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׾ßָ ן ׾־֮֮ ׸ ֮֮ߵ

ӓ ָӯָ

ָߵ ִ鬤 ޵֚ Ӯ ָ Ƣ֯ ֵ . ׾׾֬ ׾ֵӾָ Ӵ֬ ׻ ׾֯ ӣָ֮ ֻ . Ɵ֓ ו֣ ֵ֒Ӯ ֮֓ ã֮ ֙־ֻ . Ɵ֯δ ֢֖֮֓ ֟ Ӯ ֻ֯ ִֵ֓ ֙׾ֻ . ֮־֤־ָ ָ֬ ֢֖֮ ן ֢־ִ֖֮֬ ׿™ . ӓ ֯ά֮ ָ֓á ֟ ָ ־ֵ ֛֯ . ָ֓ ף ָָ֚֙ Ӯ ׾ָ ׸ִ . ָ֓ ־־ ֜׾޵֟ Ӯ ֓ ָ . Ӥ ֵֻ, ӟ֯׸ִ , ֮ ֮ßӳ, ־ ןßӳ, Ӭ ߾ , Γӛ פִ, ׮Ը ߣã֮ ֮֬ ׿ֻ þֹӟ Ӯ ןִ ׮ִ 껵 ֵ֕֟֟ ֮֟ ֻ. Ɵ, ֢֖֮ ֻ ӯδ ׿֓ ֟ Ӯ ֓߮ Ʈߵ ִָ ֕־ֻ . ֤֕߻ ӓ ֵ ־ þֺ֟ Ɵ֯ ֻ . ӓ ָӯָ ꛌ֟ ׸ֵ ޵֓ ֟ וֻ .

 

׿֓

 

ִԓ 霴֮֟ , ָ֟ ׸δ ָ ֟ 㬤 ã . ֯δ ߟ ״ ã ֛֯, ֯δ Ο ָ ֟ ԯ׸Ӯ ㌟ . ֟ ״ ߾ ֟, ԯָ ִ֟֬ ֻ ״ ֟֟. ԯָӓ ӵִ ֟֓ ֮ - 韵 - ׸δ . ԟ ֟֓ ֿ֟ ã ־. ַ þִֺ֬ ֻ֟ ӟ Ԯ, ӟ

֮, ӟ ӟ ߵ ָ ӓ ֯ . ֟֓ ߓ ָ ֿ֟ ã . ã ֯ ֕ ֮µ֮ ׸ԟ ״׾ ָ ӯ֤ . ֯֯ Ο֓ ߾֮֟߻ ןִ . ֓ , ִԮָ ֤֯ ָ ֟֓ ֿ֟ ã ֟֯ ԯָӓ ׳֮֓ ε ׌ ׸ִ֮ ֌ . ַӓ ֤߮ ־, ִԓ ֳ ֬ӟ . ָ ״־ֵֵ ָ Ο֮ ֟֓ þֺ ֮ ֻ ָ ƕ þ֟: ׸ ֺ ֟֓ 㬤 ã ֜ ƕ. ִԯδ ׿֓ ֓ . ׿֮ ֓ ָ ֛֯ ƕ δ ޵֓ ָ֟ ֡֟ ִ֬ ֻ ƕ. ׿֮ ןִ ֯ ָ ָ ׿ . ָӿ, ִԓ ׿ ֬ ֮֬ ; ָӟ ݵ ׿ ןֵֿ ־ֿ ֲ . ֮ӓֵ ָ ֮ ֯ξ ׮ִ ָ ; ֓ ֬ ֵ֓ þן Ӯ οִָן ִ ӣ֟ ֮õ ׾ָן: | ƙ . ׿֓ ָ ןԴֵ ָ ׾֪ ׾ִ㌟ֵ ֮֓ ׿֓ ֓ ï™ ֟.

 

þ֟ӡ ׿־־ã

 

ָ֟ ֓߮ Γ׻֟ ֻ껵 ׿ֻ֯ߓ ׾־ָ ָ ן׾ֵ ӣ Ɵ ֮ , ָ֟  ִԵӓ֓ ׿ã ß־֟ Ꟶ ֓ ӓ ״ ׿֓ ָ ־ߟ ֟. ӣӴ֬ ӓ ֵ׾ֵ ָ ֛֯֟. ӓ ӣӓ ־ ן֟ ӿ ֻ ߾ . ֓ ־ , ֟ Ӯ ߓ ָ߾ ֵ . Ӳ ï™ ֟ Ի , ֓߮ ֻ֯ ӓ þ֟ӡ ׿ã Ꟶ. ӟ ׾׿™ δ ׿׾ֻ ֟ ӟ - ֟, š - ׮š, á - ָ ֻ ꤳ־ ֟ ִՓ ׾֪֣ծ ξ ״ . ׿֓ ׮֟ӟ ־ֿ ֙ ָֻ֮ ֓ ־֮ ׸ ֮ ״ ׿֓ ִ֕֟߻ ־ ָӓ ӯֵ՟ ׾ֻ ָߵӓ ߾֮ ִ鬤 .

 

 

 

 

׿֓ ֟

 

ָ֮ Σִ ߣ ־Ӯ ֳ֤ Ӯ Ӯ ֕׾ ֮֬ ׿׾ֻ, ӟ ֕ ֮ ִ־ . ֚֮ Ӯ ־ ָ ׮׿֟ Ӿֺ ݵ ׻֯ ׮ִ . ֳ֤Ӯ ֻ֯ ƻ ׻֯ Σִ ׿׾ֻ ׻֯߻ ־ ֛. ֓߮ ָ֟ ׻֯ ָ֯ ֟ ֓ ׻֯ߴ֬ ƻߓ ָ֮ ׻֯ Γָ֟ ֻ. ׻֯ δ 1-2-3-4 ֤ ܵ Ӿ ӓ ֮ ֳ֤Ӯ ֻ֯ ָ 㤸 ƻ Σִ פ ֯ ֿ֟áֻ ֟ ֻ. ֵ֒֓ ֳ ־, ֳ֤Ӯ ֿá, Ӥá ָá ӓ ׮ֺ . ֓֯δ ־֮ ֳ֤Ӯ ָ, ֻ ֤ Ӯ Կá, 韵, ד֡, ׮ִ, ֵԤ, ֮Ԥ ֤ ӓ ߾ֻ֮ ־ֿ á ӓ ׿ פ. ֮µ֕߾֮֟ ׾֪ Ƣ áֵӮ Ӯ ׾֪ ӯ֤ ޵ ֳ֤Ӯ ֻ֟; ߕ ֮ ֱ ָ , ӓ ָ . ֵ֓ ו֮ ӓ פ ӣ֟ ֓ ןֵֿ ִ֯ Ԯ ֻ . ׾֪ Ɵ ֻ֯ Ӯ ֮֟ ־֮ ֳ֤ ֟֟ ----

 

֯Եֿꤴ ߻ִ֮ߤִ |

׾֪ ׫µ ֱ ֮ ״֤˴ || 16.97 ||

׾֪־֮ ִן ן ׾֤: |

ָ ֫ ֢ á™δ ֤ || 16. 98 ||

׾֪ ֿ ׾֪ ֟ |

ִָ׬֟ ׾֪֤֟ ִ֤׵֮ || 16. 99 ||

׾֪ ִ֤ ׾Ԫ דӟִִ֮ |

ס־Ա׻֟ ׾֪ ִָ֟ӯִָ || 16. 100 ||

׾֪ ֮㿓 ״֡ ׾֪ ָ |

Ƶ׵ ֮ ׾֪, ׾֪ ־ԣ֮֬ || 16. 101 ||

֤׾֬ ֟ ס ִ |

ֻ֟ s ֵԟԟ s || 16. 102 ||

 

ӓ ָ߸, ֵ ִ ߻ ׾֪ ׾ֳ֟ ֻ־ָ ֓ ߾֮ ֱ Ի; ָ ֟ ׾֪־֮ ֻ כ ֮ ״ ׾֪־֟ á ־š ֤ ֯ . ׾֪ ֿ ָ, ָ ֮긣 ָ ִ֬ ָ דӟִ . ִ, ִ ֦ ָ ׾֪ ӯ֤ӓ ָӯָ . ֮־֓ Ӭ ״֡ ָ ׾֪ ֵ֙՟ ָָ ָ ֮ ׾֪ ־ ֬ ֟; Ӯ, ׾֪ ޵֓ ε֟ ; ָ ֓ ֵ ׾ֻ֪ ֤ ݵ .

