(ayus), body-making (nama) and the status determining (gotra), exist
and function in the structure of the self.- When the
duration of three Karmas lacks equality with the duration of Ayu
Karman, and an Antar�muhurta remains for the soul to attain
disembodied liberation, a certain process of equalization technically
known as Samudghata, takes place in the omniscient being.' The term
Samudghata implies the emanation of the Pradesas of the soul along
with Karmic and electric bodies from the gross body without leaving
it.2 Now, the self before taking recourse to the stoppage of
vibrational activities undergoes the process of Samu�dghata in the
thirteenth Gunasthana for accommodating other three Karmas to
When the equalisation process has come to
an end, the omniscient soul in the thirteenth Gunasthana turns to the
cessation of vibrational activities, and just after doing this he
enters the fourteenth stage of spiritual evolution called Ayoga Kavali
Gunasthana where the soul stays for the time required for pronouncing
five syllables-a, i, u, r, 1r3. After this the disembodied
liberation results. In this Gunasthana the Atman has crowned himself
with a great number of mystical virtues, has attained steadiness like
the Meru mountain, has stopped the influx of all sorts of Karmic
particles, and has become devoid of Yogas4 (activities of body, mind
SIDDHA STATE OR TRANSCENDENTAL LIFE
PAR-EXCELLENCE: This stage is immediately followed by final
emancipation, which is the same as dis�embodied liberation, the last
consummation of the spirit, the attainment of Siddhahood,
transcendental life par-excellence, and the state of Videha Mukti.
This state of self is beyond Gunasthanas. Just after the termina�tion
of the last stage of spiritual evolution, the soul in one instant goes
to the end of the Loka, since beyond that there is no medium of motion
in the Aloka.5 The upward motion of the self is on account of the
fourfold reasons.' First, it is due to the persistence of the effects
of previous strenuous endeavors for disenthralment, just as the wheel
of the potter continues to move even when the force of hand is
removed. Secondly, it is on account of the fact of freedom from the
Karmic weight, just as there
LXII-43. 2 Gornma.
Ji. 667. The Jaina recognises the five types of
bodies. 1. Audarika-8arira-(Gross body).
(Transformable body). 3. Aharaka (Projectable) 4. Taijasa
(Electric). 5. Karmana (Karmic).Sarvdrtha.
II. 36. 3
Jniznd. LXII-59. 4
Gomma. Ji. 65. Sat.
Niyama. 175, 183. 6Sarvartha.X.6,7.
is the upward motion of the Tumadi in
water after the dissolution of the burden of clay. Thirdly, it
results owing to the destruction of all Karmas, just as there is the
upward movement of castor-seed after the bondage of cover is removed.
Lastly, it is due to its intrinsic nature which manifests owing to the
absence of the aberrant power of Karmas like the upward direction of
the lam flame in the absence of the deflecting wind. In other words,
the original dwelling place of the Atman is the top of the Loka; and
it is only due to the Karmic encumbrance that the Atman has been
forced to bear the mundane form; and when he has attained supreme
consciousness of his inherent nature, he is quite consistent in
resorting to his actual habitation.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SIDDHA STATE:
The Siddha state transcends the realm of cause and effect, inasmuch as
the Dravya and Bhava Karmas and the consequential four types of
transmigratory existence have ceased to exist. The category of
causality is applicable only to mundane souls and not to the Siddha
who is an unconditioned being. Kundakunda announces that the Siddha
is neither the product of anything nor produces anything, hence
neither effect nor cause.1 According to the
Satkhandagama he who has destroyed all the Karmas, who is
independent of external objects, who has attained infinite, unique,
intrinsic and unalloyed bliss, who is not attached to anything, who
has achieved steady nature, who is devoid of all sorts of
mal-characteristics, who is the receptacle of all virtues, and who has
made the top of the universe his permanent abode, is Siddha.2
The acquisition of Siddhahood is indistinguishable from the
accomplishment of Nirvana,3 where, negatively speaking,
there is neither pain, nor pleasure, nor any Karmas nor auspicious and
inauspicious Dhyanas, nor anything such as annoyance, obstruction,
and, where, positively speaking, there is perfect intuition,
knowledge, bliss, potency, immateriality and existence.4
The Acaranga pronounces �All sounds recoil thence where
speculation has no room, nor does the mind penetrate there.� �The
liberated is without body, without resurrection, without contact of
matter; he is not feminine, nor masculine, nor neuter; he perceives,
he knows, but there is of analogy; its essence is without form; there
is no condition of the unconditioned.5 This state of
36. 2 sat. Vol. I. P. 200. 3 Niyama.
183. 4 Niyama. 178 to 181.
self is the termination of mystic�s
journey. It is the final destination for which the self was all along
struggling. In other words, the history of the Siddha state of self
is the history of his mystical trials and tribulations in his march
from bondage to freedom. Also, it is the history of the triumphant
conclusion of his moral and spiritual exertions.
The Jaina and the non-Jaina Indian Ethical
SUMMARY OF THE PREVIOUS
CHAPTER: In our previous discussion of the �Mystical Significance of
Jaina Ethics�, we have pointed out how the human self emerging from
the cave of passions rests in the in the abode of transcendental
consciousness. The Bahiratman accepts every thing as his own, the
Antaratman negates all, but the Paramatman neither accepts nor negates
but transcends these dualities of acceptances and negation. In the
first place, the Jaina conception of mysticism and its relation to
metaphysics have been explained. Secondly, the plight of the self
steeped in ignorance and the nature and process of emergence of
spiritual conversion as distinguished from the ethical and the
intellectual conversion have been expounded. Thirdly, we have shown
the necessity of purgation and moral preparation with proper emphasis
on Svadhyya and devotion. Fourthly, the conception of illumination,
and the possibility of the two types of fall, first, from spiritual
conversion and, secondly, from illumination have been dealt with.
And, fifthly, the characteristics of transcendental life in the form
of embodies and disembodied liberation have been ported. To sum up,
we have delineated all the above States of the self under the fourteen
stages of spiritual evolution along with the Siddha state which
transcends these stages.
In Indian soil we find the
growth of different, solutions for the ontological, ethical and
religious problems. The Vdeic, the Jaina, the Buddhist and the
materialistic (Carvaka) speculations illustrate the enormous
divergence of thought current in the domain of philosophy. The term
�Vedic� needs elucidation. It includes two-fold philosophic
literature. First, it comprehends within its sweep the Vedas, the
Brahmanas, the Upanisads, the Bhagavad-Gita, the Brahmasutra
along with its interoperations, and the Puva-Mimamsa. Secondly,
the systems like Nyaya-Vaisesika, Samkhya-Yoga which do not challenge
the authority of the Vedas are also comprised under its extent.
Notwithstanding the difference in metaphysical conclusions arrived at
by the various trends of thought, their exponents, confronted with the
same sort of transitoriness of thing of the world, have resorted to
similar methods and contrivances in order to go beyond the manifest
superficialities of objects. It is astonishing that they concur
remarkably with one another on the psychological, ethical and
religious planes of existence. In the present chapter we propose to
confine ourselves to the study of the ethical considerations as found
in the Rg-Veda, the Brahmanas, the Upainsads, the
Bhagad-Gita, the Vedanta of Samkara, the PurvaMimamsa, the
Nyaya-Vaisesika, the Samkhya-Yoga and early Buddhism. We set aside
the Carvaka Materialism because it adheres only to the sensuous
outlook and smothers all the consciousness of deeper meaning in life.1
it refuses to rise above the hedonistic level of thinking and
living. Naturally, all the systems of Indian philosophy including
Jainism depreciate such an unwholesome and superficial perspective.
