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Section 11 To Section -13


Peace is the spine of the harmonious functioning and working of the chores of the universe. The famous economist, Malthus, said in his theory that our earth could bear only a certain toad of weight. If weight tended to .

increase it was the duty of human beings to check the growth of population. If human efforts fail, either God or the earth itself would adopt its own measures to check it. Then there would be earth-quakes, rivers would run in spate, famines, epidemics, wars, carnages hatred among the people thru the social ostracism and religious discrimination. The examples that I have cited, all corroborate with this law of Malthus.

Historical and Pre-historical evidences prove beyond doubt that only those civilizations and cultures lived happily that had a firm base in a certain religion but also did not oppose to the onset of other religions. Hindu religion is that ancient religion that has survived all the drastic changes, attacks and influences of other religions. To quote Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru from his �Discovery of India�, �Ancient India, like ancient China, was a world in itself, a culture and a civilization which gave shape to all things. Foreign influences poured in and often influenced that culture and were absorbed. Those who professed a religion of non-Indian origin and coming to India settled down there, became distinctively Indian in the course of a few generations. � This alt-encompassing quality of Hinduism is our heritage. The tolerance and the forbearance, it shows, is unmatched anywhere in the world. There is no recorded evidence in history of a Hindu King behaving fanatically to his subjects. On the other hand, we have examples like the famous Aurangzeb who forcibly imposed Mohammedanism upon his subjects and for the stubborns who did not yield to his whim he levied the Jaziah Tax. Aurangzeb�s rule was torturous and Moghuls were looked upon as pests. That is precisely why, Shivaji, when they were compelled to camp at Chiplun, warns his soldiers and officers not to molest the ryot; otherwise according to him, they will be regarded as greater pests than even Mughals.

Hammurabi of Babylonian gave a code of conduct to his subjects in 18th century B. C. This code of conduct was followed faithfully and religiously by all the Babylonians until Nebuchadnezzar came to throne in 6th century B. C. His rule was treacherous and he deported the Jews to Babylonian after his conquest of Jerusalem. He forced the Jews to build for him hanging gardens on the terrace of his multi-storied palace. History records this palace to be one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. But this conquest of Jerusalem was a defeat to the peaceful life of the Babylonians. Babylonian civilization, now, had crevasses in her wall of Peace and the civilization crumbled down. Nursing and grooming his abhorrence for Judaism, Nebuchadnezzar became infamous in the pages of History as an Ambassador of Doom, the doom of Babylonian Civilization. Hammurabi heralded Peace in, Nebuchadnezzar said �adieu � to peace.

Today�s world is a world of competition. All the nations and countries are braving this cut-throat competition to maintain their position and to win higher accolades in the rat-race. Darwin�s universal law of �Survival of the fittest� has, once again, mushroomed up like a comet. Every-one has to keep pace with this fast-pacing world. Naturally, the peace is lost. To add spice to this misery, some fanatic leaders and mischief-mongers have come up with their novel ideas of sticking to their age-old traditions and customs of the cult and culture. The late Ayatolla Khomeini of Iran succeeded the Shah and imposed the Islamic Law in Iran barring not only the Peace but also the dazzling progress Iran had made in Shah�s regime. This Islamic Law tends to be based on male chauvinism. The free movement of women, their active part in various fields, their free activities outside the four walls of their home were restricted and thus, the unrest among the people went on rampaging against him. Same example was followed by other Moslem nations including our neighbour, Pakistan. Barbaric punishments like stoning someone to death, public flogging, cutting of limbs, chopping heads of culprits with one stroke of a sword once again found a new place in this world. Now, we read news of women being imprisoned for driving a car. This fanatic adherence to

religion has resulted in the complete loss of Peace, not only of those nations but also of the world.

When Alfred Nobel first gifted the world with his innovative invention, �The Dynamite�, he was completely oblivious to the ravages and havoc it would play in the two world wars. Seeing and experiencing the aftermath�s of his invention, he founded a trust of the sizeable amount he had earned as a royalty and started conferring the � Nobel Prize for Peace� from the interest earned on that amount. This prize is given away every year to a deserving candidate irrespective of his nationality, cast and creed, sect or religion. This, indeed, is a tribute paid to peace. The world today has understood the importance of universal brotherhood and peace.

Nelson Mandela of South Africa understood this prominent place of peace in the world, fought for it and the stubborn British government, in order to keep its dominance, had no other alternative before it but to send Mandela to goal for nearly a quarter of a century. Mandela survived the tyranny and is now out of the jail to spread once again his nectarine message of peace which is basically secular. Pope John Paul II is a Godsent angel of peace who feeds the world with the golden morsels of ambrosia of Peace slightly neglecting his own religion i. e. Christianity.

Mother Teresa is nothing but Madonna personified. Though a born Italian, she has dedicated and sacrificed her whole life for India and her down-trodden, shunned and suffering people. She wipes their tears with her compassion and wins their reluctance and rudeness for any treatment with her humility. She aptly deserves the title of Mother because she mothers the cares, worries and sufferings of all such people. Piety runs thru her veins. She is pious in bringing in universal brotherhood and Peace.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson was a man of letters. He literally ruled over the literary empire in the 19th century and became an esteemed poet with his writings like �Ulysses�, �Lotus Eaters�, �Maud� and �The charge of the Light Brigade�, He too had understood the importance of and the role played by peace in the world. I shall sum up my discussion by quoting a few of his lines from a poem �Ring out, wild bells�.

