬ ָ™ ן ӛ֓ ֮֮ߵ . ֮֕ ָ ֤׬ָ, ӛ֓ ִә ׮Ù晓 ӓֻ, Ӵ֮֓ ӵ š ׾ָ֓ӟ ֵ֓ 긓Ӥ , ָ™֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ Ӵ֮ ־֕Ԯ ã֟ ֻ ֮֮֮ߵ ן, ãֻ֓, ׿, ֬֯, ӿ, ӣָ ָ֡ Ɵ֯ Ӭ --- ֮Ӯ,

 

ָ™ Ɵ ׸֤ ןַ ָ֚ Ɵ Ӵ֮ ֯ ֜ ꚵ ܵ ֮ ã֟ ֟, ֻ֮ ָ ֮Ӥ ֙ Ӵ֮֓ ֤֯֓ ֮ ֻ פֲ֧ ׸֤ꓵ ֵָ ӛ֓, þ֟ ״֟ߓ ֯ ־Փ ֮: ֳָ ֮֟.

 

ß׾

 

֯ ߟ , ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ־ԟָ ׳־鬤 ޵֚ þß ָּ ֵּ֓ ӓ ָ™ Ɵ ׸֤ þ֟ӡ Ɵ ã ã֮֯ ֯ ߻ ֚֟ ֯ӓִߓ ִԾָ פ 4 , 1984 ִָӳ֯ ֻ ߟָ ִֻ ֟ ֻ. ָ֮ ƻ ָ֚ Ɵ Ӵ֮ ֯ פ 12 13 , 1986 ָּ ָ֕ӓ ֻ֟ ָ ֯ ֲ֟ ־ ״֟ߓ ָ֮ פ 8, 9 10 Ù, 1987 š ׾ָ֓ӟ ן ֵ֓ 긓Ӥ ӓ ֻ ֻ֟ ןֵֿ ֱ֟֯ ӯ֮ ֻ.

 

֮ӟָ ޵֓ ֬ߓ ֕ ןָ ָ֚ Ɵ Ӵ֮ ޵ֻ ָ , ™Ӯ ֮Ӥ֓ Ƣ֯ ֙ . Ӵ֮ ֬׮ ֟߻ ӟ γ־ ™ӟ ׾ִֿ֬ԓ ֵ֓ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ ӓ ֻ ׮֬֟ ݵ ԤԮֻ ָ , ݵֵ֓, 港׸ִ ֙ ; ָ ֵ֓ӓ ֻ 韾 ׾ֵ֬ Ʈ Ӵ ߻ ֟ ׾׾֬ ӟ߻ Ɵ֓ ָָ ֟ ןӮ ִ֕֟ ןš ֯ . ֵ֓ӓ ӛ , ԤԮ ֮ Ӵ Ӥ Ɵ ֤ ־߮ þֹ֟ ִ֮֟ , ֓ γ־ ָ ֜ ; ֵ֓ӓ ԤԮ Ӵ֮֓ ׮״֢֮ ָ֚ Ɵֻ ֲֻ , Ƣ֓ 港׸ִ ™ . ןָ Ӵ֮ ׾׾֬ ֵ㌟ δӓ ֳ֮, ׾֮֬ӓ Գ ָ™֓ ן ֮֕֬ ֻ껵 Ƹ֟ ָ™ ן ӛ ִ֮ܵ֟ ֮֟֯֯ ãꓵ ָ֮ ָ , ߻ ֵ֤ ™ . ־ ƾԬ ™Ӵ֬ Ӵֻ֮ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ־ ֟ߓ ™֮֟ ָ֮֬ Ƣ ֯ ֻ .