Before proceeding to the
comparative study of the ethical ideal recognised by the various
currents of thought, we shall deal with the attitude of the Rg-Veda
and the Brahmanas toward the moral issues, inasmuch as they isolate
themselves notably from the later developments in the province of
philosophy. Besides, we shall trace, in a very brief way, the
relation of the Upanisads to the Rg-Veda and the Brahmanas
which will enable us to witness a tremendous change in the attitude of
the Upanisadic seers, and the advance of the Upanisads on the Rg-Veda
and the Brahamanas.
ETHICS OF THE RG-VEDA AND
BRAHMANAS: The conception of Rta in the Rg-Veda furnishes us
with the stand of morality. �it is the Satya or the truth of the
things. Disorder or An-Rta is flathead, the opposition of truth.2
The goal of conduct is held out as prosperity.3 �Right
conduct according with one�s conscience and understanding seems to be
stressed as an independent value.4� �Malign intention,
1Outline of Indian
Philosophy, p. 194/.
VII-56. 12; IX-115. 4; II-6. 10; IV-5.5; VIII-6. 2; 12; VII-47. 3.
Vide Radhakrishnan: Indian Philosophy Vol. I. P. 110.
I-189. 1; VIII-97. 13, vide History of philosophy Eastern &
Western, p. 46.
X-31. 2. Vide Ibid.
swearing, falsehood, imprecation, calumniation,
back-biting, dishonesty, sorcery, gambling, debt, egoistic enjoyment,
wantonness or adultery, theft and any injury to life are sins, while
honesty, rectitude, fellow feeling, charity, non-violence,
truthfulness, salutary and agreeable speech, continence and control of
senses, reverential faith and austerity are virtues highly extolled�1
The five-fold duties of man towards gods, seers, manes, men, and lower
creation have been recognized, in the
EVALUATION OF THE UPANISADIC
CONTENTS: After stating briefly the ethical virtues as propounded by
the Rg-Veda and the Brahmanas, the Vedic hymns to the Upanisads
indicates the displacement of the objective side of religion by the
subjective one. There is exhibited a transplantation of interest from
God to self, from the extrinsic to the intrinsic aspect of life. In
the hymns of the Rg-Veda the personified forces of nature
engage our attention, but on the contrary in the Upanishads, the
exploration of the depths of the soul of man occupies the energies of
the seers. The Katha Upanisad recognizes that the wise man
striving for immortality turns his eyes inward and peeps into the self
within.3 This sort of penetration into the profundities of
human self banishes the offering of prayers to gods and goddesses for
materi8al prosperity, and results into the recognition of the
consubstantiality of the spirit in man and the great cosmic power.
Brahman which is the ultimate cosmic principle or the source of the
whole universe has been identified with the deepest self in each man�s
heart.4 It may be pointed out that the identification of
Brahman and Atman pre-eminently pertain to the Upanisadic age. It is
here that the cosmological and theological approaches to the problem
of ultimate reality were subordinated to the psychological approach.
The subservience of world and God to self is specifically Upanisadic.
In the words of Professor RANADE, �As we pass from the Vedas to the
Upanishads we pass from prayer to philosophy, from hymnology to
reflection, from henotheistic polytheism to monotheistic mysticism�.5
As regards the relation of the Upanishads to the Brahamanas, the
former represents a sharp antagonism to the rituals and sacrifices as
embodies in the latter. The Mundaka
1 History of
Philosophy, Eastern & Western, pp. 45-46.
Philosophy, vol. I. P. 131. 3Ka Up.
II-1-1 4 Cha. Up. III-14-4; III-13-7.
5 Constructive Survey of Upanisadic Philosophy, p. 3.
Upanisad decries the ceremonialism of the
Brahmanas by pronouncing that those who hail the sacrifices as the
highest good are snared in the meshes of death and decrepitude.1
But the Brahmanical idea of sacrifice was modified in the times of the
Upanisads which gave rise to a new conception of mental sacrifice.
VARIOUS EXPRESSIONS OF THE MORAL
IDEAL: We now proceed to dwell upon the nature of the moral ideal as
advocated by the Gita and the Upanisdic thinkers. They have
envisaged and brought it out in manifold ways, which signify simply
the diversity of expression and not distinctness of the essential
meaning conveyed by them.
First, of the two diverse paths
that are open to man, the wise one after distinguishing them properly
chooses the path of good in preference to the path of pleasure, by
virtue of which the true aim of life is realised. On the contrary,
the fool hankering after the path of pleasure is defeated in attaining
to real beneficence.2 The mundane path which many men
follow must be distinguished from the supermundane one which relieves
man from the transitoriness of worldly objects, and from sorrows and
sufferings. In Jaina terminology the path of right belief, right
knowledge and right conduct is traversed by the prudent souls, while
that of wrong belief, wrong knowledge and wrong conduct is traversed
by the ignorant. The former emancipates man from terrestrial curses
in contradistinction to the latter which entangles him in the mire of
distressing and insatiable sensual desires. According to he
Chandoya Upanisad3 the forest ascetics adorned with
knowledge and faith tread the path of the gods (Devayana) which
consequentially leads to the attainment of the Brahman or deliverance
in contrast to the householders who are busy performing sacrifices and
who therefore go by the path of fathers (Pitryana) to be born again I
this world. Exactly in the same fashion the Gita4
also recognizes the two paths, namely the bright and the dark; the
former is suggestive of emancipation and the latter, of rebirth. The
bright Gati amounts to the termination of transmigration, while the
dark Gati, to the wanderings into the wheel of birth and death.
Jainism5 speaks of Siddha Gati and the four Gatis
(celestial, human, sub-human and hellish). The former is permanent
and immutable, and
1 Mu. Up.
I-2-7. 2 Ka. Up I-2-1,2.
3 Cha. Up.
V-10-1, 3, 5.
4 B. G.
Gomma. Ji 145, 151.
it implies the complete cessation of
transmigratory existence. The latter i8ndicate the rounds of birth
and death in the empirical world.
Secondly, the realisation of
Paragati,1 the deliverance of one from the mouth of death2
is tantamount to experiencing that Brahman or Atman which is the
dearest of all,3 the target to be aimed at,4 the
only desirable5, singularly discernible, preferentially
knowable6,is the resting abode of all that is conceivable
and perceivable.7 As viewed by the Gita, the
attainment of Anamayam padam8 (status beyond misery),
BrahmiSthiti9 (divine state), Brahmanirvana10
(beatitude of God) Param Gatim11 (highest goal), Parama
Santim12 (supreme tranquillity) Param Siddhim13
(highest perfection ) and the like has been conceived to be the
transcendental aim. According to the Kathopanisad, the Brahman
or the Parama Purus is the highest goal of the aspirant�s journey,
which, after being known by the mortal man, release immortality,
transcends the senses, the objects of senses, the mind, the intellect,
the great self, and the unmanifest.14 The same may be
expressed by saying that the senses need be merged into mind, mind
into the Jnana-Atman, Jnana-Atman into Mahat-Atman and lastly, Mahat-Atman,
into Santa-Atman15. Thus Santa-Atman which is equivalent
to Parama-Purusa or Brahman or Atman is the terminus of all our
endeavors. The Santa-Atman or Brahman is bereft of sound, touch,
colour, taste, smell, is eternal, indestructible, infinite, Mahat, and
higher than stable.16 According to Jainism also, Paramatman
or Brahman is the highest object to be pursed. The aspirant should
enquire into, long for, and strive after the eternal light of
knowledge which is subversive of ignorance.17 The nature
of Paramatman according to the Jainas and Upanisdic thinkers is
similar to a great extent. Paramatman is eternal, without any flaw,
is devoid of colour, smell, sound, taste, touch, is without birth,
death18 etc. The Bhavapahuda tells us that the
supreme self is devoid of taste, colour, smell, touch and sound; it is
characterized consciousness, not assignable by any mark and lastly
indefinable as regards form.19 Notwithstanding a very close
similarity in the characteristic nature of Paramatman the
1 Ka. Up.
1-3-11. 2 Ibid. 1-3-15. 3
Br. Up. I-4-8. 4
Mu. Up. II-2-2.
