SUMMARY OF THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER : In the previous chapter we have dealt
with the householder ethical discipline. We have, in the first place,
pointed out that the householder's is incapable of removing the
inauspicious psychical states root and branch. Secondly, we have dwelt
upon the nature of violence, falsehood, theft, non-chastity and
acquisition and have endeavored to derive from it the scope of partial
vows (anuvratas) of the house-holder. Thirdly, a survey of the
different conceptions of Mulagunas together with the various views
regarding the problem of eating at night has been made. Fourthly, the
nature and the various interpretations of the seven Sila Vratas have
been discussed. Fifthly, the conception of the eleven Pratimas, after
reconciling it with the aforementioned Vratas, has been dealt with.
Sixthly, we have shown that the representation of the household's
ethical discipline on the basis of Paksa, Carya, and Sahana is capable
of comprehending in a systematic way the conception of Mulagunas, twelve
Vratas, eleven Pratimas, and lastly Sallekhana (spiritual welcome to
death). Finally, the nature and process of Sallekhana after
distinguishing it from suicide, have been expounded.
1 Ta. su.
VII. 37. Puru. 195. Amita. Srava. VII. 15. Saga.
Dharma. VIII. 44.
Srava. 129. 3 Uvasagadasao. I. 57. (Trans. vide N. A.
ASCENTICISM IS NOT TO RECOIL FROM ACTIONS BUT FROM HIMSA : The upshot of
the householder's discipline, as we have seen, was to alleviate Himsa to
a partial extent; but the aim of the ascetic discipline, as we shall
see, is to adhere and conform to the standard of negating Himsa to the
last degree. The life of complete renunciation makes possible the
extirpation of inauspicious Bhavas, which remains unrealised in the
householder's life of partial renunciation. The life of asceticism is
not to recoil from the world of action, but from the world of Himsa,
which fact, which fact lies in consonance with the general tenor of the
Jaina religion. As a matter of fact, action displaces its mundane form,
which inevitably entailed Himsa. Even the high discipline of asceticism
associated with auspicious Bhavas along with Samyagdarsana prevents the
complete realisation of Ahimsa on account of the presence of spiritual
enemies in the form of mild passions. The ascetic life, no doubt,
affords full ground for its realisation, but its perfect realisation is
possible only in the plenitude of mystical experience. Now, the aspirant
in whom the consciousness of sin has deepened to such an extent as to
cause revolt against his own form of lower existence, gradually
renounces the articles of Bhoga and Upabhoga to the last resort and
thereby fosters the spirit of detachment and gets an opportunity to fix
his mind on something higher. In other words, after observing the
discipline prescribed in the eleven Pratimas with circumspection and
zeal for higher life, the aspirant enters on the life of full
renunciation as soon as he acrosses the eleventh stage. It is no doubt
true that the ascending of each stage is a movement, extrinsic and
intrinsic, towards higher discipline; but the full-order nature of
renunciation manifests itself after the aspirant transcends the
discipline enjoined by the last stage. The gradual renunciation of the
articles of Bhoga and Upabhoga, or the ascension towards a higher and
nobler path results on account of his being motivated by certain
incentives to spiritual life. These are traditionally known as the
twelve Anupreksas, which shall be presently dealt with. They necessarily
lead the house-holder to the saintly life. In consequence, the new life
dawns upon the struggling human soul, bringing with it unprecedented
obligations which are to be discharged with all seriousness. In the
subsequent pages we shall dwell upon the incentives to spiritual life
and the consequent spiritual and ethical duties, the consistent and
constant observance of which may pave the way for spiritual realisation
ANUPREKSAS AS THE INCENTIVES TO SPIRITUAL LIFE AND THEIR IMPORTANCE :
Before we set out to deal with the nature of the spiritual and ethical
duties of the saints, we shall deal with the nature and importance of
incentives to spiritual life (anupreksas) which prepare the
layman and the monk alike for dissipating the metaphysical, the ethical
and the spiritual ignorance and for overcoming all those obstacles which
impede the advancement, moral and spiritual. If they possess the potency
of pushing ahead the layman to peep into the realm of complete
renunciation, they profess to serve as the guides for the monk who leads
the life of complete renunciation. They have been regarded as the
incentive 1) of perpetual flux or transitoriness of things (anitya),
2) of inescapability from death (asarana), 3) of transmigration (samaras),
4) of loneliness (ekatva), 5) of the metaphysical distinction
between the self and the non-self (anyatva), 6) of the bodily
impurity (asuci), 7) of the constitution of the universe (loka),
8) of the difficulty of attaining the Right path (bodhidurlabha),
9) of the inflow of Karman (asrava). The next three, namely, 10)
the Incentive of the stoppage of the inflow of Karman (samvara),
11) the incentive of the shedding of Karmas (nirjara), and 12)
the incentive of the Dharma preached correctly (dharmasvakhyatatva)
are the means of escape from the stress and storm of worldly career.
