1 :

֤Ԯ ׾ :

(1)  ֕ ֵ? (2) ֤֣Փ ׸ִ֮, (3) ,

(4) ׾ ֮ õ֤֫֟ ׾ָ֓,

 

2 :

֖֮֟֓ ز֤ : ߾֟֟ :

(1)  ߾ ֟֓ ֟ӓ ֮, (2) ֿ֮á֖ ֟,

(2)  ߾: ֮, (4) ִֵֵ ߾, (5) Ԯֵ - ֵ֮,

(6) ָ ߾.

 

3 :

ָ ֕ ֵ ?

(1)  ָ֟, (2) ߾ 꿵, (3) ֟ ㌟ߴ,

 

4 :

׾֟ ׾ָ֓ : ֟ ֟

(1)  ߾, ߾, ־, Ӭ, Ӿָ ׮֕Ը ӓ ׾ßָ ֮,

(2)  ִ֬, (3) ֯ӓ Ԯ, (4) ָ , (5) ׸-ֵ,

(6) ׮֕Ը ֟, (7) ֟֟.

 

5 :

() ֬֓ : ִ

(3)  ֵ֡ , (2) ִ Ԯ, (3) ־ָ ׮ֵֿ ִ Ԯ,

(4) ן ߾֮ ִ Ԯ, (5) ִˢ ޵֯ԓ ־ã֟, (6) ִ֓ , (7)ִ Ԯ֓ ֚ , (8) ߮ 期, (9) ִ Ԯ ߾֓ , (10) ִ˗֮

֮֓ Ӥ-γ, (11) ֖֮- ֯ ֤ , (12) ־Ԗ֟, (13) ™ߴ֬ ֮֓ ֵ - ָ ӲӬ, (14) ִ֮֓ ܵ, (15) ֮ӲӬ ״ ׾ָ֓, (16) δ ֮, (17) ֵ-þֺ, (18) ӟ-õ֤֤, (19) õ֤֤, (20) ִ֕־֤ ִ֕ ֮ õ֤֤,

() ִ ׸

׸֓ Ԯ- ׸֓ ܵ ָ (1) ã֚ ָ֓ ִ, (2) Ο - ӓ þֹ - ֚ - ֟ ֮ӓ - Ο,֟-Ο, , Ο, ɓֵΟ, ׸ ׸ִ-Ο, ֡ ֮ , ߮ Ο, ָ ׿־Ο, (3) ־ӓ Οӓ ӛ, (4) ןִ (5) ָ Οӓ ןָ֓, (6) ֮,

 

6:

ã֮

(1)  ã֮ӓ δ֮ Ԯ.

 

7 :

Ծ֤

(1) ָߵ Ԯ֟ Ծ֤,, (2) ԓ -γ, (3) ԓ ß֟, (4) ֟ Σִ , (5) ֟ ֻ־֮ , (6) ֓ , (7) ֟ þ֟ӡ ԓ ֬߮, (8) ԓ 㦻֟, (9) ԓ γ־, (10) ԲӬ֓ ָ, (11) ָ Ծ֤,

(12) ֮־ָפ ֚ ԓ þֺ ֵ, (13) ԲӬ, (14) Ӭ֮֟ ޵֓ .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

׮ ִ

껵 ԯ ־֟ ƻ ־ִ֮ Ӯ , ï™, ꯵, ָ ָ֚ߟ ִԲ֧ ִ ֮ ָ ӣ ־. ֯δ 2-3 י, Ӥ-ӣ ִ׾֟ ֻ. ִ֬ ֖֮֟ ׾ֻֿ ׾ß - ׾ָ֓-ָӮ ֿ֮ ӣ֟ ִ־ ֌ ֙ ֻ. ӣ֟ ׾֬ ֵ Ɵ ־ ֵ ־, ֓ ׮Ե ־Ɵ.

ָӟ ֵ֓ þִӓ ֣֟-֓ ָ֚ µ ֮ ֮ ׮׿֟ ֻ. ִ֬ ֵ֡-ά֮ , ֓ ׾־֮֟ ָ ִ֬ ֟ ֌ . ִ Ԯ֮֗-׸ ִ :' þ ӣ֓ ֮ ޵֟ ֻ. ֵ֓ þִӮ ã֮֓ ӓ ֓ ֣֟ ֟ . ֵ֓ ӓ ָ-׿µ ֻ֮ ӓ֓ ׿µ֮ þָ ־. ֙ ֙ӛִ֟ ã֮ ӓ ׾ß ֓ . ִ ֿꙶ ӣ֟ ã֮֓ ֓ . ӓ ׾ָ֓ ߾-׾ָ֓֟ ֻ֮ ӓ Ԯ ӣ֟ .

ִ Ԯ, ִ-֮ ִ ׸ ֵ֡ӓ ִ ӣ ֵָ . ֟߻ ־ ׾־ֻ֮ ֯ š , ֵ֓Փ ӣӓ ָ֬ ֻ . . ־߸ӓ ꯵, ָ֚ ־֟ ׾֖֮׮š þֹ֟ ־-ִֵ֮֯՟ ־, ӓ ֮֟ ֟߻ ֓ ׮ָ֮ ־, ֟֟ ֮֟ ֻ .

ֻ֕ ֮֟ ֲֲֵ֮֟ ֹ . ָߵ ֖֮֟֟߻ ָ ֖֟ӓ ӣ ֌, ӓ Ӥ פ . ֿ֟ ֟ .. 1950-60 ֵ֮ ֻ, ӿ֮ ֻ . ־֮ ֲֻ ֻ껵 ӣӓ ֛ ֵֻ Ӯ Ӭ ״ֻ ־Ɵ. ָ, ֖֮֟֟߻ Ʈִ֟׾ָ֓ . -־ã ӟ-ֿ֟ӓ ֲ֮ . '־Ԗ֟' ֟֓ ӯ ִֵ֮ ã Ӯ þָ ־Ɵ. ֕Ԯ, þ, ָ, ֮ ӓ ӿ֮֓ ־֌ 긓 Ꟶ. ֿ֟ӓ ֲ֖֧֮֟֓ ָ ӿ֮ ָ֙ ֌ . ֕-ֻ ׾֖֮֓ ־ ֻ֓ ӿ֮ ֕ ׮ֵֹ .

ӣ֟ ߾ , ִ , ִ , ֿ ֻ ӓ ׾ß ׮š ׾־֮ , ֟ ֿ֟ ׾֮֫ þֹ ֻ .֓ ֮, ֬׿ֻ (ݤ׻ ãָ -) ־Ԗ֟, ׻ þֹ֓ ß֟ . ™ Ӯ ֙ ֙ ӛ֮ ׮ ָ ߟ, . ӓ ܵ ֜ . ӓ ָ-֮, ֻ-֮, ֮ Ӯ ֟ ֌ ךӲ ״ . ׾ֿ֟: ֖֮֟֟ צ֯ ֓צֵ֯՟֓ ߾֓ ׾ֿ , ׬ ׮ þֹ֓ , ߾ֿá֖ ֟ . ï֓ ӿ֮ 'ֿ' ֓ ֮ ִ ׸™ . ָ ִ֓ Ӭ־ֵ֯ ׾ ־ֿ . - Ի ִ֬ ׮ þֹ֓ , ָ .

ָ ԯ ߮ ָ-ִ, ߟ-ӯ֮, ֡- ӯ֮ ִ֕ ׮ִ ޵֓ ֵ ׾ָ֯ . ִ֕֟ ,Ӭ־, ֵ, ָָ , , ֲָ֧֟ ֤ ӓ Γָ-ָ ޵֟ ™ ξߓ ׮ָ֓ ޵֟ ߓ ֓ ֤֮ . '飾 ֓־', ֵԾָ֓ ӳ, . ֕ פ . ֖֮֟ ֟ ޵֯ ָ֓֟ ޵֚ '־-ִ' ֓ ָ֓֟ ӛ . ִ ָ֟ ִ֕ ֻ ™ ֻ. ִ֬, ָӯָ ִ֕ ƕָ ԯ ֓ ן 韾 ߟ ֻ. ִԓ, ֖֮֟֓ ן֓ ß֟ י ֟ ֻ. ֓ ָ ִ֕֓ ֬, ֮ ׸ ־ ֤ þֹ ߻ , ׬֟ ƻ. ־ ָ פ  ִծ ִԓ ֬ӟ þ-ִԟ ִ׾™ ־ ֻ. , 㬤-ן-׮ִ ߾֮֓, ֮֓ ׾ָ֓ ֕ ֟ þ . ֓ ָ ֖֮֟ ִ ֮־֓ ֳ ַֿ֟֟ ֟ . ־ ֮־ӓ ֓, ֻ֓ ־֮ ִ֬Ԯ ִ֮֮֟ ָ ׾ֻ, ִԓ ׿™ ֟ ־ծ ֮ .