5 Sve. Up.
I-1-12. 6 Cha. Up. VIII-7-1. 7
Pra. Up.-IV-7, 8, 9. 8 B. G. II-51. 9
Ibid. II-72. 10 Ibid V-25. 11 Ibid. VI. 45;
IX-32. 12 Ibid IV. 39. 13
Ibid-1. 3. 15. 14 Ka. Up. I. 3-10-11; II. 3. 7,
8. 15 Ibid. I. 3. 13.
16 Ibid-1. 3. 15.
17 Istopa. 49. 18 Pp. I. 17, 19.
19 Bhava Pa.
64. Cf. Prava. II. 80; Panca. 127.
difference is also striking and cannot be
ignored. It is already pointed out that, on account of the
metaphysical perspective adopted in Jainism, Brahman cannot be the
cosmic principle. In view of the metaphysical pluralism of soul
advocated by Jainism each soul is potentially Brahman or Paramatman.
Thirdly, the attainment of bliss
is the objective to be aimed at. Brahman is the delight of life and
mind, the fullness of peace and eternity1. The
Taittiriyopanisad compares Brahmanic bliss with other types of
physical blisses and after enamouring a number a number of blisses
enjoyed by men, gods etc, concludes that hundred blisses of Prajapati
constitute the bliss of Brahman. Such an Ananda is experienced by the
sage who is free from all desires2. It may be pointed out
here that the spiritual bliss is a type of its own and no physical
bliss can stand comparison with it. Kundakunda recognises that the
highest happiness is beyond any Upama.3 Yogindu affirms
that the attainment of highest bliss which is experienced in realising
Paramatman in course of meditation is impossible to be had in the
mundane life. Even Indra in the company of crores of nymphs is
incapable of having such an infinite bliss of the sage in
contemplation.4 In order to emphasize the blissful aspect
of life, the Taittiriyopanisad5 proclaims it in
terms of the five sheaths of the soul, the last being the Anandamaya
Atman which includes the other four and transcends them. The first
sheath of Atman is constituted of food essence, the second of vital
air, the third of mind, the fourth of intelligence, and the fifth of
bliss. The subsequent sheaths include the precedent ones and the last
embraces all the four. In the third chapter of the
Taittiriyopanisad Varuna is said as not to have been satisfied
with the difference answer as food, vital air, mind, intellect, given
in succession by Bhrgu to the question of the nature of ultimate
reality. He seems to be convinced when eventually he presents the
result of his esquire in terms of �beatific consciouness6�
constituting the sources of all things whatsoever. �We have different
kinds of pleasures answering to the different levels of our existence,
the vital pleasure, the sensuous, the mental and the intellectual, but
the highest is Ananda�.7 With certain reservations we may
regard Bahiratman of Jainism as comprising Annarasamaya, Pranamaya,
Manomaya Atmans; Antaratman may be regarded as Vijnanamaya Atman and
1 Tai. Up.
I-6. 2Ibid. II-8. 3Prava.
I-13. 4 Pp. I-116, 117. Tattvanusasana. 246.
5 Tai. Up. II-1
to 5. 6 Constructive Survey of Upanisdic Philosophy
Philosophy, Vol. I. P. 208.
Paramatman as Anandamaya Atman, or the
beatific consciousness, though not cosmic consciousness. According to
the Gita1 also, the attainment of bliss is the
supreme end, the absolute value. The Yogin whose mind is thoroughly
quiet, who is passionless, stainless, constantly putting himself into
the Atman, experience easily and happily the highest bliss of contact
with the Brahman. Pujyapada2 and all others speak of Atman
as full of excellent bliss. In the Istopadesa he tells us that
a supreme kind of happiness is experienced by the Yogi who is
established in his own self.3 The Yogasara of
Yogindu recognises that those engrossed in great meditation after
renouncing all conceptual thinking enjoy ineffable bliss which is
equivalent to the happiness of liberation4. The author of
the Chandogya Upanisad also lays stress on the pursuance of
immortal happiness which consists in seeing, hearing and mediating
upon the Atman to the utter exclusion of the radically different kinds
of perishable happiness experienced in seeking things beside the
Atman.5 The experience of great happiness is consequent
upon the realisation of the Atman as above and below, before and
behind, to the right and to the left.6 The author of the
Tattvanusasana proclaims that on account of looking into the
self by the self, and on account of the supreme concentration, nothing
is seen by the yogi in spite of the existence of External objects.7
According to Pujyapada, the Yogi engrossed in meditation transcends
the bodily consciouness.8 Thus the Gita, the
Upanisdic and the Jaina saints exhibit a remarkable concurrence
regarding infinite happiness as the only object of pursuit, but the
Jaina does not acquiesce in making all other objects of the world as
dependent on or identical with the Atman.
Fourthly, the Mundakopanisad9
distinguishes between the Para and Apara Vidyas and seems to decide in
favor of the former as constituting the ethical Summum Bonum, by the
realisation of which all else becomes known. The Para-Vidya which is
the same as the higher knowledge consists in knowing the Brahman which
is invisible, unsuitable, without connections, without hue, without
eye or ear, without hands, or feet, eternal, pervading, impalpable,
imperishable, and the womb of creatures.10 This does not
amount to the intellectual, but to the intuition appre-
1 B. G.
VI. 27, 28. 2 Samadhi.
32. 3 Istopa. 47.
4 Yogasara. 97.
Tattvanusasana. 170. 5.
Cha. Up. VII-22, 23, 24.
6 Ibid. VII-25. 2.
7 Tattvanusasana. 172. 8 Istopa
9 Mu. Up.
I. 1.3, 4 & Comm. Of Samkara. 10 Ibid I. 1-5, 6.
hension of Brahman. The Apara Vidya which
may be equated with the lower knowledge comprises within its fold the
Rg-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sama-Veda and the
Atharva-Veda, also chanting, ritual, grammar, etymological
interpretation, prosody and astronomy.1 The above
recognition of Para-Vidya as the highest good may be corroborated by
the conversation between Narada and Sanatkumara as given in the
Chandogya Upanisad.2 Narada in spite of his vast study
comprehending the Vedas, history, mythology, mathematics, logic,
ethics, fine arts etc., complains to his spiritual teacher Sanatkumara
that he is invaded by grief on account of not having the knowledge of
the self. Thus we learn that the intuitive knowledge of the self
alone is capable of making us able to cross the ocean of sorrow and no
amount of mere intellectual equipment. Hence the Para-vidya is the
crowning experience, the sublime good. It may be pointed out here
that intellectual knowledge should not be utterly depreciated on this
account, nor should it be overemphasized as the expense of intuition.
When the highest is reached the intellectual it displaced by the
intentional. We find striking concordance when Kundakunda announces
that �Suddhanaya is true and Vyavahara-naya is false�.3
Paramartha-naya and niscaya-naya are indistinguishable from Suddhanaya.