 

 

֦þִ ӓ ִ ӣ֟ , ־֮ ֳ֤Ӯ Ӯ 72 , áֵӮ 64 ־ծ 100 ׿ֻӓ ׿ פ.

 

־֮ ֳ֤Ӯ ן֯פ ׿ ޵֓ ׸֚ ӓ֮ӟָ ֻ껵 ߣӮ ׸. Ο ߣ ֻ֯ ִ֤֬ ־ ִ֡Ӯ ֮ ֟. ߣӓ ֮֓ ֵ֤ ׾ֿ֟: ӓ ָ֬Ӯ . ָ֬ ֮ ֬Ӯ ׵Ӯ ֟.

 

 

 

׿֓ ָ

 

֬ӓ ־ ӓ ֬ӓ ־ ׵ӓ ӑ ֟. ӑ ָ֮֯֓ ִ ןֵֿ ߮ ߟ ֟. ӑִ֬ ָ ָ ׵ ֮ӯ֮ ֟ ӓ ֮֓ ׸ִ ӓ ׮֬֟ ָ ָ , ׵, ־ ׾ ӓ־ָ ꚶ δ֟ . ӓ ׵ӓ ӑ ֟֟ ֪ Ƹ֕־ ֟ ߟ ֟ ָ ӓ ׾ָ ָ ֻ . ӓ ך ִ ߻ ֮֟ ֤֓ Ԯ ֮ ֟. ו ӓ ֮֟֬ ֮֓ ָ Ӯ ׿ ״ . ӓ ׵ӓ ӑ ֕ Ԯ ֻ֟ ׾֪֯ߚ . ޵ Ƹ .

 

ִ ֬ӓ ׾ִָ Ӯ ״ ֮ ״ ֻ ָ ֻ֮ ו ֵԤ Ꟶ. ֮֟֟ ֮ ״ . ״ֻ껵 ֮֟ ֌֟ ֻ ִ֕־ֵ . ߾ֻ֮ ֵ ָ֛ ָ ׿ ״ . ־ áӓ ӓ Ɵ ֟ . ׿־ֵ ׾֪֣Փ פ ߾֮δ־ָ ӓ ן ָ֓, ָ߸þã ׬ ֟ ֺ ӓ ־ ߾֮ ִ鬤 ִֻ֕ ֵ㌟ ޵֟ ֤ . ־ ޵֚ ӑי þֺ֓ ׿ã ֜޵֓ ָ ֻ. ֯δ Ӯ ־ ֟ӓ ִՓ á - Ӯ ־ã֟ ߟ߮ ׿ ޵֚ , ׾ֵֻ֪, ӣֳӛָ ָܵ ã ֻ֓߮ ָ֟ ־ԡ ֜ ã ִֻ֮ Ӵֻ ָ֟ ãָ ԯֵ՟ ֕ ־־ ־ ֮֓ ־ ֵ֟֯ ׾ָ֪֯֓ ֵ ꚶ δ֟ ߟ Ꟶ.

 

ã

 

ִԖ֮ ӓ ֮ ִ֕֟ Γָ ־ ִ֮֕ ã ( Monastic Schools ) ã֮֯ ־ֵ ָӳ .  ִԵӮ ߓ Σ ֜׾ֻ ןֵ֓  ִԓ ꚶ δ֟ Γָ ޵֟ ֿ ״׾ֻ. ִ ֲָָָ ָߵ ִ鬤 ޵֚, Ӯ ־ֻ֟ ֲֻ ޵֚ ֮ ִ֕֓ ן ߾֮ ָ޵֚ ãӮ ָ ֓ ִָ . ִ֬ Ӭָ (Dark ages) Ӳ׬ֻ ַ ֵ֬߮ ֻӛ֟ ο֮ ֤ӓ ֚Ӯ ׬ ֬ן ֹ֮֓ ֵ ֓߮ , Ӯ ָ֟ . ֵ֓ծ ã֮֯ ֟ ׾֪ Ɵ ־ ָ֓ δ ן ֻ֮.

 

ָ֓ ־ ӟ . ־׸ ֟ 渤™ ӓ ֵ֓ ׮־֛޵֟ . ָ֬֯ ֮֕֬ߕ־, ꚴꚶ Ƹ, ֤ߓ ֚, δ Ӿָ, ָ ָ֓ ־ ӓ ׮׿֟ և; ִ Ӯ ӓ ֵ֤ ָ ߓ ֻ ֓ ֟ ׯε . ִֻ֬ ӛҾ֬Ԯ ִ׻֯; ֤֬֟ ֻ, ӯ ֕; ָ ָ֟ ֣, ָ֮, ־ß, ׯֻ ; ׿ִ ָ֟ ָ ־֕־߻ Ӥ־֮, ֯, ֙֯ ( ֕ ֬׮ ֛ ); ֬ ָ֟ ן֯ןš֯ ׻ָ֮ ָ֟ ־ֲ, ӓ ֓ ך ֻ ֓߮ ֻ֟ ָ ֬ . ׿־ֵ ָ ֮ Ƹӟ ꛶ӟ㬤 ã֮֯ ֻ Ӯ ״ ׿֓ Γָ .

 

ִԓ ָ֮ ־ ֟ӓ, ָӓ ִԓ ׾֪֣ծ ӟ ξ ״ . ֵ֓ ֚ ξ פ ֟ Ο ׾֪֣Ի ֚ Փ δ ־ ֟ . Ӵ֬ ׿׾ֻ ַ ׾ֵӓ ־ ׾ß . ׿δ֟ ִԖ֮, Ɵ, , 㬤á ֤ ׾ֵӓ ִ־ . ״ δ֟ Ԯֲָָ פ  Ԯ֓ ֻ ֟ . ׿־ֵ ָ֑֕޵ӟ סֵ ӟ ַ ׾֪֣֚ 㬤׿ ָ׸ ׿ ޵֓ ֟ . ָ ֵ֓ 㬤ָ֯֟ ׾֪֣Փ ֟ ֟ Ӯ 㬤á֟߻ ־֯ ׿ߟ ֟. ֚ ֻ ֓ ֮ ޵֟ . Ƹ ֬ ֵ֓Փ ִָ֟֬߻ Ƹ ֻ껵 ֓ Ի. ן֣ ֵ֓ ֬ Ӯ ֓ ֿ֬Ԯ ֕֓ ֻ ״ ׿ֲָָ ׾׾֬ 㬤á ׾ֵӓ ׿ פ, ï™ ָֿ֕ ӓ βӬ ӣ֟ .

 

׿֯֬

 

֟߻ ׿֯֬ ׿™ . ôָֿ֌߻ ׾ָ֓֌ ׿ פ ֟ . ֟ ֚ӟָ־ָ ֟ ָ פ ֟ ; ִ ׾֪֣Փ ׬ ֟ ӓ־ֻ ֟ . Ӯ þ֟ӡ֯ ׾ָ֓ ޵֓ ־ֵ ֟ . ִ ֟ δ֟ ӣ־ָ ָ֬ ֻ֮ Ӭ֬ ׾ָ֓߻ ׬δ޵ֻ ß Ƣ פ ֟ .

