֮ן

ָ֚ ֲ ֟ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ֯ ։ ֟ ׬ ֻ ֻ֯֯ ָ߮ ׾ָ֓ߓ, ִԯָ֓ ִ֕֯β֮֓ ֵ ꚶ ׮š כ֯ ߟ ֻ ָ Ɵ֓ ӯԯ ƻ껵, ׳ֹߓ Ӿ֬Ԯֻ ׾ֿ Ƣ ַ ׳֕֟ ֵ֒֓ ߾֯ ֮ ַ ֪ Ԥָ ָß ֓ ӟ ߾ ֟ ; þ֟ӡָ ֟ ָ ߾ ָ Ԯ ־֟ ; ָ ӓ ô֟ Ε׻֟ ӓ Γӛ ִ鬤 ן ָ ӯ ׳֮־ ֬߮ ӛ޵֓ ׮ ׮ִ ֻ . ߾ ֺ ֜޵֓ ן ֵ ָӕ, ֯ ֻ ߻ פӲָ ӟ ׿ ֻ껵 ָ ־֤֮ ׸ ֻ껵 ֹ ןӮ . Ӥ , . . ֵ֟ߣ (ӓֻ, ֻ ʓִֵ ׾֪֯ߚ ֻ, ֯) ӓ ִ֣ 韾ֻ Ù, 1950 ֬ ֮׮ ֓ ã֮֯ .

֮ן ֮ 껵 27 ՟ ԓ ֟ξעָ Ɵ׮״ԟ߻ ָ ꚶ δ־ָ ֻ֮ פ. ֮ן ־ ֟֟ 35 ״ ß, 30 ׾ֿ, - ָ 430 ֮־ָ֓ ӓ 1151 ׾ָ֓ξԟ , ־פ 208 - ӓ 525 ֯Τ , ־ - 㮵 167 ӓ 511 ׾֟ 211 ׌֯׸֟ , 46 ֯׸ֵ֟ 33 Ɵ֯׸ֵ֟ ֬ ָ֚ Ɵ֟ ֓ ָ ֻ֟. ֜ ־ ָ ־פ Ӯ ׾ֿ ֮֟ ״ פ. ִ, ֢֖֮, ן, ֵ֒ ֻ ֤ ׾ֵӾָ ָ ׬ָ ׾֮֫ӓ ׾׾֬ ָ ׻ Ɵ ֬ ֮ן ֮ ߓ Ʈߵ֟ ִ֯ ֙ ޵֟ ֿ ӯ֤ . ׿־ֵ Ε, Ӥ, ָ֟, ֛֮ ֤ ӯ֤ ׻ Ɵ֓ ָ֚ ӟָ ֓߮ ָ֚ Ɵ־ָ߻ ӿ֮֟ ֬ ֮ ָ֚ Ɵ ִ鬤 .

ߟ߮ ׸ ן ׬š֮ ֻ껵 ֮ן ֮ Ɵ ӓ ׾ֻ ֲָָ֓ ָ֚ Ɵ֟ ׿™ ã֮ ״׾ֻ . ӟ ԓ ׮š þֺ֓ ӯ֤ ӛ֮ ִ֕֟ . ׾ֿ֟: ׾ָ ׸ִ ֮ן ֻ 颾 γ־ ԤԮ 껵ֲ֧ ά֮ ӯ֤ . Ӥ δ ӯ֤ . ֓Ӧ Ӯ ֮־֤ פ ƕ.

 

 

 

18

ֲ ֟֓ ֻ֙

׮ֵ֟׻ӓ ָӯָ

ָ֟ ׾׾֬ Ӵ֬ ֬ ַ ׮ֵ֟׻ӓ ܵ ָ Ӯ ״, , ן, ן, ִו ֤ ӟ ӓ ֟ ޵֓ ™߮ ןֵֿ ֓ ִָ ֕־ֻ . Ӵ֬ ꚶ δ־ָ ִו ׸֟Ԯ ֛ ޵ ָ߳ ֻ껵 ֙Ӵ֬ ׮ֵ֟׻Ӯ δ ã֮ פ ƕ. ׮ֵ֟׻Ӯߓ ִ֮ ֵ֮֟՟ ׿ִ֟ ֮֓ ָ, ׿֓ ָ , ִԖ֮ ֳ , ߓ ׳־鬤 , ׸֟Ԯ֓ ־ֿ ֙ , ֟ߓ ׮ִ , ֟ߓ ֙ ׾, ׾֖֮׳ִ ֟־ָ ׮ִ ֤ ™ ׾׾֬ ӫָ ׾ֻ ִו ׸֟Ԯֻ ֮״ ֵָ ޵ ׾ֿ ֳָ֟ ־ֻ. ײי ֤֮ߟ ׾ֿ֟: ־ ֟֓ 긓 ֻӛ֯ ִ֮֕ ׮ֵ֟׻ ׳֮־ Ɵ ָ ֻӲ ޵ ֟ . ֜ ־ ָ ׮ֵ֟׻ӓ ־ԟָ ֜ ־, ™Ӯ ֮֟֟ ε֟ . ֓ ׸ִ ֻ , ֟ ִ֕֓ ׾ֿ֟: ܵ ִ֕֓ ܵꓵ ֮֮ ִ֕֟߻ ׮ֵ֟׻ӓ ܵ ָߓ , ֟ ֤߻ ָ ָ ֛ .

׮ֵ֟׻Ӵ֬ ָ֚ ߻ ׮ֵ֟׻Ӯ ָ֮֬ Ƣ . ָ֟ ֬ Γ׻֟ ֻ껵 ׮ֵ֟׻Ӵ֬ ֵ֮ ־՟ š ׮ֵ֟׻ ޵֓ ֮ ָ֚ ߻ ֲ ֮֯ ״׾ֻ . . . 1885 ֻ ã֮֯ ֻ껵 ׿™ ׮ֵ֟׻֮ ֟ ִ֣ԯ 101 ԟ ׳ִ֮֯ ֤֯ , ֡׸ꓵ ןִ֬ ןֵֿ Ƣ֯ ֙ , ־ ָ ӯ ִ֕֓ ֬׮ֻ߮ ן ן֟߻ ֮ߵ ׳ִ֮ï֤ ֙ .

 

ֲ ָ

־ ֮ 1885 ֯Ӳָ֬ ӓ ™ ׾ָ֓ӟ Ƹ֓Ӥ ֓Ӥ Ӯ ֯ Ƹ֟ þ֟: ƴ֟߾ָ ֲ ֡֓ ã֮֯ ָ™֟߻ Ӯ ־׾ָ֓ӓ ޵֓ ׳֮־ ֵδ֓ ָӳ . ֡֓ γ־ ꛶֓ ֬ߟ ־ ֳָָ ֛ ӓ ֟Դ֮֯֡ӓ ֳ ִ֣ԓ ï™ ߾ ֻ. ׸ִ֟: ־ ֮ 1894 ֬ פ ָ־Ե פӲָ ֳ ֱ ״֡ Ӥ ֡ӓ ֟ ޵֟ ֻ ־ ֮ 1902 ֬ ֯ ָ™ ֳ ֱ ו֮׾ֵ֕ ָ֚ ֡֓ ֿ֮֓ ָӳ ޵֟ ֻ. ִ ֲ ֻ֡ ִ֕֟ Ԥ ִ֡֬ ָ֓ ֮ ֯ ֻ ֲ ֮֡ ִ֓ ֵ ׾ֻ .

