Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions - ASPECTS OF JAINA RELIGION

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Fore Word



(D) One-sensed souls

The immobile or one-sensed souls are of five kinds, viz., (i) prthvi-kaya, i.e., earth-bodied, (ii) ap-kaya, i.e., water bodied, (iii) tejah-kaya, i.e., fire-bodied, (iv) vayu-kaya, i.e., air bodied, and (v) vanaspati-kaya, i.e., vegetable-bodied.

The Jaina belief that `nearly everything is possessed of a soul� has been characterised as animistic and hylozoistic by some scholars and therefore they regarded Jainism as a very primitive religion. But a careful study of Jaina scriptures shows that Jainism cannot be termed as animistic faith because Jainism makes a clear distinction between soul and non-soul. It cannot be labelled as animism in the sense that `everything is possessed of a soul�.

(E) Many-sensed souls

There are in all five senses of touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing and therefore the mobile or many-sensed souls are classified accord�ingly into four classes, viz.,

(i) dvi-indriya jivas, i.e., those souls which have first two senses of touch and taste, for example, worms, etc.,

(ii) Pi-indriya jivas, i.e., those souls which have first three senses of touch, taste and smell, for example, ants, etc.,

(iii) chatur-indriya jivas, i.e., those souls which have first four senses of touch, taste, smell and sight, for example, bumble�bee, etc., and

(iv) pattcha-indriya jivas, i.e., those souls which have all the five senses of touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing, for example, human beings etc.

Thus we find that in each class there is one sense organ more than those of the one preceding it.

(F) Grades of mundane souls

From another point of view mundane beings are divided into four grades according to the place where they are born or their condition of existence. The forms of existence or gatis are of four kinds, viz., (i) naraka-gati, that is, hellish form, (ii) tiryag-gati, that is, sub-human form, (iii) manusya-gati; that is, human form, and (iv) deva-gad, that is, celestial form.

It is asserted that mundane beings are born in these four gatis according to their punya-karmas, i.e., merits or papa-karmas i.e., demerits. Jainism further believes that for moksa, i.e., complete salvation, birth in the human form is essential and that those in other forms or gatis will attain salvation only after taking birth in manusya�gati, i.e., human form.

(G) Characteristics of mundane souls

The mundane souls are always in the impure state, and in this state their features are described in the classical text Dravya-sarigraha in the Prakrit language :

Jivo uvaogamao amutti katta sadehaparimano

Bhotta samsarattho siddho so vissasoddhagai

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(i) Jiva : It lived in the past, is living now and shall live for ever.

(ii) Upayogamaya : It has perception and knowledge.

(iii) Amurti : It is formless, that is, it has no touch, taste, smell or colour.

(v) Kartr : It is the only responsible agent of all its actions.

(vi) Svadeha parimana : It fills the body which it occupies, for example, that of an ant or an elephant.

(vii) Bhoktr : It enjoys the fruits of its karmas

(viii) Sarrisarastha : It wanders in Sarir.sara.

(ix) Siddha : It can become in its perfect condition, siddha (ix) Cfrdhvagati : It has the tendency to go upwards.

(2) Ajiva

As we have seen Jaina philosophy starts with a perfect division of the universe into living and non-living substances, ajiva and ajiva. The ajiva, i.e. non-living or non-soul substances are of five kinds, namely, (i) Pudgala, i.e., matter, (ii) dharma i.e., medium of motion, (iii) adharma, i.e., medium of rest, (iv) akasa, i.e., space, and (v) kada, i.e., time.

These six substances are called dravyas, i.e., elementary substances, in Jaina philosophy. It should be noted that the terms dharma and adharma have a special significance other than the usual meaning of punya and papa, i.e., merit and demerit.

A dravya has got three characterics as follows : (a) first, dravya has the quality of existence, (b) secondly, dravya has the quality of permanence through origination and destruction, and (c) thirdly, dravya is the substratum of attributes and modes.

Thus the dravya is uncreated and indestructible, its essential quali�ties remain the same and it is only its paryaya or mode of condition, that can and does change.

(A) Pudgala

Whatever is perceived by the senses, the sense organs themselves, the various kinds of bodies of Jivas, the mind, the karmas, and the other material objects-all of these are known as pudgala or matter.

(B) Dharma

Dharma is the principle of motion, the accompanying circumstance or cause which makes motion possible. Just as water itself, being indifferent or neutral, is the condition of movement of fishes, so dharma, itself non-motive, is the sine qua non of motion of, jivas and pudgalas Hence dharma is co-terminus with the universe, and is one substance unlike jiva and pudgala which are infinite in number.

(C) Adharma

Adharma or the principle of rest has all the characteristics asso�ciated with dharnaa. But it is like the earth the sine qua non of rest for things in motion.

