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Section -1 Page 36 To 69


Jaina logic :

Soul is knower and that the knowledge which it acquires is of five kinds ( Mati, Shruti etc. ) according to differences in its nature and the means employed. The Jaina logic deals with the manner and methods of reasoning correctly in order to assess the validity of the knowledge, so obtained and to enrich our stock. The validity of knowledge is judged by Pramana and Naya. Pramana is a comprehensive view, a full and general apprehension of reality, the valid knowledge in itself. The term is also used for testimony, authority, authenticity and the criteria of testing the veracity and rightness of particular piece of knowledge. Naya is a partial view, a standpoint dealing with one of the many aspects of the object of knowledge at a time. Right knowledge of any of the five kinds ( Mati, Shruti, etc. ) is pramana. But whereas the first two ( Mati and Shruti ) are indirect and mediate forms of testimony, other three ( avadhi, manah-paryaya and kevala ) are the direct and immediate forms of pramana. All the five kinds of knowledge constitute pramana for oneself. but the shrutajnana is pramana for others as well, because, it is both knowledge as well as the words which convey that knowledge. The kevatajnana, the knowledge of the omniscient one, is the full, complete and absolute pramana. The sources of valid knowledge ( Pramana ) are apta agama and anumana. The first of these is the right and absolute authority the omniscient, Arhanta or Tirthankara. The agama is the word, the teaching and expositions of the apta handed down to posterity in the form of true scriptures which presents an exposition of the true nature of the reality and which is for the good of all. The anumana includes right logical deductions, and inference. The Jaina logic represents a higher developed system of comprising the arts and science of reasoning correctly of the related rules and modes, debates and discussions.

Naya :

The second means or device of comprehending the reality rightly is known as Naya. Each of reals has innumerable qualities, modes, relations and aspects. The aim of the Naya is to determine rightly, correctly and without any contradiction, one of these characteristics of the abject at a time. It is, thus, a particular paint of view, standpoint or way of looking at things. The Naya process is analytical, whereas the basis of pramana is synthesis. Naya is the essential part of the valid knowledge or pramana. The Naya being the means of getting an insight into the nature of reality, which is highly complex and hence, infinite-fold and are themselves infinite in number, at least theoretically. For practical purpose, they have been broadly classified into seven categories, i.e. naigama, samgraha, vyavahara, rjusutra, Shabda, samabhirudha and evambhuta. According to another classification; the nayas are broadly categories as the Nishchaya - naya and the Vyavahara-naya. The first denotes the real, essential and Substantial point of view and the other the practical, conventional, popular and relative point of view. There are several divisions and sub-divisions of the naya. It is not wrong, false but is as much a part of it and aid to valid knowledge, as any other point of view. Only that it should be applied in its proper sense and not confused with the Nishchaya or any other Naya. In the context of the transcendental, spiritual realisation of a Jaina mystic however, greater emphasis is laid on the pure nishchayanaya or the shuddha-naya which is described as the only true and relevant point of view and vyavhara-naya is rejected as an untrue or false point of view, which only means that it is irrelevant in that context.

Theory of Causation :

Jaina theory of causation emphasizes principally the causal interrelation between soul and non-soul, between the mind and matter. Without this theory it would be difficult to fix moral responsibility on one who could be held responsible for his or her own conduct. If there is anything like moral responsibility and if the conduct of a person is capable of a moral evaluation, that conduct must be the intimate expression of his or her personality. Jaina mystic, who concentrates on the upadana and views things from the Nishchaya point of view, holds himself alone responsible for all his spiritual and moral flaws and shortcomings and is ever busy in correcting himself. He relies mainly on his own personal spiritual effort as a means to accomplish self-purification and ultimate liberation.

Concept of Anekantavada and Syadvada :

