Acara of the Householder
SUMMARY OF THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER : In the previous chapter we have
discussed the nature of seven Tattvas along with the nature of
Samyagdarsana. After dwelling upon the nature of jiva and Ajiva Tattvas,
we have, in the first place, explained the nature of 'Yoga' (vibratory
activity of soul) and its effect in the mundane and embodied
supermundane souls. Secondly, the nature of passions with their
multitudinous forms of existence and operations has been made out.
Thirdly, we have unfolded some causes of the auspicious and the
inauspicious Samparayika Asrava, and have concluded the topic of Asrava
and Bandha after dwelling upon the views of Kundakunda regarding them.
Fourthly, the nature of Samvara, Nirjara and Moksa has been briefly
dealt with, inasmuch as they are exemplified in the ethical development
of the soul to be explained in this and the following chapters. Fifthly,
we have discussed the nature of Samyagdarsana form the Vyavahara and
Niscaya points of view, and have emphasizedits importance for the
authenticity of knowledge and conduct. In other words, we have seen how
any discipline contributing to the highest spiritual welfare, which is
the crowing phase of life, presupposes spiritual conversion, which is
itself an evidence for regarding Jaina ethics as spiritual. Thus, in the
absence of Samyadarsana all intellectual knowledge and ethical conduct
will deprive the as paint of superb attainments, of which he is
RIGHT CONDUCT AS AN INTERNAL NECESSITY OF THE SPIRITUALLY
CONVERTED : We now proceed to deal with the nature of right conduct,
which transforms the potential excellence of the self into actuality.
With the light or right knowledge, which enables the aspirant to look
into his infirmities, the pursuit of right conduct sweeps away the
elements, which thwart the manifestation of uninterrupted happiness and
infinite knowledge. Right knowledge illumines the path, and right
knowledge emancipation presupposes right conduct as well. Really
speaking, right conduct emanates from the internal necessity, which the
right believer has developed in him. Thereby, he then expunges the
disharmony existent between his present and future conditions, and
between his potential conviction and actual living. Thus, the right
believer is ardently desirous of manifesting the natural modification of
the soul by pursuing the right course of discipline.
VITARAGA CARITRA AND SARAGA CARITA ; INAUSPICIOUS ACTIVITIES
ARE IN NO WAY THE PART OF CONDUCT : So important is the pursuit of right
conduct for releasing the transcendental nature of self that Kundakunda
calls it Dharma. Such conduct as will conduce to the emergence of a
state of self which is devoid of infatuation (moha) and
perturbation (ksobha) by virtue of the subversion of all kinds of
passions in their most comprehensive extent is called Vitaraga Caritra.
This should be distinguished from Sara Caritra, which results in
auspicious activities by virtue of auspicious psychical sates, and this
amounts to a fall from the pinnacle of truth and normality. In
consequence, as the former results in liberation, it is to be pursued ;
and as the interest of arriving at the summit of spiritual perfection.
In spite of this bondage the virtuous deeds may, in some measure, be
considered to be the part of conduct,
1. 7. 2 Prava. II. 6 and Comm. Amrta.
inauspicious activities emanating from inauspicious psychical states can
in no way be the part of conduct, hence they are to be completely
relinquished. Thus, in order to stamp out the inauspicious psychical
states from the texture of self, the aspirant must abstain himself root
and branch from violence, falsehood. Theft, unchastely and acquisition.
The engrossment of the most intense passions, which can be wiped off by
negating to perform the vicious deeds. This affirmation does not imply
the nullification of the previously mentioned inauspicious activities,
which result in inauspicious Asrava, but it simply signifies the
grouping of them under different heads. This negative process of
purifying the self by weeding out these villainous actions of necessity
requires the pursuance of the positive process of non-violence,
truthfulness, non-thieving, chastity and non-acquisition. Both of these
processes keep pace together.
DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE SPIRITUALLY CONVERTED AND PERVERTED SOULS
REGARDING THE PERFOMANCE OF MORAL AND EVOL ACTIONS: We cannot forbear
mentioning in passing that even a right believer may be occupied with
the aforementioned evil deeds ; the recognition of which would at the
first sight tend to annul the distinction between the wise and the
ignorant, or between the spiritually converted and perverted souls. But
this assumption is based on a certain misapprehension. Notwithstanding
their extrinsic similitude they evince intrinsic disparity; i.e., the
wise under some latent constraint unwillingly perpetrate such evil
actions, and the ignorant rejoicingly commit them. From this it is
obvious that right belief is not incompatible with the most intense
forms of inauspicious activities. It will not be inconsistent if it is
laid down that both the wise and the wise and the ignorant are capable
of extirpating inauspicious psychical states. But the difference is that
while in the former case there is spiritual morality, in the latter,
there is only dry morality, which is possible without spirituality. Dry
morality is socially useful, but spiritually barren ; while spiritual
morality is fruitful both socially and spiritually. Being subtle and far
reaching, the limited comprehension. We may simply say that, for the
spiritually converted, morality is a means ; while for the perverted it
is an end in itself. It is to be borne in mind that morality, of
whatever type, can in no case be useless ; hence it deserves our respect
wherever it is witnessed.
NECESSITY OF PARTIAL CONDUCT : To revert to our point. It is astonishing
that in spite of not being the part of conduct in any way, the
aforementioned vicious deeds refuse to be completely relinquished at the
start on account of their being ingrained in the mind of man. Hence,
there arises the concept if limited morality technically called Vikala
Caritra (partial conduct) in contrast to absolute morality known as
Sakala Caritra (complete conduct) wherein these vicious deeds are
completely renounced. He who observes the former, being not able to
renounce the vices to the full, claims the title of a 'layman'; while he
who observes the latter, being able to hold the spirit of renunciation
to the brim, is called a 'Muni'. We shall now confine ourselves to the
former, deferring the consideration of the latter to the subsequent
NECESSITY OF PARTIAL CONDUCT : To revert to our point. It is astonishing
that in spite of not being the part of conduct in any way, the
aforementioned vicious deeds refuse to be completely relinquished at the
start on account of their being ingrained in the mind of man. Hence,
there arises the concept of limited morality technically called Vikala
Caritra (partial conduct) in contrast to absolutemolarity known as
Sakala Caritra ( complete conduct) wherein these vicious deeds are
completely renounced. He who observes the former, being not able to
renounces the vices to the full, claims the title of a 'layman' ; while
he who observes the latter, being able to hold the spirit of
renunciation to the brim, is called a 'Muni'. We shall now confine
ourselves to the former, deferring the consideration of the latter to
the subsequent chapter.