ִו ׸֟Ԯ֓ ֟

ֲ ã֯ Ƹ֓Ӥ ֓Ӥ Ӯ ֯Ӳָ, 1885 ָ, 1898 Փ ֻ֯ ӯ֤ߵ ָߤԟ ׿ִ֟ӯ ֻ þ֟ӡ ֡֓ ֮ ֵ㌟֟ ִֻ֕ ֙ ޵֓ Ʈߵ ֵ ָ ֛. Ӯ ӣӓ և ִԓ ־ֻ ָ ֮֮֟ ӓ ߾ ׾ָ áָ֬ ֜ ִԯΓָ֓ ִԕߓ ־ ׸ִָ ޵֟ ֿ ӯ֤ .

֟ ׾ֵ֕ ֻ־ָ Ƹ֓Ӥ ֓Ӥ Ӯ ֟ ™ ַ ״֣֟֓ ӯ ֙ ޵֓ ε֟ ӟ ׮š֯ , ִ˟֓ ׾ָ ָ , ִӣӓ δֿ: ֿ֮ Ɵ ־ծ ֲֻ פ, ִ֕֟ þֵ֬ ޵֓ ξ ε֟֯ ֮ . ִ֮ Ӯ ִ׿֓ ־ֿ ֙ ӓִ֬ ִ׿֓ ׳ֹ ߾֯ ׮ִ . Γ׻֟ ֻ껵 ִ֕Ɵ׾ָ Ӯ ֮֟֟ ߾Ο ׾ָ . ״ ã פ ӓ ƿ ־ã֟ ־ ƴ ֬ ־, ־ Σ ֛. ־Ӯ ׾׾֬ ך֓ ӣֳӛָӓ ׾ßָ Ɵ Ӯ ׾֪ꓵ ޵ ㌟ . ߣӓ ן™ Ƣ ֙ ӓ Ӹ֓ ֵֵ֮ ޵֓ ־ֿ ־ӓ ֻ. ӓ Γ׻֟ ָּ ã ִָֻ֮֮ ִ֕Ɵֵ ָ ֛ ޵֓ ׮ ן֤֯ פӲָ Ӵ֬߻ ׾׾֬ ™Ӿֺ ׮ִ ֻ ӟԟ þֺ֓ ߾ ֳ֟ ޵֓ ָ ε֟ .

ߟ߮ ִו ׸֟Ԯ֚ ָ ݵ ֮״ ׮ִ Ƹ֓Ӥ Ӯ ִו ׸֟Ԯ֓ ָ֓ ָӳ ߻ ӯ֤ӓ ןֵֿ .

Ɵ ֿ֮ ֻ֮

ֲ ׫ߵ ӯ֤ כ ֯ ָ֯ ׮֙ á Ӯ ָ 1898 1916 Փ ߑ ֻ־֬ߟ Ƹ֓Ӥ ֓Ӥ ӓ ֵ ֿþ߯ ֻ ֻ. . ׮֙ á Ӯ ֻ֯ ӯֻ֤֟ ܵ֟: ӣֿ֮֯֓ ֵԾָ ָ פ. Ӯ ֯ ־ӣָ֕֓ ָ֚ ӟָ ֮ ׮ָ׮ָ ׿֟ ֮ ֵ . Ӯ ֢֖֮ ֓׾ֵ ™ ӣ ָ֚ ӟָ ֲ ׿֟ .

ߟ߮ כ ׮֙ á Ӯ ꚶ ׾֫ ֲ ӯ֤ Ɵ֟ ӟ ֓ ָ ֻ֟ ִ֕ ִ֯֟ ׾޵֓ Ʈߵ ֵ ָ ֛޵֟ ׾ֻ֮ߵ ֿ ӯ֤ .

 

ִԾָ߻ ֓ ׮ָ֮

ֲ ߵ ӯ֤ . ߾ָ֕ ִ֓Ӥ Ӯ Ù 1916 1920 ֵ՟֓ ָ Փ ֟ ֓ ָӯָ ֤ ִ ߟ߮ ֻ׾ֻ. ֵ՟ ִ֕֟ ӣֿ֮֯֓ ã ַ֓ ׮ֻ֑껵 ֻ֮ ֲ ִ֬֟ ӣ֓ ֿ֮֓ ־ֿ ־Ɵ, . ߾ֳָ֕և Ӯ ֻ֯ ӯ֤֟ ֵ֮֮ ָ, ӟָ ӓ ָ֮֬, ִ׿ָ , áֵӮ ־ֵ֓ , ׮Ե, ׾ִ ׾־, ״ָ ׾־ ֤ þֺ֓ ״ ִו ׾ֵӓ ֓ ׾ֿ ֮֬ פ ִ֟ Փ ޵־ָ ָ פ.

׾ֿ ֕ . ߾ֳָ֕և Ӯ . . . ֻ ֵָ֕֯֟, ֯֙ á ֤ ִ֬Ե ַӓ ִԾָ߻ ӓ ָ֬ ׮ָ֮ ޵ ֮֟֟ ֲֲָ֤ߓ ־ ָ ׾ֻ ִԓ ݵ ןִ ӯ ӛ޵֓ ο֮ߵ ֵ .

߾ָ߻ ֑֟ӓ ןָ

ֲ ֟ ִԾ߸ . ־֕ ִָ Ӯ ֻ֯ Ù 1920 Ù 1939 ֵ՟֓ Փ ߑ ӯ֤ߵ ָߤ ôָߵ ׾ֻ. Ӯ ֲ ֯֟ ӟָ . ӣֿ֮֯֓ ֵԻ ׾ֿ ֻ֮ פ ִԯΓָ־ָ ָ פ. . ֌ֻֻ֮ á, . ӿָ߬ á, . ו֤֮ Ԯ֣ á, . ߓӤ ִ֓Ӥ ָ, . ֬Դ֮ Ԯ֣ á ֤ ֮־ָ ׾֮֫ӓ ӯֵ֤ԟ ε Ƶ ֯ ֲ ָß֯ ֜׾ֻ. ׿ֲ߸, ִ֬Ե ӓ ָ֓þ֟ӡ, ִԓ ߣ֓ ֟֟ ִ֬Ե ֬ӓ ㌟ ׾ָ Ӿָ ׾׾֬ ך ֻ껵 ֑֟ӓ . ־֕ ִָ Ӯ ֿþ߯ ןָ ִ֕֓ ׮ ޵֓ ε֟ . ֲָָ֓, . ־֕߳ևծ ן־ Ɵ߯ Ɵ ׾ֿ ָӣ ֜޵֓ Σ ֲ ֵ㌟֟ ꚶ δ־ָ ֜׾ֻ.