 

Ɵ֯ Ӵ֮֓ ֤֯ ֯ ֗ ֮֟ ׮־֛ , ֲ֧ ֻ֯ ӟ . ׾֪ꓵ ֟ 45 ӿ ֮֟ ׾ָ֯ ׾ֵ֬ þֹ֟ ֮ ߟ ֻ֮ ֻ ָߵ ׾֪ ׸֤ ֬ ָ ֟Ӯ ֻ ™ߵ ßָ־ָ ֮֮ ״ֻ . ֓߮ ֯֬ ײΕ ׾֪֯ߚ֮ ִ֕ ׾ֵ־ָ߻ ƻ ӟָָ™ߵ ֓֡֓ ֮ ֮ 1985 ֻ ֗ ײΕ ׾֪֯ߚ֟  껵֮ ֻ ӟָ™ߵ ßָ־ָ߻ ֮֮ ״ֻ ; ֕ ִֵָ֚ߓ ã֮֓ ֟ ָ֚ ָꓵ ָ֟ ֯, ֻ֯ ָ 긓 , ֮ ֻ ״ , ֻ ־ԟ ß ֓ ֙; ֚ ֻ֯ ָ .

 

ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ֯

 

ָ™ Ɵ ׸֤ ֵ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ׳־鬤߿ ֟: Ӳ׬֟ ֻ֮ ָ֚ Ɵ ֮ ֯ Σִ ֮֟ ֻ ƕ. ָ֚ Ɵ ֕ Ӯ ָ֚ߟ ׻ƻ Ɵ ֓ ִ֕֟ ָ֚ Ɵ ֕ ָ֚ߟ ׻ƻ ׾֪׾ Ɵ ֓ ֟ ֻ ƕ ; ִ ָ֚ Ɵ ֮ ӟ ֯ ִ־ , ï™ . ו ֢֖֮, ן, , ִו ã, ןֿá, ָ֓׮ִֵ ֤ ִӲ׬֟ ׾ֵӾָ ָ ן ӿ ӓ ָ֚ ׮ִ ֻ껵 Ɵ֓ ָ֚ Ɵ Ӗ ִ־ . ָ֚ Ɵ ָ֚ Ɵ ֓ ׿™ ; ָ ִ, , ָ֓ ׾ָ֓ ӓ ָ֚ ߻ ן֤֯־ָ ָ֬ ; ִ ָ֚ Ɵ ӟ ֌ ָ ־ ׾֦֟ þֹ֓ Ɵ , ָߵ ߓ֓ ֓߮ ֻ֯ ׾ֳ֕ ֻ껵, ׾׿™ ™ ֻ껵 ߓ ׮ֹ ׾־֮ ָ Ɵ ; ָ֚ Ɵ Ӗ ִ ߿ ӲӬߟ ׾׾֬ ׾ֵӾָ, ׾׾֬ ָ, ׾׾֬ ֻӛӟֻ ׾׾֬ ִԵӮ ׻ƻ ָ֚ Ɵ ֓ ִ־ . ֯ þֹ֓ ָ֚ Ɵ ֵԵ֮ ָ֚ Ɵ ַӓ ָ֚ Ɵ Ӵ֮ ָ֚ Ɵ ׳־鬤 ָ֚ ߻ Ɵ ִ鬤 ޵֓ Ӵ֮֮ ֿ ֻ .

 

ָ™ ִ

 

ָ֚ Ɵ ֕ ָ֚ߟ ׻ƻ ׾֪׾ֵ Ɵ ׳֯ Ɵ֓ ׾ָ֓ ֮ ָ™ ִ ӓ ָïָ ӲӬӓ ׾ָ֓ ־ֿ . ™߮ Ɵ, ָ™ ִ ӓ ӲӬ Ƣ֓, ׮ ֓߮ ֻ֯֓ 霟ָ ï™ פ . ָ֟߻ ӓ 26,04,646 ܵ ־ԟ ß ֕ 7,03,364 ֻ ֕ã֮