Suddhanaya is identical with the intentional experience of the Atman.
Vyavahara-naya creates differentiation�s in the unitary nature of the
Atman by explaining it through its distinguishing characteristics.
Thou who have ascended the loftiest heights of mystical experience
deserve the knowledge of Suddhanaya, but those of the aspirants who
fall short of this sublime ascension should take shelter under
Vyavaharanaya without losing sight of the ideal4 Thus the
Apara Vidya or the Vyavahara-naya is true to the extent to which it
leads a man intellectually on the path, but it is not all. �Just as
every house-holder submits himself to Samnyasa or renunciation and
realizes his spiritual aim, so ultimately Vyavahara is discarded in
favour of Niscaya.�5 There is witnessed another meaning
ascribed to Niscaya and Vyavahara. The former indicates that the self
is unbound and untouched by Karmas, while the latter indices that it
is bound and touched by Karmas.6 The spiritual experience
however transcends these intellectual points of view.7 In
a Similar vein, Amrtacandra argues that the proper results of
instruction to a disciple
1 Mu. Up.
I. 1. 5. 2 Cha. Up. VII. 1, 2, 3.
3 Samaya. 11.
4 Ibid. 12.
5 Paramatma Prakasa, Intro. P. 30.
141. 7 Ibid. 142.
can only issue if he, after assimilating
the nature of Niscaya-naya and Vyavahara-naya, adopts the attitude of
indifference towards both of these, i.e., if he transcends these
intellectual points of view.1 Thus according to this
interpretation the Apara Vidya corresponds to these points of view,
and the Para Vidya, to spiritual experience. In other words,
Niscaya-naya may be understood to mean mystical experience as well as
the knowledge of the pure self, or both the intuition intellectual
ideals, and Vyavahara-naya may be understood to mean a lapse from the
superb heights as well as the knowledge of the impure self.
Considered from the view-point of spiritual experience or the
knowledge of the pure self, Vyavaharnaya includes a lapse from superb
heights and the knowledge of the impure self. In the present context
of Para Vidya and Apara Vidya, Suddhanaya in the sense of intuitions
experience represents the former, and Vyavahara-naya in point of
intellectual knowledge of any sort expresses the latter. Hence the
Para-Vidya or Suddhanaya may be legitimately said to denote the moral
ideal in contrast to the Apara Vidya or Vyavahara-naya.
Fifthly, the consummation of
human pursuits has been conceived to be the attainment of a state of
life beyond good and bad, virtue and vice. The Mundakopanisad
represents that he who has realised the Brahamn, the lord and governor
of all, has shaken off merit and demerit, and has attained perfect
equanimity.2 In a similar vein, the Kathopanisad
point out that Paramatman is beyond duty and non-duty, action and
nonfiction, past and future.3 According to the Gita,
the attainment of supreme status exceeds the fruits of meritorious
deeds resulting from the study of the Vedas, the performance of
sacrifices, pursuance of austerities, and charitable gifts.4
Again, the realisation of Brahman will liberate one from good and evil
results which constitute the bonds of action.5 This spirit
of transcendence is also expressed in the Gita in another
form. When the embodied soul rises above the three Gunas, (sattva,
rajas and tamas) which cause the bodily existence, he is
freed from the subjection to birth and death, old age and suffering,
and thus attains the life eternal.6 Thus to go beyond the
spell of the three Gunas is the ideal. In other words, one is
required to be possessed of the self, to be free from the dualities,
to be fixed in the true being, to be away from the triple modes,
8. 2 Mu. Up. III. 1. 3.
3 Ka. Up. I. 2. 14.
4 B. G.
VIII. 28. 5 Ibid. IX. 28; II. 50. 6
Ibid. XIV. 20.
and getting and having,1
inasmuch as the bondage to these Gunas leads one to the round of
births. To be more clear, when the Sattva predominates, the embodied
one is born in the spotless worlds of the those who are attached to
action, and lastly, when Tamas invades him, he takes births in the
wombs of beings involved in nescience.2 The same may be
expressed by saying that those in Sattva rise upwards, in Rajas stay
in the middle and in Tamas sink downwards.3 Thus the
culmination of human achievements consists of human achievements
consists in transcending the ethical level and rising to the
spiritual. The considerations of the Gita, the Upanisad and
the Jaina conform to one another regarding the transcendental plane of
life beside and beyond righteousness and unrighteousness. According
to Kundakunda, the worldly persons generally recognise inauspicious
conduct as bad and auspicious one is taken by them as good. But how
can the latter be understood as good, since it makes the entrance of
the self into the cycle of birth and death ?4 Just as a
shackle, whether of gold or of iron, indiscriminately ties a man, so
also the auspicious and inauspicious conduct bind the self to mundane
miseries.5 The wise shun both Subha and Asubha.6
Rare are such persons as are disposed to discard even Punya as Papa.7
Pujyapada tells us that vowlessness causes vice and the observance of
vows engenders virtues; but deliverance is the destruction of both.8
The aspirant should adhere to vows after renouncing vowlessness and
after attaining to the supreme status the former should also be
abjured like the latter.9 The highest state of the
Paramatman transcends both good and evil; and such persons as have
realised Him within themselves go beyond the vicious circle of Samsara
or the reach of good and bad.
Sixthly, the ethical ideal may
be expressed in terms of action. The Isopanisad tells us that
�a man should try to spend his life-span of a hundred years only in
the constant performance of action. It is thus only that he can hope
not to be contaminated by actions.10� Prof. RANADE
remarks, �The actions, that are here implied have no further range
than possibly the small circumference of �Sacrifice�, ad further, the
1 B.G. II.
45. 2 Ibid. XIV. 14, 15. 3 Ibid.
145. 5 Ibid. 146. 6 Yogasara
7 Ibid. 71.
8 Samadhi. 83, 9 Ibid. 84
I. Up. 2 (Translation vide
Constructive Survey of Upanisadic Philosophy, p. 297).
which, even in the midst of a life of
action, freedom from contagion with the fruit of action may be secured
is not here brought out with sufficient clearness.�1
According to the Bhagavad-Gita, Karma-Yoga or the life of
activism constitutes the supreme end to be aimed at. It is no doubt
true that we can find passages in the Gita where Jnana is
superior to Karma,2 where Karma is superior to Jnana,3
and where they are at par.4 But �the law of the body,5
the law of society6 and the law of the Universe7
indicate and even vindicate activism.�8 The Gita
tells us that the actions should be performed after brushing aside all
attachment to and the desire for, the fruit.9 Besides,
their performance is to be effected by dint of wisdom10
and equanimity.11 We may here affirm that the performance
of action in the aforementioned spirit is rendered possible only when
the ideal of Karma-Yoga which is the same as Atmanic steadfastness is
accomplished. �The Niskama Karma is the natural accompaniment or
result of a spiritually illumined life; it simply cannot exist, if
egoism is not completely annilated.�12 According to
Jainism the Tirthamkara exemplifies the idea life of activism. He
performs all actions dispassionately, therefore, spontaneously. But
according to Jainism all the Bhavyasouls are not capable of this lie
of activism; only those souls which have earned Tirthamkara
body-making Karma can lead a life of benevolent activities, while
other remain engrossed the lie of contemplation which indirectly
elevates human beings. Thus the life of activism, according to
Jainism, cannot be the universal rule of life, though in the case of
some souls it accompanies spiritual experience without being
incompatible. But this does not negate Punya-engendering activities
of saints for the benefit of human beings.