֟ ׻ ד֟ ֻ֮ ֟ Ӯ ִ֕ ׾ֳֻ 껵֮ ִ֬ԓ ֵ֮ ֮֯, ӿ֮-׾ֿ ֻ . ֻ ָ ֻ . ִ֬ ֖֮֟֓ ӿ֮, ӛ, ֮ ֻ֮ ָ . ָӟ ֚ ׾֪־ ӛ ֻ ƕ. כ ӛӓ ֑֟ ֑֟ ӯֻ. ӿӓ ָӯָ פӲָ֟ ֻ . þֵ֬-ֵ֮ ֻ . ִ ֖֮֟֓ ָ-Γָ ֻֻ . .. ߮ ־ ׯ֜߻ ޵֟ Ӭֻ . ִֵ ִ֬ ꌵ֟ ֻ . ־ ֮־ӓ֚ ֻ ߻ .

־ ִ ָֻ֯֯߮ ִ֬ ߓ ֿ ָ-ָ֟ ޵֓ ε֟ ߟ . ָӯ׸ ߟ߮ ӣ֓ ӛ , ֬׮ ꯵ ָ֚ , ־ ִ֮Ӯ ƕ ꯵, ֳ ߟ߮ ִ ֣֟ ӣ ֻ֯ ָָ פ. ־ ־ ƕָ ָ֟ ӣ ָ֓ . ֤ . ִӣ ־. ָ ִӣ׿־ֵ ֵ á ׬ ֡ ִ ֛. Ӯ ֵԓ , þ֟ . ֓ ִ֕ ߟ ֵֻ . ִ֕֟ ִ . þֵ֬, ֮֮, דӟ֮, ֮֓ ֟ ֻ . ֮ӟָ ֳ- ֮ ξӬ־֕ ӣ ִ ֵָ ֓ Γָ ֻ . ִ֬ԟ ֳӓ ã֮ ꚶ ֤֓ . ֪ ߣ ֓ ־ ָ Ӯ ִ֕ ־ã, ־ã, ֕ ־ãӓ ֤֮ӛ ã֮֯ , ֕ ӟ ֵ ־ ™Ӯ, ִ֕Ӯ ӓ ֤ Ԥ .

֟ ִ ָ™ ֕֯㸟 ֚-ß-״֟ ã֮֯ ׾֮֫ӓ ִָԮ ֚, , ִ, כ ֟ - ׾֪֣-׾֪ףԮӮ ֵ ֛߻ δ֟ Ӯ ִ, ן, ָӯָ, ן ӓ ִ֌֮ Ի וִֻ֮֟֟ ߮ ֟ ֯֟ . ־ ״ ß á 㬤 ߟ߮ ֵָ ޵֟ ֻ . ׾֪֣Փ ֵ-ָ֮֙ ӓ ֮ . ֻ ׾֪֣ծ֓ ֵ , ־ִ֮ ֓Ӯ ֵ . ־-־ Ɵ, ־ ׾ָ֓, ־ ߟ ӛ޵֟ ֻ֮ ֻ ֡߮ ֻ ֤ߵ ָ .

ִ֬ ӣ֓ ׮״ԟ֚ ־֟ ӿ֮ ӿ ӓ ӣ֓ ָ֬ ֻ . ׾ֵ-ָ ִ ӓ ӣ֟ . ָ ָӟ ֣ ӣ ֓ ֻ֟ ֻ. ֵיױ ׮ִ֗ ӣ ֓޵֟ ֻ. ֟ ־֮־߮ Ɵ ־ ӿ֮֟ ӡ-ӡ֮ ӣ ֮ ߟ . ִ ־ ߮, ־ ӿ֮֟ ӡ-ӡ֮ ӣ ֮ ߟ . ִ ־ ׾ ִ֬ԓ ׾־ֻ֓ ־ , ֮֟ ׮ִ ֻ. ִ ִ֬ ӣ ־֮ ׸ ޵֓ ε֟ ִ . ִ֬ ֖֮֟ ֕֓ Ӥԟ ™ֻ ֻ Ԥ , ־ ߾ӓ ֵֻ֮ ָ߳ , ֙ ޵֓ . ִ֕֓ ָ ֮, ֟߻ ָ ӛӮ, ִֻ ӣ ֿ֮֓ ֓ԓ ֟ ֟ . ִ ֯ - ꮿ֮֓ ָ֓ ֟ ֓ . ֟ ו֮-֮֓ 㓓 ֮Ӥ ִ ֯ . ִ֓ ־ ־ß ãӮ ߓ ׾֮ӟ , Ӯ ԟ ӳָ-ֿ ֵ ו֮־ߓ ָ֚ ֮ ֬ ֓ ־. ו֮־ߓ ׾ ֵ֓ ִ֓ וִ֮֬ ָ ֟ . ָָ֑֟ ӣ ֚׾֟ ֵ֓ þֵ֬֓ ߟ ֵ֓ ִ ִ ߟ ߟ . ִ֓ ִԯ ״֡, ־׵, ִԲӬ Ӯ ִ֓ ֓, ֌ ֵ . Ӯ ֻ֯ ־֓ ֬ ߻ . -ӓ ִ

ִ֬ ӣӓ ֿ֮֓ ׮״֢֮ ִ ֿ - ߴӟӮ, ֮־ӟӮ, ָָ֤֮Ӯ ִ֕ Ӯ, Ù Ư ־Ʈ ־ӟӓ - ָָ ޵ ִֻ ֌ ן֟ ֤ ־.ֵ ִ ӓ  ֿ . ִ֕ ӓ ߻.

־߮ ߜ߮ ֬, ו֖ ָ ӣ ֻ֓ ָ ָ֟ӓ ֮ ִ֓ ׸ִ ָ ֟߻.

ӣ֚ ִ֓ ״֡ . ָև ״֓Ӥ Ӯ . ֓ ƕָ֓ ֵ ӣ֚ פ. ִ ӓ ӟ .

ӣ ֿ֚֮ ִ֓ ״֡ . ָ֕ ֙߻, ӯ֤, ֟־֤, ֯ Ӯ þ֟: ֻ ӣ Ӥ, 㬤ߟ߮ ֯ פ ֲ֧ ִ ӓ ֖ .

. ߻־֟

֮ןָ֮

֯ - 4

1 ָ֮ 96

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ӣ ֻ֯

׮ ִ֬

׾־ ֟ ӯ֟ . 20 Դ֬ ׾֖֮, ӡ֖֮ ӓ ꛤ . ֟

׾֖֮֓ Ӥԟ ӟ ֓߮ ִ֬ԓ, ֖֮֟֓ ֬-ӟӮ . ־߸Ӯ ֻ֟껵 ׾-֯ ֤ӓ ״ ן ӣ֟ . ֤ӓ ֕֓ ׾֖֮֓ ӲӬ Ӥ ֵ, ӟ ָ .

֬, ֮ á֖ ևԮÙևԮ Ӯ ο ׾ָ֓ , ֓߮ ִ֮֟ ֟ ִ ֻ֯ ׬ ׾֖֮ꮴ ֙. ֻ, "֡߮ ִ֬ ֓ ֖֮֟ ׬ ׮ þֹ֓ ".

׾ָ֓ӟ֓ ֹ֓ ִ ך ִ֬ ׬ ׮ , ֓ ׾ָ֓ ß ߟ .

 

׾֖֮ ֕ ֵ ?

׾֖֮֓ ܵ ֮ Ӯ ־ ֬߮ ֻ֯ ׾ָ֓ ӛ . ׮ ™ ֟ ֓ ֯ . ֟ ֤֣Փ ֕ ן ֤֣Փ :, ׾ֿ, ֵָ ֬, ָïָӓ ӓ ־ָ ָ ׸ִ, ֓ ε ӟ ֻ . ß , ֤֣ԓ ֟ , ֤֣Փ ִ֬ . ӓ ֌ ֓ ֕ ׮ ֬ .

׾֖֮֓ ֵ ָ ׾ֿ㬤 ֮֟ ֕ Ӯ ֵ ֛ , ֓ ׾ָ֓ ӿ֮, . ָ ׮ õ ֟ ָӮ ֲֻ õ ߕ֟ (code) ߟ߮ ֻ . õ ׾ ׾ ӓ ƻ . - ֟ ™֟ ӡ֖֮ ׾֖֮ Ӯ ֻ õ ָӮ ֲֻ ޵֓ ׾ָ֓ ֌ . ֻ֯ ־֯ . ָӯָ ֯ ֻ ׾ӲӬߓ õ ׿µ ֟ . ָߓ õ ׿µֻ ״, . ִӓ õӓ ֻ õ ָָ ӟ֬Ԯ ־ֻ. ִ ֕ ִ, á ֲֻ , ߙ ֻ ߟ. ִ . ־߸ӓ ָ֬ ִ, ִ . ӓ ֻ ־ӟӓ õִֵ ־ ׾֓ õӓ ˑ֙ ָ , Գ, ֯ ֻ . ־ ָ .. 1 ֟֯ ֵ֓ ֻ, Ӯ ߻ ָ õ ָ֬ ߟ. ֙ õ --þ֣ ׾ָֿ ӓ ֵ , ֟,, - ֓ ׸ӓ ֳ֚ -Ӯ ״ ֵ, ޵֟ ֻ. , ƾ ֟֟߻ ׾֖֮-õӓ ֙ ֻ껵 ֵ֓ ״֓Ӧӓ ӓ ֻ ӟָ ӟ ־֛ ׮š ֌ . ִӛֵ ֻ ֟, ֵ֓ծ þֵ֬ ֮ ߟ ֻ ӣ Ӯ פ . ָӟ ֟ ߟ õ ִ ֕ 괴ָ֙ (߾-ӛ ӛ) ֚֓ ׻ פ. .