 

׾֪֣ծ ֟ ־ֿ . ֟ ַӮ ״ ן Ӭ֮ ֮ ־ ֟ ֟. ׸š ֵ֓Փ ֖ ׿ָ־Ӫ ֮־ ֟ ֟. ׾֮֫ ֤ ֮ӓ ֤ ƾ ״ 껵֮ ו ׾֪֣ծ ֳָ֮ ֓ ֳ ״ .

 

׾ ׿δ ֻ֮ӟָ ׾֪֣Փ ָ ޵֟ ӓ ֡֟δ Ӯ כ, ּ ֤ ޵֟ ֟ ֬ ָ ַ ׾֮֫Ӯ ִ֕֟ ֮֓ ã֮ ״ .

 

ןֵֿ ӑי ݵ ֵ֓ ӓ ӓֻ֮ . ξֵ֤֕, ׮ֵԯ ־ ׬ָ ֟ ӓ ִӓ ֲֲָ֤ߓ ߙ ֟ . ֕ - ־֛ ״ ӓ ݵӴ֬ ӓ ֓ ׾ֻ ֟ . ֵ֓Փ Ԯ ־ӓ ֟韾 ӓ ӵִ ã 500 ׬ Ɵ֯ ׿֓ ׾֡ ֵ .

 

Ӵ֬ ֵ֮ ֮֯ ֤ ֻ ; ׾ֿ Ƣ֓ ™ , ֟߻ ֵ֓ 㮵 ӣӓ ӿ֮ , ӓ ן׻֯ ֵָ , ־߮ ӣָ֮ , 㮵 ӣӓ Ӹ , ӛ ֮֮֬ ֻ , ־ Ӵ֬ ֤׾־֤ ֛ , ׾֮֫ӓ ִԯ׸֤ ָ׾, ִԖ֮ ָ֚ ׾ָ , ִֻ֮ܵ ֛֮ ӓ ߾֮ ִ鬤 ֚ ׾ָ εֿ֟߻ ֟. ו ֓߮ ָ֟ ׯε ֻ ֻ ־ֻ .

 

׾ֵֻ֪ ã

 

ֵ֒־ֺ ï™ פ , ֓߮ ָ֟ ־ ך ״ ׿ ָ ӑי ׾ֵֻ֪ ӯδ ꚶ δ־ָ ֻ׾ֻ ֟ ֟. ׾ֵֻ֪ӟ ׾֪֣ծ ӓ ߻ ֵµ֟ ֕׾ ֵ ֛ ִ ׸ ߻, ָ ׿ ޵ ӓֻӓ . Ӯ ֻ׾ֻ ׾ֵֻ֪ ӯΤ׵ þֺ֓ ־Ɵ ־ ֮֟ ׿֓ ֳ ״־, ã֮֯ .

 

׾ֵֻ֪Ӵ֬ δ֟ ֬ߓ ֻӲ ֟ . ָ ׾֪֣ ׾ֵֻ֪֟ ֵ֓Փ ָֻ ߟ ֟. ָ֑֕޵֟ ָ ׾֪֣㬤 ֙ ߟ߮ ׮֬֟ ֻ֯ ׿δ ߟ ֟.

 

߾ֿ֮ Ӳ׬֟ ־ ׾ֵӓ ׿ ׾ֵֻ֪֮֟ ޵֟ . , ֟, ׾֖֮, ߟ, 韵, ד֡ ֤ , ָ׸ ׿, 㬤á ׾ֵӓ ӓ ׿δ֟ ִ־ . ֕֯Ӯ 72 ӓ ׿ ޵֓ ׾ֵֻ֪ӟ ֟ .

 

ִԓ ־ָ ׾ֵֻ֪ӟ ׾ֿ ޵֟ ; ֲָָ֓ ׾֪֣ծ ָ ִՓ 㬤 ־ . ׾ֿ֟: Ӥ ִԓ ־ֿ ׾ֵ ֻ ֟ .

 

ӣֳӛָ ã

ֵ֓ծ ׮ִ ӣӯ֤ ֟ ־ ӣֳӛָ ã ֓߮ ã֮֯ 껵 ֵ֕֟֟ ֻ ֻ. ־ԕ׮ ӣֵֻ֓ þֺ֓ ãӮ Ƣ֯ ֵ . ӓִ ֮֓ Γӛ ֚ ֕ ӿӮ ֲֻ ֻ ֓߮ ָߵ ߓ ־֯׸ Ԯ ֛޵ ָߓ ֤ .

 

ָ֟ ׾ֿ ֟ ֻ껵 ã֮ ꚴ ӣֳӛָ ã֮֯ ޵֟ ֻ. ã֮֯ ޵֚ ֵ֓ծ ָ ֻ ׮Ӯ Ӯ ״ ֵ ך פ. ԙ֟ ײ֦,ָ™֟ ָ, ֕ã֮֟ ִֻ ײ֮ ָ֟ ֙ ߻ ׾ֻֿ áֳӛָ ָ֟ ֬ . ִֻ ײ֮ ߻ ӣֳӛӾֺ ֓ Γӛ ֢֓ ֮ Ի. ӿ֮֓ ™߮ ןֵֿ ֵ ӣ ӛָ֟ Γӛ ܵ ֲֻ . ײ֮ ־ ֮ ƕָ ӣ Ɵ . , , ֳӿ, ֕ã֮, Ӥ, ָ֟, , ׿Ե֮, ָ֚, ֻ ֤ ӟ ֛֡ ֤ Ӿָ ׻ƻ ӣ ן֣ ֲֻ . ӣָӮ ׻ƻ ״ ӣ ӛָӟ ־ֵ ֛֯֟. Ƣ֓ ӣӓ ־ 껵 Ο ִֻ ӓ ӿ֮ ߓ . ֟ӯ ׮ָ׮ָ ӟ߻ ӣִ ֿá֓ ӿ֮ ָߓ ֤ . ֬ Ӯ þ֟: ֵ֚ ֻ ֓ (ֻ י ֟֟) ָ Ƣ֓ ӣӟ߻ ָ֟ ӛָӟ ֟ ֻ ; ן ִߓ ™߮߻ ӣֳӛָ Ƣ֓ . ד֡, ּ־ֻ, ׾֖ׯ֯֡ ָ ן Ɵ ״޵֓ ֮֬ ֛֯֟. ״ ׾ֵӲָָ ָ áߵ ׾ֵӾָ ׻ƻ ӣ ֟ . Ƣ֯ ӣӓ ן׻֯ ֵָ ޵֓ Ɵ 껵 ӣӓ ֮ ޵֓ ֵ ֟ .

 

ַ ӣֳӛָ ӓ ־ ָ ־ ָߵӓ Ƣ֯ ן ָ .

 

á׿ ־ã

 

֓߮ Ӯ á׿ ׾ֿ ׾ֻ . ָ ִ֕֓ ֮֮ ִ֕֟ áߓ ã֮ ָ ֮֓ . áֵӓ ֟ߓ ޵֟ Ӯ ֻ֯ ־ ֟ ޵֚ ׾׾֬ ֲֻ ޵֟ ֟. áֵӓ ֚֟ ־֮ ֳ֤Ӯ á׿֓ Ƣ ֙ פ þ֟: ֻ֯ Ӯ ׿ פ, ָ ִ .

 

Ӥ ִ֕֟ áֵӮ ״ ֟ ָ ֻ֓ ã֮ ޵֟ ֻ ӓ ֳ ޵֓ ƌ Ƹ־ ޵֟ ֻ .  ӑ֟ áֵӮ ξ ޵ ִ 㬤֓ Σִ ׾ָ ; ӟָ ־ ԓ áӵӮ ӑ֟ ξ ״ֻ. ֓ ֙ ӓ á߾ ֑޵֓ ™ ƻ֯ ָ . Ӯ֤ ֬ ָ ׵ ޵ áֵӮ ִԟ ֻߓ ֛֚ ־Ɵ. Ӳ ӓ֯δ ׵ӓ þ֟ӡ ӑ ӑӟ ֻ껵 ָ ãִ áֵӮ ״ ׿ ޵֓ ׸֚ . ֓߮ ָ֓ ָ, ׿ִ ӟ ӯ, ״ףֻ, ֕, ־ß, ָ, ֯ ִ֬ ך ֬ӓ ӑӟֱ áֵӮ ִ׿ ޵֓ ׾ֿ ε֟ ޵֟ ֻ, ֵ֒֟ פ ֟. ֬ ִ֙ ײײָ ӓ ֻ ޵Ӯ ֻ֮ӟָ ӯ ߻ ֬ӓ ӑ֟ ִ׿֓ δ , ï™ .