PRIVILEGED POSITON OF MAN : The ethics of the Jaina answer to his
metaphysical findings, which point to an infinite number of independent
souls and an infinite number of material particles together with the
other principles already discussed. Of the infinite number of conscious
principles varying from the one-sensed to the five-sensed, man alone is
recognised as the terminus of evolution. In other words, only man is
capable of unfolding his potential attributes perfectly. To express it
differently, though every soul is potentially divine, yet the attainment
of freedom is rendered possible only when the soul achieves a human form
; hence the importance of human birth.
PHILOSOPHY OF RENUCIATION : Animate and inanimate objects are not on
themselves auspicious and inauspicious. They are called auspicious and
inauspicious, when they are considered in relation to the mundane souls.
They very often wield influence over, and react upon, the mundane souls
to the extent of engendering either mild passions or intense passions in
the structure of self. In other words, the mild or intense passions,
which arise owing to the karmic accompaniment, gratify their subtle
persuasion in hankering after particular types of objects. Intense
passions are vice, and mild passion is virtue, To illustrate, Bhakti is
a mild passion, but lustful thought and voluptuousness is an intense
passion. Because of this parallelism between the outward objects and the
inward psychical states, the inward psychical states, the renunciation
of extraneous objects assists in destroying corresponding intense
passions. If the
Srava. 50. 2 Kartti. 90.
giving up of
certain external things does not, for some reason or another, result in
the destruction of the internal intense passions and in the development
of Bhakti, study and meditation, the discipline so observed would amount
to futility. Hence, the giving up of intense passions is of great
significance, although, in common parlance, Vairagya is understood to
convey the withdrawal from the external world of wife, children etc.,
yet the underlying hidden meaning consists in removing the filth of
intense passions, which will necessarily lead to the turning of selves
Intense passions manifest themselves in violence, falsehood, theft,
unchastity and acquisition, which have been represented to be vices. As
we have said, the elimination of these vices requires the cultivation of
virtues of non-violence, truthfulness, non-thieving, chastity and
non-acquisition. Of these virtues, non-violence is the fundamental. All
the rest should be regarded as the means for its proper sustenance, just
as the field of corn requires adequate fencing for its protection. The
householder can partially acquire these virtues which are than called
partial non-violence (ahimsanuvrata), partial truthfulness (satyanuvrata),
Partial non- thieving ( acauryanuvratai), partial chastity (bramahacaryanuvrata)
and partial non-acquisition (parigraha- parimananuvrata). We
shall now dwell upon the aforementioned vices one by one, and shall
derive from them the scope of partial vows of the householder .
COMPREHENSIVE MEANING OF HIMSA : We begin with Himsa. Speaking from the
transcendental point of view, we may say that even the slightest fall
from complete self-realization is to be regarded as Himsa. In other
words, Himsa commences with the appearance of passions, whether mild or
intense , on the surface of self. Considered from this perspective, the
concept of Himsa includes both virtue and vice. But here we are
concerned with the meaning of Himsa as vice or intense passion only.
From this point of view, therefore, falsehood, theft, unchastely and
acquisition are the illustrations of Himsa. Thus Himsa summarises all
these vices. In its popular meaning, which shall be dealt with
presently, Himsa distinguishes itself from falsehood, theft, uncastity
and acquisition. In the former, the Dravya-pranas and the Bhava-pranas
are directly injured ; whereas in the latter cases, the Pranas are
VII. 1. 2 Puru. 44.
POPULAR MEANING OF HIMSA: The term Himsa may be defined as the
committing of injury to the Dravya-Pranas and the Bhava-pranas through
the operation of intense-passion-infected Yoga (activity of mind, body,
and speech). Suicide, homicide and killing of any other life whatsoever
aptly sum up the nature of Himsa, inasmuch as these villainous actions
are rendered conceivable only when the Dravya-Pranas and the
Bhava-pranas pertaining to oneself and to others are injured. The
minimum number of Dravya-Pranas has been considered to be four, and the
maximum has been known to be ten; and the Bhava-pranas are the very
attributes of Jiva. The amount of injury will thus be commensurate with
the member of Pranas injured at a Pranas injured at a particular time
and occasion. If the bodily movements etc,. are performed with
circumspection, nevertheless if any living being is oppressed, it cannot
be called Himsa, for the infection element of intense passion is
missing. On the contrary, even if, by careless bodily movements no
animate body is oppressed, the actions are not free from Himsa. Here
though the soul has not injured others, yet it has injured itself by
defiling its own natural constitution. We may thus say that both the
indulgence in Himsa and the negation of abstinence from Himsa constitute
Himsa. In other words, he who has not abandoned Himsa, though he is not
factually indulging in it, commits himsa on account of having the
subconscious frame of mind for its perpetration. Again, he who employs
his mind, body and speech in injuring others also commits Himsa on
account of actually indulging in it. Thus, wherever there is
inadvertence of mind, body or speech, Himsa is inevitable.
PURITY OF EXTERNAL BEHAVIOU TOO IS NECESSARY : It will be the height of
folly and impertinence if any man conceitedly argues that it is no use
renouncing the performance of certain actions, but that the internal
mind alone ought to be uncontaminated. But it is to be borne in mind
that in lower stages, which exceedingly fall short of self realisation,
the external performance of a man ahs no meaning without his being
internally disposed to do so. Hence the external and the internal
influence each other; and in most cases the internal precedes the
external. Thus, in no case, the outward commission of Himsa, without
the presence of internal corruption can be vindicated. He who
exclusively emphasizes the internal at the expense of the external
Tasu. VII.13. 2. Puru.45. 3.