When two contradictory characteristics are explained or lightened in one object and at one time, then that is called Anekanta. This Anekanta view is narrated by the method called syadvada e. g. Eternal and changeable path and efforts, Tat and Atat ( �֟�� �� ��֟�� ) common and special, one and many existences and non-existence etc. Connected with the Nayas is the seven combinational mode of predication ( Saptabhangi Naya ) which is also a peculiarity of Jaina logic. When we speak of a thing as existing, we mean that it exists in its own substance ( dravya ), space ( Kshetra ), time ( Kala ) and essence ( bhava ). Without a clear conception of this quadruplet pertaining to a thing we cannot conceive of that thing as an existential reality. Thus from the point of view of its own quadruplet the thing in question exists i. e. its isness is established. At the same time, from the point of view of the quadruplets of all things is � is� and � is not� and since it cannot be said to be � is and is not � at one and the same time, it is also inexplicable ( avaktavya ). These three conditions produce seven permutations asti, nasti, asti-nasti, avaktavya, asti-avaktavya, nasti-avaktavya and asti-nasti avaktavya. In order to avoid the pitfall of being misunderstood, the speaker uses the adverb �syat�, before everyone of these modes of predication. The term � syat � in this context is the most significant. It means in a way � from a certain point of view � also� or �not absolutely� Our real experience a phenomenon does not present more than seven aspects. So syadvada consists hi seven predications only. The saptabhangi-naya or syadvada is a reconciliation of conflicting approaches. The syadvada is one aspect of the Jain Philosophy which has been misunderstood by many non Jain philosophers, who locked upon this approach to reality as Indicative of uncertainty and indefiniteness of knowledge. One reason of the misunderstanding seems to have been that they did not grasp the true significance of the term syat and interpreted it to mean perhaps. But� it is not so. Jaina books have unequivocally stated time and again that, the term syat used by them in this context means � in a way � �from one point of view� or viewed at from a particular angle or stand�. Instead of creating doubt or uncertainty syadvada helps a correct, precise and thorough comprehension of the reality. Based as it is on Anekantavada and the related Nayavada, the theory manifests the realistic, rational and highly tolerant spirit of Jainism.

What we think relates to our beliefs and experiences which may pertain to ourselves ( sva-samaya ) or to other beings ( para-samaya ) or to both ( tadubhaya ), In order to understand any one of them, it is necessary to understand the other two. So Tirthankara declared � If one sticks only to mw of the many aspects of a thing; ignoring and rejecting al 1 the others, he can never realise the truth. It is therefore essential all to comprehend fully the Anekanta as qualified by the term syat�. The very foundation of the Jaina system of philosophy is the conception of reality which is manifold, hence highly complex and pluralistic in character. It is why the Jaina system is also called the philosophy of Anekanta or the Anekantavada. The term Anekantavada being made up of three words aneka-two aspects opposite to each other, anta ( aspects or attributes ) and vada ( ism or theory ). It has been described by modern scholars as the philosophy of Non-absolutism. Since it is opposed to unrelenting absolution or monism. It is a theory of pluralism, theory of co-existence, the philosophy of Realism. Thus Anekantavada is concerned with substance and syadvada indicates one of the aspects of the substance. Anekanta and syadvada ( Naya ) are consisted with Jainology and are more scientific and practical. Both are used in day to day life. It is with the help of this powerful instrument in their hands that the Jaina philosophers have steered clear of nihilism on the one hand and absolute monism on the other, as well as of . shallow realism of the materialists and the ludicrous stand of the idealists. It fosters a rational outlook and an appropriate attitude of looking at things, conditions and relations. It gives a breadth of vision and helps a right and proper evaluation of ultimate realities. It infuses in those who believe in and practice this philosophy, a healthy spirit of sympathetic understanding, reconciliation, tolerance, co-operation and co-existence in the every-day conduct of their life and in their relations with their fellow beings Thus the Anekantavada is a philosophy and practice which will lead the world towards permanent peace. The attitude provided with this philosophy will help to remove the conflicts between man and man, society and society or nations and nations permanently.

Moksha - Marga or Right Path:

Inherent powers of the soul are crippled by its association with karmic matter and so we find every person in a imperfect state. The real and everlasting happiness will b obtained by a person only when the karmas are completely removed from the soul. Jainism firmly believes that eve though man is imperfect at present it is quite possible for him to rid himself of the karmas through his own persona efforts without any help from an outside agency. The highest happiness is to escape from the cycle of births an be a liberated soul, that is to obtain Moksha. It is the go a of every individual to achieve this liberation. To achieve this salvation, Jainism has adopted a sure method which is called as a right path or moksha-marga.