These three provide us with the proper way of canalizing the energies
fir higher path. In other words, if the first nine Anupreksas are
negative incentives, the last three are positives ones, i.e., repeated
reflection. According to Pujyapada's commentary on the
Tattvarthasutra, Anupreksa means to ponder over the nature of the
body etc. The Karttikeyanupreksa represents it as the reflections on the
noble principles leading upward. The difference in characterisation is
due to the difference emphasis. The former lays stress on the negative
incentives, while the latter, on the means of escape from the turmoil's
of the world, i.e., on the positive incentives. The Anupreksas have been
contemplated to subserve the noble cause of spiritual progress, to
engender detachment and to lead the aspirant from the domain of passion
to that of dispassion. They have also been
1 Ta. su.
IX. 7. 2 Ta .su. IX. 7. 3 Sarvartha. IX-2
97. 5 Jnana. p. 59.
for the attainment of the purity of thoughts, for the growth of the
desire for salvation, for the development of detachment and
self-control, and lastly, for the experience of tranquillity as a result
of the extinction of passions. According to the Mulacara these
Bhavanas bring about detachment, and he who identifies himself with them
attains liberation as a result of the disruption of Karmic bondage. In
general, these Bhavanas lift the mind of the aspirant above profane
relations and considerations, and thereby prepare the self for
meditation and emancipation.
ACCOUNT OF EACH INTENTIVE : Let us now turn to explain the nature of
each incentive. 1) The incentive of perpetual flux or transistoriness of
things (antiyanupreksa) : Everything is subject to change and
mutation. Birth accompanies death; youth is tied up with senility;
wealth and prosperity may disappear at any time; and the body may fall
victim to various kinds of ills and disease. Thus impermanence of the
state of things stares us in the face. Whatever form is born must
necessarily perish. Attachment to ever transforming modifications leads
us astray and clouds the spiritual and veritable aspect of life.
Friends, beauty, wife, children, wealth etc.,- all these things which in
general captivate man's mind and energy are fraught with transientness,
thus are not the eternal associates of the self. Besides, body, fame,
pleasures of the senses and other things of Bhoga and Upabhoga are
unstable in character like a bubble of water, or lump of ice, or
rainbow, or lightening. Keeping in mind the transient character of the
mundane pleasure and objects, the aspirant should part with their
fraudulent company and utilize this inherent challenge of the process of
the process of the world for his spiritual beneficence so that happiness
par excellence may sprout.8 Kundakunda tell us that body, possessions,
pleasure and pain, friends and enemies are not the enduring
accompaniments of the self unlike the eternality of the conscious soul
itself; and he, whether a householder or a monk, who after deriving
inspiration from this meditates upon the supreme Atman destroys the
knot of delusion,9 This expression is indicative of the way of the
utilisation of the incentive of transitoriness of things for superb
1 Jnana. II.
5, 6. 2 Mula. 763, 764. 3 Kartti. 5.; Jnana. p. 17. 10.
4. 5 Kartti. 6.; Mula. 693, 694. 6 Prava. II.101.
IX-7.; Bhaga. Ara. 1727.; Kartti. 7, 9.
22. 9 Prava. II. 101, 102.
incentive of inescpability from death (asrananupreksa) :
Inevitability of death serves as a potent incentive to spiritual life.
One experiences helplessness on the advent of death. Death knows no
partiality. It behave equally and indiscriminately with the young and
old, the rich and poor, the brave and coward, and the like. Nothing
mundane, whatsoever, is capable of resisting the challenge of death.