- ׾֖֮ ?

ִ֬ ָ֓ӓ, ߓ ֬, ֲ ֌ δ . ߾֮֓ 60/70 ֯, ֮ ӓ ָ ô ֌߿, ô ֮ ֯ߟ߮ ӲӬ ޵֟ ֿþ ֻ. ֯ ֮ õ֓ εֿ . ָ߸ ֮ ӓ ־֯ߟ õ ֛֯ Ӯ ֌ ֙ ֯ ֮ ӓָ֫ 긓 ֻ ֦ (.. 5 ֟) Ӯ ֖֮֓ ָ ן, ׬ֳן, ߾-߾֟ ׾ֻ ־ ָֻ ֮ ֯ 껵֓ . ӓӟָ ֵ֓ (1 ֟), ֵ֓ þִ, .. ִӟֳ֦, . ״֓Ӧ, . Ӯ ־˵ ߟ߮ ׾֖֮֟߻ õ ֻ, ֻ֯, ֵ֟ ֻ.

Ӯ εֿӓ ֵ . ֓ ָ ֛ . ָ ֟ ִֵ֮ , Ο ֮֓ , ׾ָ֓ ӟ õӮ ָ . ָ ֌ ӯ ׾ֻ ӓ ֟Դ֮, ׾µ֟߻ ־ ãӮ ֟, ׾µ ӓ ִ֮֮긓 ֛ , . ֮ ֌ ֵ֓, ן֓ ־֌֟ ָ ׾ ֵ֓, ֓ ֮ ָӯָ Ӯ ֟ . -ӓ ׾ß Ӥ ֟ ֿ ֮Ӯ ֕ ƕ ֯ . '֟ ֮ ׾ִֻ õ ׾ֿ֤ ׾ָ' ßߟ ֮֓ Ɵ ߓ-߮ ƕָ ԯ õ֟ ߟ߮ ӣ֟ ׾™ ֻ . ֓ ܵ ָ ֟ ?

 

־Ԗ֢ ߾֓ ִ֟ ֌

׾֖֮֓ ָ֬ ן ֤֣Փ ׾ֿ צ, ֮ ӓ ֵԮ - ־Ԗ֢֓ ָ֮֬ ޵֓ . ָ֟߻ ֢֖֮ ֮֟ ־Ɵ. ֟ן ׾֖֮־֤ ׿ִ֟,׸ ֮֟ ־Ɵ. ָ ӓ ֮ ׸Ù י Ӯ ֻ֯ ӣ֟ ֟֓ ֿ֮֌ߓ ָӾָ ֻ ָ ן ӛӮ ־Ԗ֢ ֮ þָ .

֙ ևԮÙևԮ Ӯ ֟֓ סֻֻ ־ ׾ֻ /޵֓ ֌ ֻ . ӓ , ֕ ֻ / ӿ׬ֻ ֟ ׮ ֜ ֟֟ ֮ ֓ ? ӿֻ֮ ָ ! ֟ ӓ ( פ֟ ) ֟߻ ֙ӓ ޵֚ ? ԟ˓ ֟֓ ֿ֮֌ . ָ ֪ ֵ־־ֹ ֵ־ ֓ , ֟ . ֛֓ ֛־ֺ ֟ ָ ֌ߓ ֵ , á ֓ Ӥ֕ Ӭֻ ֟֟. ׻ֵ֮֓ ־ֺ ֻ ׾ פ ֓ ֡ . ֓ ֕ ӿ֮ , ֻ ׿ß , ׮׿֟ פ . ֓ ӿӬ֮ ֕ (ֱ כָ֮ ) ֪ ִõӲӬ ־ ™֟ áߵ ֬߮ . ֓ ֟ ӿ֮ ֬߻ ־ã֟ á- ֻ . ָ ׸ ֟ ֤ ֌ , ֟ ָ .

 

ֵ֓Փ ӣ ֯βӬ֓

֯ ֡߮ , . ־߸ӓ ӟָ ߴ-֬, ӣָ ֻ Ӯ ӓ ֬ þָ ߟ. ӓ Ӯ ֟߻ ֲֻ Ɵ֓ ֢ ן֤֯֓ ֟ ָ֛ ֵָ , á-㬤 ֬߮ ӣ֓ ӛ . Ӯ ֮ ־-־ -γ, ׾ֿ, ß-ß-֌־ ֕ ӟ֟ ߮ ӛ . ֢֓, ßã֟ߓ (־ָ֓ ߻ ) ß ִ֬ԓ ֻ֯ Ի, ׻ . ָӟ Ӯ ֡߮ ƻ ׾ֿ, ӛ, ֮ ӓ ׾ָ֟ ևԻ, ־߮ ׾ָ֓, ׾ֿ, , ֮, ִ, ־ָ-׾־, . ־ִ־ߟ߮ ӛ . ӓ ӣ ߙ ֻ ָ פ , ֕ ׮ ֬, ӿ֮ ֚֟֬ ӛ ֟, ֿߓ Ӳ ׬ ֟ ֬ Ӯ ӛ֓ פ . ֕֓ ׾֖֮ ֟Դ֮ (Present) ֟, ׾֖֮ ßӓ Ӥ, ׾־֮, ׾ֿ, ӛ ֮ ֮ ׻ (Permanent) þֺ֓ ӛ ֟. ֓ ָ (1) ӛ֟ / ӛָ ־Ԗ֢֓ ߾ָ - ԓ ӟ֓ ֵ֮ ӛ֟. ֕֓ ׾֖֮ ™߮ ֟֟ ָ֙ ָ . ָ ֓ Ӥ־֟ ָ . ָӟ ׾֖֮ ԟ ӿ / ӿ֟ ֟ ֟. ן ֵ֓ ָ ( ß ) ֵԵ ( ִֵ֓ ֓ ã ׸֟Ԯ ) ֟ ֟. ' ֵԵ' ״ ֮ (ӟ ֵ ָ ) ӓ ׾־֮ . ָ . ־߸Ӯ ־Ԗ֟ ֯ ֻ־ָ ֕ ֻ ã--ã ӓ ָ׿־ֵ ֟߮ Ο ßþֳ־֓ ׾־֮ , ֓ ֓ .

ֵ֓ծ ־ ׾֟߻ ֤֣Փ ׾ֿ ֮, ӓ ֢ (ß֟) , ֢, ã֟ ׾ֵֻ (ֿ-֤) ߮ þֺ֟ ׾ֳ֌ ӛ . ֤֣Փ ß֟ . ֟֟ ׸֟Ԯ, ãӟ ֤, ־ ãӓ ִ֮-׮Դ֮ ָ ß֟ӓ þֺ ׮֟ ֟, ӓ ӟ Ƣ֓ ӿ֮֟ ֟ ן֤֯֟ ֲֻ ֮־ .

Ӯ ׾֟ ߾ (֮) ݤ(֮), ִ (֤֣Փ ֟ߓ) (Motion) ִ (ã֟ߓ), ֿ (ִ־-֟) (Time) ֓ ֙ ֻ֓ ֻ֟. ܵ -ß . ָ ׮ þֺ֓ ֲֻ . ֕֓ ׾ֻ֖֮ ֲֻ . ֓ ֵ֓Փ ß-þֳ־֓ ֮ / ׮ֺ ֻ ־Ԗ γ ־߸ӓ ֮֓ ָ֬ . ֌ þֺ֓ . ֵ֓ծ ׾֬ þֺ֟ ׾֟߻ ֮ ӓ ӛ ׮ֺ . ־Ԗ֟ þִָ ֻ֮ Ӭ֮ . ֻ֮ ֵԤ . ֮ ӟ . ֮֓ ֚ ޵֓ - (1) ֮ ׮֟ þֵӯ׿֟ ֺ֮ ָ֟ ָ ׻ ׾, ֯֯ߓ ָ ֙ . ֻ֮ ־׸ . (2) ֮ ֻ ӛ֟߻ ߾Ӯ :ִ㌟ ֯֯ ָ ֟ . ֵ֟־֤ þָ . Ƣ֓ ֮, ֕ ߾֚֮ ֿ֮֌, ㌟֚ ֿ֮֌ . Ӯ ߾-֣ԓ ֮֓ ָ. ֟ ׌ þ֣ , . ֮ ֌ ׮ָ , ֯, ׻ ֻ֟ ֯ ָ .

