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  Section 17 To Section -19
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Section 17 To Section -19


 

A Jaina �Synthetic� View Regarding World Peace

* Balabhadra
( Bruce Costain, Ph.D. )

World history records many times when there have been periods of peace and harmony; and also many times when humans have been involved in periods of fighting war and destruction. From a broad view, history, on the one hand, can be analysed as being either times of peace that are interrupted by periodic unpeacefulness; or, on the other hand, times of nonpeacefulness that are interspersed with periods of some peace and harmony. Is one of the two most correct? Or, perhaps there is another view? Some logical thinking will help to reach a possible answer.

Analysis of human beings co-existing with one another indicates that while on the surface people are capable of living together, it often takes only slight disturbance for a reaction of anger and hostility to occur. This general pattern of human nature would tend to suggest that the basic nature of humans is aggressive and hostile; and it is when they control such nature that peace can occur. This then would suggest that there is a continuous need for humans to control their potentially destructive, inner nature. This understanding of what underlies human behaviour when they live with one another is not very positive and encouraging for world peace. However, do not despair. The preceding outline is only one part of a greater, optimistic picture.

The great native religions of India, that is, Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism ( listed in alphabetical order ) have probed deeply into what. has been termed the �nature of reality� of the universe �outside� humans, and also the so called universe �inside� humans. Based on their analysis of the latter, all three have come to a conclusion about basic human nature that is in direct contrast to the above conclusion that was based on historical records. In brief, all three religions ( which in essence present detailed descriptions of reality to the extent that it is humanly possible ) conclude and state that the basic nature of humans, that is, their natural state, is one of non-harming, love, happiness, gentleness, understanding, tolerance and co-operation. It is such qualities of human nature that are the basic parts necessary for a peaceful person. Obviously, such persons living and working together are what help to make-up a peaceful society.

If the basic nature of humans is that of peacefulness, how do we explain the violence and destruction which many people inflict on other humans; ( as well as other living beings ) ? A thorough outline of the answer is beyond the scope of this paper. ( However it is a very important area of further research and writing for students of all ages. ) In brief, it can be said that humans have come to believe that the basic elements of human willful violence and destruction, i. e., anger, greed, ego ( pride ), deceit, and ignorance ( of their true peaceful self ) are their nature. It has been and is the important role of religions world-wide to help people to become aware and experience their true peaceful nature, and to act and live accordingly. And obviously, living as to our peaceful nature, how can we willfully cause harm and destruction to others?

Now the important question of whether world peace is possible, needs to be addressed. World history would tend to indicate that tong-lasting peace on a global scale may not be possible. While tending to appear negative for large groups of people, the situation is the exact opposite for the individual. A constant message brought forth by many religions as well as other great thinkers world-wide and through out history, is that � for peace to occur on the �outside�, first it ( peace ) must occur on the �inside.� In other words, if people desire a peaceful �outer� environment they must begin by making their �inner� environment peaceful.

This inner � housecleaning� of the preceding cause of violence and destruction, as the correct strategy for peace, is very clear and practical in two main ways. First, if an attempt is not made to reduce inner non-peacefulness then the slightest disturbance from the outside may possibly result in a hostile reaction towards those people involved. However, when inner peacefulness is present then outer disturbances can have less of an effect, resulting in continued happiness and tolerance. In this latter way, mutual co-operation in resolving problems can be increased.

The second factor is more personally important for the individual. Although it is more pleasant to think idealistically, we must be realistic and ask the question, � What if world peace does not occur?� If it does not, does this mean that concerned individuals will need to become upset, disturbed, non-peaceful, depressed and perhaps emotionally and physically devastated? The answer is a definite �No� I Regardless of the circumstances, whether peacefulness or non-peacefulness in the world, our main duty is to realize, experience and �be� our true nature, As part of our true nature is peacefulness then it is our responsibility to be what we are: that is, to � be� that real � Self � to be �peacefulness.�

While the preceding may appear to be �selfish� on the surface, it is one of the greatest contributions an individual can make toward changing a non-peaceful situation. When you remain true to your real peaceful nature then you are a pillar of strength for the ethically feeble, an unwavering example of correct human conduct, a stabilizing force in the face of uncertainty and emotional deterioration, and a beacon of light by which humans can see the way to regain their proper stature. Thus, regardless of the outer situation, whether there is peace or disharmony, when we act according to what we truly are, we achieve our cherished objective of personal peace and harmony; long-term and uninterrupted.