significance of outward behavior. He loses sight of the fact that the
impiousness of external actions necessarily leads to the pollution of
the internal mind, thus disfigure in both the aspects, namely, the
internal and external. In consequence, both the Niscaya and Vyavahara
Nayas, i.e. both the internal and external aspects should occupy their
JUDGEMENT OF THE ACTS OF HIMSA AND AHIMSA: We may point out here that
the Jaina philosophers do not blink the possibility of the disparity
between the exterior behavior and the interior state of mind; and
consequently they do not get perplexed in judging the acts of Himsa and
Ahimsa, i. e., which act will bear the fruit of Himsa, and which act
will be judged as Ahimsa? Aneminet Jaina author Amrtacandra, in his
celebrated book, Purusarthasiddhyupaya, dwells with great clarity
upon the above facts. First, he preaches that he who does not
explicitly commit Himsa may also reap the fruits of Himsa because of his
continual mental inclination towards indulging in Himsa; and he who
apparently employs himself in the acts of Himsa may not be liable to
fruits of Himsa. Secondly, owing to one's intense passion one may be
subjected to grave consequences even by committing trifling Himsa,
while, owing to mild passion, the other escapes the sad and serious
consequences in spite of preparation gross acts of Himsa. Thirdly, it
is amazing that, in spite of the two persons following the same course
of Himsa, divergence at the time of fruition may be exhibited on account
of the differences in their states of mind and intensity of passions.
Fourthly, though Himsa may be committed by one, yet consequences may be
suffered by many. Similarly, though it may be committed by many, the
consequences may be suffered by one. From all these we may conclude
that the point of reference in judging the acts of Himsa and Ahimsa is
the internal state of mind.
KINDS OF HIMSA : Having explained the philosophy of Himsa, we now
proceed to Enquirer into the kinds of Himsa. It is of two kinds,
namely, intentional and non-intentional. The letter has been again
subdivided into Udyami, Aramhi, and Virodhl. The intentional
perpetrator of Himsa engages himself in the commitment of the acts of
Himsa by his own mind, speech and action; provokes others to
2. Puru.51 3.Ibid.52. 4.Ibid.53. 5.Puru.55. 6. Jainadarsanasara,
p. 63. 7. Ibid.p.63.
and endorses such acts of others. Besides, himsa which is unavoidably
committed 1) by reason of one's own profession, 2) by the performance of
domestic activities, and 3) by defending oneself, one's neighbor, one's
belongings and the like from one's foes is denominated: 1) Udyami, 2)
Arambhi and 3) Virodhi respectively.
AHIMSANUVRATA : Now the householder, being snared in the meshes of
infirmities, is incapable of turning away completely from Himsa; hence
of the two-sensed to five sensed beings.1 The commitment of
Himsa in being engaged in a certain profession, in
performing domestic activities and in adopting defensive contrivances.
Cannot be counteracted by him. Thus he commits intentional injury to
one-sensed J1vas, namely, the vegetable-bodied, the air-bodied, the
fore-bodied etc.; and non-intentional injury in performing Arambha
(domestic activities), Udyoga (profession) and Virodha (defense). He
can therefore observe the gross form of Ahimsa, which is known as
Ahimsanurata. Even in the realm of one-sensed Jivas and in the realm of
non-intentional injury he should so manage to confine his operations as
may affect the life and existence of a very limited number of J1vas.2
In these two provinces the point to note is that of
alleviating the amount of injury that is apt to be caused and not is
that of total relinquishment which is not possible without jeopardizing
the survival of man. Nevertheless, Himsa, even in the realm of
one-sensed J1vas and in the realm of non-intentional injury, is
unjustifiable. If we reflect a little, we shall find that man is subject
to Himsa by the very condition of his existence. Yet intrespsravsating
the matura; weight of Himsa by falling foul upon one another and by our
cruel treatment with the annual and vegetable kingdoms, we should
endeavor to alleviate this general curse, to the extent which we are
capable of doing, by conforming ourselves to the sacred injunctions
enjoined by Jaina spiritual teachers.
75.; Caritra Pahuda. 24;
53; Kartti. 332;
Dharma. IV. 7,;
2 Puru. 77;
Vasu. Srava. 209. Yo . Sa. II.21.
For the observance of Ahimsanuvrata, the householder should avoid the
use of 1) wine, 2) meat, 3) honey and five kinds of fruits known as
Umbra, Katsumura, Pakara, Bada, and Papilla. 1) Drinking, first, breeds
certain unhealthy and base passion like pride, anger sex passion and the
like which are nothing but the different aspects of Himsa.2
secondly, it stupefies the intellect, which sinks virtue and piety, and
results in the commitment of the mean and morally depraved deeds of
Himsa.3 Thirdly, being the repository of abundant lives, wine
necessarily entails injury to them. 2) As regards meat-eating, first,
the procurement of flesh is inconceivable in the absence of the
infliction of injury on the sentient beings, and even though it is
obtained as a consequence of the natural death of living beings, Himsa
is inevitable owing to the crushing of creatures spontaneously born
therein, Secondly, the pieces of flesh which are raw, or cooked, or are
in the process of being cooked, are found unceasingly to generate
creatures in them, so that he who indulges in meat-eating is incapable
of avoiding hurt to them. A plausible argument is sometimes adduced in
support of meat-eating: beans and pulses too are to equated with flesh
as these are endowed with life like the bodies of camels, sheep and
animals. However shrewd the argument may be, it contains the fallacy of
undistributed middle. Somadeva observe, 'no doubt flesh may constitute
the body of an animate object, but the body of any animate object is not
necessarily composed of flesh, just as the Neem is a tree, but any tree
is to Neem. In a similar vein, Asahara cogently points out that though
flesh and vegetables indubiously possess lives, the latter are proper to
be used as food to the exclusion of the former, inasmuch as though both
mother and wife possess womanhood, wife alone is justified in gratifying
our sex-passion, and not the mother. 3) The use of honey is objected to
on the ground that it is procured by injuring the lives of bees and of
the young eggs in the womb of bees : and even if it is gathered when the
honey naturally drops down, it causes destruction to the live
spontaneously born therein. The
Puru. 61, 72.; Saga. Dharma. II. 2.; Amita. Srava. V. 1.; Puru. 64.
Puru. 62; Vasu. Srava. 70, 77,; Amita. Srava. V.2.
Puru. 63; Amita. Srava. V. 6; Saga. Dharma. II. 4, 5; Yas and Ie. p.