 

Ӯ ֻ׾ֻ껵 ׾ֵֻ֪Ӵ֬ Ӯ ׿ӓ ָֻ ״ ޵֟ . ׾֮֫ áֵӮ þ֟: ׾֡ ֵ֚ ֻ . ֵָ֮֮ Ӯ , ׾׾֬ , ׾֖֮, ָ߸֮ 㬤á ֤ ׾ֵӓ ׿ ޵֟ . ԟ ״ ׿־ָ ׾ֿ ָ פ և. ־ Փ Ӯ ׾ֵֻ֪ӟ ξ . ӓ ָָ Ӯ ׿ ޵֟ ӓ ׿δ֟ ֻ ֟ .

 

־ֺ ׿֟ á߯׾ֵ ִ֮֟ Ӯ ֮ , פ Ի. ־ ָ ׾ֿ ׿껵 ־޵ ׾ַ áֵӮ Ӳ֟, ִ֕֟, ӑ֟ ָ֤֕ ֮֓ ã֮ ״ . ԓ߮ ֟ á׿֓ ק™ ֓ ֬ .

 

֮֟ߓ ֻ

 

ָ֟ ִֻ֮ ֢ ãָ ֻ֮ӟָ ׾ֿ֟: ߻ ׾ֵָ֮֕ ִ֕֓ ӟ ֻ֮ӟָ ֕ ָ֬֯ ־ ֮֓ ־ ֟֯ ӓ ֵԓ ֮֟ ֻ ֮֟ ׸ã֟ ־ ֟֓ 긯ֵ՟ י. ֻ ָ ֿ ֲָß . ִֻ֮ ׬֢ ָ֓ Ӿָ ã֮֯ ֻ֮ӟָ ãӮ Ӥ ֕ ֤ ״ָ ָ ֵ ֻ. ־ ָ Ӥӓ ָָ ӓ֤߻ ״ ֻ. פ ˬß ֻ. ãӾָ ƻ ֻ ӓ ״ ָ֓Ӿָ Ӭ֮ ֤ . ו פӲָ ֵ֓ծ ׾ָ ִ׿֓ ָ ֻ. Ծ֮ ָ ׬֢ ԟ֓ ֵ֓ ֟ ֻ ߟ. ׮ã߻ ꛶ֱָ ׿ףֻ֟ ׸ִ ӓ ׿ֵԾָ ֻ׾֮ ƻ . ã 㯟ֵ֯ ֻ. ׾ֵֻ֪ ãӮ ָ ֻ. ָߵ δӓ ־֛ߟ ֛֯ ӓ ֮ӯ֤ ™ ֵ ӣ 渤渓 ך ֯־ ־ ֻ ӣֳӛָ ׮֕Ծ ֻ. áþ֟ӡ־ָ ֑֟ ָֻ֮ ֻ׾־֓ Σ ֻ֮ á׿ֵ ־ ־ Ӥ ֛.

 

֟֟ꓵ ׮׿֟֟ꓵ ׸ã֟ߟ ֜޵֚ ִԵӮ ӑי ޵֚ פӲָ ӯΤִֵ֬ ָּ ߚ֓ Σִ פ߻ ã֮֯ ֻ ӟָ ָ֓ ָ, ׿ִ ֟ ָּߚ ã֮֯ ֻ. ӯ ֕ãִ֮֬߻ ݾֻ, ֵ֯ ָ; ִָ֣֬߻ ԛ ו֡; ָ™֟߻ ָӕ, ֯, ֟ ֯; ԙ֟߻ ־ֲ, ײ֦, ָ, ֓ ֮ ָ ֻ ״֛֬߻ ӛ ӓ ך ã֮֯ ֻ ָּߚ ׾ֿ ֬ . ־ ӓִֻ֬ ã֮ ָּӓ ; ӓ ֬ן ָ ־޵֓ ֲֲָ֤ ָּӾָ ֛; ִ ֻ֯ ֟߻ Ӯ ִԾ , ӓ ״ ε ִָӳ ָ ֛, ӓ ߆ӟ ֻ ֤ ӓ־ָ ߵ ָ֓ ֤ ִ ָּӮ ־ ֟ ו ָּӓ ֚ ӓ ״ ן ֻ֮. ָּӮ ֻ֯ ֚ӟ Ӯ ״ ׿ ־ֵ ֟ ָ ӣֻ֮ . ԓ ֵ֓կδ ׻ þֺ֓ ֟֓ ӳ߸ ׾־֮ ָ ֮ ָּ ֻ . , ֚֯ ߮ ӣָ֮ Ӯ . ָּ ן ֓Ӧ Ӯ ִ֬ ׻ƻ ӣ; ָּ ָן ֿן ӓ ֳӿ ߻ ֮; ָּ פӦ Ӧן ӓ ָ֟ ߻ ֮ ֮ߵ . Ӥߓ ׻־Ʈ ֻ֤, ֕ã֮ߓ ʓָ ו֤֮ ָ֚ߓ ן ֤, וָ֮ ןָ ׾ֿ ׯε . ֵֿá, ־ ӓ ִָ֓, ֬ӟ, ֿá, ֲ, ֿ֟á, ןֿá ֤ ӳ߸ ׾ֵӾָ߻ ָּӮ ӣֻ֮ . ׿־ֵ 㮵 ӣӓ , ӓ ן׻֯ ֵָ Ӯ Ӯ ָ Ƣ֓ ֵ ָּӮ ָ ֛. ֮֟֟ ֵ 껵֮ ּӓ ׿µָ֯ӯָ ׮ִ ֻ ׿µӴ֬ ָ ׾֮֫ . ָӿ, ֮֟ߓ ֟ ָּߚ ӓ ׾֪ ; ָӟ ָּߚ ֵפ ָֻ֮ ֻ֟֓ ׸ã֟ ִָ֮֬ ֻ֮ ӓ ֵ ֻ֟ ןֵֿ Ӥ־ֻ .

 

ֹ߾֮֓ ֻ

־ ֮֓ ־ ֟֯ ־ ֵ֟֯՟ ִִ֡ ֻֻ껵 ӓ ֵԻ ׾־ ֟֓ ֟߯ ׮ָ ֻ ֵ ָ ׾ß ָ߾ þֺ֓ ֻ; Γ׻֟ ֻӛֻ ӓ ֵԓ ֹ߾ֻ֮ ֟ Ի.