Ratnatraya :

Jainism has explained, in a definite manner, the path or way to achieve the goal or aim of a man of liberation or emancipation. This path connotes the cultivation, development and happy blending of Ratnatraya, the trio of spiritual jewels, Samyagdarshana ( Right faith ), Samyagjnana ( Right knowledge ), Samyak-charitra ( Right conduct ). This Jaina trinity ( Ratnatraya ) is abstract and spiritual. According to Jainism these three things must be present together to constitute the path of salvation. Since all the three are emphasised equally, it is obvious that Jainism is not prepared to admit anyone of these three in isolation as means of salvation. Moksha-marga is considered impossible without the comprehension of all the three. This position of Jainism is quite distinct from many religious faiths in India. Jainism has clearly laid down that for attaining liberation all the three must be simultaneously pursued. These three together are essential to get emancipation. Faith in the efficacy of Jainism, its knowledge and actual practicing of it these three are quite indispensable. Absence of any one of the three makes the liberation impossible. Thus a simultaneous pursuit of Right belief, Right knowledge and Right conduct is emphatically enjoined by Jainism upon the people. With this path, Jainism has based its distinctive ethical code for its followers, both householders and monks.

Samyak Darshana or Right Belief :

Right belief is the first out of three jewels and forms the basis upon which the other two rest. One must first attain right belief because only on its acquisition, knowledge and conduct become right. Right belief means true and firm conviction in the seven principles or tattvas of Jainism as they are without any perverse notions. The belief that the Jaina Tirthankaras are the true Gods, the Jaina shastras the true scriptures and Jaina saints the true preceptors is called Right belief. This is the mode point of view that at the same time he knows Eternal aspects of the seven tattvas and he believes in Eternal, knower, pure, happiness, own soul. It is laid down that such right faith should have eight Angas i.e. requirements to support the belief. It must be free from three types of mudhatas i.e. superstitions, ignorance and eight kinds of madas i.e. pride or arrogance. The Jaina works describe at length the glory of right faith and enumerate the benefits which can be accrued by a person possessing right faith. Even a lowcaste person or any soul possessing right faith can be considered as a divine being. Right faith is given precedence over Right knowledge and conduct because, it acts as a pilot in guiding the soul towards emancipation.

Samyak Jnana or Right Knowledge:

Right knowledge is the true, correct, proper and relevant knowledge of the reality-the tattvas, the path, and connected things like the nature of God or Godhood. It represents the teachings of the Jinas or Tirthankaras and is contained in the Jaina agama. There is a clear relation of cause and effect between right belief and right knowledge. Right knowledge is that which reveals the nature of things exactly as it is and that too with certainty. Such knowledge is free from doubt, perversity and vagueness. Jainism also insists that right knowledge cannot be attained unless belief of any kind in its opposite that is in wrong knowledge is banished.

Samyak Gharitra or Right Conduct :

Proper, correct, appropriate and truly natural conduct of the soul which is conducive to its salvation is known as Right conduct. Right conduct includes the rules of disci plain which restrain all censurable movement of speech, body and mind, weaken and destroy all passionate activity and lead to non-attachment and purity. Right conduct presupposes the presence of right knowledge, which presupposes the existence of right belief. The destruction of karmic matter can be accomplished only through observing the rules of right conduct. Further Samyak charitra i, e. right conduct is divided into two kinds viz, sakala charitra i. e. perfect or unqualified conduct and vikala charitra i. e. imperfect or qualified conduct. Of these two kinds the unqualified is observed by ascetics who have renounced worldly ties, and the qualified by laymen still entangled in the world. Jainism attaches great importance to actual observance of ethical code or the rules of conduct prescribed both for the ascetics and the householders with a view to attaining Moksha or liberation. Thus the qualities and general rules of personal and social conduct and behaviour tire intended to give a person, a distinct character and make him or her a good healthy and law-abiding citizen, a human, Individual, true gentleman. The cultivation of these qualities paves the path of spiritual progress. The regular ethical code and rules of discipline prescribed for a lay seeker have the utility and significance, only after the ground is prepared.

Twelve Vratas or Vows:

Without the pure experience of own Eternal, pure knower happiness, own soul, the following of vows will load towards wrong faith, wrong knowledge, and wrong conduct. He remains in mundane status and cannot achieve the liberation path. One�s actual and regular initiation onto the Right path is marked by his or her specifically taking the vow to observe the twelve vratas, which comprise, the five innervates, three gunavratas, and four shiksha vratas. Among the detailed rules of conduct prescribed for Jains for their actual observance the prominent place has been given to the observance of twelve vratas. Vrata or vow is a rule observed with determination and it always indicates aversion from doing foul or shameful acts or deeds and it reveals inclination or disposition towards doing good or virtuous acts or deeds. Jainism has laid down a number of such vows for actual observance and among them the twelve vratas are considered as significant, both from religious and social point of view. Even among the twelve vows the first-five vows are regarded as main vows and the remaining seven vows are treated as supplementary vows.