Puru. 65, 66; Amita. Srava V. 14; Saga. Dharma. II. 78. 6 Puru. 67,
Yas and Ic. p. 263. 8 Saga. Dharma. II. 10. 9 Puru. 69, 70.
of fruits known as Umara, Kathumara, Pakara, Bada and Pipala are the
breeding grounds of various living organisms, and their use for deistic
and other purposes is also forbidden owing to the injury caused to them.
Again their use after they get dry on account of the passage of time
causes himsa, because it is due to our excessive attachment to
such odious things.
Again, the following points should be noted for the observance of
Ahimsanuvrata. First, one should not sacrifice animals for the adoration
of gods, being dominated by the perverted notion of receiving
benediction in return. It is inconceivable how the gods seek
satisfaction and serenity from such inhuman deeds which cause unbearable
pain to the animals. Secondly, it must to be obligatory to kill the
animals for the entertainment of guests, a pious design by impious
means. Thirdly, to harbor the nation that the vegetable food
necessitates the killing of innumerable lives abiding in it as compared
with the slaughter of one living being may be fascinating at the
inception, but it is imprudent in view of the facts that the body of an
animal possesses countless microscopic lives which will be inevitably
injured in its killing; and that the five-sensed Jiva would entail more
inauspicious Asrava, i.e., vice owing to the occupation and
consequential loss of more Dravya and Bhava Pranas than those of
one-sensed Jivas belonging to the vegetable kingdom. Fourthly, (snakes,
scorpions, lions and the like should not be killed on the ground that by
so doing large number of lives will be saved, and that they (snakes,
scorpions etc.) will get the opportunity of avoiding the accumulation of
more sin by their continued violence. Fifthly, under the weight of
misconception that those who are in distress and calamity on being
killed will soon obtain relief from anguish and agony, the living beings
should never be obtain relief from anguish and agony, the living beings
should never be killed. Lastly, moved by the pangs of other beings
should not provide one with the flesh of one's own body to appease one's
STAGES OF DEFILEMENT OF A VOW AND THE TRANSGRESSIONS OF THE
HOUSEHOLDER'S VOW OF AHIMSA : We have dwelt upon the nature of
Ahimsanuvrata, which is obligatory for every householder to pursue. The
vow should be followed with proper understanding and comprehen-
1 Puru. 72.
2 Puru. 73. 3 Puru. 79, 80. 4 Ibid. 81. 5 Ibid. 82, 83.
6 Puru. 84.
7 Ibid. 85. 8 Ibid. 89.
Sometimes it so happens that on account of the short understanding or on
account of the irresistible force of passion, the purity and enthusiasm
diminish and the result is the defilement of a vow. This must at once be
avoided in order to maintain its sanctity. When such corruption rises in
the mind, it is called atikrama; when further development occurs
towards its defilement, say, collection of means to overthrow it,
vyatikramai is the name given to it; when we have indulged in it, it
is said to be aticara; and lastly, when excessive indulgence in
it, it is said to be aticara; and lastly, when excessive
indulgences is witnessed, anacara results. These four are the stages of
defilement of a vow. To illustrate, to simply think to enter another
man's field is Aticara; and to move, sit and lie down in the field is
Anacara. Accordion to Amrtacandra that which hampers the purity of the
vow is called Aticara. Every vow should be observed with great purity,
care and zeal, since only such vows can bear desired fruits, and serve
as a means to the moral and the spiritual up liftment. In spite of
every care the mind may, under the influence of society, ill-health,
fear and passion, deviate from the prescribed path. Hence, defects
origination in the observance of vows may be of many types, but the
Jaina Acaryas have mentioned only five for each vow, so that we may
direct our mind towards them and shun them. Now the five transgressions
of the householder's vow of Ahimsa are: 1) Tying up living beings, 2)
Mutilating them, 3) beating them, 4) overloading them, and 5)
withholding their food and drink.
NATURE OF ASATYS (FALSEHOOD): We now turn to the exposition of the
nature of falsehood and Satyanuvrata. To begin with falsehood, it
concerns itself with the expression of intense passion through the
outlet of speech, which expresses itself in language and gestures.
Dispassionate speech is synonymous with the mystical realization which
is the height of truth man is capable of achieving.
Intense-passion-infected speech is complete falsehood.
Mild-passion-infected speech, is, to coin a new word, semi-truth, i.e.,
truth descended in the mundane and embellished form, for example, to
speak noble, beneficial and benevolent words; this certainly amounts to
the gliding and lapse from the superb
Bhavanaviveka, 192, 193. 2. Puru. 181
Puru. 183,; Ratna. Srava., 54 Ta. su. VII. 25. Uvasagadasao, 1.45,;
Saga. Dharma. IV. 15, Amita. Srava. VII. 3.
mystical truth. The perfect souls of Tirthamkaras who preach for the
upliftment of human and other beings should not be regarded as being
moved by the mild passions of compassion and benevolence, inasmuch as
they speak for the god of all without any selfish desire and without
constraint of mild-passion. It follows from what has been described
that falsehood, bin the expression of intense passions, is a double fall
from the loftiest heights of truth. It defiles both the internal soul
and the external demeanor, the social living and the spiritual
upliftment, hence it should be forsaken in the interest of advancement.
now define falsehood. It implies the making of wrong statement by one
who is overwhelmed by intense passions, such as anger, greed, conceit,
deceit and the like. We may point out here that it does not mean merely
the pronouncement of the existent as non-existent, nor can it be said to
embrace merely the proclamation of the non-existent as existent, but it
involves also the misrepresentation of the true nature of the existents
and the use of speech which arouses intense-passion and causes pain to
others. Accordingly, truth must not mean merely the announcement of the
existent as existent, but it must mean also the use of words which are
soothing, gentle and ennobling. It should be borne in mind that, even
if by our most vigilant and gentle speaking, others are somehow
perversely and painfully affected, we shall not be considered as
transgression and setting at naught the vow of truth. Ontologically
speaking, no word is pleasant or unpleasant in isolation and in itself.
It is the spirit that counts. A word, being the modification f Pudgala,
has infinite characteristics. Therefore it possesses the potency of
affection others in infinite ways, all of which are incapable of being
known by imperfect human beings. In calling a word pleasant or
unpleasant, the circumstances, the place and time, the character of the
man, the mental and physical effects on himself and others that surround
him should all be counted. Thus, according to Amrtacandra, the first
kind of falsehood refers to the affirmation of the existent as
non-existent; the second refers to the declaration of the non-existent
as existent; the third refers to the representation of the existing
nature of things as different from what they really are; and the fourth
is indicative of the speech which is 1) condemnable (garhita),
91. 2 Puru. 92. 3 Ibid. 93. 4 Ibid. 94.