 

״ ׿֓ Γָ

ֲ ӓִ ӯ֤ ִ֮ܵ֟ ׾֮֫ כ ֬Դ֮ Ԯ֣ á Ӯ ֻ֯ ֮ 1939 1977 ֵ՟֓ Փ Τߑ ӯ֤ߵ ָߤ ׾׾֬ ֵ㌟ δӓ ָ֬ ֤ ׾ôָߵ ׾ֻ. ֓ ָߤԟ ֮ 1944 ֻ ֲ ߸ ־ ָ ꚶ δ֟ ָ֕ ޵֟ ֻ ֲ . ִԾ߸ þ. ־֕ ִָ ôָ ӑ ã֮֯ 껵 ã ֯֡ ֬ ޵֟ ֻ.

. ֬Դ֮ á Ӯ ֲ ִ֮ ׾ָ֓ӓ ߑ ָӯָ ִֵ ֻ ׾ֳ, ƻ ׾ֳ, ׮ָ֮ ׾ֳ, ִָ֓ ׾ֳ, á ׾ֳ ֤ ־߮ ׾ֳ ε֟֯ ; ִ ӓ ߮ ֯Ӿָ Τߑ ӯ֤ߵ ָߤ ׮ֵ֟׻ӓ ן֟ ׾ֿ ֮ߵ Ƣ֯ .

ߟ߮ ֲ ׯε֟, ֵ㌟֟ ןš ֜ ִ׿־ָ ׾ֿ ָ . ֬Դ֮ á Ӯ ӟ ïߵ ֵ .

 

֬׮ ָ

. ֬Դ֮ á ӓ֮ӟָ ӯ֤֓ ܵ ߴ֟ פ߲և ׾Ӥ ӟ ִ֣ԯ Ɵ ӓ֓ ӯ֤ߵ ָߤԟ ֲ ֟ ־ ןֵֿ ׿™ ߟ߮ ꚶ ִָӳ֯ ֻ ָߵ ßָ־ָ ָ֕ . ߴ֟ פ߲և Ӯ ֲ ָӯָ ןš ִֵ ֲ ֬׮ ™֟ ֵֿ֑֮֟ ֯ ޵֓ ֿþ ε֟ . ׾ֿ ֕ Ƣ֯ ִִ֬ ӯפ ߴ֟ פ߲և Ӯ ֲ β׬ ִ֮ܵ֟ ִ֮֕Ꟶ . ָև ָ ӓ ԤԮ, ֲ ֹ ֵָ ӯ֤ . ־ ֙߻ . ֬Դ֮ á ӓ ε ֵ . ׮ִԻָ , . ו֮Ӧ ֕, ֵ֓ 긓Ӥ ָܵ ֬ß ףֵֿ֟ ׾֮֫ӓ ֮Ɵ ֮֟֟ ָ֟ ֳ֟ .

ƾ֬ ׸ã֟ߟ ֲ ׫ߵ ֟߻ ֻ֙ߓ ֟ ןֵֿ ֻ , ݵ֓ ™ ݵ ָָ ׬֟ ־, ־Փ ӟ:֯ ֻ ִ֮ .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

׾ֳ 3

ߣ, ֚ פ

 

19) ־ֲ: ׿™ ߣ

20) . ֻ ִ : ֟߻ ־ ֢ ׿ֻ

21) ָ֙ ִԓ ִß׳ ־: Ƣ֯ ִו ָӯָ

22) . ֻ ִԓ ӓ

23) Ӧָ߾ָ߻ ִӛֵ ׿ֻ

24) ִ׬ã ּ þִ

25) ߸־ ֚

26) ֚֓ ן ֻ֙

27) פ֓ Ʈߵ ִָ

 

19

־ֲ :

׿™ ߣ

Ƣ֯ ׿™

ָ֓ ׾׾֬ ӟ ׾㸻껵 500 ָ ߣӴ֬ ԙ֟߻ ־ֲ ־ԟ δ ׮Ӥ ߣ ֓߮ ֯ ֵ֕֟֟ ֓ Ƣ ׬֟ ƻ . ԙ֟߻ , ּ, ִ֤, ꯯ֻ, ֌, ֻ ֤ ߣ ֟ ןֵֿ ׯε וԟ־ã ; δ ָ ™ Ӵ ֓ ֟ ֛ ֻ. ׸ã֟ߟ ־ֲ ߣ ֡ ֻ֓ ֜ ־ ָ ֓ Ƣ֤߻ ֮֟֟ י ƻ; ־ֲ ӓ ָ֟߻ ־՟ ׾֡ ߣ ִֻ֕ ֟ ָ ִָ֬ ֦ ֕ ָ֟߻ ӓ ֦֣߮ ־֮ ֻ ֟. ֓߮ ֬ ߣ֮ ֻ֯ ֕־ָ Τߑ כ ןִ֬ ָ֓ ֵԵ֮ ֓ ߴ֬ Ɵ, ß, ׿ֻ ֤ ֻ׾ֵ ֲ֟ӟ ֓ ָ ֻ֟ ; ״, , ן ן ™֟ ־ֲ ߣֻ ֓ ןִ֬ ׿™ ã֮ ֯ ֻ .

 

״ ׾֡

־ֲ ֮֟ ֯ ֯ ־ԟ ־֮ ֻ ֟ ӓ ׾֡ ã֮ . ִ ֕ ֬ ־ ֕ ãִ ך ָ֯֓ ִ֮֬ ޵֚ Ɵ ޵֟ ֮֟ ֮ߟ ֟. ו ׾֯ ß ֻ껵 ׾֡ ã֮ ֻ 껵 ֓ ܵ֟ ֳָָ ֻ ; ־ ֮֯ ןַ ֟֟ ָ ָ֟ ָ Փ ֛޵֓ ֌֟ פֻ֮ ֻ֤߯ ָ ָ š ֦ ֻ֯ ָ ƕָ ֬ӓ ׾ֻֿ ӑ ֬ ֟ ε ֯ ֻ ןִ ֵֻ֯ԟ ן֣ ƻ. ָ֓ ƻ ִ֙ Ӧ㯟 ߻ ֦ӓ ӑֲָָ ֯ ֻ ֙ ָ ֵӮ ã ֻ׾ֻ. ִӓ ꚶ γ־ִ ֻ ֲִ Ӿ ֲִ ־ ֛ Ӧ㯟 ӓ ß־ִ ֯ ־ԟ Ӧָ ־֮ ֻ ։ ֻ. ֻ ֦ ӓ ӱ, ӓ ָ֤֯ ։ ֻ. ֻ ֦ ӓ ӱ, ӓ ָ֤֯, ִ֙ Ӧ㯟 ӓ ã߻ ß־, ֬ӓ ָ֯֓, ־ӓ ִ֮֬ ֤ ™Ӵ ־ֲ ־ ֮֯ԓ ןַ ֟֯ ߣ֓ Ƣ ֯ ֻ ׾Ӭָ ־ԟ־ָ ־֮ ֻӓ ׾ֵֻֿ ִԓ ןš֮֯ 껵֯ ־ֲ ֓ Ƣ ָ ֜֓ ; ָ ֙֓ ߣ֤ ֯ ֻ껵 ־֮ ֻӓ ޵֓ Α֟ ꚶ δ֟ ֻ ָ֣־ָ ֤֓׾ָƟ ã ӓ ִ ã֮֯ ޵֓ ־ ָӯָ ָӳ ֻ. ֵ֬߮ ִ֬ ־ֲ ֚ ־ ã ã֮֯ ޵֟ ֻ ֚֓ ӓֻ֮, ִӾ֬Ԯ ߣָ ֤ ֵ㌟ ֵ֚ כֵ֓ ֹߟ ֻ ַ ָּӓ ָӯָ ֻ. ָӯָ 㾵־ã֟֯ ֻ . ׿־ֵ ־ֲ פ, ӱ, ָ֤֯, ֮ßӳ ֤ ׾֡ ßӓ ܵ ָ . ֓֯δ ־ֲ ߻ ӣֳӛָ֟ 㮵, ״ ׾֡ ִӣӓ ß׻֟ӓ ֚ ׾֯ δ֟ .