 

ָ֟ ײי ֕־֙ 霴 ֻ֮ӟָ ׾ָ֓ߓ ־ ָ ־ԡ ֻ ִ֕־ָ ֓ ݵ ׸ִ ֻ. ׿ִ֟ ׿֓: ֕ ָ ֻ, ֟ ׿֓ ָ֮֬ Ƣ ִֻ֮֮ ֙ ֻ. Knowledge is Power ֕ ֮ ֌ , ־֮ ӟ ֻ. ײי ֕֯֬ߴ ׮ִ ֻ껵 ־߮ ֟־ָ֓ ָ ֵ֤ ־ֵ֓ ָ ־߮ ֬߮ ׿ ׸ֵ , ֡ ִ֕֬Ӯ ֙ ֻ ꛶ֱָ δ֟ ׿֓ ־߮ ׯ֚֜ ƕ, ֓ ߾ ַӮ ֻ. ï֬Ծָ ָ֬껵 ־߮ ִ֮֟ ָ ֯ ߓ ׿֓ ָ ֻ֯ ִ֕ ֛, ִ֕֟߻ Ꟶӓ ֟ ֻ. ׿ֲָָ ״ ָӓ ׿֓ߤ߻ ׮֟ӟ ־ֿ , ׮ ο֮ ״ַֿ֮ӓ ֟߻ ֻֻ֓Ӿֺ ֙ ֻ. ׾֪֣Փ ֮־ָ ݵ ִֵ ִԓָ֓ ָ ֻ ƕ ָӓִ֬ ִԖ֮֓ ָ ־ֵ ƾ; ߟָ ִԾָ ־߮ Ꜿ ߟ ִ֕֟߻ ׾ָ֓ӟӮ ־ ֻ. ׸ã֟ߓ ִ֮֕ ֻ. ־ ֮֟ ׿֓ ִ֕֟ ִ׿֓ ßߟ ß ָ ־ Ӯ ֤֮֮ ַ ־ ã ָ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ ׾־ ֟֓ ֟߯ ֜־ֵ ָӳ ߓ Σ ִ֮֕ ֻ ֻ . þ֟ӡ֯֯߮ӟָ ׾֪֤֮֓ ׾֡ ֵԻ ־߮ ֜ ִ֕ ֟ ֮ Ƴ ֻ.

 

״ ׿֓ Γָ֚ Ӯ ַ֓ ã ֜ ӿ þ֟: ֓ ֟韾֮ ֻ׾ֻ .

 

1 ) ֚ : ӓ ӓ ֮־ָ ֮֯֯ ִԓ ָ ־ Ӯ ִԓ ־ ־ ־ Ο δ ßߓ ־ ֚ ޵֟ ֻ. ׾֪֣ծ ׮ֵ״֟ δ ־ ֟. ߓ ִֵ֓ ִֻ֮־ָ ֛޵֚ ֚ӓ ָ ֵ .

 

2 ) ֵָֻ : ֚Ӵ֬ þ֟ӡ֯ ִԓ ַ Ӵ֬ ִԖ֮֓ ׾׿™ ֟ ޵֚ Ӯ ֮ ޵֚ ־ ֵָֻ ã֮֯ ޵֟ ֻ. פӲָ ִ֕֟ פӲָ ֳ ֵָֻ, פ; Ӧ פӲָ ֵָֻ, ֯; פӲָ ׸֤ ָ , פ ָ פӲָ ֳ ֵָֻ, ֻ ָ ַ ã ֬ Ӥ֕ 40 ƕָ ׾֪֣ ӓ ָӮ ֟֟.

 

3 ) ֮֬ ׾ֵֻ֪ : ִԖ֮֓ ֟ Γָ ָ , ָ ִԖ֮ ׬ָ߮ ָ ݵ כ ƾ; Οߓ ״ ׿ ִ֕֟ ׾֮֫ӓ ָӯָ ׮ִ ޵֚ ֮֬ ׾ֵֻ֪ ִ֕֟ ׾֮֫ӓ ָӯָ ׮ִ ޵֚ ֮֬ ׾ֵֻ֪ δ ך ޵֟ ֻ. ִ֬ õ֫ ׾ֵֻ֪, ָ֮; ׾ֵֻ֪, ָ; ֓Ӥ ׾ֵֻ֪, Ӥ; ִӟֳΤ ׾ֵֻ֪, פ ֮֬ ׾ֵֻ֪, ֻ ׾ֵֻ֪ ֮ߵ .

 

4 ) : ״ ׿ӓ ֛ ֻ ׿֟ ԓ ׾֡ ֟־ָ ִֵ ׾֪֣Փ ־ ֟ ޵֚ ׾ֿ ε֟ ã ã֮֯ ޵֟ ֻ. δ ָ ꛶ ך ޵֟ ֻ. . . ִӟֳΤ ָ֕ ӓ 韾֮ ֬ Τ, ָ™ ԙ ӟ פӲָ ã ֵ ߟ . ӯ ָӕ, ֻ ֯ ߻ ָ֟ ׾ֿ ֬ .

 

5 ) ֬״ ׾ֵֻ֪ : ׿ Ӯ Ӯ פ ƕ ֓ ־ֿ ֮֙ӟָ Ε ׿ ַ ֬״ ִ֕ ꚴꚶ ־ ֜޵֟ ֻ ֓ߓ ߻ ֵָ ך ׾ֵֻ֪߻ ã֮֯ ޵֟ ֻ. ã ִ֕֯㸟֓ ֵפ ֻ ߟ. ӟ߻ ܵ ׾֪֣ ֯ ָ ֟֟. ãӴ֬ ׿ פ ֟. ӟ ס ׿֓ ֻ֮ ӓ ֵ㌟֟ ֜ . ־ ֚֮֟ 㻵 ֻ껵 ãӴ֬ ך ִ׿֓ פ ֟ ־ ך ֟־ָ ִֵ ޵֓ ε֟ ֟; ִ ߓ ׾ ִ֮֮־ָ ׸ִ ܵ ִ֕֓ ܵ ִֿ֕ ׮š ӲӬ ׮ִ ֟; ָ ֵԓ ֜׾޵ ִ֕֓ ξ ֲָָ ã ֤ ־֟ ֮ פ ֟. ֬ פӲָ ֱִ֕֟ ָ Τ֟ ָ֤ ׿ ָ ߮ ׾ֵֻ֪, әו֋ֵ՟ ׿ ָ ߮ ׾ֵֻ֪, ֟ ֬״ ߮ ӓ ֬״ 26 ã ֻ׾޵֟ . ָ Τ֯δ ֬ Τ, ֕ã֮, ӕ־, ײָ ָ֣ ֕Ӵ֬ ַ֓ ã ֵ ߟ . ָ™ ֕֟ ӓ ֬״ ԯ ׯε ֻ ׾ֵֻ֪ ֜־ֵ ֟ ֻ . ֬ ֮ ֵ֙ߓ ֻ , ã ֯ ֮ ֮ ֵ֙ߓ ִָ֟ ߮ ׾ֵֻ֪ ãֱ ֻ׾ֻ ֟ .

 

6) ן ׿µ־: ־ ך ׿ ַ ã ֜ ֌ ֻ֮ δ Ƹ ׿ ޵֓ ׾֪֣Փ ָ ־ ׿֓ ֟ ꛵ֱָ δ֟ ׾֪֣վָ ״ ָ ־, Ӳևԓ Ӥ ֮֓Ӥ Ӯ ָ 1900 ֻ֯ Ӳև, ƴֲ֤֤, ִָ ֤ ־ פӲָ ׾֪֣֚ ן ã֮֯ Ӯ ף ֤ ޵׸ ׿µ־ ӛ ׮ִ . Ӥ ֮֓Ӥ Ӯ ֻ פ Σ ָ֟ ־ԡ ָ޵֟ ֻ; ִ ƻ Ο ꚶ ־ ֲֻ ֻ . ִִ֕֬ Ԯ פ ָ ׿֓ ָ ãӓ ֤ߴ Ƹ֓Ӥ ֮֕ Ù ָ™ ֳ ãӮ ֲ֟ߟ ߟ ֻ ֵ ןֵֿ Ƣ֓ .

 

7) ׾ִ ֚֯: á - ׿ ֬߮ ֟ ִֿ ֻ . áֵӮ ״ ֵ㌟ ׿ ߓ ָ֓ ™߮ ־ֿ ; áֵ֚ ã ֜޵֟ ֻ. ֟ ֚ ִ Ƣ֓ . ӓ ״ ׿֓ ֚ӟ ޵֟ ֻ. ׾֬־ ֣ áֵӮ þ־ֻӲ ֮־ ӓ ֤߮ ִԖ֮ ָ֓ ֵ ׾ִ ãӓ ֟ ޵֟ ֻ. Ӳև, ֯, Ӥ ָ ך ֵ ߟ ֻ껵 פӲָ ׾ִӮ ׾ֿ ֮ߵ ֵ . ָ™֟ ךך ׾ִ ã֯ ִ֮֕ ֤ ׮ִ á׿ ֵԓ ָ Ӥã֮֟ ޵֓ ־ֿ .

