(D) One-sensed souls
The immobile or one-sensed souls are of five kinds, viz., (i) prthvi-kaya,
i.e., earth-bodied, (ii) ap-kaya, i.e., water bodied, (iii) tejah-kaya,
i.e., fire-bodied, (iv) vayu-kaya, i.e., air bodied, and (v)
vanaspati-kaya, i.e., vegetable-bodied.
The Jaina belief that `nearly everything is possessed of a soul� has been
characterised as animistic and hylozoistic by some scholars and therefore
they regarded Jainism as a very primitive religion. But a careful study of
Jaina scriptures shows that Jainism cannot be termed as animistic faith
because Jainism makes a clear distinction between soul and non-soul. It
cannot be labelled as animism in the sense that `everything is possessed
of a soul�.
(E) Many-sensed souls
There are in all five senses of touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing and
therefore the mobile or many-sensed souls are classified accord�ingly into
four classes, viz.,
(i) dvi-indriya jivas, i.e., those souls which have first two senses of
touch and taste, for example, worms, etc.,
(ii) Pi-indriya jivas, i.e., those souls which have first three senses of
touch, taste and smell, for example, ants, etc.,
(iii) chatur-indriya jivas, i.e., those souls which have first four senses
of touch, taste, smell and sight, for example, bumble�bee, etc., and
(iv) pattcha-indriya jivas, i.e., those souls which have all the five
senses of touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing, for example, human
Thus we find that in each class there is one sense organ more than those
of the one preceding it.
(F) Grades of mundane souls
From another point of view mundane beings are divided into four grades
according to the place where they are born or their condition of
existence. The forms of existence or gatis are of four kinds, viz., (i)
naraka-gati, that is, hellish form, (ii) tiryag-gati, that is, sub-human
form, (iii) manusya-gati; that is, human form, and (iv) deva-gad, that is,
It is asserted that mundane beings are born in these four gatis according
to their punya-karmas, i.e., merits or papa-karmas i.e., demerits. Jainism
further believes that for moksa, i.e., complete salvation, birth in the
human form is essential and that those in other forms or gatis will attain
salvation only after taking birth in manusya�gati, i.e., human form.
(G) Characteristics of mundane souls
The mundane souls are always in the impure state, and in this state their
features are described in the classical text Dravya-sarigraha in the
Prakrit language :
Jivo uvaogamao amutti katta sadehaparimano
Bhotta samsarattho siddho so vissasoddhagai
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(i) Jiva : It lived in the past, is living now and shall live for ever.
(ii) Upayogamaya : It has perception and knowledge.
(iii) Amurti : It is formless, that is, it has no touch, taste, smell or
(v) Kartr : It is the only responsible agent of all its actions.
(vi) Svadeha parimana : It fills the body which it occupies, for example,
that of an ant or an elephant.
(vii) Bhoktr : It enjoys the fruits of its karmas
(viii) Sarrisarastha : It wanders in Sarir.sara.
(ix) Siddha : It can become in its perfect condition, siddha (ix)
Cfrdhvagati : It has the tendency to go upwards.
As we have seen Jaina philosophy starts with a perfect division of the
universe into living and non-living substances, ajiva and ajiva. The ajiva,
i.e. non-living or non-soul substances are of five kinds, namely, (i)
Pudgala, i.e., matter, (ii) dharma i.e., medium of motion, (iii) adharma,
i.e., medium of rest, (iv) akasa, i.e., space, and (v) kada, i.e., time.
These six substances are called dravyas, i.e., elementary substances, in
Jaina philosophy. It should be noted that the terms dharma and adharma
have a special significance other than the usual meaning of punya and
papa, i.e., merit and demerit.
A dravya has got three characterics as follows : (a) first, dravya has the
quality of existence, (b) secondly, dravya has the quality of permanence
through origination and destruction, and (c) thirdly, dravya is the
substratum of attributes and modes.
Thus the dravya is uncreated and indestructible, its essential quali�ties
remain the same and it is only its paryaya or mode of condition, that can
and does change.
Whatever is perceived by the senses, the sense organs themselves, the
various kinds of bodies of Jivas, the mind, the karmas, and the other
material objects-all of these are known as pudgala or matter.
Dharma is the principle of motion, the accompanying circumstance or cause
which makes motion possible. Just as water itself, being indifferent or
neutral, is the condition of movement of fishes, so dharma, itself
non-motive, is the sine qua non of motion of, jivas and pudgalas Hence
dharma is co-terminus with the universe, and is one substance unlike jiva
and pudgala which are infinite in number.