 

Ӥ

״ ׾֡֯δ Ӥ֚ߤ߻ ־ֲ ׾ֿ ֬ . Ӧָ ׾Ӭֵָ ־ԟ, Ӵ֬߻ ָָ, ֕֕ ֮ - , ֳֻ֟֓ ֤ Ƹָ ָ֓ ֛ ֤ ֲӴ ã֮ ןֵֿ ֻ ; ִ ֟ӯ ֬Ӯ ָ֚֯֓, Ӯ Ɵ׮״ԟ֚, כӮ ֢דӟ֚֮ ׾Ӯ ִԓָ֚ ã֮ ןֵֿ ݵ ֙ ֻ ־ֻ . ׮ԓ ס֟ þֺ֟߻ ָ֮ ֡ ד֟֓ ֜ . ו ߣӯδ ִ ׮Ը ã֮ ™߮㬤 ־ֲ Ƣ ֯ ֻ .

 

ן Ƣ

֓߮ ֯ ־ֲ ׾׾֬ ִ֙, ֕, ӡ ֯֟ ӓֿ ׮š ӲӬ ֻ ֻ֮ ԙ֓ ן֟ ־ֲ ֮֓ ã֮ ֯ ֻ . ֓߮ ָ֓ ƻ ִ֙ Ӧ㯟 Ӯ ֕֟ 껵֮ӟָ ־ֲ ָ־ָ ָ ָ֯֓ ן֣ ֻ֮֯ ֻ. ӓ ֟ ִ֙ ֻ֯ ֤־ ֌ ޵֚ ־ֲ ֻ , ִ֕ . ֵ֬߮ ִ֬ ־ӿߵ ֕ӓ ֤֮ߟ ־ֲ ׾ֿ Ƣ ֯ ֻ ™ ֕ӓ ָߤԟ ־ֲ ןֵֿ ָָ֙ ֻ. ־ ֕ ׾ֿ֟: ӓ ִӛ֕, ָ֕ 㻻ָ֕ ָ ֯֟ άִ֮ӡ Ӯ פ Ӭ, Փ ןš֮֯ , ꚴ ֮ ׾֮֫Ӯ כӮ ֵ ־ֲ ־֟ ָ ֻ֟. ֜ ־ ָ ן֣ ִԓָ ֓ Ƣ ֜׾ֻ. ֓ ֟Ծָ Ƣ ׮š ָ֯ י׾ֻ. þ֟ӡָ ֟㬤 ԙ ָ֮ ־ֲ ־ ׳־鬤 ׾ֻ .

ן֓ ™֟ ִ֕֕߾֮֓ ׾׾֬ ׾ֵߓ ׾֯, ֵ㌟ ׾ Ɵ ׾޵֓ ֲ֟ߟ֤߻ ־ֲ ׾ֿ Ƣ . ߻ ֮֟ פ, , , ֤, ßӳ, ָ֚ܵ ꚶ ß, ׳עד֡ ֤ӓ ֵ֮ ֢֟׾ֵ ָ֬ Ɵ ״. ׿־ֵ ֿ֢֟áߵ ־ֲָָ ׿ֻֻ, ִί֙, ןԻ, ֛֡־ָ߻ ָ ֤־ָ߻ ß׻֟ ӣ ָ ӟ ׾֮ߵ ׻֟ ־߻ ָ ״֟; ן ™ ־ֲ ן֟ ׾ֿ Ƣ ֯ ֻ .

 

ן š

״ ™Ӳָָ ִ鬤 ޵ִ֬㬤 ־ֲ ֮ߵ ִָ . ֬ӟ֓ξ֟ ״֓Ӧ, γ֓Ӧ, ׻ ֤ ֮־ָ ֵ֓Ԯ ֢֖֮ ׾֖֮׾ֵ ׻ ӣָ֮ , ӟ, 괴 ָܵ ףֵֿ֟ Ӯ ֛֮ ־ӣӓ ׮״ԟ ӟ߻ ׳֕֟ Ɵ ִ鬤 . ֜ ־ ָ ֛֮ ֻ ֮֓ ã֮ ״ פ. ׾ָ֬, Ӧָ ־֟ ֯֓ ֟ ָӮ ㌟ פӓ ָ ֻ֮ ־ֲ֮ פ ָ þֺ ֯ ֻ . ß ִ ִ פ ֮֟ ־ֻ . Ӧָߓ ֵֿ֣ ֻ껵 ו֣֮֮֯ ־֟߻ ן֣֮ ֟ פ ֕ ԙ֟߻ ß ™ ִֻ֕ ֟. ׿־ֵ ֤ßӳ ָ ־ֲ ֜׾ֻ . ߻ ד֤֡߻ ןִ Ծ ֻ . ן ָ ־Ԣִ ִ ֛֯֟. ׾׾֬ ֟ӓ, ֓ ־֮ ֛ӓ ֮ ܵ ׾׾֬ ָӟ ־ֵ ״֟ ԟ֓ ׿ֻ ׾ôֵ־ ׾ָ ֕ ־֮ ֻߓ ִ . ״֮߯ 470 ӓ ֻ껵 ׾Ӭָ ־ԟ֓ ֣־ָ߻ ָܵ ָ ַ ֛ ׿ִָ֬ 긻 57 ӓߓ ӛ ֓ ִ ֟߻ ֵֿ ִֻ֕ ֟. ִ ӓ ֜ ־ ָ ןֵֿ ־ֻֿ ӟ ֦׸ִ ֳָ ֬ . ו֯ ֟ ָ ƕָ կԓ ; ד֢ ߟ; ִԻ ן ׿ֻ ָ֮֬ ã֮ . Ӳ ־֮ ֻߓ ִ ֕ ָߵ ߮ ֓ ߻ ֤֮ . ߟ߮ ן ֤֟߻ ־ֲ ӟ ׿™ ã֮ Ƣ ֯ ֻ .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

 

־֮ ֻ ִ:

֟߻ ־ ֢ ׿ֻ

 