Neither earthly powers nor heavenly gods can save us from the clutches
of death. Besides, there is no place where death cannot stretch its
wings. Every stratagem and contrivance is impotent in rescuing a living
being who is breathing his last. Thus, those who want to evolve an
incentive to spiritual life through the consideration of inescapability
from death are necessarily prompted to seek a life which will be forever
beyond its ordinarily irresistible grip.
The incentive of transmigration (samsaranupreksa) : Every
creature under the sway of perverted belief and poisons falls a victim
to births and deaths. The transmigrating soul leaves one body and
resorts to another incessantly and uninterruptedly. Under the constraint
of Karmic bondage the mundane soul falls an easy prey to repeated birth
and death. Briefly speaking, four categories of post-existence have been
recognised � Human, celestial, hellish and sub-human- where a
transmigrating soul is born and is involved in distressing anguish and
affliction. The formidable sufferings associated with the hellish and
sub-human beings need no dilation. The celestial beings may be deemed
comparatively happy, but their pleasures of the senses end in
ever-increasing hunger for more, which entails mental agony and
perturbation, hence they may be considered only ostensibly happy. The
pains of womb, parentless childhood, diseased body, destitution,
quarrelsome wife, undutiful son and daughter, and the like are so
manifest that every man has to undergo and bear incalculable suffering.
Thus the suffering consequent upon these four forms of existence afford
an incentive to the seeker to transcend these miseries of life
p. 27-11. 2 Kartti. 25, 26.; Mula. 697.; Jnana. p. 29-16.
p. 30. 18. 5 Ibid. 6 Kartti. 33. 7 Kartti. 32.
p. 31. 2. 9 Mula. 707.; Jnana. p. 31-1, 17.
34 to 44. 11 Kartti. 58, 59, 60, 61.
45, 46, 51, 52, 53.
The incentive of loneliness (ekatvanupreksa) : The soul is all
alone without any companion to suffer the consequences of his own good
and evil deeds. Neither the friends nor the relations, howsoever nearest
dearest they might be, are capable of sharing one's sufferings and
sorrows, the result of past Karmas, though they may run to enjoy one's
wealth. One may feed one's dependents by earning dishonestly, but, at
the time of fruition, one alone will suffer. He who constantly reflects
thus absolves himself from the trammels of attachment and aversion.
The incentive of the metaphysical distinction between the self and the
not-self (anyatvanupreksa) : The self is permanently distinct
from the body. Though empirically it is one with the body, yet
transcendentally it is totally different from it. The body is sensuous,
unconscious, impermanent, and with beginning and end, while the soul is
suprasensuous, conscious, permanent, and without beginning and end. When
one is alien even to this body so nearest to the self, the question of
its distinction with other objects of the world around does not arise.
The realisation of such a basic distinction would naturally tend to
withdraw one's mind from the externalities and to fix it in the depths
of one's own self.
The incentive of the bodily impurity (asuci-anupreksa) : The
physical body is the center of all filth and impurities. The impure
nature of the body may be justified by several considerations. In the
first place, the antecedent condition of its origination, for example,
semen and blood, are themselves abominable, so also the consequent
conditions, for instance, flesh, fat, blood etc.; which are stored from
the transformation of food particles. Secondly, it is the storehouse of
all sorts of nasty things like bile, phlegm, perspiration, and filth of
ear, nose and throat. Thirdly, it is constantly discharges excreta
through its several openings. Fourthly, its impurity cannot be removed
by bath, perfumes, incense and other means. Thinking like this in all
earnestness will encourage one to sever the ties of attachment to the
body, which will turn our mind towards crossing this ocean of existence.
698, 699.; Kartti. 74 to 76.
p. 34-2, 6.; Bhaga. Ara. 1748; Kartti. 77.
p. 35-5; Bhaga. Ara. 1747.