2) sinful (savadya),
and 3) disagreeable (apriya). To explain the fourth form of
falsehood, 1) back-biting, ridiculous speech, harsh language and violent
words are comprised under condemnable speech. Besides, useless
gossiping, language inciting unfounded beliefs, and superstitions should
also be grouped under it. 2) Sinful speech comprises the use of language
for defense, for running the household and for professional purposes. 3)
Disagreeable words are those which arouse uneasiness, engender fear,
excite repugnance, inflame dollar, and intoxicate brawl.
SATYANUVRATA : Of these forms of falsehood, it is beyond the power of
the householder to shun totally the use of words concerning his
household affairs, the affairs relating to his profession and safety;
and these necessarily entail Himsa. The avoidance of sinful (savadya)
speech is not possible without imperiling his life, and that of his
dependents, just as it is not possible for him to abandon the Himsa of
one- sensed Jivas. Thus the householder should abandon all other forms
of falsehood except sinful speech. This is the gross form of the vow of
truth or Satyanuvrata. It should be noted that Samantabhadra allows not
telling the truth, if it endangers the life of any one in Satyanuvrata.
The truthful man should denounce exaggeration, fault-finding and
indecent speech; and speak words that are noble, beneficial and
balanced. He should be grave, equanimous, noble- characterized
personality, philanthropist, kind and sweet-tongued. He should not extol
himself, and calumniate others. Nor should he hide the merits of others
that are existent, and describe those of himself that are non- existent.
In order to maintain the purity of the vow, one should steer clear of
the following Aticaras, which are; 1) false preaching. 2) divulging the
secrets of a couple, 3) forgery, 4) not to return the deposited articles
of a man in full, if he has forgotten the actual number, and 5)
disclosing one's secret purposes.
Nature of STEYA ( STEALING) : We now proceed to deal with the nature of
stealing (steya) and Acauryanurata. Stealing means the
1 Puru. 95.
2 Ibid. 96. 3 Puru. 96. 4 Ibid. 97. 5 Ibid. 98.
101. 7 Ratna. Srava. 55 ; Vasu. Srava. 210.
334,; Yas. and Ic. p. 266. 9 Yas. and Ic. p. 266.
10 Yas. and
Ic. p. 266. 11 Puru. 184; Tasu. VII-26., Uvasagdasao I. 46.,
Saga. Dharma. IV. 45;. The Aticaras of this vow show wide divergence.
We have followed the Tattvarthasutra and its commentary, the
things without their being given by the owner. This necessarily implies
the presence of internal intense passions in one's own mind. In this
world, transient the external Pranas, of a man, and he who thieves or
plunders them is said to commit theft, inasmuch as this is tantamount to
depriving a man of his Pranas. This, then, is not other than Himsa.
ASTEYANUVRATA OR ACACURYANUVRATA : Not to take anything without the
permission of others is a discipline par-excellence; but it lies beyond
the power of the house- holder ; so he is required to use such things
freely as are of common use without their being given, such as
well-water, sand and the like. This is Acauryanuvrata or gross from of
the vow of non-stealing. According to Samantabhadra the observer of the
householder's vow of non-stealing neither takes himself those things
which are unfired, placed, dropped, and forgotten by others nor gives
them to anyone else. Karttikeya includes even the purchasing of costly
things at reduced prices under stealing, which is probably due to the
fact that one may sell a thing after getting it by improper methods.
Somadeva holds that the underground property belongs to the king or the
state; so also the property of unknown ownership. To take the
possession of property at the death of one's own kinsman is justified,
but, when he is alive, his sanction is required to sustain the
householder's vow of non-stealing. The householder who gives himself to
this vow must abstain himself from the following Aticaras.
adulteration, 2) abatement of theft, 3) receiving stolen property, 4)
violating sates rules, and 5) the use of false weights and measures.
ABRAHMA (UNCHASTITY) : We now pass on to dwell upon the nature of
unchastely and Brahmacaryanuvrata. The copulation arising from sexual
passion is Abraham. This is Himsa in two ways. In the first place, many
living beings are deprived of their vitalities in the vagina in the
sexual act, just as a hot rod of iron, when it is introduced in a tube
filled with sesames seeds, burns them up. Secondly, psychical life is
affected because of the emergence of sexual
102. 2 Ibid. 3 Puru. 103. 4
Puru. 104. 5 Puru. 106.
6 Yo. Sa.,
II. 66; Ratna. Srava. 57; Vasu. Srava. 211 ; Amita. Srava. VI. 59.
335. 8 Yas. and Ic . p. 265; Saga. Dharma. IV. 48.
9 Yas. and
Ic. p. 265. 10 Puru. 185, Ratna. Srava. 58; Tasu. VII. 27.; Saga.
IV. 50.; Amita Srava. VII. 5.; Uvasagadasao. I. 47; Carittrasara. P.
107. 12 Ibid. 108.
Passion and so also the material Pranas are affected owing to the
lethargic condition consequent upon coition.1
BRAHMACARYANUVRATA: The householder cannot relinquish copulation as
such. Hence he should abstain himself from the sexual and lustful
contacts with all other woman except his nuptial partner. This is
Brahmacaryanuvrata or gross form of the vow of chastity. According to
Vasunandi, the householder following this vow should not succumb to the
unnatural ways of sexual satisfaction like masturbation, sodomy and the
like and should not copulate even with his own wife on the pious days
(Asthma and Caturdasi) of each fortnight. Samantabhadra defines
Brahmacaryanuvrata as renouncing lustful contacts with another man's
wife, and as seeking contentment in one's own wife. Such an observer of
vow neither enjoys another man's wife, nor instigates another person to
do so. Somadeva enunciates the vow of gross chastity as chastity all
women or concubines as one's mother, sister or daughter with the
exception of one's own wife. " Wine. Meat, gambling, music with song
and dance, personal decoration, intoxication, libertines and aimless
wanderings - these ten are the concomitants of sexual passion."