֟߻ ܵ֟ߓ ן

ԙ֟߻ ־ֲ ֮ ־ ӓ ָ֟߻ ן֯֓߮ δ ߣ ֬ן ֮ 껵 ֟ӯ ֓ ߴ֬ ֓ דָãֵ þֺ֓ ָ ֻ֟ . ־֮ ־߸ӓ ֵ֓ԯָӯָ߻ ןִ ָֻ֤߯ š ִ ֦ ӓ ׮-׿µ ӓ ֬ӑֲָָ ֻ ָ֟֓ ƻ ִ֙ Ӧ㯟 ӓ ־ ֮֯ ןַ ֟֟ ־ֲ ־ ִ ֻ.֯ ״ ן ֻ껵 ־ֲ ߟ ָ ֜֓ . ֬ ֬ ӓ֯δ ִ֮ á-֤߻ ִ֚֮֬ ߑֻ ß־ ֙ ֻ֮ Ο ָ Ɵ ޵֟ ֮֟ ֮ ֻ. ֡־ָ߻ ӛ ֮֟֬ ֮֮ ַ 敵֤֯, γ֓Ӥ, ָ߬, ׻ ָܵ ֵ֓ծ ֢֖֮, Կá, ׾֖֮, Ɵ ֤ ӟ ׻ Σָ֮ ׾׾֬ ֵָ֒֯ ִ鬤 ; ֜ ־ ָ ־ ֮֟ ߾֮ßָ ӓ־޵֚ ֮֟֟ ε֟ . ףֵֿ֟ ֵ֓ԓ ֤֮ γ׾֟ ֻ껵 , ™ ,ֵ, כָ ֤ ֕־ӿӟ߻ ֕ ӓ ִӛ֕, ָ֕ ָ֕ ָ Բָ ֯֟ δ ӡ Ӯ פ, ӱ, ֮ßӳ ֤ ״ ßӓ ꚶ δ־ָ ֟ ߟ߮ ׮״ԟ ־ֲ ׿ֻ ß ӓ ֟ ן ܵ֟ ״ פ.

 

 

 

֟߻ ׫ߵ ׿ֻ

֟ ׮״ԟ߯ ֮֬֓ξ֟ ״֓Ӧ š ֵ֓կ ñ ӓ ָ ׿µ ָ֕֓ άִ֮ӡ ֯Ο֯ ֯֟ ִӛֵָ Ӯ ־ ֮ 981 ֬ ׮ִ ־֮ ֻ ֣ ָ֙ ӓ ִ ֟߻ ׫ߵ ׿ֻ . ־ ֢ ִ ן ׿ֻ ןִ ִ ֬ . ֜ ־ ָ ן֓ ֦׸ִ Ԯ֯ ֤ ״ַ ӟ׸ ִִ֮֬ ֟ ߾ִ֮滵ӓ Ӥִ߻ ׾ֿ ֬ ; ׾ֵֻֿ ֮ ִ ߮ ׾߻ פ ָ֬, ׿™ ֤֮ ִֻ֕ ֟.

 

ֵָֿ ־ ִ

־֮ ָ֙֓ ־ ִ ֟߻ ӟ γ־ ֵֿԕ֮ ; ָ ָ֮ ןֵֿ ׾ֻֿ ֕ 57 ӓ . ִ ״֮߯ 470 ӓ ַ ׾Ӭָ ־ԟ֓ ֤ ֣־ָ ׾ִָ֮֕ ֻ . ן֓ ָ֮֬ ׾ֻֿ ָ ן֓ ָ֣־ָ߻ ֤֓׾ָƟ ӓ ã֮ Ӵ ִ ָ ӓ ׸ָ֟ ƕ ™ ֛. ִ֮֟: ֓ ԓ ׿ִֻ ֪ ߓ ֟ ӟָ ׾׬֯ פ֟ ã֮֯ ֟; ָӟ ׾ֿ ֕ ֻߓ ִ ָ ׾Ӭָ ־ԟ־ָ , ָ ־ԟ֓ ֣־ָ߻ ָܵ ָ ַ ֛ ׿ִָ֬ ε֟֯ 긻 ; ָ ֌ ꚶ ָ֓ Γӛ ֮֕֓ ׿ֻӛ ָ ֯ ֮׾ֻ ֑֛ ֜ ֻ껵 ָ֓ ֣־ָ ָ 500 ӓֵ߯՟ ֻ֟ ֤ ֌ .

׾Ӭָ ־ԟ־ָ߻ ׮ִ ׿ָ֓ ֛֓ ӟָԓ֮ ӟ ו֮ Ӯ ֻ ֻ֮ ־ ߾ ױ 㷵 ֓ ֻ֮ ߟ ָ ֻ ׿ָ֓ ׾ ׮֟ ׿ָֻֻ ִ ֮׾޵֚ ֤ ݵ ֙ ֻ ƕ. ו ״ ׾ֻֿ֟ ƾ ַ ׿ָֻ֮ ֻ֯ ־ ֻ ־ ׾Ӭָ ־ԟ֓ ׿ָ֟ ָ ß֯ ֻ ֵӯֵ՟ δδ֮ ִ ִԓ ׿ִֻ ֲ֮֬ ߟ߮ . ߟ߮ ֻߓ ִ ׾Ӭָ ־ԟ֓ ׿ָ֟ ָ ß֯ ֻ ֵӯֵ՟ ֊֮ ִ ִ ׿ִֻ ֲ֮֬ ߟ߮ . ߟ߮ ֻߓ ִ ׾ָ֬ ־ԟ֓ ׿ִָ֬ Ο ֜ ֻ֮ ֤ ֕־ ֟ ֙; ו֓ ׮״ԟ߻ ƕָ ֮ וֻ ָ־ָ ֛־ָ ֻ֮ , ֈ, ָ ֤ӓ ָ ֟֟ Ʈ ־ ֻ, ִ ֤߻ ןֵֿ ߟ ߓ ֛׾ֻ פ֟.

 

֯ӓ ־ ֻӓ Ԯ

ִ ָ֓ ׮ִ ׿ָ֟ ־ ֕ӓ ֻ ֛ ֜ ֮ӟָ 긻 ֻ֮, ן֓ ӛӓ ָ ӯ ָ߸֓ ֻ ֻ ָ֬ .ӛ ֻ߻ ׯӜ ֵ ֡ ֛֟ ï™ פ֟߻ 긻 . ו ִԓ ӛֻ߻ ֻ ߻ ֕ ־ ־֛ ֛֓ ֌ ָ֬ ״ֻ . ׾ֿ ֕ ִԓ ־ ־ ֛֕߻ ֵ֕־ ֛֓ ֟ ݵӓ ֹ 긻 ֟ -֯ ־֟ ֟ ִԓ ֕߻ ׯӜ ӛ Ӯ ׾ ֻ, ֟־ָ ֯ꙻ껵 ã֟ߟ ָ ֜ ։ ֤ Ӫֵ֯՟ ֻ ֬־ ֟ ֮ ן֓ Ο ꓵ ָ ֻ ӓ֗ ֻ ֻ֓ ָ֮ 鿵 ׾ֻ . ׿־ֵ ִԓ Ο 9 Ӳ 4 Ӥ ׾ֻֿ ֵ ӯ ֻ껵 ִ֬ ׾ִָ֮֕ ֻ .