 

8) ׮ֵ֟׻ ִֻ֮ܵ: ִ֕֟ ִ׿֓ ־֛ ׮ִ ִԖ֮֓ ָ ޵֚ ֯ þֺ֓ ׮ֵ֟׻ ׾׾֬ Ӵ֬ ޵֟ ֻ. ӓ ܵꓵ ֮֮ ָ ß ׮ֵ֟׻ ֻ׾ֻ ֟֟. 1938 ֻ 65 ׮ֵ֟׻ ֟ ܵ ָߓ ֜ ָ. . . 1885 ֻ ֯֟ ã֮֯ ֻ ֲ ֬ ß֟֟ ֻ껵 ֡ӯ ־՟ ֡ . Ӥߴ֬ ֮ ָ֚ߴ֬ ֮ן ׳ֹߓ ׯε ֬ . ׮ֵ֟׻Ӯ ָ߾ ֵ . ׮ֵ֟׻ӓ ߻ ִ׾ֵ ִֻ֮ܵ ֵו֟ ޵֓ δ ִ֕֟ ֻ . ֵ ־, ־߸ ֵӟ ָܵ δ ־ӓ ָ ׾֮֫ӓ ֮ܵ ֻ ֟֟ ׯε . ִִ֮֕֬ ִ ׾ֵ ִ˖֮ ָ׾޵֓ ™߮ ִֻ֮ܵ ֿþ .

9 ) ӿ֮ : ִ ֤ ֓߮ ָߵ ִ鬤 ޵֚ ׾׾֬ ӟ Ӯ ָ ֓ ִָ ; ָӟ ָ߾ ֵԓ Ӯ ֤֮߻ . ֓ ܵ ָ ֕ Ɵ ֢֖֮ ӓ ־ ן֟ ׾֮֫ӓ ֻ . ߾ ֺ ֜޵֚ Jainology ֕ ִ Ӳ׬֟ ־ ׾ֵӓ ד ޵֚ 껵 կ ӿ֮ ã ׬ָ ֌ӓ ԤԮֻ ޵֟ ֻ . Ӵ֬ ׾֪֯ߚ, ֻ; ߸ פ, פ; Ɵ ã֮, ֵ֯; ӿ֮ ã Ԯ֣ ׾ִ֪, ָ֮; Ɵֵ ã֮, ָ ן Ӹ ӑ, ֯ ã ֬ . ӯ ַ֓ ãӮ ׮־ԙߕ֓ ֮֟ ״ֻ֮ ן֣ ӿ֮ ߋ. . ָܵ ֤ ָ ӿӮ ֻ . ӿ֮֓ ־ֿ ֵԻ ֟ ״ֻ ׾ֵ ִ֮֬ ָߓ ָ ֛ . ӿ֮ ֟ ׿ִ֟ ׾֮֫Ӯ Γӛ ֵ ָ֟ þԵ ӯֵָ֟ , ִӤֻ , ִ֣֕ ξ֟ Ӯ ֻ֟ ӿ֮ ֵԓ ָ . Ƹֻֻ, , . . . ֬, ו֮׾ֵ֕֕, ޵׾ֵ֕֕, . ֻֻ֕ ӑ־, . ֻ־ֵ ָ ִ֕֟߻ ׾֮֫ γ־ ߟ߮ ֻ־ߟ .

 

10) ӣ ֿ֮: ӣֳӛִָ֬ ƕָ ӣ ֟ӯ ֟ ޵֟ ֻ ; ָӟ ӓ ӿ֮ ־ã֟ þֺ֟ ׿֟ ־ֿ . Ƣ֓ ™ ִ֮֕ ֓ פ . ־ ָ ֻ֯ ִӣ ֯޵ ӓָ ߾ ׾ָ . ׸ã֟ ֻ֙ Ӯ ִ׿֓ Γָ֚ ַ֓ ֿ֮ ã 껵. әһ ײ׿ ։, ָ (ײָ); . Ӥ פӲָ ӣִֻ, Ӳև; ִ֬ ָ ֳ, ־ָ֮; ִꤵ ״֟, 㸟 ֮֬ ׿֮ ã, ָܵ ãӮ ֿ֮֓ ֵԓ ֵ ֻ֟ ƻ ןԤ ӣִֻ, ָߵ ֮֯ߚ, ָ֮; ӑ ӣִֻ, Ӳև; ׸֤ ײ׿ ։, פ ߾ָ֕ ӣִֻ, ֯ ָܵ ã ׻ ֵ ߟ . ӓ ׸ִ֮ ָ ״ ӣ ״ ֻ, ֟ߟ ֲֻ ֻ ִ ӓ ָ ֮ ־ִ֮ ֵ֮֟՟ ֻ .

 

ָ߻ ׾־֮־ֺ ï™ פ Ի , ֮ - Ӹ, ֮ - Ӿ֬Ԯ ָ֮֯ ׿׾ֵ ֲ֟ӟ Ӯ ׾ָ ׸ִ . ׾֪ ֮ ӓ ™߮ ־ֿ ״ ֲ ֻ . Ο ã֮ ִ ƕ ִԟ ֻ֟ , ֟ ֮ ִ . ִԟ ֮֓ ֯ ֟ ; ֓ á֤֮ ָ ׿ָֻ֯ ֳָ֟ ־ Ο ֻ֯ ׾֡ ֵ ִ֕֟. ִ ׿ָ֯֓ ֵ כ֯ ֻ . ׾ֿ Ƣ֓ ™ , ׿ִ֬ Ӯ ӯΤ׵ ™ ֻ . ӓ ׿ã ִ - ӣ - ׻ - Գ׾ָƟ ־ Ӯ 㻵 Ꟶ. ׿־ֵ ״ ׿ֲָָ ׿֓ Ӯ ־ ׿ Ӯ ֓ ߳ӟ Ӯ פ. ӓ ִԯָ Ӯ ֟ ֻ껵 Ӵ֬ ֻ, ֓֯δ ӓ ׿ָ֯ ߳ ֻ. ֓ ׸ִ ֻ , ׿֓ ִֵ֮֕֯՟ ֻ. ֓ Οӟָ ֤߻ ־ֵ ״Ɵ. ֻ ׿ ޵ ָӳ ֮ Ӥ ֵ ִ: ֌ֲָָ ִ: ֬ ֌ ׻޵֓ Σ ֓ ִ֬ Γ׻֟ ֻ .

 

 

17

ָ֚ ׮ֵ֟׻:

ָӯָ ֵ

 

׮ֵ֟׻ӓ ן

 

ָ֟ ׾׾֬ Ӵ֬ ֬ ַ ׮ֵ֟׻ӓ ܵ ָ , Ӯ ״, , ן, ִו ֤ ӟ ӓ ֟ ޵֓ ™߮ ןֵֿ ֓ ִָ ֕־ֻ . ׮ֵ֟׻Ӵ֬ ָ֚ ߻ ׮ֵ֟׻Ӯ ָ֮֬ Ƣ . ָ֟ ֬ Γ׻֟ ֻ껵 ׮ֵ֟׻Ӵ֬ ֵ֮ ־՟ š ׮ֵ֟׻֮ 93 ԟ ֤֯ ֵ֕֟֟ ֻ֯ ןš ׯε֟ ִֵ ֻ . ֲ ־ֻ־ָ ։ ׾־ ֟֓ ֟߻ ֕ ־ ֮ 1902 ֬ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ֯֡ ӓ ־ ֟ ޵֚ ־ ֮ 1899 ã֮֯ ֻ껵 ָ™ ֳ ־߮ ӑֱ֙ ޵֟ ֻ. ׮ֵ֟׻֟ ן ֡֓ ִ־ ޵֟ ֻ֮ ֓ ֟ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ִ ޵֟ ֻ. ֟ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ֯֡ 75 Ɵ֯ ׿֟ ֮ ֯Ӵ֬ ֮֓ ã֮ ״׾ֻ . ֲ ֟ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ֡ӓ Γָ֮ γ׾֟ ָ֚ߟ ֮ ו֮־ָ , ֕ ָ ׮ֵ֟׻ פӲָ Ӯ ֲӬ, ֕ ָ ׮ֵ֟׻ Ӳָ Ӯ þ֟ӡ֯ ֻ֟ ꚶ ֛֮ ; ־ ֕߾ .