Besides, "One should be careful not to excite oneself by erotic acts,
aphrodisiac potions and erotic literature. The breaches of the vow of
gross chastity are: 1) taking interest in match- making, 2) sexual
association with married woman, 3) sexual association with unmarried
woman, 4) unnatural methods of sexual enjoyment, and 5) inordinate
NATURE OF PARIGRAHA ( ACQUISITION): We now proceed to dwell upon the
nature of acquisition and parigraha- parimananuvrata. The most
comprehensive characteristic of parigraha is attachment, which follow as
the modification and operation of Mohakarma. The definition of
Parigraha as attachment is scientific, since it embodies the entire
connotation signified by the term. It believes, in the first place, that
those who have the least vestige of a feeling of attachment,
notwithstanding the external renunciation of all worldly acquisitions,
Puru. 109. 2. Ibid. 110. 3.
Srava. 59. 5. Ibid. 59. 6. Yas. And Ic.p.267;
VI. 64, 65. 7. Yas. and Ic.p.267. 8. Yas. and Ic.p. 267.
186; Dharma Bi. 159; Tasu. VII. 28; Uvasagadasao. I. 48;
Prajna. 273; amita. Srava. VII.6. We have followed Pujyapada's meaning
of the Aticaras. 10. Puru. 111.
are far from
non- acquisition. Secondly, it expresses that the possession of
external things is not possible without internal attachment. Thus both
the internal attachment and the possession of external things come
within the sweep of Parigraha. We may now say that if one is disposed
to remove the internal attachment, one should correspondingly throw
aside external possession also. In the presence of external possession,
if non- attachment is claimed, it will be self- deception possession
cannot be perforce with us. It may happen that, despite insignificant
external possession, one may have conspicuous internal inclination for
possession, just as a poor man may have. But this must not brush aside
the difference in internal attachment corresponding to the kind of
external possession. In other words, there occurs internal variation in
attachment by virtue of the longing one possesses for the kind of
external objects. For example, attachment is feeble in a young deer
which continues to live on green blades of grass in comparison to a cat
which kills a host of mice for procuring its food. Thus, the external
and the internal influence each other.
KINDS OF PARIGRAHA: Parigraha is of two kinds: the external, and the
internal. The former again admits of two kinds: the living and the non-
living; and the latter is recognised to be of fourteen kinds, namely,
perverted belief, laughter, indulgence, ennui, sorrow, fear, disgust,
anger, pride, deceit, greed and desire for sexual enjoyment with man,
with woman and with both.
and HIMSA: Parigraha as such can never preclude Himsa; and those who
wish to practice Ahimsa should avoid the internal and the external
attachment. So Ahimsa will be commensurate with the degree of
avoidance. Perfect non- attachment, and consequently perfect Ahimsa is
rendered possible only in the life of Arahantas, and, below this, only
degrees of Aparigraha are possible.
PARIGRAHA- PARIMANANUVRATA: The householder is incapable of renouncing
all Parigraha. Hence he should shun perverted belief and Anantanubandhi
and Apratyakhyanavarna kinds of passion; and should accordingly limit
the Parigraha of wealth, cattle, corn, servants, buildings, etc.
inasmuch as the spirit of renunciation is the right
Puru. 112 2. Puru.113. 3. Puru. 121.
4. Puru.115 to 117. 5.
We have already dealt
with these kinds of passion in the previous chapter.
This is Parigraha- parimananuvrata or the gross form of the vow of
Aparigraha. We may say in passing that the householder's vow of
Aparigraha would tend to annul the economic inequality rampant in
society and thereby everybody will be able to get things of daily
necessities at least. To- day, men nations are striving for the
enhancement of their wealth and territory at the cost of others with the
consequence that the individual and national tensions are increasing.
Parigraha is detrimental, when it engenders inordinate clinging. An
attitude of a philanthropist is essential to the observance of the vow
of Parigraha- Parimananuvrata. In order to sustain the purity of the
vow the violations of the limits regarding 1) house and land, 2) gold
and silver, 3) cattle and corn, 4) male and female servants, and 5)
clothes and utensils, should be avoided. Samantabhadra has spoken of
the other breaches of the vow, namely. 1)the keeping of a larger number
of vehicles than required, 2) accumulating necessary articles in large
number, and 5) the over- loading of animals.
Householder's LIFE AS MIXTURE OF VIRTUE AND VICE: We have so far dealt
with the nature of the five Anuvratas. Violence, falsehood, stealing,
unchastely, and acquisition are the different vices. They amount to a
fall from the heights of mystical experience. The middle way is to lead
the life of virtue. It is to be borne in mind that the three types of
non- intentional Himsa, the Himsa of one- sensed Jivas, the use of
Savadya or sinful language, the act of sexual intercourse with one's own
wife, the use of common things without permission, and the keeping of
limited Parigraha- all these are householder's vices, which may be
socially justifiable, but cannot be justified spiritually. In other
words, looked at with the social eye, they are not regarded as vices,
but the eye of spirituality considers them to be so. Thus, in the life
of the householder pure virtue in the sense of mid passion is an
impossibility; his life is always a mixture of virtue and vice. The
condition of that householder who does not strictly follow the partial
vows is pitiable. Virtue, in his life,
puru. 124 to
128; Ratna. Srava.61; Vasu. Srava. 213 Amita Srava. VI. 73;
Saga. Dharma. IV. 61.
Ta. Su. VII. 29; Uvasagadasao.I-49; Saga. Dharma. IV.64; Amita. Srava.
will be a
mere accident, and sometimes a social compulsion. This, then, will be a
pseudo- virtue as distinguished from genuine virtue springing from the
inner consciousness of sin. It is only in the latter case that the vows
are trustful and conducive to the moral, social and spiritual
REELECTION ON AND THE REPETION OF CERTAIN IDEAS FOR THE PROPER
OBSERVANCE OF THE VOWS: Now, in order that the vows may be fixed in mind
and pursued with great zeal, the author of the Tattvarthasutra has
advised us to reflect on the following ideas and to repeat them in mind
very often. First, one should ponder over the troubles that may be
faced in one's own life in this world, and over the afflictions that may
fall to one's lot in the life hereafter, as a result of indulging in the
five types of sins. To illustrate, it should be thought that any one
never believes an untruthful man. Confinement and disrespect and other
inconceivable mental and physical pains are the punishments he has to
bear in this life. Besides, he will have to take birth at odious places
and in disgraceful forms as a result of falsehood. Similarly for other
sins. Secondly, one is required to think that by cultivating the four
noble habits, namely, universal friendship with the living beings in
general, appreciation for those who are virtuous, active compassion for
the distressed, and indifference towards the arrogant and the
incorrigible, one is facilitated in the observance of the vows.