AVIDYA AS THE OBSTRUCTION:
Having reviewed the various expressions of the ethical ideal as
conceived by the Gita and the Upanisads and having compared
them with the deliberations of the Jaina speculators, we now propose
to ideal with the process of attainment of the excellent heights, as
pointed out by the Gita and the Upanisads. In the first place,
1 RANADE, Ibid, p.
298. 2 B. G. IV. 33; II 49. 3
Ibid. V.2; V. 6.
4 Ibid-VI. 2; V. 4;
V.5 Reference no. 3 to 5 are based on �The Bhagavad-Gita as a
Philosophy of God Relalisation� pp. 194-195.
5 B.G. III.
8. 6 Ibid. II. 20. 7 Ibid. III. 16.
8 RANADE, �The
Bhagavadgita as a Philosophy of God-realisation� pp. 196-197.
9 B. G.
10 Ibid. II-50. 11 Ibid. II-48.
12 Vedanta explained.
Vol. II. P. 527.
we shall converge our attention to the
obstruction which prevents a man from realising the Atman in spite of
its being present in his heart.1 The kathopanisad like the
Brhadaranyakopanisad, afirms that he who sees plurality in the
world despite the existence of one Brahman here there, everywhere is
continually devoured by the enemy of death.2 In other words, the
ignorant man deeming himself very learned dwells in Avidya with the
consequence that he moves helplessly like blind man led by the
blind.3 The Isa Upanisad announces that delusion and grief and
repulsion are foreign in the Atman.4 Thus the perverted outlook which
is born of Avidya obliges us to perceive plurality. According to the
Bhagavad-Gita the three modes born of Prakrti bind the
imperishable dweller in the body; and so the whole world, being
deluded by these threefold Gunas or dualities of desire and hatred,
does not recognise the immutable above them.5 To explain further, the
Sattva Guna enslaves one by producing attachment to happiness and
knowledge; the Raja, by attachment to action, and the Tamas, by
negligence, indolence and sleep.6 On account of the identification of
the self with these Gunas, one forgets the true nature of the spirit
which transcends them, hence becomes the victim of transmigration.
When the Yogi refuses to be corrupted and led away by them, he sees
the self abiding in all beings and all beings in the self. Oneness
remains, plurality goes away. Jainism views the identification of
not-self with the self as the main cause of worldly existence.
Pujyapada points out that the essence of wisdom may be epitomized by
saying that the self is different from matter, and that matter is
different from the self.7 All the rest of knowledge is but a dilation
of this. Mithyatva is the root of endless transmigration. When the
realisation of the transcendental self is achieved, all the objects of
the world are reflected in the knowledge of the Yogi; but he does not,
according to Jainism, see his own self in the objects of the world.
Yogindu points out that the universe is existing in the omniscience of
Paramatman and he dwells in the universe but he is not convertible
into the form of the universe.8 The mundane things remain quite
distinct from him even at the pinnacle of realisation. This
distinguishes the position of the Jinas from the Upanisads and the
bhagvate gita . the Jaina would not speak that the plurality is
1 Cha. Up.
VIII. 3. 3. 2 Ka. Up. II. 1. 10, 11; Br. Up.
IV. 4. 19.
3 Ka. Up. I 2.
5. 4 I. Up.
6. 7. 5 B. G. XIV. 5; VII. 13. 27.
6 Ibid. XIV. 6, 7,
8. 7 Istopa. 50. 8 Pp. I.
but regards plurality as ontologically
certain. Only the self should refuge to be seduced by it thus in
spite of recognising the beginnings Avidya as the root cause of
Samsara, the implications differ. For the former plurality
constitutes Avidya, but for the latter it is the confusion of self and
not-self, of Jiva and Pudgala.
CONVERTED AND PERVERTED SOULS: We shall now
in brief record the nature of the perverted and converted souls.
According to the Kathopanisad, the ignorant soul looks outward
by his senses created as they are by God with a tendency to move
externally, but the wise desiring immutability turns them inwards and
sees the self within him.1 Again, the fools indulging in
the pleasures of the senses walk into the snare of death, but the calm
souls having learned of immortality do not hanker after ephemeral
pleasures.2 The Samadhisataka recognises that the
Bahiratman engaging itself in the external objects through the sense
doors confounds the self with the body, but the Antaratman repents for
this indulging tendency of senses and determines to see the self
within.3 The Istopadesa point out that the wise man
will not strive for, and rejoice in, the pleasures which are painful
in their acquisition, unsatisfying after attainment, and difficult to
be renounced, but the stupid relishes them on account of ingnorance.4
recognises that the perverted souls who regard sacrifices and works of
merit as most important and do not know any other highest good, are
born in this world or even in lower regions after enjoying the fruits
of heaven.5 The Knot of ignorance is broken of that man
who knows the supreme Brahman hidden in the secret heart.6
The Kathopanisad says that we ought to separatepatiently the
Atman from our own body, as one isolates a blade of grass from its
sheath.7 The kausitaki Upanisad declares, �Just as
a razor is laid in a razor case or a bird is pent up in its nest, even
so is this conscious Being placed in the body u to the very nails, up
to the very hair of the body.�8 The Samayasara
tells us that those who, without turning towards Paramartha perform
austerities and observe vows, have a yearning for Punya without
knowing that it is also the cause of transmigration in Samsara. Hence
all their austerities and vows are childish.9 According to
the Yogasara of
1 Ka. Up. II.
1. 1. 2 Ibid. II. 1. 2. 3
Samadhi. 7, 16.
4 Istopa. 17
Samadhi. 55. 5 Mu. Up. I 2. 10. 6
Ibid. II. 1. 10.
7 Ka. Up. II.
3. 17. 8 Kau. Up. IV. 2- (Trans.
of Upanisadic Philosophy p. 342. 9 Samaya.
Yogindu rare are such wise persons who are convinced of
the fact that Jina-deva is inside the body and that he is neither in
the holy places nor in the temples.1 Amitagati tells us
that we ought to be capable of sundering the Atman from the body just
like the separation of sword from its cover,2 and in the
words of Karttikeya the body is like an outward covering.3
According to the
Bhagavad-Gita, in the first places, the wise man is not disturbed
by the change of body but simply regards it as equivalent to the
physical changes in the form of childhood, youth and old age; he
further thinks that just as a person change worn-out garments for new,
so the embodied soul casts away old bodies and takes up new ones.4
Again, both of them are ignorant who consider this soul as a slayer
and that it can be slain. The wise man estimates that this soul is
unborn, eternal, permanent, all-pervading, not slain with the slaying
of the body. It is uncleavable, incombustible, can neither be
drenched nor dried.5 The Samadhisataka point out
that since the Antaratman has detached itself from the body, it does
not regard the bodily strength, enervation and destruction as
belonging to itself. The separation of body from the soul is
considered by the internal self as the putting on of another cloth by
taking off the previous one.6 According to the
Samayasara the imprudent esteems �I kill other beings or I am
killed by other beings.�7 The soul is not all-pervading
according to Jainism.
Secondly, the converted soul is
of resolute intelligence, but many branching and multitudinous is the
understanding of the irresolute or perverted.8 The latter
rejoices in the latter of the Veda, contends that there is nothing
else, is intent on heaven, and lays down various specialized rites for
the attainment of enjoyment and power.9 In other words,
the converted soul owns Sattvika intelligence, while the perverted one
possesses Rajasika, the man whose intelligence has become steady due
to its internal turning towards the Atman thinks this world as
nonbelieveable,10 derives satisfaction from internal fixate
in self,12 regards the Atman as the real dwelling places,13
aspires to renounce the attachment
1 Yogasara. 42,
45. 2 Amitagati Samayika Patha. 2. 3
4 B. G. II. 13,
22. 5 Ibid. II. 19, 20, 25. 6 Samadhi.