(D) Akasa

What contains or accommodates completely all Jivas and pudgalas and the remaining dravyas in the universe is termed as akasa or space. It is very pertinent to note that in Jaina philosophy the term akasa means space and not ether as it is very often interpreted in other systems of Indian philosophy.

(E) Kala

That which is the cause or circumstance of the modification of the soul and other dravyas is kala, that is, time. It is immaterial and it has the peculiar attribute of helping the modification of other substances.

It is thus clear that dharma, adharma and akasa are each a single dravya, whereas jiva, pudgala and kala are held to be manifold dravyas.

Further, it must be remembered that the doctrines of Jainism firmly emphasize that these six Jiva and a jiva dravyas, i.e., living and non-living substances, are externally existing, uncreated and with no beginning in time. As substances they are eternal and unchanging but their modifications are passing through a flux of changes. Their mutual co-operation and interaction explain all that we imply by the term `creation�. Hence the doctrines of Jainism do not admit of any �Creator� of this universe.

13) Asrava

The third principle asrava signifies the influx of karmic matter into the constitution of the soul. Combination of karmic matter with Jiva or soul is due to the activity of mind, speech or body. In other words, Yoga is the name of a faculty of the soul itself, to attract matter under the influence of past karmas. Hence in the embodied state this faculty rows into play.

Thus Yoga is the channel of asrava. The physical matter which is actually drawn to the soul cannot be perceived by the senses as it is very line.

Further, asrava is of two kinds, viz. (a) subha asrava, i.e., good infiux, and (b) asubha asrava, i.e., bad influx.

The subha asrava is the inlet of virtue or meritorious karmas, and a subha asrava is the inlet of vice or demeritorious karmas.

(4) Bandha

When the karmic matter enters the soul, both get imperceptibly mixed with each other. Bandha or bondage is the assimilation of matter which is fit to form karmas by the soul as it is associated with passions. This union of spirit and matter does not imply a complete annihilation of their natural properties, but only a suspension of their functions, in varying degrees, according to the quality and quantity of the matter absorbed. Thus the effect of the fusion of the spirit and matter is manifested in the form of a compound personality which partakes of the nature of both, without actually destroying either.

The causes of bandha or bondage are five, viz., (i) mithyu-darsana, i.e. wrong belief or faith, or wrong perception, (ii) avirati, i.e., vowlessness or non-renunciation, (iii) pramada, i.e., carelessness, (iv) kasaya, i.e. passions, and (v) yoga, i.e., vibrations in the soul through mind, speech and body.

Further, this bandha or bondage is of four kinds according to (i) prakrti, i.e., nature of karmic matter which has invested the soul; (ii) sthiti, i.e., duration of the attachment of karmic matter to the soul; (iii) anubhdga� i.e., the intensity or the character-strong or mild-of the actual fruition of the karmic matter, and (iv) pradesa, i.e., the number of karmic molecules which attach to the soul.

(5) Samvara

Effective states of desire and aversion, and activity of thought, speech or body are the conditions that attract karmas, good and bad, towards the soul. When these conditions are removed, there will be no karmas approaching the Jiva, that is complete samvara-a sort of protective wall shutting out all the karmas is established round the self. This samvara is described as Asrava-nirodhah sumvarah that is, samvara is the stoppage of inflow of karmic matter into the soul.

There are several ways through which this stoppage could be effected and further inflow of karmic matter into the soul could be checked.

(6) Nirjara

Nirjara means the falling away of karmic matter from the soul. It is obvious that the soul will be rendered free by the automatic shedding of the karmas when they become ripe. But this falling away of karmas is by itself a lengthy process. Hence with a view to shorten this process, it is asserted that the falling away of karmic matter from the soul can be deliberately brought through the practice of austerities.

This nirjara is of two kinds: (i) Savipaka nirjara: It is the natural maturing of a karma and its separation from the soul, and (ii) Avipaka nirjara : It is inducing a karma to leave the soul, before it gets ripened, by means of ascetic practices. In this way, in the savipaka nirjara the soul, in the maturity of time, is rid of the karmas by their operating and falling off from it; and in the avipaka nirjara, the knrmas, which had not yet matured to operate, are induced to fall off Imm the soul.

(7) Moksa

Moksa is described as Bandhahetvabhavanirjarabhyum krisnakarmavipramokso moksah,  that is, moksa or liberation is the freedom from all karmic matter, owing to the non-existence of the cause of bondage and shedding of all the karmas. Thus complete freedom of the soul from karmic matter is called moksa.

This condition is obtained when the soul and matter are separated from each other. Complete separation is effected when all the karmas have left the soul, and no more karmic matter can be attracted towards it.