֟ Ƶ֓ ֕ ׮ ֟ ֻ ӲӬ֮ ֮, Ɵ ӣ֟ ֜ ֵ? ο֓ ָ '' . -

(1) -׾֖֮ : ֕ ׾֖֮ ֻ֟ . ӣ֟ ӓ ֮ . ־ ן ֤֣ Ӯ ֻ֮ . ֓ ׾ֿ '־:Ӭ ('֟ :. ֮ . ֯ ֮ (ױ֮) . ָ ԟ: 㬤 ָ ֓ ׾ֳ֮֕ . ֻ ָ ׯ ӓ ִ . ֮ ֕ Ù . ָ פ֟ . ֓ ֮ . -׾֖֮ . ־߸ӓ ֲֻ ֲ֧ -ӟӮ ֓ Ƣ֓ Ɵ פ . ֣֟֟ ֓ ֮ פ . ָ, ӟ õִֵ . ָ ֙ ֻ֓ ƕ. ָ ֟߻ õ ָ ֛. -֟ : , :֟ ֙ ֻ֓ ָ ӟ ֙߮ ֌ ֛. ևԮÙևԮ Ӯ ֓ ֮֬ ӛ. ӓ Ӭ ֕ Փ , ֕ ֕ (ִ) ֕ ֕ԓ ֚. ָߵӮ ָ ԯ ։ . ֤ . ֕ ֟ ִƓ . ֟ , Ӭ 飾߾ָ . ֻ -ֵ ֟֟. Ӯ ӓ 23 ָ - ֟ εֿ׿־ֵ. ׯ ָ ֕֓ á֖Ӯ ֻ ߟ. ֮ () , ָ߸ ֵָ - ӓ ָ Ӯ ֿ֮֌߮ . ӓ֯ ֻ֮ Ӭ (Ӯ פָ פָ - ִ֮) ӓ ֓ ׾ßָ֮ ׾ָ֓ ֻ . ן׾֓ ӛ / þֺ / ֵ Ӯ ï™: ֟ .

(2) ߾ - ׾֖֮ (Biology): ֕ ߾-׾֖֮ á֖Ӯ ֟ ֻ , ӿ֟ . ֓ ֯ ֵֻ֜ ƾ. ߾ (ֵָ) ӲӬ ׾֖֮ ָ ֟ ӯ . ָ ߾ָֿ (ӯ ߾) ӓ ֵ֮֓ ׾ָ֓ . ָ ߾֓ ï™ ׾ֿ ֟ ܵ֟ Ӯ . ֟ ׾ֿ ֕ ־ ꙶ ֺ֯ ߾-֟֓ ׾־֮ 㬤߻ ֮Ӥ ָ . צ, ֮, -֮, ֮-Ɵ, , ָ, ֮µ, ֿ-, ֮ï֟, ֵ, ֻ, ݮ, 飾 ( ߾֓) ӓ ׾ָ֓ ֤ ׾ßָ֮ Ӯ . (- ߾ӛ- ֙ӛִ־ָ߻ ) ֓ ָ ߾ ָ , , ֓ ָ߯֟ ㌟ ֌ , ָ , ָ , ㌟ ӳ־ ֌ , ֓ ֯ ׾ßָ֮ ׾ָ֓ Ӯ ֤ ֕֓ ׮ ꙶӮ ָ ÙÙ ֬߮ ӛ . ֕ ӿ֮ ֬ þָ ֓ ־ ׾ֿ Ӯ ָ֯ .

, ߾֮ ֯ ֕ ֵ? 韵 ֕ ֵ , ӓ ׾ֿ, ד Ӯ . -֟ ߾֮ ӓ ׾ֵ ֕ ָ. ߾֮ ָ ֟ ִ֮ܵ Ƴ ָ ֙ ֕ ֵ- (߾֮֓ ׮׿֟ ָ -ָ ) . ׯ ֲֲ֟ ֕֓ ׾֖֮ ֓ .

(3) ֮ï֟ ׾֖֮ : ֮ï֟ӓ ӣ֟ פ . ָ֬ ֮ï֟ ־֓ ָ Ӯ ֻ֟ . ֟ ָ߸ ָ߸֓ ꌟ ߾, ֮ Ƣ֓ . ָ ־ԓ ߾ ָ֟. ׮ ãꓵ ߾ӓ ָ ־Ԗ֟֓ ־ָ ӛ . ֮ï֟ á֓ ׾ßָ ִ֟ ֓ ׾ßָ֮, ֬߮ ӛ

(4) ֬ ׾֖֮ : ָ߸ ָ ָև ָ. ֓ ׮־ָ ־, Ӥ ָݵִֵ ߾֮ ־ ֓ ׾ָ֓ ׾֖֮֓ ӛ . ֮ï֟, 飾, ݮ, ֵ . צ ߾ӓ ָ߸֟߻ ׮ָ ֿ, ֻӾ֬Ԯ ֙ӓ ֯ ֟ . (- פֵ֓Փ ָ ӣ).

(5) ֮׾֖֮ : ִ֮ (֮Ɵ) ߾ӓ ׾ָ֓ ־ִ֮ (ָ) ִ֮ (ֵ) ӓ ֮, ֵ, ֢ߓ ָ ֻ֟ . ִ֮ (־-־ 8 ָ֓ Ӥ) (™餻 ֻ ִ֮) . ֻ֮ ׮צ ƙ . ֮ ֟ ֮ ָ ׾ָ֓ ߻ ã ֮ . ֕֓ ׾֖֮ ֮, 㬤, , ӓ ӿ֮ ־ָ ָ֬ . ֡ ӿ֮֓ ָ֬ ִֵ֮ ֟֓ . צ ֮ ֯ ָ ӿ֮ ֟ ֻ ָ ԓ . ׸ԟ ֌ . ֕ ֮׾֖֮ ֟Դ֮֟ (ָ֓) . ֟ ӓ ֮, ֮֓ ָ߸ ֵ֟ ׾ָ֓ ס֯ ƕ. ֮ï֟ צ ָ ߾ , Ӯ ߻ ־-־֮, ׾ָ . ֿ֮֌ ֯δ֟ . ֜ צ֮ ֮֓ ߻ ֵ ָ ֛ ֟. ֮֓ , ֮ ߾֓ ֿ֮֌ ߵԿ֌ () ԯָ ֵ ֛֟. ߟ, ֿ, ӿֵ, פ ׾ָ, ־-־֮ ֮֟ ֮ ֟. ֮ ֯ Ӯ ֻ֮ -֮ ֮׾֟ .

(6) ӡ ׾֖֮ : ֕ ӓ ׾ָ֓ ӡ֖֮ ֬ ޵֟ ֻ . .,. , ׻׮֮, ï ӿ֮, -ӓ , כ Ƹ ӓ Ɵ ֻ . ֕ ֮ ݤ Ӭ ӓ ֵ ָ ӡ֖֮ ֬ ֻ . ־ֺ ֮֓ ֵԤ ֮-֌ߓ ֮ . ֵ֓ þִ Ӯ ן ֖֮ ӓ ־ , ï™ ־־ ֻ߯δ ־ ׾ ƙ . ֿ֮֌ ݤ (- ֵ֮ ֵ) ӯ ֬ ֟ ߻ ӡ֖֮ ֟ ߻. ֟ Ի ֕ ֵ? ֟׾ָ֓ ֮֟ . ֮־ ֟ ֻ ֕ ֵ? ֓ ֮֬֟ ָ ֛. -, ïֿ-, -, þ֪- (׾׾֬ ֻ, ֪ ֤֣), ִָ, ִ ׬ ִָ, ֯ . ֕ ָ߸֓ צӓ , ָݵ ֯ . ָ, ã, ֻ ־ ֻ޵֟ . ... ָïָ ӲӬ ׸ ã֮֯ ֻ. ָָ ֮־ָ ֜. ꤮-: ֜. ־ָ ֵ ӟ ָ ֛. (ָ, ) פ֟ :֓ ֟ ߟ . 㬤ӓ ֵ֮ ֜. á, , ֵ֛֮ , ӟ ָ׾ָ ׾֬ ׾ֿ֮ ááӓ ֜ ֻ . ֕ ׸ (ӡ֖֮) ֟ ׾ֿ֚֮ ֻ֟ . ֿ֮֌ߓ ֵ ן ֮֬ ޵֟ Γӛ ׾ֿ֮ , ֵ֓Փ ֟ ֻ֮ ƕ. ӡ֖֮ ׾ ״ ֻ֮ , , , ןָ Ӯ ֲֻ ֮֕Ӯ ׿ ꛟ߻. ׾֖֮֓ ֟ߓ ә ָ ֯ ן֮ ֮֬ ™ 껵׿־ֵ , ™, , þ֣ ֲִֻ֯֟ ָ ߟ.