ӟ ־ γ־ֻֿ 괴֙ ִ ָ֬߮ ֵֿ֯ ֵ֓ ֛֮ ã֬ ֚ ן֓ 㛑ֵ֯՟ Ӳ ֟ ӛߕ־ ߟ ãָ ã ֟ӓ ӛߓ ד֟ ׾ֻ . Ӥ Ӥ, ׾ß ֟, ִ֮֮ ָ Ӳָ ־ã֟ ָ֤ ֚ߓ ֲ ֤ ָ֕ ָ֟. ָ פ ӛ ֚ ֮ ֻ껵 ִԓ ӟ ֢ ־ ׾ָ ִӛ ֕ ֟߻ ֕־ָ ׿ֻӴ֬߻ ׾ôֵ־ ֮ . ӓ ָ֟ ӕ ֻ ׾ß ß, ׾ֻֿ , ָ , Ծ֙ ֛ ׾ָ֓ݮ , ™, ï™ Οߟ ָ ֺ , ־ָ  ӟ õ, ד֟ ֻ Ʈ֙ ־ָ߻ , ӓ ָ ֻ, Ӳ ֱ ֻ ֮ ֤ 㤸 ֵ־Ӵ ִԓ ִӛ ןֵֿ ָ֮ ֲָָ֓ ׾ֿ ֢ ֮ד֢ ֙. ߟ߮ פӲָ ã߻ ִ ִԯߟ ןԿá׾ֵ ׮ִֵӓ ӟӟ ֻ֮ ӟ ֟֯ ֛׾ֻ ִֻ ֯ ־ ֻ γ־ֻֿ ִԴ֬ ֤ ׾ֿ֮֟ Οֵ ֟.

 

šִ ׿ֻ ֮־֟ Ӥ

ָ ׿ֻ߻ ™ ™ӓ ״ ִ㓓ֵ ס֟ þֺ֟ ־ֵ ״ ֻ֮ ־֮ ֻߓ ִ ֟߻ ֕־ָ ӟ ֿԕ֮ ׿ֻ ֻ֮ ֟; ָӟ ׿ֻ߻ šִ ֻӓ ׸ ׾ָӯ ִԯ ־ ֮־֕֟߻ ״ָ ߾ִ֮滵ӓ Ӥ ׬ Ƣ֓ ׿™ . ׾ֵֻֿ ֻ ָ ӟ . ן֓ ƻֲָָ ֯δ ־֟ ֢֟ ™ӓ ֮־ָ ֻ֟ ׸ִ , ֓֯δ ִԓ ׾׾֬ ӓ ־ӓ γ־֤߻ ӓ ׾ӓ ֮־ָ ֤ Ԯ ; ִ ןֵֿ ָ׳ԟ ԯ ֙. ִԓ ֵ ָ ֛֮ ã߻ ֚ ޵֓ ֬ߴ ֟ӵִ ֟׾ ־ ֟. ԓ Ʒ־ָ߻ ֿ߻  õִ ӯ ӟ׸ ִ֮֬֓ ־ ִ֡Ӿָ߻ ֮ߓ ־֮ Οߟ . ԓ ݮ־ã߻ ߴ ӯ ־ ֯֓ ָ֒־ ׾ֿ֮֟ ־֟ ԓ Ɵ ִָ ־֮ ֻߓ Οֵ , Ӯ ׾ֻ ֵֿ֯ԓ ֺ ֤֯߻ ֿ ַ֑ӓ ֮֟ ƕ ׮ִ . ִԓ ߟָ ־ ָ֓ ֓ ֮־ָ ִֵ֓ ־ӓ ׮״ԟ ֻߕ Ɵ . ׾ֿ ֕ ִӣӓ ֮֮֓ ׮ִ ָ ֦ ִԓ Ԯ֮ ֮ ֟ ֮־ָ ײӲ֟֟.

 

׾ֻֿ֟, Ӥ, ӓ ֵָֿ ִ

ָ ־֮ ֻߓ ִ ןֵֿ ־ ֢ ֻ֮ ן֓ Ԯ֮ ֓ ׾֡֟ꓵ ־֮ Ӳ ֻ֮ ן֓־ָ, ָ ԯδ ָ֟߻ ִֻ֮ ןԳӕ 㬤 ֻ ָ ߟ. ִԓ ֦ ׸׮״ԟߓ ֤ ִ֯ ־ . ׾֡ ӟ ־׮״ԟߓ Ο ־ ָӮ, ןӮ ִ֮ ֮Ӯ ֲ֬ . Ӥԟ ֛ ӓ ׾ָ֓ ־ֲ ׿ֻֻ֟ . ֟֟, ֤ ӟ ׾ֻֿ ֟, ןִ֓֬ Ӥ ֟ ׾ֻֿ֟ Ӥ ӓ ״ֱֻ ֻ ״, ן֣ ֟ ; ָ֙֓ Դ֬ ֡ ׾ֻֿ֟, Ӥ, ӓ ״ ֻ ֜ . ֓ Ӥ, ִֻ֮, ο֮ Ӿ ָ ֟ ִԓ ֟, ־֮ ָ֙֯ ƴ ݬ ִ֟ß ֟. ֓ ֻ ֯ ־ֵ ״֟. ־ ֮ 1799 ֬ ײיӓ ֯֟ ָ Ը û ߸ּ֯֓ ƴָ  ֟ ֮֟ ִӲӬߓ Ɵ ״ֻ֮ ִ ־ֲ ֻ ִ ƻֲָָ ꌵ־ָ ֜ ִ֟ß ! ֵ ! ñ ָ ֜. ָ û Ӯ ׾Ӭָ ־ԟ֓ ֱֱև ׾ֿ ׾ֻ.

֤ ߻ ֟ ֕ פ 5 ֯Ӳָ, 1951 ׾ָ֓ӟ, ׾ֵ֯ԙ ָ֓ ӟ֯ά֮ כ ־Ƹֻ ƺ Ӯ ִ ƻ־ָ ֕ ֵ ֿԕ֮ ן ֮ ֻ֯ ֮֟߻ ־ ߻ ֟ӓ ß ֌ . ֓ ß ֕ כ ִ֤ ӛ Ӯ ן ׾ֻֿ֟ ֯֟ פֵ , ˳ ֻ Ƹ ן ִֵ֮ ӯ ן ˳ ֮ Τ׿ԟ ׳ֵ֯ פ . ִԓ ֟ ־֢, δֲ֬, ׸ִָ, ־֟, ֢֟ ֤ӲӬߓ ֻ֯ ־ָ ָ֬ ֟ . ׮ חִָ, . . . ִֿ, . ׾Ʈә ô֣, . ݵ֮, . ։, . ֮Ӥ ָþִ, . ׿־ִִָ ָܵ ֢֖֮, ן ֿ֢֟á ӟ߻ ׬ָ ׾֮֫Ӯ ֻ֯ ֬ ӣӟ ӛ .

 

׿ָֻ ׮ִԟ Ӯ ֤ӕֻ

ו ֻ֟ ֵֿ ִֻ֕ 껵 ֻ ִ ƻ־ָ ׫ߵ ֛׾ַ ׿ֲָֻ֧ ԓ ׮״ԟ ֟߻ ֻߓ Ԯֻ Ο ַ ָ֕֓ ֯֟ άִ֮ӡ ߸ ִӛֵ ӕֲ֧ Ο֓ ֮֟ ߾ ָ֤֓ ־֮ ׮ִ ; Ծ֮ ֮ ׿ָֻ֓ ־֓ ֡ ׬֯ ֜ . ִ֮֟: ֮ӟߓ ָ֬ ׸™ ־֓ ׿ָֻ֓ ֻ֮ ֟ ׸™ ֬ , ִ֕ .