( 5,12,548 ), ָ֟ ( 4,51,578 ) ֬ Τ ( 3,45,211 ) ֕ӟ ӓ ܵ ֙ ֜ . ֓ , ָ֟߻ ӯ ־ԟ ß ֕ 27.02 ָ™ ֕֟ Ɵ֟ δ ֕ãִ֮֬ 19.72 , ִָ֟֬ 17.34 ֬ Τִ֬ 13.25 . ָ֟߻ ӯ 7 ӓ Ӿ 27 ӓ ָ֚ , ӯ ӿ ӓ Ӿ 27 ӓ ָ֚ , ӯ ӿ ӓ ֟ ָ֚ ; ָ™֟߻ 7 ӯ ָ 4 ƮӲև (ߓ ), ֯ וֻ (1 ) ֻ וֻ ( 60 ƕָ ) ָ ִ ֟ צ ֻ , ꚶ δ־ָ ӓ ָ֓ ָ ָ ִ ֟ ֜ . ָ֟߻ ֟ ӓ ָ ִ ӟ߻ ӓ ֬ ָ֚ Ɵֿ ֓ ӲӬ . ( 1971 ָָ֮߮ )


֬, ӱִפ

 

, ָ™֟߻ ִԓ ß֟ ָ ֮֟ ֻ֯֓ , Οֵ ; ָ ִ ָ ֓߮ ֻ֯ ָ™֟ ãָ־ֻ , áߵ ־Ӿֹ ֬ ֻ . ִԴ֬ ã֮Ӿָ ֵֿ֯ ӟ- ֟ ֤֬ Ӿ , ã֮Ӯ ֬ ֟֟ ֬Ӯ ִԟ ןֵֿ Ƣ ןֵֿ ֓߮ ֻ֮ ֟֟. ַ ֓߮ ֬ ׿ וֻ֟߻ ֕֯ӣ, ֤֮ וֻ֟߻ ㌟ָ , ׾ֿ ֕ ָ ֬ ӯ ָ֟ ֜ ߟ. ӓ ׾־ ߣ ־֮ ־߸ ӓ ׾ָ ָ™֓ ָ֛֚ ׾ֳ֟ ֻ , ߻ ֓߮ Ɵ־ֹ פ . ׿־ֵ ָ֓ ߟ ֬ӓ ִ֚֮֬ ָ ӱִפ ޵֓ Σ ָ ֓߮ ֻ֮ ֟. ַ ָ ָ֟ ׸ ӟִ֬ ָ ӛָ ךߓ ֜֟; ָ™֟ ֡ , ָ׿־ (), ӕ֮ ֤ ך ַ ֤ ֻ ã֟ߟ ֜ ֟; ֜ ־ ָ ӓ ܵ ָ֟߻ ָ ӓ ӱִפӯ ־ԟ ß ֕ 75 Ӿָ ָ™֟ , ߻ ֟߻ ӿ֮־ֹ ֢֟ á֖Ӯ ֜ ֻ .

 

ןֵֿ , ָּߚ ӣֻ֮

׿־ֵ ֬ӯδ ִԟ ןֵֿ ߻ Ƣ֯ ֻ֮ ֟֟; ָ ִӲӬߓ ֤ ƴ ןֵֿ ӿ ׮כ ֻ ֟. ָ™֟߻ ֯, ֻ, ָ֛֚֟߻ , ֮ ׾֤ԟ߻ ׿ָ ַꓵ ӓ ™ Ƹ . ֲָָ ֯, Ӥ, ֟, ָӕ ֯ ָ™֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ߻ δ Ƹ߻ ӓ ֮־ָ ָּ ֵ֬߮ ֟ ֵ֓ ֳ֦֮, ߸, ו֮, ֤ ָܵ š γ־ ֬ӓ ׾ָ ӓ Γӛ ӣֻ֮֓ ֵ ָ™֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ ֻ . ׾ֿ ֕ ־ ֮֓ ןַ ֟֟߻ ֟־Ʈ ֕־ӿ֯ ߓ ֻ㌵, ֮ꙓ ™, ָߓ ֤ ֓ ׿ָֻ ֕־ӿӓ ֢ ִֻ֮ Ӵֻ ޵֯ ָ™֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ Γ׻֟ ֮֟ þֺ֟ ֵ֕ ״ ִԻ ָ™֟ ־ԡ ֮֟ ןš ֯ ֻ .