(7) ֵԾָ-׾֖֮ : ֵԾָ֓ ׾ָ֓ ֬-ӟӮ . ־߸ӓ ֤֟ ִ ӛ . ֿ (ִß ׾) ֟ ߮ ָ֓ ֟־ָ , ־߸ ֟֟. ֕ ָ ֕֓ 鿵 鿵 ׾ ֵӮ ꜻ . ׾֟ צ ߾֓ ֮ ӟ֮ӟ ߾ ׾֪֮ . 飾, , ݮ, ֵ ֮ï֟ ֓ ָ֟ ׾֪֮ . ָӟ ֕ ӓ ߾֮ ꌵ֟ . ӿ֮֓ ־ֻ ־ ֟־ָ, 飾, , ݮ, ֵ ֮ï֟ ӓ Τ . , כ, -ָ, ָ޵֟ ׮ָ֑ ׾ָ ֵ, Τ֟ , Γӛ ֵֻֿ (ָ), ߕ֯, . Γӛ δ֟ ָ߻ ߾֮ ֵ ַӓ ֿ ֟ . ִ ֮־ӓ ߾֮ ָ þֺ֓ .

ִ֟ ֵԾָ ™ ֵ ֮־֚ ߟ δ֟ 飾, , ֵ, ݮ ֮ï֟ӓ ֵֻ ֻ֟ . ׾ָ֮ ӓ ֵ ־ ֣-ޛ-Ο֓ ӛ . ֤™߮ ׾ָ֓ ֮ ӛ . ָӟ ֵֻ֯ ֟ӓ, ޵֓, ֤֓ ָ֚ ֵ ߟ . ֚ ꙶ־֬ , ָ ֟ . ָ , ִ֕޵ָ . ָӟ ֻ֚֮ ־ֿ . ߾ ӓ ָ߸ ƕ߾ֻ֮ ־ֿ . ߾֓ ׾ָ֓ Ԯ ӛ . ִΟ ߾™ߓ ӛ / / ӿ֮ ו֟ Ӯ ן֟ 飾ߓ ֚߾ָ - ִծ / ֖֮֟Ӯ . ׮ ֕֓ ׾֖֮־֤ ӛ . ד֮ .

(8) ִֿ֕á-׾֖֮ : ӓ֚ ׾֖֮֓ ׾ ֵ֓, ӓ֚ ׮ִ ֵ֓ ִ֕ , ֓ ֵ֮ , ִ֕֓ ׾ ֬֟ Ի ֻ ָ ߾֮ ֟, ִ֮֬֟, ֮:ӟߟ ֻ׾֟ Ի ׾ָ֓Ӯ ֟ן ֮֬ ָ ִ . ִ֕֓ ׮ þֺ֓ ׾־֮ ִ֬Ԯ . ִ֕ ִ֕ןֻ ֌ ӓ ֵ֮ ־, ׬ ׮ֳԵ, , ֟ׯε, , ߟ ָ ָ, ׮ֻԳ, ִ, , ߴֿ֡ ߳־ ָ, ӓ ֟ α׻֟ ֮֮ ָ ־. ֚ ִו ֮֓ ֵ֮ ӲӬߓ ־ס ־׻ ֬ӟ ֵ֓ծ ӛ . ֟ Ӯ ִ֮ܵ ָ ֵӓ ֕ (סֵ, á) (Ɵ, ־, ֙ ӓ ֮ ָ) ( ָ) ׿ֻ (ָ, פ, ã֯֟ .ָ ו־ ָ), (־ԯָ ָ ֕ (ָ֯,,־ָ, . ֕׾ ָ) ӛ . ֕׾ Ƣ֓ ֻ֮ . ִ ָ ָ ִ֕֟ ף þã ߻. ִ֕֓ ָ ֚ ֮ ־ֵ֓ ֣ ֲֲ֟ ֳ ׮ ׮ ִ֟ . ִ֕֟ ֓ ָ֓ ¯ξ ֮֟֟ ˳־֟֟, -,֟, , ߻ (ָáֵӿ , , ӲӬ ), ׸ (δ֯ ָ ßӓ ׬ ) Ӯ ֯ ƙ . ֯֯, ֮֯, Ӭ׾֯ ִ֕ ֌ ־ ִ֕֓ ׮ֵӡ֓ á Ӯ ִ֮ܵ ׾֟ .ִ֕֟ , ָ, ֤˳־ ־ Ӯ ־׸ ߟ߮ ִԓ (־ ִ) ׮ֹ .

(9) ׿-׿ ׾֖֮ : Ӯ ִ֕֓ ָ֚, ӓ ֮֟ ׸֟ ׾֚ ֵ֮-֮֯֓ ־ã 껵֓ ִ֟ פ֟. ־߸ӓ ӑ֟ ƕָ ִ׿ ׿ָ֯ ֻ֓ ״. ֟ 40 ־֮ ־߸Ӯ ׿ . ִ ֻ֟. ִ ־ԡ ָ־ ־־ ׾ָ . ׿µ ָӯָ ֵָ ӓָ֫ ־ԡ ִ-׾֖֮֓ ָ . ־ ׾֖֮֯ ִ׾֖֮ ־ š . ָ ׿־ֵ ֮־ֻ ָ ӟ ֳ֟ . ן ß ֕ ָ ־ , ֟֟߻ , ָ, ֙, , , , ӓ ӵִ֮ ִ֕ ֌ - ֓, ־֓ ִ鬤ߓ ֮ .

. ־߸֮ӟָ ָ֟ ־ԡ ָ ׿֚ ׿֚ ׾֪ ׮ִ ֻ֓ פ . ׾ָ ָ, , ֬, ֵ֓, ֵ֬ ֟߻ ִԯΓָ ߟ. ߻ ִ鬤 ߟ. ӓ ӣ ׻ߟ. ߟ߮ ׿-׾֖֮֓ ֵӛ ִ֬ ߮ ֻ֟ , ן ֣ ֟ ֻ . ׿µ ־, ־, ׿־, ׿ ֵ ֲֲ֟֓ ֖ ӣ֟ . áֵӓ ӑ֟ ӟֳԾ ֻ֮ Ӯ ־ ָ ׿֓ ־ã ׾֮ֆ . ӑ֟߻ áֵ ֵ֮-֮֯֓ ֵ ߟ.

(10) ֮- ӓ ݤ ׾ : ֵ֮֟ ׾׾֬ ֮-ӓ (כׯ֮) ִ . -׾֖֮, ֲ-׾֖֮. ӟָ ޵֓ ӡ, ־֮־߮ ֲӓ ֮֓, ӛ, ֵ֮ ӓ ӓ ׮׿֟. ־,֙,ӯ־, ־, ֌ßá, ׸, . ™ ӡ ׾֟ ֻ. -ָ ӓ ֮ ־֮־߮ ָ Ӯ ֜. ָ 㬤ߓ Γӛ ׾ָ . ֲ™ߓ ӟָ ֲ֟ ֮-׾ֻ֖֮ ־, ֯ ֻ. Ɵ , -Ɵ֓ ׮״ԟ 2 ƕָ ԯ֓ פ . Γӛ Ɵ ־ ֲ-׾֖֮, ֻ֯ ֟ ן֤֯޵֚ Ӯ ֵֿ (ָ֟ӛ-þ-֟ ã֮֯) ׾֟ 100 ׬ ӣ ׻ƻ. ֓ ԓ ֻ֮ ֟ ֻ֟ ֮ ֮- Ӯ ֮ (֮ ) ꛻ . ָ ׾֖֮ , . ָ ׾֖֮־֤֓ ָ ֓ , פ .

(11) ָ - ׾֖֮: ָ ׾־֮ 껵 ׾֖֮֯ ӟ šִ ׾֖֮ ֕ ֟׾֖֮ . ֕֓ ׾֖֮ ֟-ָ֟ ֮ߟ . ָ ֟ ß . ָӟ ևԮÙևԮָ Ӿ ևԙָ ֟߻ á֖ ֖֟ Ӿ ָ ֖֟ ߻ ־ ׾֟߻ ָš ֟֟֟ ֮֟֟. οִ֮֬ ֟ ֮֟. ֟ ֻ ƕ ֮ Ӿ ֮ ִ ֟ ֯ ֟ . ־߸ӓ ֟- ־š . -֮֟ ֤֟Ԯ֓ ß-ß ֵֻ Ӿ ׮֤֟ ֓ Ԯ , ֟֓ ַ ׾֖֮֓ ָ֟ .

ӣ֟ ֟ӲӬ Ԯ . ֓ ָ ־ ֮ӓ ֮֮ ֮ ֟֓ .

֟ ֮ þֵ ֮

֮֟ ֟ ן 62

(ߴ֟ ֓Ӧֵ֓ ִֵָ )

֟ ֕ ֮, ֟ ֹ֮ ֕ ֟. ִֵ֮ ֻ֮ ֓ ֵ / . ֕֓ ׾֖֮־֤ ֟, / ӿ֮ ֟, ־֮־߮ ֳ֟ ִ ׮ִ ֟ ֿ֮֌ . ֟, , ֮Ӥ, ֓ ֮ ִ֕֟ ֟֓ . ֕ ֕֓ -ָ֓ ׾֖֮־֤ ן-ֿ֮֌߮ ֟֟ ֟߻. ־ ׮-֓ þִ ֕ ֟֓ . ֵ֓ Ӥ Ӯ ֟֓ ִ֮Ԯ ִֵָ, ׮ִֵָ, ӣ ׻ƻ . ֟-׾֖֮֟ .