 

 

 

ָ֚ ߻ ֪ ׿ֻֻ

ԙ֟߻ ִԓ ָ™ֿ ָ ׮š ӲӬ ; ָ ִԓ ־ ֵ֓ ߻ ֕擵 ָ֬ ֻ껵 ־ָ ֤ ï™ פָ ָ֚ ߻ ִޛֵ ׾ֵֻ ָ֕ ֻ ׾ֵֻ ׿ֻֻ 긻 . ׿ֻֻ ָ֚ ߻ ֲֻ ׿ֻֻӴ֬ ־՟ ׿ֻֻ ֻ֮ Ӵ֬ ָ֚ ֌ӓ ֵ ֻ֮ ׿ֻֻӮ ן֓ ꓵ ™߮ ׾ֿ Ƣ . ָ™֟߻ ׾ ꚶ ܵ ֮֟֟ ִԓ Ԯֻ ֟ ֻ ƕ Ӯ ן֣ ֮֓ ã֮ ֻ ƕ, ׿ֻֻӾֺ פ .

֟߻ ־ ֢ ־֮ ֻ ִԓ ֲ ןš֮֯ ־ ִß׳ ׾־ָ פ 22 ָ, 1981 ״ ׾׾֬֯ ӟ ־֮ ޵֟ ֻ. ׾ֿ ֮ߵ ™ ֕ ָ֓ ӟ֯ά֮ ߴ֟ פ֕ Ӭ Ӯ ׮־ָ פ. 21 ָ ֟֯ ָ֯־֮ ã 򯙸֬ ־֮ ָ֙־ָ ¯־™ ָ껵 ׾ָ֙ ֳ ־֯ ֲӟ ֻ֯ ֤ӕֻ ƻ. ָָ ֻ Ӥߓ ߱ ־ӟ֓ ָ ޵ þß ֹߟ ָּ . ӲӬߓ ׾ß ֡ ֻ .

 

 

21

ָ֙ ִԓ

ִ֟׳ ־:

Ƣ֯ ִו ָӯָ

ִß׳֓ ֟

ԙ֟߻ ֛ ֕֓ γ־ ֯֟ ά֮ ӡ ִӛֵ ִԓ ֜ , š ׮:ߴ . ִԾָ߻ ֻ֯ ׮֟ӟ ׮š ãֵ þֺ ޵֚ ߸֟՛ ִӛֵ Ӯ ֻ֯ ֕֟߻ ןִ ׮ӤԮ ֙껵, ֻ ֦ ִ֙ Ӧ㯟 ӓ ß־֮ ߟ ִֻ ן ״ Ƣ ֯ ֻ껵 կ ֬, ֬, ־ ׾ Ӯ ׾ָ֯ 껵 ִ֮֬ ֮֮֬ Ӵ ׾֡ ׾֪֯ߚ - ָ֟ ׾ֿ ֮֓ ã֮ ֻ껵 ־ֲ ߻ ׾Ӭָ ־ԟ֓ ֣־ָ ӟ ׸ִ ֻ ֵ֮ ־֮ ֻӓ ־ ֮ ִ ׮ִ ; ֜ ־ ָ ׫ߵ ִԓ ןš֮֯ ־ ߻ ֿá֯ߟ ׾ָ֬߮ þ֟: š ִִֻ ֻ֕ ꚶ ִ֙֙֟ ׾־ָ פ 13 ֓, 981 ָ֕ . ןš֮֯ ־֓ δ ֻ ִԓ ӓִ - ׳ ִ֤֮֕֯ ׾ַ ִӛֵӮ ןֵֿ ־ֻֿ þֺ֟ . ִԓ ָ֬ ӓߴ ƴ߯ ַ֙ ׾׬ֻ֮֯֯ 껵 ӓִ ׳ ׾ֿ֟ ß׳ ִ׳֮֬ ֯ ֻ. ־ԟ֓ γ ֻ껵, ־ ֕Ӯ ־ӿ ֻ ָ֬ ֻ껵 ֿ֟ ־ָ ֻ껵 ֯ ִԓ ß׳ ִָӳ ָ֕ ӟ ֓ԓ ֓ ִ ; ߻ ֟ ׿™ ֑֛ ָ ß׳ ִָӳ ִ֮֟: Ӭָ Փ ֻӟָ֮ ֿ֟߻ ӓ ׾׿™ ߓ ֮ ׾ֻ껵 Ծָ ָ֕ ޵֓ Σ ֻ. ו ծӟָ ꚶ δ֟ ׾ֻֿ ִֵ֮֓ ã֟ߟ ߾ ִ׮š ָ֕ ַ ֯ ־ ֮µֲ ַ ß׳ ִָӳֻ ִß׳ ־ Ӳ޵֟ ֻ.

 

ִ֟׳֓ ׾֬

ִß׳ ־ ִ֮֟: Ʈ ֻ ֟. ִß׳֓ δ פ֓ ֬ Ӭָ פ ӟָ Ӭָ פ ־֓ ֻ־֬ ָ֬֯ θ ֟. ־֓ ƻ Ӭָ֛֟ ֿӟ, ֵָֻ֬׾֮֬, ׻ӡָ֮֬, ִӛֵӡָ֮֬, ӓ ֤ ״ ִָӳ ִ þֺ֟ ꚶ δ־ָ ָ֕ ޵֟ ֟. ־֓ δ פֿ ִß׳ ִָӳ ӟ ־ þֺ֟ ꚶ δ־ָ ָ֕ ޵֟ ֟. ־֓ δ פֿ ִß׳ ִָӳ ӟ ־ þֺ֟ ֮־ָ ֌ӓ ׾ָ֙ ִֵ֮֓ ã֟ߟ ָ֕ ֟. ־֓ ַ Ӭָ֛֟ ß׳ ִָӳ ׾׾֬ ָּ ߚ, פ ã ӓ ֟߮ ׾ֿ ֮ ׾ֻֿ þֺ֟ ָ֕ ޵֟ ֟. ֙ פֿ ß׳ ִָӳ֮ ־֓ ִ֯ ޵֟ . ־֓ ֻ־֬ߟ ָ ־ ״ ׾֬ ִָӳ ־ֲ ֚֓ ָּ כֵ֓ ֹߟ þִ ӓ ׬ֻ֯֟ ӓ ԤԮָ֮ ָ֕ ֟֟. ִ֟׳֓ פֿ ־֮ ֻ ִԓ ִ߻ ֟ ֟֓ Ӳӓ ֤֓ ֻ֟ ֟ ־ָ 1008 ֿ ־ã֟ ߟ߮ ӛ ֟֟. ׾֡ ֻ֮ ָ껵 ׳֟ 껵 Ο ֿ־ָ Ӳ֓ ֮Ӵ֬ ָ ֻ ֟ ׾֡ ߟ 귵֮ ™ ֟. ו þֺ֟ ӛ껵 1008 ֿӓ 鿵 ָ ֮긴 פ֟. 1008 ֻֿӯ 900 ֿӓ ׳ Σִ ޵֟ , 103 ֿӓ ׳ ֮ӟָ ޵֟ ƻ껵 5 ֿӓ ׳ ֙ ޵֟ . ֻ׳֮ӟָ , , , , ָ, Ӥ ֤ӓ ׳ ֟ ƴߓ ßָָ ꮵ֓Ӥߓ Ӯ ԓ ֟.