 

־՟ ׾ֿ ֕ ֤ ֮֟ ֻ֯ ָ™֟߻ ִ֕ ߻ ִ֮֮ӿ ֤ ״ ״ ִ ָ™֟ ִ ִֵ֓ ãָ־ֻ ֜. ִԮӟָ ָ™֟  ִ ֻ  ִԓ ׾ßָ߻ ָ™֟ ֻ. ָ  ִ ָ™֟ ߑֻ י , ָ™֟ ãָ־ֻ ִ֮ ֮֕߾ֿ֮ ֻ ;  ׳֌ӓ ܵ ֿ֕ , ֟ ָ™֟  ִԓ . ׸ã֟ ִԓ ֻ ; ֓߮ ֻ֯ ֵ֕֟֟ ִ ִ֕ ָ™ֿ ֻ ָ™֓ ־ԟָ ׳־鬤 ־, ֤ ֵԸ֤߻ . ו ִָ֟ ָ֚ Ɵ־ָ ןֵֿ ֻ ׸ִ ֻ. ׸ִ ޵֯ Ӯ ָ֓ ׾׾֬ Ӵ֬ Ʈߵ ֵ֒߮ ֵ ֵ׌ Ի.

 

Ɵ ָߵ

 

ָߵ ֵ֒ ׾׾֬ ָ ִ鬤 ֟֯ ֮֟ Ӯ ֻ֯ ־ Ɵ֟ ִָָ ֻ . , ׸, , βӬ, ־, ־, ֪־, ִ־, ֙ ־ ֵָ֒֯ӟ ֵ֓ כ Ӯ Γӛ ӣ׮״ԟ ; ֵ֓ծ ׾׾֬ ִӣӾָ ׾ß ӣ µӣ ӓ ׮״ԟ . ׿־ֵ ֵ֓ծ áߵ ׾ֵӾָ߻ ׬ ӣ ׻ƻ ָ֫ ֮־鬤 ֤ .

 

Γӛ Ɵָ֮ ׾׾֬ ӟ ָߵ ӓ ׳־鬤߻ Ɵ֮ ָ ꚶ δ־ָ ֤ . ָ ִՓ ӯδ Ӯ ֟ ӣ ׻ƻ פ ߟ. Σִ֯֓ Ӯ ӓ ִ֬ þָ ꛻ . ֬, Դ֬, , ֓, ָ™ ׾׾֬ Ӵ֬ ִӣ ֵ֒ ӓ ֮֟֟ ׮״ԟ . ß Γָ֟ ֻ֮ӟָ ߻ Ɵֻ ׾ֿ ןš Ƣ ֯ ֻ֮ӟָ ֤߻ ׾׾֬ ָ š ԓ ӣָ֮ ޵ Ӯ ֟ . ֕ Ɵ ׾ָ֓֟ ֻߕ ֵ֒֓ ֣֣ ֮ ָ ֓ ָ 긾 ָ .

ֻӟָ֮ ֳӿ Ƣ ֻ֮ӟָ ֮ ޵֟ ֤ ָ ƻ. ־ ֮֓ ־ ֟֯ ָ־ ֵ֯՟ Ӯ ֳӿ Γӛ ӣָ֮ . ֬ ֲֻ ֻ껵 ֳӿ ߻ ֵ֒֯ ־־ ߮ ֟տ ֵ֒ ӓ , ׾ֿ ֟ ޵ָ ™ .