Does the Religion Obstract the Global Peace ?

* R. N. Joshi

After taking great efforts and considerable precautions if the expected goal is not achieved then man comes to the conclusion that the whale world is controlled by a divine, invisible power and supposes supreme power to be a �God.� Man started to worship the supreme power to get his desires favourably disposed. Various precepts and rites are born through this worship. �The belief on the existence of the supreme power and the use of various precepts and rites for favourable disposal of his desires is, combinely known as Religion. � Edward Tylor has defined the religion as above but according to Sir James Frazer �The religion is the religious service with belief of the supreme power which directs and controls the human-living and nature cycle. � Thus according to Tylor the creation of the religion is based on Ahimism while according to Maxmullar it is based on Naturism. But the scientific aspect of blind faith and behaviour was then considered through the sociological view and the same is called as the work preference hypothesis. Emil Durkhaim in France, Radcliff Brown and Malinovski in England, Maxweber in Germany and Talcott Parsons, in America accepted the work preference hypothesis and said that the religion touches all the sides of the society and human beings through different angles. Religion is the important part of the society, therefore the scientific study of the society leads to the religion.

The word Dharma ( religion ) is created from the root of the verb � Dhri � means to possess. By the observations of the changes in the Religion till today it becomes evident that there is a deep impression of the society.� Aaryas � impressed by the beautiful land of the �Sapta sindhu� five thousand years ago captured the � Bharatakhanda �, on getting victory against the � Dravidas. � Then the Vaidik Dharma commenced. Aryas were forward in progressive thoughts. They were perfect and skilful in using weapons than the Dravidas. So within a short period and with little efforts they got settled. The aim of the creation of the religion is mysterious. In the beginning the worship of Prithvi, Aap, Tej, Wau, Akash ( land, water, wind and space ) was started. This custom of worship might have been started under the influence of fear and to save themselves from these natural powers and to achieve expected desires. Because of this, the principles of religion, production of thoughtful religious books like Veda, Upanishads came in to existence. To keep the continuation in Nature cycle, and to keep the mutual dealing orderly, the arrangement of the �Chaturvarnye System� was made. The excess use of worship, unnecessary customs and traditions, Sanskrit language, sacrifice, unhealthy competition for superiority, untouchability, precepts and rites created disrespect about the � Vaidik Dharma � in the society.

Before 2,500 years, the great penancer and philosopher Shree Vardhaman Mahavira propagated the Jain religion. He performed the penance for twelve years and achieved the victory on organs, was known as �Jina� and his religion is called as �Jaina Religion.� He had a great personality. He taught the religious principles in simple and easy Ardhamagadhi language with sweet speeches. He gave up the clumsy precepts, and rites, discarding the diversity and the killings, love for others, kindness for living-beings, good-behaviour, equality, control on the organs give liberation from sin.

The founder of Buddhism Gautama Buddha, then after 50 years entered with very simple and easy thoughts in � Pali� language. The people quickly accepted the principle of keeping the faith only in religion, sangha and Buddha. There was no place for precepts, traditions and customs, sacrifice and worship. Due to the Emperor�s support, Buddhism spread out speedily. Then after 1300 years Zaratushtra established Parasi Religion and Mohammad Paigambar established Muslim Religion. The changes in the religion took place because of differences in the principles, languages, places of belief and superiority. We know that, �Yada yada hi Dharmasya Glanirbhavati Bharata, Abhyutthanaya Dharmsya Tadatmanam Srijamyaham. �

And

� Paritranaya sadhunam Vinashaya cha Duskrutam,

� Dharmasansthapanarthaya sambhavami yuge yuge.