Thirdly, one should think over the transitoriness of the worldly objects
and sensual pleasures, and over the impermanence, the
unsubstantantiality, and the foulness of the body.
CONCEPT OF MULAGUNAS: The five vows together with the total abandonment
of wine, meat and honey have been called Mulagunas (Primary moral
characters) by the ethics- logical philosopher, Samantabhadra. The
conception of Mulagunas has been for the first time proclaimed by this
eminent saint- philosopher. The content and the number of the Mulagunas
are dynamic, which is evidenced but the fact that the later Acaryas have
modified them in accordance with the time, place and the nature of
disciples. In this ever transforming world, new conditions emerge, and
consequently new sedatives become indispensable. There can be no
sovereign remedy for all times and persons of different age. The
Mulagunas which are the steeping stones to higher progress
Ta. Su.VII.9. 2. Ta.Su.VII.11. 3.Ta.Su.VII.12. 4.Ratna.
therefore, to be changed in the light of the conduct and character of
persons. Thus the forms may change but not be criterion, i.e., not the
fundamental principle of Ahimsa in its comprehensive sense. After
Samantabhadra Jinasena substitutes gambling for honey and does not
disturb the other Mulagunas. A tremendous change which has been
effected in the content is due to Somadeva. He substituted five
Udambara fruits for five Anuvratas, and keeps the remaining three,
namely, to abstain oneself from wine, meat and honey, as Samantabhadra
has done. Amitagati increases the number of Mulagunas by appending the
avoidance of eating at night to the renunciation of wine, meat, honey
and five Udambara fruits. Though this eminent Acarya has mentioned
neither the name, ' Mulaguna,' nor their number, a little reflection
would suffice to witness both. In the end of the chapter he has
mentioned that at the start these puru Gunas should be practiced; and
regarding number, if five Udambara fruits are considered as one we have
five Mulagunas, and if as five, we have nine Mulagunas. The mentioning
of the fact by Amratacandra that even the worthiness of Jaina discipline
is acquired by virtue of outright relinquishing the eight kinds of
things, namely, meat, wine, honey and five Udamabara fruits, is
suggestive of eight Mulagunas. It is apparent from Vasunadi's view of
the first stage of householder's conduct that he is regarding the
abandonment of meat, wine, honey, five Udamber fruits, gambling,
hunting, prostitution, adultery, and stealing as the Mulagunas.
Asadhara mentioned the view of other Acarya who has prescribed somewhat
different Mulagunas, namely, the abandonment of meat, wine, honey, five
Udambara fruits and night, as also the devotion to the adorable five (Arahanta,
Siddha, Acarya, Upadhyaya and Sadhu), the use of water strained though a
cloth, and the compassionate attitude towards the sentient beings.
Srava. Intro.p.35 2.Yas. and Ic.p.262. 3. Amita
Srava.v.1. 4. Amita Srava. V.73. 5. Puru.74.
6.Vasu.Srava.57 to 59.
Dharma.II.18. 8. Kinds of food- (Amita. Srava.VI.96, 97):
that is swallowed: grains, and pulses of all kinds, particularly the
staple, boiled rice." (Jaina Yoga, p. 39);
"All that is drunk: Water, milk, the juice of fruits." (ibid.p.39);
All that is chewed or nibbled: fruits and nuts" (Ibid.);
"All that is tasted or severs as a relish, pepper, cumin seeds' etc,.
that the eating of any kind of food at night occasions more Himsa than
the eating by day in sunlight. The controversy centers round the
question of its avoidance in the life of the householder at a particular
stage. Of the eleven stages of the householder, to be dealt with in the
sequel, kundakunda,1 Karttikeya 2 and
Samantabhadra 3 enjoin the total avoidance of eating at night
at the sixth stage of advancement. Somadeva 4 and Asadhara
5 include this in Ahimsanuvrata, though the latter has
prescribed its partial avoidance in the preparatory stage,
i. e., Paksika stage, to be dealt with afterwards.6 Amitagati
7 enumerates the total avoidance of eating at night in the
Mulagunas, thus necessitating its observance at the inception of
householder's life. Vasunandi prescribes its total abandonment even
before commencing the observance of the rules of conduct formulated for
the 1st stage of householder's conduct.8 Thus he
is in harmony with Amitagati. Hemachandra 9 prescribed the
avoidance of eating at night in the Bhogopabhoga parimanavrata.
AVODIDANCE OF EATING AT NIGHT AS THE SIXTH ANUVRATA: Viranandi and
camundaraya 10 regard the avoidance of eating at night as the
sixth Anuvrata. They count it is as a separate Anuvrata in addition to
the five Anuvratas already dealt with. The corroboration of the fact of
regarding the avoidance of eating at night as the sixth Anuvrata may be
made from Pujyapada's 11 commentary on the Tattvarthasutra
where in reference has been made to the prevalence of the view that it
is the sixth Anuvrata. That Amratacandra has enunciated the importance
of total abstinence from eating at night just after propounding the
nature and extent of the five vows of the householder is significant of
the view that he implicitly regards it as the sixth Anuvrata. 12
Neither has he comprised it in Ahimsanuvrata, nor has he included
it in the eight requisites which make a man worthy of Jaina discipline,
nor has he mentioned its abstinence at any particular stage of
householder's Dharma. All these considerations oblige us to infer that
he was implicitly in favour of recognizing this as the sixth Anuvrata.
Why has he not explicitly described it to be so may, on the one hand,
1. Caritra Pahuda; 22. 2. Kartti.
382. 3. Ratna. Srava. 142.
Yas. and Ic.p. 264. 5.Saga. Dharma.IV.24. 6. Saga.Dharma.II.76.
Amita Srava.V.1. 8.Vasu.Srava.314.