 

ӟָ ׾׾֬ ֤׿ Γָ֟ ֻ֯ ־ ӓ ֵ ӣ׮״ԟ֚ Ӯ ֤ ƻ֯ . Ӥ, ָ֟, ֛, ״, ߳Ӯ ӣָӓ ׾ӟ ׸ִӴ ֻ ף ӓ þֺ ֻ. ֛֮ ֓ ™ Ƹ . ֛֮ ߻ ־՟ ֻ ӣָ֮ ӓ ֻ֮ ֛֮ Ɵ֓ ן֟߻ ֻ ֛֮ Ɵ֓ ֻ֮ ֟. ӯ, ꮮ, , ֮, ״֓Ӧ, ֤ Ӯ ו Τߑ ־ӣӓ ֮ ֛֮ ׾ֿ ןš ״ פ. ӓ ָӯָ Ӯ Ɵ֯ ֻ ֻ֮ ֛֮ ָ ֕ ӓ Ӳ޵֟ .

 

ߟ߮ ־ ָߵ Ӵ֬ ׻ ֵ֒׮״ԟ Ӯ ӓ ׳־鬤 ֓ ֳָ֟ ־ֻ, ֟ . ׿־ֵ ֿá, ־ֿá, Ӥá, ָá Ӳ׬֟ ׾ֵӾָ δֳ þֺ֓ ӣ ׻ ־ ַ ֲ ֵָ ־ Ӯ Ӯ ־ã֟ þֺ פ ӓ . Ӯ ָߵ ӓ ׳־鬤ߓ ֵ ָߵ Ɵ֓ ן֟ ןֵֿ Ƣ֯ , ֻ֮ ֟. ָߵ ӓ Ɵ֓ ֟߻ ο֮ߵ ֵ ָ֚ ֤߻ ֤ Ԯ Οֵ .

 

Ɵ ָ֚

 

ָ™֟ ֓߮ ֻ֯ Γ׻֟ ֻ껵 ִ׾ֵߓ Ɵ֤߻ ָ™֓ ן֓ ׾׾֬ ֻӛӟ Γ׻֟ ֻ껵 Ӵ֬ ֻ , פ . ׾ֿ ֕ ֻӛָ֮ ׻ƻ Ɵ ֲֻ . ֟߻ ָ™֟ ָ ֻ ָ™ - ֳ֮ ֳ֕ ֮֟ ־ֻ ֻӟָ֮ ֳӿ ӟָ ֻ. ו ָ™ - ֳӿ ӟ ֵ֓Ԯ ӣָ֮ ӓ Ƣ ֜ ֜׾ֻ , ֳӿ ߻ ֲֻ Ɵ֯ ߮ - ֟տ Ɵ ֵ֓Փ ׮״ԟ . ןš ֳӿ ™ֻ߮ ָ֚ ־֤߻ פ ֟.

 

ߟ߮ ֚ ֟֯ þ֟ӡ֯ ׾֟ ֻ껵 ָ֚ Ӯ ꚶ δ־ָ ֵ ޵ ֟ . ִӛֵ ׾ֵֻ ָ֚ ߻ ־՟ ֲֻ ׿ֻֻ ִԿ Ӳ׬֟ ԙ ֕֓ ־ֲ ߻ ׾Ӭָ ָ־ָ߻ ָ֙ӓ 58 ӓ ֯֬ ִԓ ֵֿ֣ ԓ ׮ִԟ ֯֟ ִӛֵ Ӯ ־ ֮ 981 ֻ 긻 . ֛֮ ֪ ӯ Ӯ ־ ֮ 932 ֻ ׻ƻ껵 δ֕Ԯ ׾ֵ֕ ־֟ ָ֚ ֌ӓ ֵ 껵֓ פ . ׿־ֵ ֛֮ ףֵֿ֟ ֮ Ӯ ־ ֮ 1210ֻ ֻ껵 ӟ֣֮ ןִ ־֟ ֬ ֬ ָ֚ ֌ӓ ε . ֓֯δ ָ֟ ֿֿӦ Ӯ ־ ֮ 1128 ֻ ֻ껵 ִ֕֟ β ֬ ־ӣ֟ ָ֚ ־֯ӌ ֜ ֟. ֓ , ָ֚ ֪ ֕ Ӯ ָ־ ֟֟, ֮ ӟ

ָ֮ Ӯ ־ ֟֟ þִ άָ Ӯ ־ ֟֟ ֻ֯ š ӣָ֮ ޵֓ ֬ߓ ֻ֯ ָ֚ Ɵ ׻ƻ ֟ .