 

þ֟ӡָ ֻ֟ ֕ 1950 ֬ ׿ֻ֯ߴ֬ ׿ ֵָ ֻ껵 ִ־ӟ Ӯ ֮ן ԓ ָ֚ ֡ ֮ 27 Ɵ Ɵ ӓ Ɵ֯ ָ֚ ߻ ־ ֡Ӵ֬ þ֟: ׿™ ã֮ ׮ִ ™Ӯ ׳ִ֮ï֤ ֵ ׾ֻ . ֮ן ֟Ծָ 껵 10 ԟ ָ֚ ޵֟ ֻ Ӵ֬ Ӳև ׮ָ֑ ߣ ֯ ׮ָ֑ ֵ֡ ֻ֯֯ ָ߮ ֻ ֵ ߟ . ׿־ֵ ֯ ֮֬, ޵ ָ™ ן ӛ ֱ Ӳָ ִ֕֓ ֕ ָ֚ ֬ ֻ .

 

ߟ߮ ָ֚ ׮ֵ֟׻ӓ ָӯָ ־՟ ן֓ ֵ ־ ־ ֟֯ ֵ֕֟֟ כ֯ ֻ , ꚶ ݵ֓ ׳ִ֮֓ ™ . ֵԴ֬ ֲ, ֟ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ֮ן ߮ ׮ֵ֟׻ӓ ֓ ֙ .

 

ֲ

 

־ ֮ 1885 ֯Ӳָ֬ ӓ ™ ׾ָ֓ӟ Ƹ֓Ӥ ֓Ӥ Ӯ ֯ Ƹ֟ þ֟: ƴ֟߾ָ ֲ ֡֓ ã֮֯ ָ™֟߻ Ӯ ־׾ָ֓ӓ ޵֓ ӟ ׳֮־ ֵδӓ ָӳ . ֡֓ γ־ ꛶֟ ֬ߟ ־ ֳָָ ֛ Ӯ ֟Դ֮֯֡֓ ִ֣ԓ ï™ ߾ ֻ. ׸ִ֟: ־ ֮ 1894 ֬ פ ָ־Ե פӲָ ֳ ֱ ֕֙ ־ ֮ 1895 ֬ 㸟 Ӳև ן פӲָ ֳ ֱ ״֡ Ӥ ֡ӓ ֟ ޵֟ ֻ ־ ֮ 1902 ֬ ֯ ָ™ ֳ ֱ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ָ֚ ֡ӓ ֿ֮֓ ָӳ ޵֟ ֻ; ִ ֲ ֻ֡ ִ֕֟ Ԥ ֡Ӵ֬ ָ֓ ֮ ֯ ֻ ֲ ֮֡ ִ֓ ֵ ׾ֻ .

 

ֲ ã֯ Ƹ֓Ӥ ֓Ӥ Ӯ ֯Ӳָ 1885 ָ 1898 Փ ֻ֯ ӯ֤ߵ ָߤԟ ׿ִ֟ӯ ֻ þ֟ӡ ֡֓ ֮ ֵ㌟֟ ִֻ֕ ֙ ޵֓ Ʈߵ ֵ ָ ֛. Ӯ ӣ֓ և ִԓ ־ֻ ָ ֮֮֟ӓ ߾ ׾ָ áָ֬ ֜ ִԯΓָ֓ ִԕߓ ־ ׸ִָ ޵֟ ֿ ӯ֤ . ֟ ׾ֵ֕ ֻ־ָ Ӯ ֟ ™ ַ ״֣֟֓ ֙ ޵֓ ε֟ , ִ˟֓ ָ , ִӣӓ δֿ: ֿ֮ ֵ֒ ׮ִ , ִ֕֟ þֵ֬֓ ־֛ ֮ , ִ׿֓ ׳ֹ ׮ִ , ׾֬߯δ ݮ ־޵֓ Γָ , Γ׻֟ ֻ껵 ִ֕׾ָ Ӯ ׾ָ , ״ ã פ ƿ ֬ ޵֓ ƾ֙ ֛, ׾׾֬ ך֓ ӣֳӛָӓ Ɵ פ, ߣָ ׾ֻ, ָּ ã ָ ޵֓ ־ֿ ן֤֯ פӲָ Ӵ֬߻ ӟԟ þֺ֓ ߾ ֳ֟ ޵֓ ε֟ . ߟ߮ ִו ׸֟Ԯ֚ ָ ݵ ״ ׮ִ Ƹ֓Ӥ ֓Ӥ Ӯ ߻ ӯ֤ӓ ןֵֿ ֳ .

 

ֲ ׫ߵ ӯ֤ . ֯ ָ֯ ׮֙ á Ӯ Ӳָ 1898 1916 18 Փ ߑ ֻ־֬ߟ Ƹ֓Ӥ ֓Ӥ ӓ ֵ ֿþ߯ ֻ ֻ. . ׮֙ á Ӯ ֻ֯ ӯֻ֤֟ ܵ֟: ӣֿ֮֯֓ ֵԾָ ָ פ. Ӯ ֯ ־ӣָ֕֓ ָ֚ ӟָ - ֮ ׮ָ׮ָ ׿֟ ֮ ֵ . ָ֓׾ֵ ע ™ ӣ ָ֚ ӟָ ֲ ׿֟ . ߟ߮ . ׮֙ á Ӯ ꚶ ׾֫ ֲ ӯ֤ Ɵ֟ ֓ ָ ֻ֟ ִ֕ ִ֯ߟ ׾ֻ.

 

ֲ ߵ ӯ֤ . ߾ָ֕ ִ֓Ӥ Ӯ Ù 1916 1920 ֵ՟ 4 Փ ֟ ֤ ִ ߟ߮ ֻ׾ֻ. ֵ՟ ִ֕֟ ӣֿ֮֯֓ ã ַ֓ ׮ֻ֑껵 ֻ֮ ֲ ӣӓ ֿ֮֓ ־ֿ ־Ɵ; . ߾ֳָ֕և Ӯ ֻ֯ ӯֻ֤֟ ֵ֮֮ ָ, ӟָӓ ָ֮֬, ִ׿ָ , áֵӮ ־ֵ֓ , ׮Ե, ׾ִ ׾־, ״ ׾־ ֤ þֺ֓ ״ ִו ׾ֵӓ ֓ԟ ֮֬ פ ִ֮ ԓ . Ӯ ֻ ֵָ֕֯֟, ֯֙ á ֤ ִ֬Եӓ ִԾָ߻ ӓ ָ֬ ׮ָ֮ ޵ ׾ֿ ׾ֻ ִԓ ݵ ןִ ӯ ӛ.