Ring out old shapes of foul disease;

Ring out the narrowing fast of gold;

Ring out the thousand wars of old,

Ring in the thousand years of Peace.

Ring in valiant men and free,

The largest heart, the kindlier hand,

Ring out the darkness of the land,

Ring in the Christ that is to be.

World -Peace for Humanity

� Prof. B. G. Ahire

In modern times people say that our nation, our race our culture is the richest of all-and this is nothing but perverted instinct and feeling which lead to only perverted nationalism. This narrow and perverted nationalism teaches and projects heart-felt devotion for a country. It doesn�t stop with this much. It makes people think how other nations are debased in all forms.

It creates feelings like hatred, dislike, in a country. And if it is fed on giant-like ambitions, the nationalism becomes more aggressive and fiery. All of us know how this type of perverted nationalism in Germany and Italy contrived two famous world wars. Still we are suffering its devastating and trailing effects. And if this perverted nationalism contrives the Third world war, the whole mankind will be destroyed. And today we see the same picture. So in modern times the feeling of World-Peace is essential.

Due to the modern science, the world is becoming far less and less. A nation with perverted nationalism however strong and rich, will be dragging at the war, and this grim picture by now, evershadows us. So there is a need to understand the culture and heritage of other nations to avoid this impending threat. Mutual understanding among all nations and co-operation, are very necessary to remove the tension that prevails over the nations of various cultures and traditions.

Man needs world-peace to make his life successful. The famous philosopher Swami Vivekanand had already recognized it. He had passed his rich, valuable views on World culture, all human religion, nation, culture, caste, race to remove the barriers of narrow principles of nationalism. He viewed of one broad world-family to create love for all religions and fraternity so as to make world culture. This, he believed, would be able to create worldpeace. He had propounded a new culture -co- ordination and humanity. In Chicago he taught people how to form an attitude towards life through broad outlook. He spoke there about what exactly should be done so as to make modern man successful in life. That is why 11th Sept. on which he delivered his speech, is declared as the day of � World Fraternity Day �.In modern times, there is heavy need of his thoughts for world-peace.

The whole human race is one and the same on earth. Although there is difference in many countries so far food, clothing, shelter life-style are concerned, the human feelings, cravings, aspirations, desires, happiness, miseries are exactly the same. Since the time immemorial, human race is struggling to develop itself. The result of this incessant struggle is seen in the form of today�s modern human culture. The prime duty of all mankind is to preserve this culture. Wars can�t stop the quarrels, but the nations are destroyed. And besides this man has to face the enemies like diseases, ignorance, superstitions, poverty and appealing strokes of earth-quakes. So these is a heavy urge and need of co-operation to face these enemies wisely. So it is always good to co-operate one another and not to think of war.

The feelings and thoughts of enmity are deeply rooted in man�s nature. So anti-war ideas ( thoughts ) should be sown at the bottom of mind. If this is once achieved, it will be possible to eradicate all misunderstandings, ignorance, and feelings of superiority and minority and build love, fraternity, sympathy, co-operation among nations. So steps should be taken at different levels. That will definitely strengthen the concept of world-peace.

Education plays an important role in strengthening the feelings of world-peace, because the condition of this world is always changing. If education makes students themselves to adjust the fluctuating times, that will be a true feat of it. So the real crux before all teachers is how they should create ideal threads of mutual relation among students and develop them to the true concept of worldpeace.

In this respect, the work of the famous poet Rabindranath Tagore is remarkable. Because he had witnessed how a narrow nationalism can lead mankind towards distraction, he did not want to repeat it in any forms. So he founded � VISHWABHARATI � on 22nd Dec. 1921 to establish world-fraternity, love and unity. � Vishwabharati � means world-culture-where all modes of culture unite quite naturally. Since its formation the university is working only for world-fraternity, love and unity. Mahatma Gandhi too sacrificed his whole life for human equality and worldpeace.

In modern times, if these super-powers put an end to their disagreements, clashes and tread the paths of mutual co-operation and fraternity, the impending war can be very easily avoided and the whole mankind will be saved. For this� all nations should join their hands and discuss the problems with a broad-outlook, because if an atomic war takes place, the whole human race and culture on this earth will lose its identity for ever. So UNO is playing a very important role in this matter. UNO became aware of the appealing effects of Iraq- Iran war which continued for eight years. The secretaries of UNO, succeeded in their efforts. UNO is only a success in itself. India �awarded the two secretaries with the prestigious awards of peace, �Nehru Peace Award� for their work. India�s efforts to establish mutual relation on international level is surely praiseworthy.

By now Iraq has devoured Kuwait. This act has threatened and disturbed the world-peace. All nations have come together, not to allow Iraq to attack Saudy Arabia, This alliance has instigated Iraq and now it is ready to use chemical weapons, if circumstance necessitates it. And here lies the seed of the Third world-war. All nations have to come together to overcome this impending doom of war.

In order to establish world-peace the president of Iraq, Saddam Hussain, should not speak in terms of weapons and war. Indian�s role in removing the Gulf Crisis is really of historical significance. No nation should speak in terms of war, but they should think of betterment of mankind. UNO should play a leading role in this matter, today.

By now, we have crossed all the narrow limits and stood on the threshold of world-history, from where the boundaries of nationalism have become vague, because international stream of thoughts, and values are going to be more prominent than our own petty religion, race, creed and culture. Now it is the duty of education to broaden the attitudes of modern citizens and train them with rich, varied experiences for fraternity. If the object of modern education is to create attitudes for world -fraternity, human values- the concept of the whole world- a family an idea as is propounded by Indian culture, will come to reality.