Thus the God has promised to destroy the wickedness to protect the goodness and to establish the religion when required. It is favourable to adore the religion by knowing the central idea of the above promise and the religion assignation. It is the requirement of the time to keep equality in all the religions and to show the tolerance to the other religions. To give superiority to the humanity is the prime duty of the human being today. Man has to go ahead by accepting the above path consciously. Considering the differences within the customs, traditions, rites and religious thoughts, it is essential to remember that �service to society is a service to God. � If the proper rite is used oftenly it becomes tradition and good custom rises through it. Therefore it is natural that everybody should serve with good intent for the establishment of humanism.

In the advanced society the religion has to carry out the following various functions.

1. The religion gives us social integration. Religious faith, rituals, behavior, deity, prayer create affection in the society.

2. In the religious functions the people come together by giving up the alienation. Therefore the religion is a unique medium to create the homogeneous society.

3. With the help of religion some social welfare plans are completed with which the social improvement takes place. In Europe and other western countries the work of temples, mosques, educational aids, cultural activities, schools, farm-improvements, dispensaries, residents and support to the old and helpless is done with the help of religion.

4. The religion creates and increases the personality of man and shows a peaceful path giving courage in calamities.

5. The religion stimulates the internal emotions. The religious institutions show the way externally. The religion gives the happiness and satisfaction of this world and the other world.

It becomes clear from the above interpretation that religion does not obstruct the way of world peace but removes the obstructions in the way and opens the doors of world peace to the human-beings, by which man can achieve the internal peace, satisfaction and liberation in this world and that ( another ) world.

The science has highly progressed in the twentieth century. The thing which was unknown yesterday has become known with its existence. The analysis and explanation of the religious precepts and principles can not be done with the help of practicals scientifically. In religion there is trust and reliance on belief, blind belief, customs and traditions, rites, pity and universal compassion, tales and folktales, imitation and equation. Science provides us all physical conveniences while religion gives peace of mind and satisfaction.

The great scientist Einstein has said that religion and science, are the two sides of a coin. Religion and science should go along separate but parallel lines to each other. The great philosophers namely Aristotale Russoe and Dui were in favour of religion. Many scientists behave religiously at home but in laboratory behave with scientific aspect which proves their tolerance towards religion. There is a consolidation of faith and science in the discovery of the clock pendulum in church, the support of a dream in Benzene�s use of assumptions, the creation of small-pox vaccine from the udder, the existence and the structure of an atom. In England, there is a castle named � Tower of London, � in which some crows are enclosed in a metal gauze. It is believed that the kingdom of a Royal family in England will remain unopposed till the crows are enclosed in that castle. When the great scientist Einstein went to Kopanhegan in Denmark to see the great scientist Nils Bohr, he observed a horse-shoe fixed at the top of the door. The presence of the horse-shoe was supposed as a symbol of good symptom. In America the teaching of Darwin�s Evolution theory was prohibited upto 1966-67 in schools because there was difference in Darwin�s theory and the theory of world creation as noted in the Bible.

The above example explains that the religion and science are dependent on each other and affect each other. It is necessary to discuss about the religion through the socio logical and psychological view by sacrificing the rites and observances, and discarding traditions and evil customs. One can experience liberation, peace of mind, happiness content and fearlessness by giving up the blind and worshiping the alert faith. There is a deep effect of religious revolution and religious thought on the society. The religion controls the composition and the affairs of the society. A great saint has said that,

� Jat pat poocho nahin, pooch lijiye dnyan,

Mola karo talavaraka, fek dijiye myan.

The above lines give the perception that the religious institutions, followers, worshippers, should give up the blind faith, and should study the religious principles scientifically. Then only religion and science will go together certainly. It will lead to the final victory of humanity, religion, equality, tolerance for others, no doubt.