 

ָ ־ ֮֓ ־ ֟֯ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ֟ ֻ ָ ƻ ֿ֓ ՟߻ ֕ ־ ֮֓ ־ ֟֯ Ӭָ־ ֵ֟֯՟֓ ֻӛ֟߻ ָ֚ ӣ ֵ֯՟ ֲֻ ֻ , Ծ֓ ™ . ֻӛ֟ ו ָ֚ߟ ӣӓ ֮ ֻ ֻ ƕ; ָ ָ™֟ ִԓ γ־ ָ , ֯, ӕ֮, ֟ ֤ ך ֛֯껵 ֻ֟߮ ׿ֻֻӾֺ פ . ֻӛ֟߻ ָ֚ ӣӓ ޵֓ ֵ ׾׾֬ ãӮ ָ֚ ןӮ ־ָ ־ֿ .

 

ֲֻ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ־ ֮ 1450 1850 ֵ՟֓ ֵ֬߮ ָ֚ Ɵ ־ ֮ 1850 ֓ ֬׮ ָ֚ Ɵ ֻӛӟ ׾ֳ Ի. ֯ ֵ֬߮ ֟߻ 400 Դ֬ 62 Ӯ ֻ 200 ָ֚ ӣ ֲֻ . Ӵ֬ 3 ӣ, 20 ־ӣ, 7 ӣ, 26 Οӣ, 30 ָ֤֯ ӣ Ӧ Ɵָ ӓ ӣ ׾ֿ ׮ֵ . ׿־ֵ ֢׾ָ֓׾ֵ, ־ָ֓ ׮ֹ֟, ߣ־Ԯָ֯, -- ׾֬ ׾֮֬ Ӳ׬֟ ָ --- ß --- ß֯ά֮ ӣ ߵ . ־ ָ֚ ӣָ֮ ܵ֟: ֻ֢߮ ָּ ӓ ׿µ־ Ӯ , ׾ֿ , ־ ָ֚ ӣӾֺ ֵ֬߮ ֟߻ ָ™֓ ״ ן ִ֕޵ ӟ ֓ ֤ ֟.

 

֬׮ ָ֚ Ɵ ִ֮֟: 1850 ֻ֮ӟָ ׾ . Ε ׿ֻ֯ߓ ֻӲ, ֯֬ߓ ֵ, ־׾ָ֓ӓ þָ, ִו ׬ֻߓ ߾, ߓ š֓ ß ׳ִ֮ ߓ ׸ֵ ־߮ ֬߮ ־ծ ޵֓ ߾ ֤ ָӴ Ɵ֓ ֟ ֯ δ־ָ ׸֟Ԯ ޵ ֟ ֻ. ֚֮ ׾׿™ ׾ֵӓ Ӭ֮ þָ ֮׾ִֵ֬ ׾׾֬֟ ޵ ָӳ ֻ ; á ӣӓ ֻ ߾ ׾ָ ֹ ֿá֯ߟ ִԖ֮ צ ßӓ ֮ ִ֮ ֵ֮֟՟ ׾޵֓ Σ ֛޵֟ ֻ. ׳֕֟ --- ӓ ָ ָ֚ ֤ ӯֵӟ ֻ. ֲָָ֓ - ןš, Ο - ֮֯, - ־, ׮֟ - ״ע ε, ָ ׾֬ ֤ ׾ֵӾָ߻ ־Ӯ ֵ㌟ ӣӓ ֮ ֻ ӓ ָ֚ ַ֓ ֿ֮ ã ß֟֟ ֻ ׮š ִ ֻ.