63, 64, 77.
247. 8 B. G. II. 41. 9 Ibid.
II. 42, 43.
10 Ibid. XVIII. 30,
31, 32. 11 Samadhi. 49. 12 Ibid.
to body and the pleasures as a result of his penances,1
and attains emancipation;2 but, on the contrary, he whose
mind is disturbed and not fixed in the self regards this world as
believable and beautiful,3 the external objects as
satisfying,4 the village and forest as habitations,5
desires a handsome body and pleasures as a reward of his austerities,6
and fails to achieve liberation.7
Thirdly, in spite of the fact
that all actions are born of the modes of Prakrti, the ignoramus
believes himself to be their agent.8 The prudent sees
contrriwise.9 He witnesses himself to be the non-agent of
and untouched by actions.10 He regards the supreme Being
as abiding equally in all beings and as never perishing even when they
are destroyed;11 he distinguishes, in other words, between
Purusa and Prakrti.12 According to Jainism the self from
the transcendental point of view is the doer of pure Bhavas and is not
affected by the operations of Pudgala Karmas; empirically it is the
doer of auspicious and inauspicious Bhavas born of Pudgala karmas.
Yogindu�s Paramatmaprakasa brings out that in the eye of
Niscaya-naya bondage and liberation, pleasure and pain, are the
consequences of karmas leaving the self intact, but, on the contrary
the designation of the self as virtuous and otherwise on account of
the Karmic association is warranted from Vyavahara standpoint.13
The statement of the Gita regarding the self as the non-agent
of actions, is, according to Jainism, only supermpirically valid. But
the Gita conceives the self established in Prakrti as the
enjoyed of joy and sorrow.14 Here the Gita and the
Jaina agree with each other. The wise regards the self as constituted
of knowledge and faith, and as being supersensuous, a great
objectivity, eternal, stable, independent and pure. By knowing this
he destroys the knot of delusion.15 He is not perturbed by
the vicissitudes and destruction of the worldly objects; but,
according to Jainism, he never sees the self as dwelling in all
GURU ESSENTIAL FOR SPIRITUAL
LIFE; We shall now dwell upon the importance of a Guru for imparting
spiritual wisdom and guidance on the path of self-realisation. The
Mundakopanisad point out that in order to seek the knowledge of
the Brahman, the aspirant should approach the
42. 2 Ibid. 71. 3 Ibid. 49. 4
5 Ibid. 73. 6
Ibid. 42. 7 Ibid. 71. 8 B. G. III.
27; XVIII. 16
9 Ibid. III. 28; XIII.
29. 10 Ibid. XIII. 31, 32. 11 Ibid. XIII.
12 Ibid. XIII. 23.
13 Pp. I. 60, 64, 65
14 B. G. XIII.
20. 21. 15 Prava, II. 100, 101.
Guru who has realised the self.1 The
Katha Upanisad opines that the path of realisation is as difficult
to traverse as the edge of a razor, consequently one should learn it
from those who are on the lofty pedestal of unitive experience.2
It need not be asserted that the Bhagavad-Gita illustrates the
significance of the Guru who may lead the aspirant from the state of
delusion to that of dispassion. Jainism also has not blinked the
impressiveness of Guru for moving on the path of mystical realisation.
The Acarya is the Guru in the veritable sense. We have already
reckoned with the characteristics of the Acarya, so they need not be
repeated here. The Bhavapahuda says that the Atman should be
meditated upon after knowing it from the Guru.3
INCENTIVIES TO SPIRITUAL LIFE;
In the Upanisads and the Bhagavad-Gita we may discern certain
incentives which prompt man to strive for immortality. First, the
incentive of being struck by the impermances of worldly opulence may
be seen when Naciketas rejects the offer of mundane things and
pleasures�cattle and elephants, gold and horses, sons and garrisons
with long life, wealth, kingdom and all sorts of pleasures�on being
asked by the god of death. He declares that these transitory things
wear away the glory of the senses and even a long life is insufficient
to make something out of them with the consequence that
dissatisfaction prevails.4 Again, he disapproves the
desire for a lengthyduration of life of sensual pleasures when he has
come into the presence of ageless immortals.5 In the
Brhadaranyakopanisad Maitreyi prefers immortality to the
possession of the whole earth full of wealth, since riches are
incapable of bestowing eternal life upon her.6 The
Maitri Upanisad portrays the mutable nature of the world.
According to it, the gnats and mosquitoes, the grass and the trees
grow and decay. There is the drying up of great oceans, the falling
away of mountain peaks, the deviation of the fixed pole-star, the
submergence of the earth, the departure of the gods from their
station. In such a world as this, what is the good enjoyment of
desires?7 In a similar spirit the Gita tells us
that sensual pleasures are the sources of sorrow; they have a
beginning and an end and do not last for ever; hence the wise man
1 Mu. Up. I. 2.
12. 2 Ka. Up. I. 3. 14.
3 Bhava. Pa.
64. 4 Ka. Up. I. 1. 23 to 27. 5
Ibid. I. 1. 28.
6 Br. Up. II.
7 Mai. Up. I.
4. (Translation vide �The Principal Upanisads�).
does not take delight in them.1
This incentive may be compared with the incentive of transitoriness
of things as presented by Jainism. The Uttaradhyaana2
instructs us not to be careless even for a moment, since man�s
life is not permanent. It comes to a close with the passages of time
like a dew drop or a leaf of a tree falling to the ground. Besides,
sense pleasures, being impermanent, desert a man just as a bird flies
away from a tree void of fruit.3 The Bhagavati Aradhana
tells us that all the objects of Bhoga and Upabhoga vanish like a lump
of ice and worldly fame and recognition take no time in disapperaring.4
just as water of the flowing river cannot return, so also youth cannot
reappear after once it has passed away.5 The
Karttikeyanupreksa point out that the body in spite of its due
nourishment is sure to decay like an unbaked earthen pot which
crumbles when filled with water.6 Friends, beauty, wife,
children, wealth, and domestic animals are unstable in character like
a newly shaped mass of clouds or like a rain-bow or flash of lighting.7
The Atmanusasana says, what purpose is capable of being served
with wealth which, like fuel, inflames the fire of desire ?8
The fortunes of the rulers of the earth vanish in no time like the
extinction of a flame of a lamp.9 What gust is there in
sense-gratification which are well-known as biter like poison,
terrible like serpents, incapable of quenching the thirst like salt
water, and fraught with impermances ?10
Secondly, the incentive of
suffering and transmigration may be exhibited when we are required to
realise the self while the body endures, ailing which we will have to
wander for a very long duration in different kinds of existence.11
The kenopanisad declares that great is the perdition which
comes to the lot of a man who falls short of self-knowledge while this
body lasts.12 The Gita accordingly tells us that
the cycle of birth and death entangles a man who is not devoted to
sovereign knowledge, king-secret, and supreme-sanctity.13
Those great souls who have realised the Atman do not come to this
transient and painful birth.14 Hence having entered this
1 B. G. II-14,
V-22. 2 Uttara. X;
XIII-31. 4 Bhaga.
6,7. 8 Atmanu.
61. 9 Ibid. 62.
10 Atmanu 38,
51, 87. 11 Ka. Up. II. 3. 4.