Sarvartha. IX-7. 5 Mula; 702; Sarvartha IX-7. 6
Bhasya. IX-7. 8 Sarvartha. P. 415
The incentive of the constitution of the universe
(lokanupreksa): The portion of space which includes the living and non-
living substances is termed Loka and the rest of the empty space is
called Aloka.1 This universe is beinningless, self- evident,
indestructible, and needs no creator as is assumed by some other
systems of philosophy.2 The nature of the constitutive
substances of the universe has been already discussed in the chapter on
metaphysics. Besides, the characteristic nature of the self from
different standpoint has also been dwelt upon. Such philosophical
reflection would enable the aspirant to know his real status which would
necessarily yield spiritual inspiration.
The incentive of the difficulty of attaining the right path (bodhi-
durlabhanupreksa): The acquisition of the three jewels, which are
capable of unfolding the divine potentialities, is very difficult on
account of the rarity of adequate qualifications. Man has the
privilege of attaining salvation but to be born as a human being is only
a chance; it is again a chance to be born with the necessary
accompaniments for the practising of austerities and meditiation.3
Somadeva4 remarks that "unceasingly wandering on the
ocean of transmigration, a sentient creature is born as a human being by
chance. Even then, birth in a family respected by the world and
association with the good are as rare as the coming of a quail within a
blind man's grasp." "Released from birth in the plant world, after much
sufferings a sentient being is again born in the hells on account of his
sins, then in the genus of animals, mutually hostile, and then again
among uncouth men resembling animals." "He who wastes his human birth,
obtained after cherished desire, with thoughts of disease, sorrows,
fear, pleasures, wife and children, might as well consign a heap of
jewels to the flames for the sake of ashes; verily his soul is
blackened by mighty ignorance." Even if by a stroke of fortune he is
again born as a human being with all the material facilities, he may
lack right instruction.5 Even if that be obtained, sensual
pleasures may while away his time.6 Again, even if he gets
rid of the sensual enjoyments, the performance of austerities and
meditation is met with difficulties. Keeping in view, therefore, these
formidable obstacles in the practising of holy asceticism, one should
Jnana.p.54-1.; Mula.713. 2. Mula. 712. Jnana.p.54-3,4.
755, 756.; Bhaga. Ara.1867, 1869.
and Ic.p. 306.
Sarvartha.IX.7,p. 418. 6 Ibid.
traverse the path of spiritual realisation and set aside indolence in
this very life, here and now.
The incentive of the inflow of Karman (asravanupreksa): The influx of
the auspicious and inauspicious Asravas is the root cause of mundane
existence. We have already discussed the nature and forms of Asrava.
To dwell upon the consequences of Asrava would encourage an aspirant to
rise above the realm of good and evil.
10-12) We have hitherto expounded the different negative incentives that
lead us to the pursuit of spiritual life. We shall now close this topic
by dwelling upon the positive incentives which will enable us to
transect the miseries of mundane existence. The reflection on the ways
of 10) stoppage (samvarnupreksa) and 11) the shedding (nirjarnupreksa)
of Karmas and on 12) the Dharma preached correctly (dharmasvakhya-
tatvanupreksa) are the ways of escape from the meshes of terrestrial
existence. Samvara result from Gupti, Semite, Dharma, Anupreksa,
Parisahajaya and Caritra,1 whereas Nirjara is effected by
Tapa.2 We have dealt with the Anupreksa. We shall deal with
the Gupti, the Semite, the Parisahajaya and the Tapa later on. Dharma
means compassion.3 It has also been classified into ten
kinds.4 We shall deal with these kinds in the next chapter.
To meditate on the self is Caritra,5 or it is that which is
practiced for spiritual development.6 The Dharma preached
correctly (dharmascakhyatatva) recognises Ahimsa s its veritable
characteristic. Again, it tells us that truth is its basis; modesty,
its root; forgiveness, its strength; continence. Its armor; self-
control, its necessity; and non- acquisition, its support.7
FORMAL ATTINMENT OF SAINTLY LIFE: Now, being prompted by the incentive
mentioned above, the aspirant cherishes a negative attitude towards
worldly actions and acquisitions, and a positive enlightened, tenacious,
and resolute attitude toward the life of the spirit. He bids adieu to
all sort of profane relations including the wife, the children, and the
elders.8 Permeating his mind with the five types of ascetic
discipline, namely, Jnanacara, Darsanacara, Caritracara, Tapacara and
Viryacara, he prostrates before a great saint who is adorned with mystic
characteristics, who abounds in virtues, who is associated with a
family of daitinction, who possesses an attractive physical form, who is
Ta.Su.IX.2,3. Kartti. 96, 102 2. Ibid. 3. Kartti.