 

ִָ

׮ ִ ִ֓ ӣֲ֧ ִ ֜ ד ֮־֓ ߾֮ ִֵ֨, ִֵ֮ ׸ִֵ ־ ֓ ׾֖֮֓ ֳ . . ָ ׾֖֮֓ ָ֬ ָ߻ ֵ֡֓ . ֲ ֟߻, ֮, ӛ ַ ֻ ָ ׾֖֮ ߓ ָ ן ׾֖֮ ֟֓֓ ֵ֮ . ֿ֮֌߻ ן, ֬ן ָ . ֿ֮֌ߓ . (1) ָ-֤֣ծ ָ ֮- ꌵ֟߻ ßֻ֟ ï™ ֟/ִ֕֟/֟, ִ ֮ ֟, . (2) ֮-֌ þ ֕ ֻ֟ ֟. ֟֓ ӟ ֮, Ԯ, , ߵ, ֤ þ-Ӯ ֮ ֟. ֮ γ ֟ ֿ֮֌ߓ δ .

֕ ָ ׾׾֬ , Ӯ ןֵֿ ֯ ï™ ֻ ֤֣-׾, ִ ׾֖֮֓ߓ Γߟ . ֮֓ ӟ ִ . ׮ӓ ֮-׾ ֟ ևԻ ֖֮֟֓ 滵 ֟ ָ, ־- ֛߻, ֟ ߓ . ִ ֮-֌ߓ ד֟ ֻ ֵָֿ ָ . ָ ֻ֮ ֵԤ -ֻ . ָ֓ ָ ֻ֟ ןš ָ ׮ :ֻ֮ ߻ ׮ ׾֖֮֓ ָ֬ ֟֟֟ ׿֟ ߻. ֵӟ ִ֮

Ӥ  

֯

1 ָ֮ 1995

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- 1

֤Ԯ ׾

ָߵ, ԟ ׿ִ֟ ׾֮֫Ӯ, ֿ׮Ӯ ׾֖֮־֪Ӯ ׾֓ þֹ ֕ ׫ߵ ־֮ ֙ ֻ . פ, ߮ ׾ָ֓ ξ֟ ߻ ׾ӲӬ ׾ָ֓ . Ο֮ ־ ֨߮ ֻ֯ ӛ . ӛ޵ִ֬ ֟ӿ , ִ֕ ֻ ƕ.

Σִ֟: ֿ֤׮ ׾ӲӬ ֵ ֟֟ ־ֵ֓ . ׾ ֕ ™߮ פ ӟ . ׾ֻ ֟ ӟ . ׾ֻ ֕ ֻ? ο Ɵ. ׾֓ ƾֿ . ӓ ִֻ ׾ ƙ ָ ӟ ־ . ׾-֙ ™ ָ ߟ. ֕ ֿ׮ ™ ֟ . ֙ ֻ߻֯δ .

1. ߾ (ִֵ֮) 2. ֻ ( ֤֣) 3. ִ (ן-㟾 ֵ) 4. ִ (ãן-㟾 ֵ) 5. ֿ (ֿ-ֵ) 6.ֻ (׸֟Ԯ-ֵ)

֙ӓ ֻ ֙ ־ ׮ִ ָ ָ . ֙ӓ ׮֟֟ ֻ֟ .

 

֕ ֵ ?

Ӯ ֙Ӯ ƙ . ֕ ֵԵ (ã) ֮ ֤ ֟֟-׾׻֮ ֟. ַ ֵԵ ֮ ֮ ֟ ָ ִֵ Ɵ֟. ֕ ע-ã֟ ׾ֵֻ εӮ ־ ㌟ . ִ֬ ε ֛ . ֛ ֕ ֟֓ ־ . ߮ ε֯ ֮, ֮, ׾ָ֓ ֓ ֢ ָ޵ָ . Ԯ֟ ֕ ֵ þ֓ ߟ߮ ֵֻ ״.

֟ ִ ֹ֮ ֓ ֻ֟ . ֟ ӯ ™ , Ӿ ֟ ֤, ֵ  (׮֟֟) ֵӮ ֟ . ֕ ߻ ֵ ? ָ--ֵԵ־֟ ִ (ֵԵ) ֮ ֟, ӟ֓ ׾ֻ߮ ֟. , ִִ֬ ֮ ַ ֙ ִ֟֓ ׾ֻ߮ ֟ ֵԵ֓ ֙ ֤֣ԟ֓ ׾ֻ߮ ־֟֟. ֟ ӯԟ: ֵ֓ ֕ ӓ ֟Դ֮, ׾µֻ߮ ӓ ־ ãƟ ֻ ƕ. ָ ֕ ֵ . ָ ֪ ֤֣ԓ ã (ֵԵ) ֯ ֤֣ԓ þֹ֓ ׮׿֟ ָ ֤ ָ. Ƣߓ ֵ ֵ ֕ Ƣ , ִ ֤ . ֚ߓ ß ׻ ֤-ֵ ֟ þֹ ־ֿ . ֚ ֤Ԯ֓ ֳ ֨ӟ ï™֟: ֻ ƕ. -

ן ן ־֓ ֤

֯֕֋־ ֵ־ֵ ן ӓßֵ-֣ 150

֟ ֮ (־) ֟׬ ֿ . ֟ ֟˓ ע . ־ԓ ֤֣ ֻ֯֯ ֵԵӓ Ӯ ֤-ֵֹ ֟֟.

 

֤֣ԓ ׸ִ֮ ֕ ֵ ?

֟ ֤֣ԓ ׸ִ֮ ֕ ֵ ? ο ׮ִ . ׸ִ֮ ֕ ֤. ָ - 1. þֳ־֟ 2. ׾ֳ־֟.

 

þֳ־֟ :

߾, ֻ, ִ, ִ ֿ ֻ ֤֣կ ߾ ֻ ִ, ִ, ֿ ֻ ӓ ׸֟Ԯ ֤ þֳ־֟ .

֣- ִԦ ׾֟߻ ֤֣ծ ן ޵ ֤ . ֤֣ԓ þֳ־. þֳ־֯ ׾֮ . ֓ Ծ֟ (ꤸ) ֵԵ ™ ָ ֵԵ ֮ ƻָߓ ֟. ֟ ןד֟ ֣ ξ . ֤ þֳ־֟ ׾ֻ ֟.

 

 

 

׾ֳ־֟ :

߾ ֻ ִ֬ þֳ־֟ ׾ֳ־֟ ָ ׸ִ֮ . ߾֦֓ ֮ ֕ ֤֮Ԯ֟ . ָӟ ָ ã֬ ߾֦ þֳ־ֻ ָ ߟ þֳ־֓ ׸ִ֮ ׾ֳ־֟ . ׾ֳ־֟ ׸ִֻ֮ ָ ƙ . ֮, ״֣֟, ֵ, ִ þֳ־ֻ ָ ߾ ָ֟ ֙. ֓ ׾ֳ־ ã . ׸ִ֮ ֛ ޵ ׻ ԯָ ֻ ֤ ߟ ֟֟. ׾ֳ־-ã ֮ ֲָָֻ ߾ֻ þ-־ ޵֓ , , ־ ֯ ֓ ֻ֙ . ־ ԲӬ֓ ׌ֲָָ þֳ־֟ ִ . ߾֓ þֳ־ ã . ֯ 껵־ָ ֡ ߾ ׾ֳ־ ã ֯ .

ֻ- ָ , ִ֬ þֳ־ ׾ֳ־ ָ ׸֟Ԯ . ֻ֓ ӟ þֹ ֕ ׾ֳ֕ Τ֟ . (ֻ פָ) . -֕ ֻ ֓ ׾ֳ֕ . ֻ֯ ׾֟ ã, ֮ פ֟ ־ ֻ . ֻ֓ Ӿ ß ӓ ӵֻ Ӭ ֟֟. ֕ Ӭ ֻ֓ ׾ֳ־-ã. 飾, ִ, ָ, , ָ, ָ, ֮ï֟, ݮ . ־ ֤֣ ֕ ֛֤֣Փ ִ (Ӭ) . ־ ֤֣ծ ï™ ־ֻ ƕ ־ ֤֣ ӓ1 ׾ָ (׾ֳ-ֵԵ) .

-

(1) ߾ - ׾֟ ӟ֮ӟ ߾ ֿ֟ ֯ . ӟ֮ӟ ֚ߓ ֵ֓ , ־ ㌟ ֻ־ָ ׾ ָ ֵ ? ָ ο ֓ ֮֟ ˳־ָ ָ ֻ֟ ֹ ָ . ׾ֳ־-׸ִ֮ ֻ ӟ ߾ . þֳ־ ׸ִ֮ ֻ ӟ ߾ . ־ ߾ָֿ ㌟ ӯָ . ӟ ߻.