12 Ke. Up. II.
5, cf. Br. Up. IV-4-14.
13 B. G. IX. 2,
3. 14 Ibid. VIII. 15.
world, one should endeavor to capture spiritual truth.1
This incentive may be compared with the incentive of transmigration as
already delineated by Jainism. The Acaranga tells us hat
�those who acquiesce and indulge in worldly pleasures are born again
and again,�2 and again, �those who, not freeing themselves
from ignorance, talk about final liberation, turn round and round in
the whirlpool of births�.3 In the Uttaradhyayana,
when the parents of Mrgaputra try to discourage his entrance into
ascetic life, by pointing to the difficulties of Scamanic life�,4
Mrgaputra says, �In the Samasara which is a mine of dangers and a
wilderness of old age and death, I have undergone dreadful births and
deaths.�5 The Paramatmaprakasa point out that he
who has not amassed religious metro and practiced austerities will
have to descend into hell after being gnawed by the rats of senility.6
Again, it is self-deception if the human birth has not been utilized
for performing pennames after having purified the mind. The self is
snared in the millions of births bearing affection and is deluded by
sons and wives till the supreme knowledge does not dawn upon it.7
Thirdly, the Mairti Upanisad
presents an incentive of bodily nature and impurity. It tells us
that in this foul smelling, unsubstantial body a conglomerate of bone,
skin, muscle, marrow, flesh, semen, blood, mucus, tears, rheum, faeces,
urine, wind, bile and phlegm. What is the good of the enjoyment of
desires ?8 The Gita does not speak in terms of
bodily impurity. Gunabhadra in the Atmanusasana urges not to
love this body, inasmuch as it is a prison house built of a number of
thick bones as stone pillars, fastened by nerves and muscle, covered
over with skin, plastered with wet flesh, well protected by its wicked
enemies, the karmas, and closed by strong barriers of age-karmas.9
The body is the root cause of the tradition of evils. After the
formation of the body the sense make impetuous movement towards the
seizure of their respective object, which in turn engender loss of
self-respect, anguish, apprehension, vice, and take us to untoward
places of birth.10 The accompaniments of this body are
birth, mental and physical
1 B. G. IX.
33. 2 Acara. I. 4. 1. . 36.
3 Ibid. I. 5. 1-p.
43. 4 Uttara. XIX. 24-42.
5 Ibid. 46.
6 Pp. II. 133,
135. 7 Ibid. II. 123.
8 Mai. Up.
1,3. (Translation vide �The Principal Upanisads�.)
9 Atmahnu. 59
(Trans. Vide J.L. Jaini translations). 10 Ibid.
Sufferings and decrepitude, which have
been called as the mother, the father, the brothers and the friend of
the body respectively.1 The Paramatmaprakasa tells
us that this body is replete with foul things, its washing, oiling,
decoration and its nourishment with palatable food�all these are of no
avail like the favor shown to a Vile.2 The
Svayambyhustotra point out that the body is dependent on self for
its actions; it is detestable, foul-smelling, perishable and cause of
sorrow, hence to set one�s affection for it is of no purpose.3
IMPORTANCE OF FAITH, KNOWLEDGE
AND CONDUC: After dwelling upon certain incentive which actuate a
human being to tread on the path of self-realisation, and to ascend
the heights ordinarily inaccessible, we shall now passion to the
consideration of the way by the pursuance of which the challenge
implicit in the incentives may be adequately encountered. In other
words, the question we have is: in what sort of life an aspirant
should engage himself, so that the obstacles to the moral and the
spiritual betterment may be surmounted. To start with, faith is the
first necessity for any progress in spiritual life. The Katha
Upanisad tells us that Brahman or Purusa is incapable of being
attained by mind, speech, and eyes. He cannot be achieved unless one
says �He is�4 Again, when he has been grasped with the
certain of His existence, only then the essential nature of god dawns
upon a man.5 The Prasna Upanisad says that the
Atman is to be discovered through faith, knowledge, austerity and
chasity.6 Hence, not only faith, but knowledge and conduct
along with it constitute the pathway to emancipation. The Gita
recognise that men who have no faith in the sovereign truth wander in
the wheel of birth and death.7 Those who have full faith
and are free from cavil are released from the bondage of work, while
the Ignorant, the faithless and the septic go to perdition.8
The offerings of gift, the penance, the penance, and any other rite or
work when performed without faith is �Asat� and, is nougat here or
hereafter.9 Only he who has faith, who is absorbed in
wisdom, and who has subdued his senses gains wisdom, and having gained
it, he quickly attains the supreme peace.10 In Jainism,
201. 2 Pp. II. 148. 149. 3
4 Ka. Up. II.
3. 12. 5 Ibid. II. 3. 13.
6 Pra. Up. I.
10. 7 B. G. IX. 3.
8 Ibid. III. 31; IV.
40 9 B. G. XVII. 28.
10 Ibid. IV. 39.
the attainment of liberation is dependent
on the acquisition of right faith, right knowledge and right conduct.1
We may point out here that in the Upanisads and the Gita the
faith in the supreme Atman, the cosmic principle as identical with the
self within, has been advocated; but with Jainism, transcendentally
speaking, faith in the super-empirical conscious principle imprisoned
in the body constitutes right faith. Yogindu says that solitarily
Atman is Samaygdarsana.2 Notwithstanding this distinction
they believe in something divine to be mystically realised.
Transcendental awakening is acceptable to all the three.
After the faith has been
imbibed, knowledge and conduct are to be made the objects of one�s own
pursuit. According to the Mundaka Upanisad, the Atman which is
inside the body and which is radiant and pure, is capable of being
invariably accomplished by right knowledge, truth, austerity and
chastity.3 Besides, it may be seen by those who have
destroyed all blemishes, and all desires.4 Mere
intellectual knowledge leads nowhere. The Katha Upanisad
recognises that the self can be reached neither by eloquent discourse
nor by subtle intellect, nor by much learning.5 He who has
not ceased from doing evil, and whose mind is not calm and equipoise
cannot hope to attain the self in spite of his being equipped with the
intellect of deep penetration.6 The Mundaka Upanisad
points out that the self cannot be realised by a man without
potency, or with inertia or errors in the seeking, or by improper
austerity.7 In accordance with the Gita those who
have the eye of wisdom see the indwelling soul.8 Three
types of knowledge have been recognised. The Sattvika knowledge
witnesses one immutable being in all existence to distinguish it from
the Rajasa one which sees multiplicity of beings and from the Tamasa
one which clings to one single effect as if it were the whole.9
The foremost one is right knowledge according to the Gita.
Sublime height cannot be attained by the undisciplined.10
The evil doers who are robbed by illusion, and who partake of the
nature of demons, cannot reach the supreme; while tranquillity is
1 Ta. Su. I. 1. 2 PP. I. 96.
3 Mu. Up. III. 1,5. 4
Mu. Up. III. 1, 5. Ka. Up. II. 3. 14.
5 Ka. Up. I. 2.
23. Cf. Mu. Up. III. 2. 3.
6 Ka. Up. I. 2.
24. 7 Mu. Up. III. 2. 4.
8 B. G. XV.
10. 9 B. G. XVIII. 20 to 22.