4.Ta.Su.IX 6. 5. Kartti.99. 6.Rajava.IX.2.7.
age, who is bereft of mental insobriety, and who is honored and extolled
by other sints.1 He then beseeches him to initiate.2
In consequence the consecrated favour is gained. Detaching himself from
all mundane objects whatsoever, subduing the senses and the mind, he
naked.3 To be more clear, "his external emblem consists in
possessing a form in which he is born, in pulling out hair and
moustache, in being pure, in being free from Himsa etc., and in not
attending to the body.4 Besides, his internal emblem, which
is the cause of negation of births consists in being free from
infatuation and sins, in being endowed with purity of psychical states
and activities, and in having no desire for anything else.
THE INTERNAL AND THE EXTERNAL PROCEED SIDE BEY SIDE: It may be borne in
mind that the internal and external emblems proceed side by side and
keep pace with each other. Samantabhadra is of opinion that just as in
the mundane performances the coming together of extrinsic and intrinsic
causes results in the completion of a work, so in the process of
liberation there works this eternal law.6 They are the
obverse and the reverse of the same coin; and so neither the external
nor the internal should be exclusively emphasized. The two are
complementary and not contradictory. Those who damn the physical
asceticism prescribed by Jainsim forget the stress laid by the Jaina
Acaryas on the importance of inner askesis. Jainsim doubts if there can
be inner spirtualisation of the human being without its manifestation in
his outward life, and unceremoniously condemns the sheer outward
expression of asceticism without its internal spiritual counterpart.
Both the internal content without its proper outward manifestation and
the external form without its proper origin and source are one- sided.
The latter becomes burdensome and is degrading, while the former is
unintelligible and inexplicable. Believing that the intrinsic
purification will seek expression in the outward form of physical
austerities for its stability, just as oil is protected from pollution
by the outward covering of the seed, or the Karnel by the outward peel
or skin, the Jaina Acaryas have laid great stress on the importance of
the psychical purity and the control of intense passions.
III, 2,3 and Comm. Amrta. 2 Ibid.
Prava.III.4. 4. Prava.III.5 ( Trans. Vide Upadhye)
prava.III.6.(Trans. vide Upadhye) 6. Svayambhu.33,60.
recognises that the spiritually ignorant man, notwithstanding his
physical austerities, requires hundred thousand crores of lives for
destroying that filth of Karman which may be annulled in an
infinitesimal destroying that filth of Karman which may be annulled in
an infinitesimal fraction of time by the spiritually endowed.1
This is sufficient to instruct the ignorant soul steeped in sheer
physical austerities to the exclusion of spiritual background. As a
matter of fact, the two aspects are interwoven into a complex harmony,
hence both of them are valuable and valid. Again, the aim of renouncing
the external paraphernalia consists in the inner renunciation of intense
passion and desire; without this, the sheer extrinsic relinquishment is
irrational and superfluous.2 Even the slightest internal
defilement prevents the soul from the highest ascent, which may be
illustrated by the life of the great monks like Bahubali and Madhupinga.
Sivabhuti, whose Bhava was pure, attained omniscience by simply uttering
"tus-masa-bhinna"3, though he was devoid of scriptural
knowledge. Thus religious practices and authorities, scriptural study
and knowledge are stripped of their legitimate consequences in the
absence of Bhavas or mental askesis; even when they are sometimes highly
esteemed, the purity of Bhavas remains implied in though, though often
not expressly stated in language.
ADOPTION OF THE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EMBLEMS: To revert from the
digression, after adopting the internal external emblems, at the sacred
hands of an excellent Guru, after paying obeisance to him, and after
attending to the course of discipline prescribed, the aspirant wins the
supreme credit of being styled Sramana.4 Since he cannot
interminable remain steadfast in the Atmanic experience at the
commencement of his spiritual pilgrimage, he strenuously strives to
pursue the conceptual twenty- eight Mulagunas which are: five great
vows, five- fold carefulness, control of five senses, pulling out the
hair, six- fold essentials , nakedness, not taking bath, sleeping on the
ground, not cleansing the teeth, taking meals in a standing posture and
taking only one meal a day.