Ο ߾֓ ܵ֟ Τ . ߾ִ֬ ־ ֻֿ ֯޵և ֌ . ߾֓ ׾ß Ԯ þ֟ӡ֯ ߟ .

 

(2) ֻ-- ïֿ, , Ӭ, Ӯ ㌟ , ֻ . ֻ֮ εӓִ ӓ ־ ֻ ֻ . ïֿ-Ӭ־Ծӟ: ֻ: ֣֟ ֓ þִ ֟֟. ׿־ֵ þִӮ ֻ֓ ӟ ï™ Ԯ . ־: Ӭֿ ֻ ֓ Ӯ ֻ֟. ֟ ־: ֮֓ ִ ֻ֟ . ӓ 23 ָ Ӯ ֻ֟ . 23 ָ ־ ӓ ӑ֮֟ (Ӭ֮) ־ ׾ ֻ֮ . ֢ ֮֟ ֟ : ֻ֟ . ֻ֓ ׾ֳ֕ Τ ֯ ֮ . ӓ Ӭ ֮ îݬ ֟֟ Ӭ: ֕ îݬ ӓ Ӭ . ӓ ֌ ֵԤ ֻ֟ . ֕ ֿ֓ ֻ֟ , ֯ . ָ ֿ ߻ ֻ֓ ֵԵ Ӭֹ . Ӭֹ ֻ֯ ֻ֓ ן ß֓ ָ ֛ .

23 ָ -ִӟ -ָ ߻ . ԯָӮ ׮״֢ ֟ ׾ֳ־ֹ ׸ִ֟-֕ ָ . ֓ ֮, Ԯ, . ӟ ׾ָ ֮֟֟ ӓ ӟ ֌߻ Ӭ֮ ֯ . 23 ָ֟ ָ ( ָ ֮֟֟ ) ־ (ֹ ׸ִ֟֟ ), ֮ (-֮ ߾ӓ ך ַ -֮ӓ ׮״ԟ֚ ӓ ֵ ), ( ִ ָ߸ֻ þ֟ ) ִ- ( ִ ߾ֻ ָ ֟ߟ ֙־ ֟ ֚ ָ ) ֓ ָ . ִ ָ ߾Ӯ ָ߸, , ֮, , ӓ ֯ . ֓ ï™ , ָ ߾ ֟ ֟ ָ߸ֻ ָ ָ ֟. 飾, , , ֵ, ֮ï֟ ߻ צ ߾ӓ ָ߸ . ֿӟ߻ ִֿ֮ Ӧ-, ָ ߻ ַ ߾ӓ ָ߸ .

޵֓ , ָ߸ ӓ ֳӮ ֻ֮ ִ֕ ָߵ ׿ִ֟ ׾֮֫ӓ ֻ . ָӟ ֕֓ ׾֖֮־֪Ӯ ֙ ֻ , ׾ ֕ ӓ ִ .

, Ӿ ֮߳ . . ָ á֖ӓ Ꟶ. ӓ ӟָ ֕ á֖Ӯ ֻ ֟ ӓ δ׮ָ ֻ. ֿ Ƹ . ן֓ þֹ ֮֬ Ӿ ֓ ߾ Ӯ . ֿ׮ӓ ™߮ ֵ՟ ӓ ׾ֳ֮֕ ֌ , ֵ՟ Ӭ֓ . ׿־ֵ, ֿ׮ ֲ, Ӭ (ִ), ֟, ã֟, Ӭָ, ־ֻ, , , ֿ, Ӯ ߻ ֻ֓ ֮֟֟ ! Ӯ ߻ ïֿ, , Ӭ, .

Ο ָ֬ , , Ӭ ָ ïֿ ֟֟֓. , , Ӭ . ִ֬ ׸֟Ԯ ޵֓ ֌ ߓ . ֬ þִֵ Ӭ ֌ ֌ . þ֟:Ӭ ־֟֟ ӓ ׾ֵ , ׾ָ֓ ߾ . ָӟ þֵӳ Ӭֹ ޵֓ ֓ ׾ ֌ .

Ӭ֓ ָ ֻ߻ δ . 1. ן ã-ã 2. ã 3. ã- (. ֵ, ֿ) 4.- ã (ïֿ, , , ֲ ) 5. ( .) 6. ן (. ӓ Ӭ)

 

(3) ִԦ - ֓ ֮ ֻ׮ . ׾֖֮֓ ™߮ ߻ ֓ ß֟ ֮ ֻ . ׾֟ ֤֣ ןִ֮ ֟ ֻ ׮״֢ ָ ׾ֻ ֯ . ֕ ִԦ . 飾ߓ ׸δ ԓ ׸δ ־ ׸ֳֻ ֳֵ . ӯ ֻ ֯ . ֓ Τ ܵ֟ .

 

(4) ֿ֦- þ-ןš ֟ . ֓ ֵ ־ ֮-֮ ֤֣Ի ޵֚-֯޵֚ . ׾ӟ ׮֟ ׸֟Ԯ ־ ӟ ֤֣ ֵָ ֟֟. Ӯ ޵֚ . ֿ֓ 1) ֿ 2) ֿ . ֿ֟ . ָӟ ֿӟ ֿ֦֓ . ֿӟ ߾ַֻӓ ξ . ֓ ָ ן ã֟߻ ָ ָ (ִ ִ) ߟ.

(5) ֻ֦- ֮ ֮ ֤֣Դ֬ ׸֟Ԯ ֛ ֻ ֻ֦ ׮״֢ . ֻֻ ֮޵֓ ׾ָ֓ ӓ . ־֟ . ãָ .ß擵 ׸֟Ԯִ ־֟ ֙. ָӟ ֓ ־֯ . ֻ֦ ß֬ ׸֟Ԯ ֛ . ׮״֢ .

 

ֵ֓ ״֓ӦӮ ֻ֯ ӣ֟ ƙ

 


1. ïֿ ֚ ָ -ƻ-ָ, îݬ, , ։-, -ӛ. 5 ָ- , ן֙, Ӳ֙, ָ ; Ӭ ָ- Ӭ լ; 5 ָ-, ׮, Ӳ֛, ׯ־, Ӝ.

2. ׮ִֵָ 21-24, ӓßֵ ֣ 74-75 ֣֟ 5,19(5333-37,5,24

, ֻ ֓ ֿ߯δ ֿ֯Τ־ָ ã֟ . ֻ֦ ߻ ܵ֟ Τ ֿ֟ ֯ . þִ ֵ֓ծ- ֟Ԯ֯׸ִε ָָ֟֯ ֻõ ֻ֦ ֟ ָ ֤ ֻ֟ . ־ָ ֻ֦֓ ֮ , י, , פ, ֻ׾ֳ ֮ . ֟ (飾ߓ ), Ӧ, , ָ ױ֟ ִ פ-֡ ֟. Ԯ ־ָ ֓ . ֣֟Ծ֟- Τ ׮֟ ֵ֟ ֟: ֻ ׾ֳ: ֻ֟ . ֟ ֜ Ӧ ֟ߴ֮ ֓ ߻ ׾֟ ֡ ãָ . ֓ Ӧԓ ן δ ֯ .

ֻӓ Ӭ . ֿ֓ ֪ Τ־ָ ֻ ã֟ , סֻ־֟ . ֻ֓ ־ָ-ֻ ׮ֵֿ-ֻ . ־ָ ֻ֮ ֪ ß擵 ӕ֮ ֵԵ֓ ã֟ߓ ֮ . ֕ ß ִ֡ ֵԵߴ֬ (ã) ֟. ֓ ™߮ ־ָ ֻ . ׮ֵֿ֓ ™߮ ֻ֦ ׮֟ . ֻ֦ þִֵ ֟ ֓ ׸֟Ԯ . ֡ ߮ ָ .

׾ӲӬ ֨ӟ

1) ׾ ֳ ֤֣ծ ㌟ .

2) Ο ֟ ׾ָ-׾ָ ֌ߓ .

3) ׾֓ ֮, ֮, ֤, ã֟, ׾ֿ֮ ִ ָ֓ ֢ .

4) ַ ֟ ֟ ָ ֻ ߟ. ־ ֯-ֻ֯ þֳ־֮ ֮ ֟. ִ Ο ֓ þ֟ӡ ֢ ׬֟ Ɵ. ׸֟Ԯֻ ߻ ָ ֤֣ԓ . ׮״֢ ָ ֟߻.

5) ׾֓ ֤-ӟ . ֓ ֿ .

6) ׾֓ ׸ִ֮֟, ֢ߟ Ӿ ã֟ߟ ָ, ׮ֵ֟, ֻ, ׾֯, ֤铔 . δ ָ .

 

־ ֟-

ֻ־֤ : ӓ ֟ ׾֓ ֻ־ָ ֻӲ . ޵ֻ - , ֓ ָ ֻ֓ .