Adharma or the principle of rest has all the characteristics asso�ciated
with dharnaa. But it is like the earth the sine qua non of rest for things
What contains or accommodates completely all Jivas and pudgalas and the
remaining dravyas in the universe is termed as akasa or space. It is very
pertinent to note that in Jaina philosophy the term akasa means space and
not ether as it is very often interpreted in other systems of Indian
That which is the cause or circumstance of the modification of the soul
and other dravyas is kala, that is, time. It is immaterial and it has the
peculiar attribute of helping the modification of other substances.
It is thus clear that dharma, adharma and akasa are each a single dravya,
whereas jiva, pudgala and kala are held to be manifold dravyas.
Further, it must be remembered that the doctrines of Jainism firmly
emphasize that these six Jiva and a jiva dravyas, i.e., living and
non-living substances, are externally existing, uncreated and with no
beginning in time. As substances they are eternal and unchanging but their
modifications are passing through a flux of changes. Their mutual
co-operation and interaction explain all that we imply by the term
`creation�. Hence the doctrines of Jainism do not admit of any �Creator�
of this universe.
The third principle asrava signifies the influx of karmic matter into the
constitution of the soul. Combination of karmic matter with Jiva or soul
is due to the activity of mind, speech or body. In other words, Yoga is
the name of a faculty of the soul itself, to attract matter under the
influence of past karmas. Hence in the embodied state this faculty rows
Thus Yoga is the channel of asrava. The physical matter which is actually
drawn to the soul cannot be perceived by the senses as it is very line.
Further, asrava is of two kinds, viz. (a) subha asrava, i.e., good infiux,
and (b) asubha asrava, i.e., bad influx.
The subha asrava is the inlet of virtue or meritorious karmas, and a subha
asrava is the inlet of vice or demeritorious karmas.
When the karmic matter enters the soul, both get imperceptibly mixed with
each other. Bandha or bondage is the assimilation of matter which is fit
to form karmas by the soul as it is associated with passions. This union
of spirit and matter does not imply a complete annihilation of their
natural properties, but only a suspension of their functions, in varying
degrees, according to the quality and quantity of the matter absorbed.
Thus the effect of the fusion of the spirit and matter is manifested in
the form of a compound personality which partakes of the nature of both,
without actually destroying either.
The causes of bandha or bondage are five, viz., (i) mithyu-darsana, i.e.
wrong belief or faith, or wrong perception, (ii) avirati, i.e.,
vowlessness or non-renunciation, (iii) pramada, i.e., carelessness, (iv)
kasaya, i.e. passions, and (v) yoga, i.e., vibrations in the soul through
mind, speech and body.
Further, this bandha or bondage is of four kinds according to (i) prakrti,
i.e., nature of karmic matter which has invested the soul; (ii) sthiti,
i.e., duration of the attachment of karmic matter to the soul; (iii)
anubhdga� i.e., the intensity or the character-strong or mild-of the
actual fruition of the karmic matter, and (iv) pradesa, i.e., the number
of karmic molecules which attach to the soul.
Effective states of desire and aversion, and activity of thought, speech
or body are the conditions that attract karmas, good and bad, towards the
soul. When these conditions are removed, there will be no karmas
approaching the Jiva, that is complete samvara-a sort of protective wall
shutting out all the karmas is established round the self. This samvara is
described as Asrava-nirodhah sumvarah that is, samvara is the stoppage of
inflow of karmic matter into the soul.
There are several ways through which this stoppage could be effected and
further inflow of karmic matter into the soul could be checked.
Nirjara means the falling away of karmic matter from the soul. It is
obvious that the soul will be rendered free by the automatic shedding of
the karmas when they become ripe. But this falling away of karmas is by
itself a lengthy process. Hence with a view to shorten this process, it is
asserted that the falling away of karmic matter from the soul can be
deliberately brought through the practice of austerities.
This nirjara is of two kinds: (i) Savipaka nirjara: It is the natural
maturing of a karma and its separation from the soul, and (ii) Avipaka
nirjara : It is inducing a karma to leave the soul, before it gets
ripened, by means of ascetic practices. In this way, in the savipaka
nirjara the soul, in the maturity of time, is rid of the karmas by their
operating and falling off from it; and in the avipaka nirjara, the knrmas,
which had not yet matured to operate, are induced to fall off Imm the
Moksa is described as Bandhahetvabhavanirjarabhyum krisnakarmavipramokso
moksah, that is, moksa or liberation is the freedom from all karmic
matter, owing to the non-existence of the cause of bondage and shedding of
all the karmas. Thus complete freedom of the soul from karmic matter is
This condition is obtained when the soul and matter are separated from
each other. Complete separation is effected when all the karmas have left
the soul, and no more karmic matter can be attracted towards it.