ADVANEMENT OF THE MUNI OVER THE HOUSEHOLDER : The partial character of
the householder's vows is disrupted by the potent life of the Muni,
hence the Muni observes complete vows. In other words, inauspicious
Bhavas associated with the householder on account of the
III. 38. 2.Bhava. Pa. 3. 3. Ibid. 53. 4. Prava. III. 7.
III. 8, 9. Mula. 2, 3, Acarasara. 16, Anagara. Dharma. IX. 84, 85
character of the vows disappears with the observance of the complete
vows. The consequence of this is that vice totally vanished from the
life of a Muni, and there remains virtue which will also be transcended
as soon a the fight in the realm of the spirit is made. In a different
way, the inauspicious Asrava which occurs on account of the presence of
the intense passions is stopped, and the soul for the first time
experiences complete cessation of inauspicious Karman. Moreover, the
subduing of the Apratyakhyanavarana passion means the advancement of the
aspirant over the householder's discipline. Again, the life of
asceticism aptly illustrates the existence and operation of Subha Yoga,
Subha Dhyana, and Subha Lesya, which, in the life of the householder,
are never found unmixed with their contraries.
Five Great Vows 1) AHIMSA-MAHAVRATA: This first Mahavrata consists in
the due observance, even in dreams, of the principle of non-injury to
all living beings-mobile and immobile, gross and subtle-by avoiding
three fold ways of acting, commanding and consenting through the triple
agency of mind, body and speech. Broadly speaking, the four fundamental
passions, when they are combined with the three stages of action,
namely, Samarambha, Samarambha and Arambha, committed by dint of mind,
body and speech in the three-fold ways of Krta, Karita and Anumodana,
cause hundred and eight kinds of Himsa. The monk who renounces these,
and extend active friendship to all living begins as such for the
purpose of purifying one's Bhavas, and curbing one's passions, is said
to observe Ahimsa-Mahavrata. In order that this vow may be properly
observed, he is required to be cautious regarding his movement, speech,
mental thoughts, handling of things, food and drink.
SATYA-MAHAVRATA: This Mahavarata consists in ever abandoning all forms
of falsehood already discussed in the previous chapter, since the
allowance of any kind of falsehood points to the presence of
intense-passion, which is repugnant to the life of the saint. The false
and oppressing words likely to be uttered under the constraint of
attachment, aversion, jest, fear, anger, and greed should be renounced
VIII. 8; Niyama. 56; Mula. 5, 289; Bhaga. Ara. 776; Acara. p. 202.
Acarasara. 11, 12; Anga. Dharma. IV. 27; Jnana. VIII. 10; Ta.su. VI. 8.
VIII. 10, 11.
337; Anaga. Dharma. IV. 34; Ta. su. VII. 4.; Bhaga. Ara. 1206; Acara.
pp. 203, 204; Ca.pa. 32.
improper pronouncement of scriptural meaning. The five kinds of
longings that strengthen the vow of truthfulness are recognised as
thoughtfulness in speech and as restraining from anger, greed, fear and
ASTEYA-MAHAVRATA: This Mahavrata consists in renouncing all forms of
stealing already referred to in the previous chapter. To express it
differently, the renouncement of the possession of all 'Para Dravyas'
lying either in a village or in a town or in a wood without their being
offered comes within the purview of Asteya-mahavrata. The perfection of
this vow consists in getting books etc., after one has asked one's
superiors, in seeking the permission for certain necessary things from
the possessor, in denying all attachment to things taken, in allowing
oneself to accept faultless articles, and in handling things of
co-religionists according to the prescribed rules. According to the
Acaranga, it is brought out by restricting to limited alms, seeking the
permission of the superiors before consuming food and drink, taking
possession of limited part of a ground for a fixed time, renewing the
permission, and begging for a limited ground for one's co-religionist.
According to the Tattvarthasutra, it consists in staying in the deserted
places of abode, and secluded place like caves etc., in not denying
other persons intending to stay, in maintaining purity of food, and in
not developing the habit of quarrelsomeness.