 

ֲ ֟ ӯ֤ ִԾ߸ ־֕ ִָ Ӯ ֻ֯ Ù 1920 Ù 1939 ֵ՟֓ 19 Փ ߑ ӯ֤ߵ ָߤ ִָߵ ׾ֻ. Ӯ ֲ ֯֟ ӟָ . ӣ ֿ֮֓ ֵԻ ׾ֿ ֻ֮ פ ִԯΓָ־ָ ָ פ. . ֌ֻֻ֮ á, . ӿָ߬ á, . ו֤֮ á, . ߓӤ ִ֓Ӥ ָ, . ֬Դ֮ á ֤ ׾֮֫ӓ ӯֵ֤ԟ Ƶ ֯ ֲ ָß֯ ֜׾ֻ. ׿־ֵ ִ, ߣ ֬ӓ ׾ָ Ӿָ ׾׾֬ ך ֻ껵 ֑֟ӓ Ӯ ֿþ߯ ןָ ִ֕֓ ׮ ޵֓ ε֟ . ֲָָ֓ ן־ Ɵ߯ Ɵ ׾ֿ ָ ӣ ֜޵֓ Σ ֲ ֵ㌟֟ ֜׾ֻ.

 

Ù 1939 ֵ֕֟֟ ֲ ӯ֤֓ ܵ ִ֕֓ ִ֮ܵ֟ ׾֮֫ . ֬Դ֮ Ԯ֣ á ӟ ִ֣ԯ Ɵ . ӓ ӯ֤ߵ ָߤԟ 1944 ֻ ֲ ߸־ ꚶ δ֟ ָ֕ ޵֟ ֻ ֲ

. ִԾ߸ þ. ־֕ ִָ ôָ ӑ ׮ִ 껵 ã ֯֡ ׬ ޵֟ ֻ. . ֬Դ֮ á Ӯ ֲ ִ֮ ׾ָ֓ӓ ߑ ָӯָ ִֵ ֻ ׾ֳ, ƻ ׾ֳ, ׮ָ֮ ׾ֳ, ִָ֓ ׾ֳ, á ׾ֳ . ߟ߮ ֲ ׯε֟, ֵ㌟֟ ןš ֜ . ֬Դ֮ á ӟ ο֮ߵ ֵ ߟ ; ִ ӓ 40 Ծָ Τߑ ӯ֤ߵ ָߤ ׮ֵ֟׻֓ ן֟ ׾ֿ ֮ߵ Ƣ֯ . ӓ ߻ կ ߴ֟ פ߲և ׾Ӥ Ư Ƶ . ֟߻ ֕֓ ֵ㌟ ׾ֳӓ ׮ֵ״֟ ֿ֮֓ ָ ӓ ֟. ן׾ֵ֮ӟָ ָ Ӯ ֡ - ӯ֤֟ ׬ ֻ .

 

֟ ו֮׾ֵ֕

־ ӓ ֚֟ ׯλ, 1899 ֬ ã֮֯ ֻ껵 ָ™ ֳ ־߮ Ƣ֯ ӑ֙ꓵ ֵծ ֳꓵ ׿ָֻ ־֮־߮ . ֲ֕ ֚˚ ӓ ӯֻ֤ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ֯֡ӓ ׯλ, 1902 ֬ ã֮֯ . ӓ ߾ֻ֮ ִԓ ׬š֮ ӓ ־ԟָ 㤵 ֛ β ־֮ ־߮ ֡ ־Ɵ. ֬߯ ָ֚ߟ ֲ֮ Ӥߟ ֕֙, ״֡ Ɵ ֡ ׮֑֟ ; ָӟ ־ ״ ֲӓ ֯ ָ ߟָ ִӣ δֿ: ֬ ָ ӟ ׮ þֺ֓ ֓Ի ܵ֟: ֮֬ פ ֟ . ו֮׾ֵ֕ ֮ ֡ ״ ֲӲָָ ן ִו ™߻ ֮֟֟ ޵֓ ߾֯ ׾ֻ . ֳꓵ Γָ֓ ֵ γ־߯ ޵֚ ֮ 1911 ֻ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ֓ ֯֟ ӟָ ޵֟ ֻ ֮ 1912 ֻ ֟ þ֟ӡ֯ ׮֑֟ ֻ껵 ן ֡֟ ִ־ ޵֟ ֻ. ߟ߮ ֳ ֟ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ־֮ ֯ ֡ ֮ 1912 ֻ.

 

֟ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ƻ ӯ֤ . ֲ֕ ֚˚ Ӯ ֻ֯ ׾֫֯Γ Ӯ ֟ ӯ֤ - ֻ֮ ֻ֡ ־ֻ ״ פ. . ֚˚ ӓ ָӯָ פ. . ֯ ֯ . ־֮֯ ֿ־ӟ ִ֮ܵ֟ Ӯ ꚶ ׮š ׸ִ֮ ֻ׾ֻ. ӟָ ֮ 1926 1943 ֵ՟֓ 18 Փ ߑ ӯ֤ߵ ָߤԟ . ֲӛ ӛ ֙߻, ߻ Ӯ ָ ־߮ δ ִֻ֕ ݵ ԤԮ ֯ ִֵד֟ ֮ ֟ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ֻ֡ ָ֟߻ ֟Դ֮֯֡Ӵ֬ ֮֓ ã֮ ״ פ. . . . ֙߻ ӓ ôָߵ ָߤԮӟָ . . . Ӯ 1944 1946 ֵ՟ ӯ֤֓ ִ ӳ. ֮ӟָ 1947 1952 ֵ՟ ־׾ָ֓ӓ Ӳ߸ ֵ֓ . . ֙߻ Ӯ ӯ֤ߵ ӟ ߾֯ γ־ ƻ. ׾׾֬ ׾ֵӾָ ןֵֿ ָ֤ ߟ ׻ƻ껵 ӓ Τߑ λӮ ִ֕֟ ־֮֓ ׮ִ ӓ ô֟ ޵֓ Ƣ֯ ֵ . ֻ֯ ־֯ λӟ ֵ֓ . . ֙߻ Ӯ Ӳև ָָ ׸֮ פ ξ ײֻ ֛ ׾ָ ӟ γ־ Γָ Ӥ ߟ ֟ ָָ ֮ ֻ. דָӟ֮ þֺ֓ ֵ ֟Դ֮֯֡ ֌ , ֵ֓ ֙߻ Ӯ ֻ֯ ߮ ִֻ֕ ֙ פ.

 

 

֮ 1953 1960 ֵ՟ ӯ֤֓ ִ ׾֮֫ ֵ֤כ ֳ Ԥ . ־ָ־ Ӯ ӟ ִ֮ ӳ. ӓ ֓ ־ԕ׮ ֟߻ ןš ֟ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ֻ֡ ָ ֵ ֻ. ӓ֮ӟָ ֮ 1961 1965 ֵ՟ ֵ֓ . . Ӯ ӯ֤֓ ֲֲָ֤ ָ ֳ־֮ þָ. ֮ 1966 ֻ֯ ֵ֕֟֟ ֟ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ֵָ ӯ֤֓ ߓ ־ԕ׮ ֵ . . . ֙߻ ןֵֿ ִ֣ԯ ӳߟ . . . . ֙ ӓ ־ԕ׮ ֵԓ ׾ֻֿ ־֓ ֓ ߓ ֡֓ ãԻ ֻ֓ ֵ .

 

ߟ߮ ֮ 1902 Ɵ֯ ׿֟ ֻ껵 ָ ֳ ( ԓ ָ™ ֳ ) ֮֯֡ ִ֕֯β֮֓ ֻ֯ ־ֿ ֑֛ ֵ ӛ ꚶ ׮š ֻ ֻ . ׾ֿ ֕ ֵ ןֵֿ ן ׸ã֟ߟ ־ ӯ֤Ӯ ӯ֤Ӯ ִ֕ꓵ ָ ־֮ ӟ ׮ָ֯ . ֚֯֡ þ֟ӡ ֮֯ ָ ԓָ . ׿־ֵ ֻ֯֡ ֵԻֵ, ӣֵֻ ָ֟ -- ӡ . ֵ֤֯ Ӯ Ӯ ו֧߮ ӛ ֯֡֓ ӯ֤ ֿ֮ þ֣ԟ֯ ֮֟֟ ֻ ֲֻ֧ ־ ӯ֤Ӯ ӯ֤Ӯ ׾ֿ ֮־֤ פ ƕ.