 

ן, ֢֖֮, , ָ֓֬, ִ֕ ֤ ׾ֵӾָ߻ ׾ָ֓ξ֟ ֮ ֬׮ áߵ ֬߮ ӯ ӛ޵֟ ֻ. ֚ , ֤Ӳָ, ־, ׸, ֙ ֤ ֵָ֒֯ӓ ֬׮ ֻ ֺ ִ֕֯׸֟Ԯ֓ ִ֚ ־ԡ ֵ ޵֟ ֻ. ׾ֿ ִ֕֯׸֟Ԯ֓ ε ݵ פ ֟ ޵֓ ӟ Ƣ֯ ֵ ָ֚ߟ߻ ׮ֵ֟׻Ӯ ֮ 1885 ֻ֯ ֕ ֲ ƻ ׮ֵ֟׻֓ ã֮֯ ֵ֕֟֟ ӳָ Փ ֻӛ֟ Ɵ֯ ֲֲָ֤ߓ ־ ׮š֯ ֻ ֻ . ו ׾׾֬ ָ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ׮״ԟ ׳־鬤 ֬޵֚ ־ ׿֟ ִ֕֟ ֻ ӓ ן׮֬ ֕ Ӵ֮֓ ׮״֢֮ ܵ ã֟ ֻ , ֮Ӥ֓ ׳ִ֮֓ ™ .

 

֙ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ן֓ ֜־־ֺ ™ Ԯ Οֵ ֟. ֟߻ ƻ ׿™ ™ , ֵ֬߮ ָ֚ Ɵ ܵ֟: ָּ ֬ԓ ׮״ԟ , ָ ֬׮ ָ֚ Ɵ׮״ԟߴ֬ כ־ ־ ݻ׿֟־ ӓ ִָ ָ . ָ Ƣ֓ ™ , ֬׮ ָ֚ Ɵִ֬ á - ӓ Ƴ ָ ֜ Ɵָ þֺ֓ . ןָ ֮ߵ ™ , ֵ֬߮ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ׮״ԟ ܵ֟: ׾֤ ָ֛֚ ֟ ֻ ָ ֬׮ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ׮״ԟ ֟ ִ֮ܵ ׿ִ ָ™ ֟ ֻ; ֓ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ƻ Ӵ֮ ֯渻 ָ ֯渻 ֻ ןָ ֕ ޵ֻ ӯ֮ . ֓ , ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ׾ֳ֕ ׿™ ָ֚ Ɵ ֟ ־կ ֻ ß ִ鬤 ޵֓ ֲֲָ֤ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ӿ ӓ ; ֲֲָ֤ ֵ ֳ֟ ָ ֛޵֚, ֲֻ ָ֚ Ɵ ס֟ ״޵֚, ß׻֟, ָ֚ Ɵ ׻֟ ޵֚ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ ӿֻ֮ ֻ֮ ޵֚ ׾׾֬ δӮ ָ֚ Ɵ֓ Γָ ޵֚ ָ֚ Ɵ þ֟ӡ ã ־ֿ ; ־ֿ ޵֓ ָ™ ן ӛ ִ֮ܵ֟ ã 껵 ן ֵ Ի Ӵ֮֓ ™ ׮¯֢ Ի; ִί ־־ ֙.

 

ֲֲָ֤ ָ Ƣ֓ ; ָ Ɵ֮ ֮־ֻ פ ׾׿™ ߾֤֮™, ߾ִ֮滵 ߾֮֯֬ ִ֟, ֟֟ ֓ ־֮ ӓ ִ ֮ ִ֮ ֵ֮֟՟ γ־߯ ׾޵֓ ֟ ׮֟ӟ ֹ . ו ߓ Ӥ ִ֣ԯ ޵֓ ñ Ӵִ֮ ־ ֹ Ӯ ֵԟ Ɵ֓ ֌ ֻ ֬ӟ֓ξ֟ ֵ֓ ׮ ׾֪֮Ӥ ָ֕ ӓ Ο ԤԮ ־ծ ֤ ֳ, ֿ ֌ ӯ׾֟. ֯ ֗ ӟ ד֢֮ ֻ, ֲ֧ ֻ֯ ӟ . ֮־ !