ֻ : ן ׮, ֻ: ƸΕ

ֻ : 㯟 ן, ֻ ןδ :- ֳָ- 1/24

ָӟ ֟ ߻ Ӯ ֯ . ֻ ָ ֜ γ־ ָ Ο ֓ þ֟ӡ ֢֓ ™ ևԻ. ֻ֦ ֮ ֮ ־ָ ֵ γ־ ֛߻ ? ֻ֦ ֮ . ֟ ׮ֵӡ . ߮ . ֻֻ ־ ׮ִֵ ֮޵֮ ָ ֵ-ָӓ .

þֳ־-֤ : ӓ , әֻ , ֙֓ Ƹ , ֵ֮ ֟Ԯ ֓ ֓ þֳ־ . ™ߓ ™-þֹ֓ . ™ߓ ß֟ ׮ԟ . ™ߓ ׮ֵӡ .

׾ָ֓֟ . ™ߓ ׮ֵӡ . ָӟ Ο þ-׮ӵ֡ . Ο ֓ ߮ . ָ ߾֓ . : ߾֓ :-׌ . :ֻ þֳ׾ ִ֕֟ . ן þֳ־-֤ ㌟-㌟ .

׮ֵן-֤- ֓ ™߮ ָ . ָ. ֯ ֕ ׮ֵ֟ߓ ֟֟߻ . וִ׮ֵ (236) 㨓ֵ (46265) ӣ֟ ƙ - ޵ӓ :֓ . ֓ . ־ԓ ׮ֵן׮״ԟ ã֬ ׸֟ .

׮ֵן ֟ ־ Ӿ ֤֣ ־. ִ֮ ֙ ֚ ָ֯ ֲ . ֮֬߻ ӟ ִ֣Ի ִ ޵֟ ֯ . ׾֟߻ Ο ֓ ֢ ן֓ ׾ֿ֮ . ׮ֵ֟߾֤ ֻ֟֯֯ ֻ֮ þָ .

 

ָ

ӓ ֮֟ ӟ ָ , ־֮ ־߸Ӯ ֻ֯ ֻ֖֮֮ ׾֟߻ ־ ֤֣Փ ֟Դ֮, ׾µ֟߻ ӟ ֵԵ ֻ껵 . ֟ ִ֓ ӟ ֵԵ ֻ . Ӯ ׸ִ֮ ƻ ָ, ִֻ ޵ָ ߓ .

׾ָ֓ ִ . ָ ߾ִ֬ ӟ ߵ Ӿ֓ . ִ ֣ ԲӬ֟ ֯ ޵֓ ӓ ֮֟ ׮ִ . ָ ־ ׾ ֻӮ ֟ ֻ ָ ֟ ָ ָ ֣ ֟ ֻ ָ. ׾ָ֯ߟ֣ ֜ - ָ ޵֓ ׾ָָ֓ ߻ ֿ׮ þֹ֓ . ־ ָ ׾ָ֓Ӯ ָ֓, ָ֤֓, ן ֤ ™ þָ ָ ߟ.

 

 

 

1ֵ֓ ֓ ԟ־֤

ֵ֓Ծֵ . ֟ ԓ ξָ֮֓ ֻ֮ ֟-þֹ֓ ֮֟ Ӯ ֻ֟ ƙ . ֟ ߾֓ Ӿ ߾֓ . ־ ָ ԲӬ ԲӬ ߾֓ . ֻ . ֛ . ӓ ׸֟Ԯ ӓ־ָ ֻӲ . ֟ ӓ þ֟ӡ ֢ ߓ . ן֤֯ ׮ֵֿ֮ . ֓ ߾ ֵ֓ծ . Ӯ ִֵָӟ ޵-֯ ӓ Ԯ . ׮״֢ ״ע þֹ֓ ֓ . ߾֓-ָ ã֟ ßã֟ ָ . ߾ ԯָ ӓ ӵ ï™ . ֵָ-־ . ֵ֓Փ ֮֓ӓ ֆ -Ի ֟ ݵ . Ԯ ߾ ꌟ . ׾ֿ ׮ֵֵֿ֮֮ ָ֓ ԟ ԟ ֮ . ׾־֮ ԟ ԟ ֓ ֵ ־ֵֻ ƾ.

 

־֤ :

֓ ֓ , Ɵ ׾֬֟ , ִ֕ . ־֤֓ ָ . ƻ δƾ֤ . ִ֬ ֮-֮, - ־ ֤֣Փ ֢ߓ ָ ֻ֮ . ֓ ָ ָ ֕ ָ֤. ָ֓ ֮ ֮ 飾 ׮״Ի . - . ֮֬ ӳδ, ӿֵ ֮ߵ֟ . ֌߻ δޛ֟߻ ׾֬ ֤֣Փ ֮ ֵ-ָ-־֟ ֟ . ֟ ԯ

 


1 ֵ֓ ִֵָ . ֣ 14, 15, 16 ֮֮֬ ׮ִ֟֟ ֓Ӧ ִֵָ 15

™ ֟ 껵 ߟ. ֕֓ ֟־ꟵӮ ָ ֢ þ֟ӡ ֻ֮ . ӓ þ֟ӡ ֢ ֻ֮ . ߓ ™ ֮ . Ο ֮ þ֟ӡ ֮ δ֯֯ . ֮ ԟ, ꌟ韾 ß֟ þֵӳ . ֓ Οֵ ־ . ָֻ ֻ֮ ָ ָ֓ ֮־ ֟. ָ ָ þֵӳ ָ Ο ß þֵӳ ֮ ֵ׌ . δƓ ֵ ֟ ד֟ . Ӯ ָꌟ ֻ֟ ֟ . ־ծ ֮ ݵ, ׌ֵ㌟ ־ִ . Ο ֮ꓵ ׾֓ . Ο֓ þ֟ӡ ֢ .

ָ֓ ׾֓ ֮޵֟ ӟ ֕ ß֟֟ , ß֟֟ ֟ . . ֓ ӯԟ: ֿ . ֕֓ ׾֖֮֮ ֨ , ß ֿ ־֟ . ן֓ ã ֜ ֤֟. ߾ֻ ָ - ָ , ֮ , ָ, ߻ ֟ . ֻ ָֹ, , ־Ԗ ֵ֓ ָ ܵ ߾Ӯ ֵָ֯ ꤮ ֵ֓, ֓ ֟ ֟ . ֻ֯ ־ֻ , Ο ߾֓ , ֮ ־ . ֮-֌ . ־ ֵ-ֳָ ֌ӓ ԟ ָ֟ ֮ ד֟ .

 

1ֳ־֤ : ׾ 飾, , , ֵ, Ӯ ֻ֮ , ׾ָ֓ ֿ֟֟ ׸Ù ӛ . ֻ֯ ӓֳִӮ ׾ ֻ֮ ָ ֿ׮ . ӲӬ ֯ ƻ ӓ ӑ֟ ֻ֤֣֯ ֮֟֟.

 


1 ־ ׯִִ֮֮֟ ( - 1(16

šִ֡ : ( - 3(13 ׮֤ 4(12 Ӥ - 3(14(3

飾, , ݮ ָ ֳ ߻ ӓ ӑ֟֓ . ֟ ָ ӓ ֮ ־ծ ֲֻ Ο ß ֕ ׌ֳָӮ ㌟ ֤֣ . ֤֣ԓ ׾֑֙ ֕ ֟߻ ֌ ֛. ֌ ֿ ־֟ .

ָ , ô, Ӗ, ָ, ôָ, ε֟, ו֕׾ ֤ ָ פ ֟. ־֤֮ ֨ ߻ ? ־֤֮ ׾ִõ .

 

׾ָ֮ õ֤˾֤֟ ׾ָ֓1 :

׾֓ ֮, ׮״ԟ, ׾ֿ֮ ӓ ָ þֵӳ ֮, ד֟ . ִ Ο ֤֣ԓ þֵӳ ֢, þ֟ӡ, ׬֟ Ɵ. ָ, ߾ ֛ ֤֣Դ֬ ׾ֳ־ֿ׌ ֻ֮ ָïָӓ Ӭִ֮ -:, ֮֓ ߮׬; -ָ-ֿ ֮־ ןִ֬ δ . ™ӓ ֨ . ֚ ָꌟ ־ ֤ þָ޵֓ ָ Ɵ . ׾֟߻ ֟ ִõӓ Բ֨ ֟ ־֮֟ õ֤֤ ֨ þָ ƕ. 1 Ƹ֣ - ָ ֵ֮֓֓ ָ Ο ֮ þֵӳ ָþֹ֓ , ֮־ . ֮ Բ֨ ֻ֮ ָ֓ ׾ֻֿ ֳ߾ָ ׾׾֬ ָ ֵ ֓ ָֹ֟֟ ׾ֻ֟ . ׿־ֵ, õִ֤֤֬ ׾ָ-׾ָ Ӯ ֮֟ . ָ ß þִֵ ׾ָ-׾ָ ӓ ִ . ׾֓ þֹ Ӯ ֻ ׮ þֹ֓, þֹ֓ ™ þָ ׌, δ, ִ, þӾ꤮, ־ ӓָ֫ ׾֓ ִ֕ ־ֿ .

 


1 δִֻ֟՛ 48; ϴ־ٟ 1150