10 Ibid. XV. 11.
those who have renounced all desires, and
who are free from attachment, pride and selfishness.1
Desire breeds wrath and envelops wisdom; consequently it is the
eternal enemy of the soul.2 In contrast to the Gita
and the Upanisads, the Moksapahuda pronounces that the
cognition of the distinction between sentiency and non-sentiency
constitutes right knowledge.3 This divergence is in tun
with the metaphysical assertion of the Jaina. Exclusively neither
knowledge nor austerity is fruitful, but the fusion o the two brings
about emancipation.4 To explain it clearly, Sila and
knowledge are not opposed to each other; rather, right faith,
knowledge, austerity, self-control, truth, non-stealing, chastity,
contentment and compassion for living beings form the family of the
former.5 The Atman can be realised only by the Yogi who is
detached from the animal pleasures,6 and has abandoned all
conceivable flaws.7 He with the sword of conduct
dismembers the pillars of sins.8 It may be pointed out
here that Sila has been preferred to the knowledge of grammar, metre
and Nyaya.9 Again, without relinquishing the foreign
psychical states, the knowledge of the scriptures is of no avail.10
The Mulacara observes that the scriptural knowledge without
detachment is unfruitful and acts like a lamp in the hand of a blind
man.11 Neither intellectual study, nor the keeping of
books and peacock feather, nor dwelling in a religious habitation, nor
pulling out the hair can be equated with Dharma.12 He who
abandoning attachment and aversion, resides in the Atman moves towards
the eternal Gati.13 Again, he who is free from pride,
deceit, anger, greed, possession, infatuation, worldly sinful
engagements, who has conquered passion's and endured hardships, is
established in the ath of liberation, and attains supreme happiness.14
Hence the importance of conduct is evident.
NEGATIVE SIDE OF
CONDUCT�AVOIDANCE OF SINS AND PASSIONS: The negative side of conduct
consists in purging away sins, passions, in subduing the senses, and
in restraining the mind, while the positive side embraces several
virtues along with devotion and meditation. To proceed with the
negative one, the Chandogya Upanisad mentions stealing of gold,
drinking of wine, polluting the bed of one�s teacher, killing a
1 B. G VII.
15.; II 71. 2 Ibid. III.
37, 38, 39.
3 Mo. Pa.
41. 4 Ibid. 59. 5 Si. Pa.
6 Mo. Pa.
66 7 Bhava. Pa. 85.
8 Ibid. 159.
9 Si. Pa.
16. 10 Yogasara. 96.
11 Mula. 894, 933.
47. 13 Ibid. 48.
14 Mo. Pa. 45. 80.
Brahmin, and keeping company with the
perpetrators as the five kinds of great sins and therefore considers
hem derogatory.1 The Prasna Upanisad opines that
pure Brahman is released by those in whom there is neither lying nor
deceit nor crookendness.2 Thus the thief, the drunkard,
the adulator, the Brahmocide, the liar, the deceitful and the man who
associates with them�all go to ruin. According to Jainism, a pilgrim
on the path of self-realisation must avoid wine, meat, honey,
violence, falsehood, stealing, incontinence and acquisition.3
He should neither commit these sins nor incite others to commit them
nor extol those perpetrating these sins. According to the Gita,
demoniac qualities cause thralldom. Ostentation, arrogance, excessive
pride, anger, harshness, and ignorance�all these are demoniac
qualities.4 To refuse to distinguish between action and
renunciation, to be possessed of nonparty, non-truth and non-conduct,
to give oneself to insatiable desires, to hold wrong views through
delusion, to act with impure resolves, and to be hedonistic: all these
are Asuri characterstics.5 Again, to be covetous, to be
violent, to be snared in hundred of vain hopes, to be entangled in
anger and lust, to be engaged in amassing wealth by unjust means for
the gratification of desires, to regard oneself as accomplished, as
lord and king of man, and as happy and strong, and to be puffed up
with riches and birth--all these also come under the sweep of demoniac
nature.6 Moreover, persons having such inclination regard
the world as unreal, without basis and without God. They despise the
Supreme Being which is hidden in themselves and others.7
The above mentioned base and sordid disposition must needs be
relinquished in the interest of higher progress According to Jainism,
all that is responsible for inauspicious Asrava is demoniac in
character. Four kinds of instincts,8 three inauspicious
Lesyas, sensual indulgence, Arta and Raudra Dhyanas, improper use of
knowledge, delusion9 and thirteen kinds10 of
1 Cha. Up. V.
10. 9. 2 Pra. Up. I. 1. 16.
3 Ranta. Srava. 66.
4 B. G. XVI. 4
(Trans. Vide RADHAKRIHNAN: The Bhagavad Gita).
5 B. G. XVI. 7,
10, 11. 6 Ibid. XVI. 12 to 15. 7 Ibid.
XVI. 8, 18.
8 Ahara (Food), Bhaya
(fear), Maithuna (Sex) and Parigraha (acquisition).
9 Panca. 40.
Anger (Krodha), Pride (Mana), Deceit (maya),
Greed (Lodha) Laughter, (Hasya), Love (Rati), Hatred (Arati), Grie (Soka),
Fear (Bhaya), Disgust (Jugupsa), Hankering after woman (Purusaveda),
Hankering after man (Striveda) and Hankering after both the sexes (Napumsakaveda).
along with violence, falsehood, stealing,
incontinence and acquisition�all these entail inauspicious Asrava. We
shall now dwell upon the characterisations of three Lesyas, inasmuch
as they bear great resemblance to the demoniac endowments of the
Bhagavad-Gita. Of the six Lesyas1�Krsna, Nila, Kapota,
Tejas, Padma and Sukla�the first three are inauspicious and the last
three are auspicious. One who does not give up enmity and who is
wrathful, pugnacious, villain and bereft of piety and compassion is
possessed by Krsna Lesya.2 One who is slow, conceited,
deceitful, indolent, mysterious, covetous, expert in swindling,
extremely sleepy, without commonsense and sagacity, and extremely
eager for sense objects is controlled by Nila Lesya.3 To
be angry with others, to be full of sorrow and fear, to be envious and
slanderous, to belittle and tease others, to be pleased with implores,
to be ignorant of one�s own loss and gain, to extol one-self, to give
wealth to flatterers, not to trust others and not to recognize duty
and non-duty�all these are the characterisations of man possessed by
Kapota Lesya.4 Then, there are eight kind of pride to be
comprised under Asuri characteristics. They are pride of knowledge,
respect prestige, community, family, wealth, austerity and body.5
All these should be renounced. In spite of the great concordance,
Jainism would not recognise God in the world in the sense of the
Bhagavad-Gita, though every soul, according to Jainism, is divine.
NEGATIVE SIDE OF CONDUCT�CONTROL
OF SENSES AND THE MIND: Next comes the controlling of senses and the
mind. He who is without understanding and who is of uncontrolled mind
fails to restrain the senses like the civvies horses of a charioteer,
says the Kathopanisad.6 The self is the master of
the bodily chariot with intelligence as the charioteer, mind as the
reins, senses as the horses, objects as the roads to move, and the
self, together with the mind and the senses as the enjoyer.7
Now the man equipped with understanding and strong mind charioteer.8
He, therefore, terminates the round of birth, and acquires the
immortal state whence there is no return.9 The
Brhadaranyaka the Kena, and the Taittiriya Upanisads
also prescribe self-restraint and self-conquest.10
According to the Gita, desire resides in the sense, the
1 Gomma. Ji.
493. 2 Ibid. 509. 3 Ibid. 510, 511. 4
5 Ratna. Srava.
25. 6 Ka. Up. I. 3. 5. 7 Ibid I. 3.
3, 4. 8 Ka. Up. I. 3. 6, 8, 9.
9 Br. Up. V. 2
1; Ke. Up. IV. 4. 8.; Tai. Up. I. 9.