10. Acarasara.V.70;Caritrasara.p.13. 11 Sarvartha. VII.1.
unreserved faithfulness to the old tradition of recognising Anuvratas as
five in number, and on the other, owing to his desire to avoid the
aforementioned controversy centered round it.
DIFFERENT CONCEPTIONS OF THE GUNAVRATAS AND THE SIKSAVRATAS: After
dealing with the five vices, the five Anuvratas, the various conceptions
of Mulagunas, and the avoidance of eating at night, we now propose to
dwell upon the nature of Gunavratas and Siksavratas, which are
recognised as the seven Silavratas.1 These Silavratas serve
the useful purpose of guarding the Anuvratas. 2 To be more
clear, they effect a positive improvement in the observance of the
Anuvratas. The Sravaka Prajnapti distinguishes between the Gunavratas
and the Sikksavratas by saying that the former are observed for the
whole life, but that the latter, for a limited time.3
Asadhara also draws a distinction between the two by pointing out that,
by the observance of the Gunavratas, the Anuvratas are observed in a
better way, and that, by the observance of the Sikksavratas, the
individual gets inspiration and training for the life of renunciation.4
The two seemingly different views do not exclude each other, but
the one implies the other. The former view emphasis's the time element,
whereas the latter one lays stress on the functions performed by the
Gunavratas and the Siksavraatas. There is perfect unanimity among the
Jaina Acaryas regarding the number of Silavratas. All of them agree
that there are three Gunavratas and four Siksavratas. Of the three
Gunavratas, the Digvrata and the Anarthadandavrata have been recognised
by all the Acaryas as the Gunavratas; and of the four Siksavratas, the
Atithisamvibhagavrata has been unanimously regarded as the Sikkksavrata;
and all the Acaryas except Vasunandi include the Samayikavrata and the
Prosadhopavasavrata in the Siksavratas. Vasunandi has not recognised
them at all as any of the Vratas. Different schools of Vratas have
emerged owing to the controversial nature of Desavrata,
Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata and Sallekhana. Kundakunda5
regards Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata as the Gunavrata and Sallekhana as the
Siksavrata Sikasvrata without any mention of Desavrata in the scheme of
Silavratas. Karttikeya6 enumerates Desavrata in the
Siksavratas, and regards Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata as the Gunavrata.
Umasvati 7 seems to consider Desavrata to be the
1. Dharma.Bi.155; puru.136.
3.Srava.Prajna. 328 4.Saga.Dharma.VI.24 5.Caritra
Pahuda.25,26. 6.Kartti. 367, 7. Ta.Su.VII.21.
[Please see your table next file name Table Page. 92]
Gunavrata and Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata to be the Siksavrata.
Samantabhadra1 and Kattikeya agree in respect of the names of Vratas,
but the former slightly varies the order by putting Desavrata first in
the order of Siksavrata. Karttikeya, Umasvati and Samantabhadra discuss
the nature of Sallekhana after the Silavratas. Vasunandi 2
regards Desavrata as the Gunavrata and bifurcates
Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata into Bhogavirati and Paribhoganiviitti and
includes them in the Siksavratas along with Sallekhana. Thus, in the
Digmbara sect of Jainism five tradition are witnessed concerning the
Silavratas, namely, the tradition of Kundakunda, Karttikeya, Umasvati,
Samantabhadra, and Vasunandi. In the Svetambara sect of Jainism two
traditions are witnessed, first, the tradition of Umasvati and secondly,
the tradition of the Upasakadadas and the Sravaka Prajnapti
which is followed by Haribhadra, Hemachndra, Yasovijaya etc. The
second tradition agrees with Karttikeys and Samantabhadra with slight
variation in the order of Vratas. The different traditions, we may
point out, are due to the differences of interpretations caused by
differences in time, place and trends of though, and not due to the non-
conformity with the fundamental principles of Jainism.
shall now dwell upon the nature of each of the Silavraras. Kundakunda
in the Caritra Pahuda 3 has simply enumerated their
names without explaining their nature according to his own
interpretation. So it is very difficult to guess his mind by means of
mere names. Though Umasvati has not mentioned the names, Gunavrata and
Siksavrata, the great commentators like Pujyapada4 and
Vidyananda 5 have mentioned
the first there as the Gunavratas, and the last four as the Siksavratas.
NATURE OF DIGVRATA: We now proceed to deal with the nature of
Digvrata. All the traditions recognise this as the Gunavrata. It
consists in fixing the limits of one's own movements in the ten
directions.6 For the purpose of demarcation are utilized the
well known signs, such as oceans, rivers, forest, mountains, countries
and Yojana stones.7 As regards the time limit, Samantabhadra8
and Akalalanka 9
Srava. 67.91. 2. Vasu. Srava. 217, 218. 271, 272.
Pahuda. 25,26. 4. Sarvartha.VII.21. 5
6.Srava.Prajna. 280; Kartti.342; Ratna.Sravaa.68; Subhasita.
792;Ta.Su.Bha, VII.21; Ya.Sa.II.1. 7. Ratna.Srava.69; Puru.137;
Caritrsara.p.14; Vasu. Srava.214; Sarvartha. VII.21; Saga.Dharma.V.2;
Raja.VII.21. 8. Ranta.Srava.68.
prescribe its life- long observance, while the other Acaryas implicitly
state so. The Sravaka Prajnapti 1 tells is that since the householder
is like a heated iron ball, his movements, wherever they are made,
entail Himsa. If the area of his movements is circumscribed, he will
thereby save himself from committing Himsa as such outside tat area.
Thus by the avoidance of even the subtle sins beyond the determined
limits, the Anuvrati (householder) becomes like a Mahavrati (ascetic) in
respect of the regions lying beyond those limis.2 Besides,
the Karttikeyanupreksa3 tells us that by fixing the
limits in all the ten directions the passion of greed is controlled.
This may be explained by saying that the Digerati has automatically
renounced the getting of wealth, even if it can be easily got, from the
area outside the limits.4 It will not be idle to point out
here that the limitation of movements in the external world tends to
reduce the internal passions, thereby fulfilling the purpose for which
the Digvrata is enjoined.
The five transgression of the Digvrata are: Going beyond the
fixed limits of space 1) in upward direction, 2) in downward direction,
3) in other directions, 4) extending the filed of one's activity by
increasing boundaries, and 5) forgetting the limits.5