ִß׳֓ פֿ 9 ֕֟ ֻ׳ֻ ֟ ָ 1 ֕֟ , ֤ ӓ δ ׳ֻ ָӳ . ׳׾֬ ָ֬֯ ߮ ֻֻ֮ӟָ ָ Ӭ׳ ֟ ֙ ¯־™ ֵ 5 ָ ִß׳ ִָӳ֓ ֟ .

ִß׳ ׾֬ ־ã֟ ָ ֛޵֚ ֵ֬ ־ ӓ ֵ ֻ ֟; ׳ ޵֚ ִԓ ֕Ӯ ֵַӾֺ ֜ ֟ ޵ָ ׾ß ֓ Ӭֻ ֟. ֓־ֺ ֕ӓ ֵַӾֺ ׳֟ ֿ֟߻ ֻ, , , , ָ ֤ ӓ ֮ ִԓ ׾׾֬ Ӿָ ׳ ޵֟ . ߵ, ֻ֤ ־ 鿵 ã֟ӓ ִԳ־֮ Ӳ ֟ ו ӓ ֟ ־֮ ֻ ֵ, ָ֙ ־֮ ֵ, ֵ, ֵ ־֯ ָ ָӾָ ׮֑֟֟. ִָӳֻ ã֟ ־ֵ ״ֻ ֻ֓ ӟ׸ ִ֮֬ Ο ֌ߓ Ʒ־ָ פ֟ ֻ ־ֻ .

 

ִß׳֓ ן

ß ָ֙ ִԓ ƻ ִß׳ ׾־ָ, פ 13 ֓, 981 ӯ֮ ֻ. ֯ 10 15 Փ ֻ־֬߮ӟָ ִß׳ ־ֵ֓ ָӯָ ֵ֕֟֟ ֕ . ָӟ ִß׳ӓ ־ã֟ ߟ߮ ޵֓ Σ ֻ֮ 19 ֟֓ 긯ֵ՟ ֻ껵 ִß׳ ִָӳӯ ֻ߻ פ껵 ֻ ָ ֛껵 ִָӳӓߓ ׬ Ɵ ֤ þֺ֟ ״.

1) . . 1398: ִß׳֓ ־՟ ׻֟ ־ֲ ߻ . 254 ׿ֻֻ֟ ֜ . ֓ ׿ֻֻ֟ כ֮ ֟ ִß׳ Ɵ פ .

2 ) . . 1612 : ߴ֮ ӟ Ӯ 1612 ֻ ִß׳ , ӓֲ Ӯ .

3 ) . . 1659: 渓 ֕ . ָ֕ כָ ֤ˤ Ӯ ִß׳ .

4 ) . . 1677: 渓 ֕ . ד֌ ָ֕ כָ ӓ ӡ ׾ֻֿ כ Ӯ ִß׳ , ӟ Ӯ .

5) . . 1800: 渓 ֕ . ָ־ כָ (ןָ) Ӯ ִß׳ .

6 ) . . 1825: 渓 ֕ . ָ֕ כָ (ןָ) Ӯ ִß׳ כ ןָ֕ Ӯ .

7) . . 1847: ־ֲ ߻ . 223 ׿ֻֻ֟ ִß׳֓ ï™ .

8) . . 1871: 򯙮 . . . ꮗ Ӯ כ֮ ׮ ׮ֵ֟׻֓ 1873 ֻ֓ Ʈ֓ ֟ 1871 ֬ ִß׳

ֻ ƙ .

9) . . 1887: ֯渓 ֚֓ þִ ָ֕ Ӯ פ. 14 ֓, 1887 ִß׳ ןֵֿ ־ δ֟ ָ֕ ֚ 30,000 ֵ ֓ , Ӥ . ִָӳ֓ ׾ßָ ֮ ־Ù ߻ ׮ֵ֟׻֓ 1887 ֟ ֻ ׯױ י ӣ֓ ַ ӛ֟ ˬ ޵֟ ֻ . ָּ þִ Ӯ ֟ ¯Ӳָָ ։ ַ ־֮ Ӥߓ ֤ 500 ֵ ִ֯ ִß׳ ֟ , .

10) . . 1900: כ֮ ׮ ׮ֵ֟׻֟ ִß׳֓ .

 

׾־ ֟֟߻ ִß׳

׾־ ֟֟ ֻ껵 ִß׳ ִָӳӓ ס֟ þֺ֟߻ ׾ß Ɵߤ߻ ֲֻ ; ָӟ ׾׾֬ ׮ֵ֟׻ӟ ׾㸻껵 þֺ֟ ָ߱ Ɵ ״. ӓ ָ֬ ֟֟ 1910, 1925, 1940, 1953, 1967 ֻ ַ֕ ֻ껵 1981 ֻ ַ֕ ַ ִß׳ ־ӓ Ƣ֓ Ɵ ֻ פ .

1) פ 30 ֓, 1910 : 渓 ָ֕ . ָ֕ꮦ כָ ӓ ã֟ߟ פ. 30 ֓, 1910 ִß׳ ִָӳ ӯ֮ ֻ Ӯ ָ֙֓ .

פֿ ֱָ֟ Ӥ ֚׾޵֓ ִ֟ߓ ֙ ֛. ִß׳ֻ ֟ ֻ֓ Ӥ ֻ ד֚˚ ָ֡ . . . ֛ Ӯ ָ֓ ֵֻ Ӭֻ ָ ։ 3 40 ״׮֙Ӯ ֦ Ƹ֟߻ ֦ ֟Դ֮֯֡֓ ױ֟ ։ ָָ ֻ. ߟ߮ ִß׳֓ ƻ ƾև Ӥ ޵֟ ֻ.

׾ֿ ֕ ִו ™ ־ ןֵֿ Ƣ֯ . ӓ ִ Ӳևԓ Ӥ Ƹ֓Ӥ ־ ʓָ ߟֻ֤֯ ӓ ֻ ԤԮֻ ֻ ָߵ פӲָ ֳ ׬־֮ Σִ֓ ꚶ δ־ָ ָ׾޵֟ ֻ . ׬־֮֟ ׾֪֣ծ ״ ׿ֲָָ ֬׮ Ε ׿ ־ ֚ כӓ ã֮֯ ־, ֵֿ֓ ןָ þֺ֓ ־ ޵֟ ֻ. ֓ ݵ ׸ִ ָ֟߻ ׾׾֬ δ Ƹ ׾֪֣Ծן ޵֟ ֻ. ו ִß׳ִ ִו ׸֟Ԯֻ ֻ֮ ״ֻ.