BRAHMACARYA-MAHAVRATA: This fourth great vow prescribes avoidance of
sexual intercourse with the four kinds of females-human, animal,
celestial, and artificial- along with the denial of seeking sexual
gratification in unnatural ways. The adherent of the
Brahamacarya-Mahavrata ought to renounce the following also for the
purpose of facilitating the observance of the vow: Bodily make up, sense
indulgence, use of passion-exciting food articles, taking of excessive
food, attending to songs and dance, association with women, exciting
residence, passionate thinking about a women, seeing the sexual organs,
6, 290; Acara. p. 204.
VII. 5; Anaga. Dharma. IV. 45; Acara. pp. 204, 205; Ca. Pa 33; Bhaga.
7, 291; Acara. p. 205; Bhaga. Ara. 953.
pp. 206, 207. 6 Sarvartha. VII. 6; Ca. Pa. 34.
292; Acara. II. 15-IV
after-effects, reviving the past sexual enjoyments, planning for future
sexual enjoyment, and seminal discharges. The accomplishment of this
vow consists in refraining from discussing matters concerning females,
contemplating the lovely forms of woman, remembering former sexual
enjoyment, eating seasoned meals, or eating too much, decorating the
body and having a habitation associated with woman.
APARIGRAHA-MAHAVRATA: This fifth great vow consists in detaching
oneself root and branch from the internal and external attachment or
from the internal and external attachment of from intrinsic impurities
and extrinsic sentient and non-sentient Parigraha (paraphernalia). It
has been pointed out that the man who performs the activities in
vigilantly cannot escape internal Himsa, no matter whether a living
being in injured or not, while careful performance of actions never
binds a man by mere external Himsa. Consequently, he remains forever
uncontaminated like the lotus in water. Thus, bondage may or may not
accrue when the Pranas of a being depart on account of physical
activities, but the thralldom to Karman is inevitable in presence of
Parigraha; that is why ascetics give up all Parigrahas. In other words,
it is inconceivable that in spite of the association with any kind of
Parigraha one does not become the victim of infatuation, of mundane
engagements and of unrestraint; and he who is preoccupied with the
profane things in incapable of realising his true self. Considered from
the highest perspective, Parigraha includes the slightest attachment
even to the body; and those who are desirous of liberation have been
preached non-attention and non-attachment to the body. It follows,
then, that the other kinds of Parigraha cannot be appreciated even in
the least. This is the ideal state and the real Dharma; but till the
saint is short of this achievement, he may accept that Parigraha which
does not cause bondage, is not longed for by others, and does not
engender psychical impurity like infatuation etc. In other words, when
the shining summit of spiritual experience is enduringly climbed, any
kind of Parigraha has no meaning, but below that a saint may keep that
Parigraha which is compatible with
1 Jnana. XI.
7 to 9 ; Anaga. Dharma. IV. 61; Mula. 996 to 998' Njaga. Ari. 879, 880;
Uttara. 16-1 to 10.
2 Mula. 340;
Ta.su. VIi. 7 ; Acarasara. V. 59, 60. Acara. pp. 207, 208; Bhaga. Ara.
1210; Ca. Pa. 35.
60; Mula. 293; Acara. II. 15. V; Bhaga. Ara. 1117.
III. 17. 5 Prava. III. 18. 6 prava. III. 19.
III. 21. 8 prava. III. 23.
or which does add to the sustenance and enhancement of Subha Bhavas.
This shows that this kind of Parigraha is indispensable for the
maintenance of sainthood. Such Parigraha includes the body with which
one is born, the spiritual words of the Guru, the sacred texts capable
of unfolding the true nature of self, and devotion and modesty towards
the spiritually developed souls. The celebrated book 'Mulacara'
describes the nature of Aprigraha-mahavrata by saying that in consists
in renouncing the sentient and non-sentient Parigraha, and in adopting
an attitude of non-attachment to other unforbidden and sinless Parigraha.
Thus a Muni may possess a book (jnanopadhi), a peacock-feather broom (samyamopadhi),
and a pot for water, (saucopadhi). Just as the Subha Bhavas in the
absence of Suddha Bhavas adorn the life of the saint, so do these
paraphernalia without any contradiction. The pot for water is used after
answering calls of nature. The peacock-feather broom serves the purpose
of avoiding Himsa of living beings. This sort of broom possesses five
characteristics. It does not get soiled either with dust or with sweat,
it has the qualities of softness, non-injuriousness, tenderness and
lightness. In contract to the Nirgrantha Digamara monk, the Svetambara
monk has been allowed to keep with him clothes, alms bowl, Kampala, and
broom. Besides, he may keep Mukhapati (Mouth cloth) and Gocchaga (cloth
for cleaning the alms bowl). These are not regarded as Parigraha. With
the details of these we are not concerned here. This vow is properly
followed when the monk adopts and attitude of indifference towards the
pleasures of hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting and feeling.
AND FIVE SAMITIS: We now proceed to dwell upon the five-fold carefulness
(samiti). AS we have already stated, the influx of the Karman is
through 'Yoga'. The ideal thing for the saint is to control totally the
physical, mental and vocal activities and to fix himself in the Atmanic
experience. Such a sublime and sacred endeavour is called 'Gupti'. The
supreme cause by virtue of which the Atman receives enduring shelter
from the mundane career as such and manifests the potency of
transcending birth and death, is termed 'Gupti'. It means
1 Prava III.
25. 2. Mula. 9. 3. Mula. 14.
4 Bhaga. Ara.
98. Mula. 910. 5. Acara. p. 23' [/ 5.
26-23. 7 Ibid.
8 Acara. pp.
209, 210; Mula. 341; Tasa. VII-8 Ca. Pa. 36' Njaga/ Ara/ 1211.
ascension by which man ceases to be occupied with the thing, pleasant
and unpleasant, and continues to live as a tranquil, eternal spirit.
This expresses the implication of the term 'Gupti' from the highest
perspective possible. When a Muni finds himself unable to ascend such
heights, he acquiesces in taking recourse to the observance of five
Semites (carefulness), namely, 1) Irya-Samiti, 2) Bhasa-Samiti, 3)
Esana-Samiti, 4) Adana-Niksepana- Samiti, and 5) Utsarga or
Pratisthapana- Samiti. The connotation of the term 'Gupti' changes with
the change of reference. From the standpoint of the highest ascent, it
implies the withdrawal of mind, body and speech from virtue and vice,
and from the auspicious and inauspicious activities; but from the
standpoint of Subhopayogi, Muni, it means the recoiling of the triple
agencies merely from the inauspicious deeds. According to Niscaya-naya,
turning away from attachment etc., is control of mind; setting one's
face against falsehood etc., or observing silence is control of speech;
refraining from bodily actions, non-attachment to body , and keeping
from Himsa signify control of body in conformity with Vyavahara-naya,
the renunciation of impure psychical states is the restraint of mind;
the renouncement of gossip concerning women, state, theft, and food, or
the renouncement of telling a lie is the restraint of speech; and
refraining from bodily action such as binding, piercing, and beating
living beings, it the restraint of body. In order to relinquish evil
tendencies, meditation and scriptural study have been prescribed. It
may be pined out here that 'Gupti' possesses negative force, whereas
Samiti fosters positive sprite. the former negates vicious activities,
while the latter affirms virtuous performance of activities. The
purpose of Samitis is to avoid all sorts of unpleasantness to the living
beings without any exception, while one is moving, speaking, taking
food, keeping and receiving things, evacuating bowels etc. These
Semites have been calculated to keep the Muni away from the commitment
of sins like the lotus flower in water or like the armored man in the
battle-field. These three Guptis and five Samitis have been technically
called Pravacanamata, inasmuch as they guard the belief, knowl
Tattvarthasara. VI. 6. Ta.su. IX. 5; Mula. 10, 301.
334, 331; Bhaga. Ara. 1189.
69, 70. and Comm. padmaprabha; Mula. 332, 333; Bhaga. Aru. 1187, 1188.
4 Niyama. 66, 67, 68. 5 Mula. 335,; Bhaga.
Ara. 1190. 6 uttara. 24/26. 7 Sarvartha. IX. 2; Ca.
326, 327, 328; Bhaga. Ara. 1201, 1202.
and conduct of the saint in such a way as the mother protects her child.