NATURE AND TYPES OF DHYANA: Having discussed the nature of five kinds
of internal tapas, we now proceed to dwell upon the nature of Dhyana.
It will not be amiss to point out that all the disciplinary practices
form an essential background for the performance of Dhyana. Just as
the storage of water which is meant for irrigating the corn-field, may
also be utilised for drinking and other purposes, so the disciplinary
practices like Gupti, Samiti etc., which are meant for the cessation
of the inflow of the fresh Karman may also be esteemed as forming the
background of Dhyana. In other words, all the disciplinary
observances find their culmination in Dhyana. Thus Dhyana is the
indispensable, integral constituent of right conduct, and
consequently, it is directly related to the actualisation of the
divine potentialities. It is the clear and single road by which the
aspirant can move straight to the supreme
373 to 375, 382,: bhaga. Ara. 119 to 122.
377, 378, 383,; Bhaga. Ara. 123, 124.
379, 383; Bhaga. Ara./ 125. 4 Mula. 384,; Bhaga. Ara.
391, 392, ; Sarvartha. IX. 24. 6 Sarvartha. IX-24.
406,; Saruartha. IX. 26. 8 Mula. 407.
IX. 26. Uttara. 30/35.
Sarvartha. IX. 26. 11 Rajava.
define Dhyana, it represents the concentration of mind on a particular
object, which concentration is possible only for an Antarmuhurta (time
below forty-eight minutes) to the maximum and that too in the case of
such souls as are possessing bodies of the best order. The stability
of thoughts on one object is recognised as Dhyana and the passing of
mind from one object is recognised as Dhyana and the passing of mind
from one object to another is deemed to be either Bhavana or Anupreksa,
or Cinta. Now, the object of concentration may be profane or holy in
character. The mind may concentrate either on the debasing and
degrading object, or on the object concentration may be profane or
holy in character. The mind may concentrate either on the debasing
and degrading object, or on the object which is uplifting and
elevating. The former which causes the inflow of inauspicious Karman
is designated as inauspicious concentration (aprasasta), while the
latter which is associated with the potency of Karmic annulment is
called auspicious concentration (prasasta). To be brief, Dhyana is
capable of endowing us with resplendent jewel, or with the pieces of
glass. When both the things can be had which of these will a man of
discrimination choose? Subhacandra distinguishes three categories of
Dhyana, three categories of Dhyana, good, evil and pure in conformity
with the three types of purposes, viz., the auspicious, the
inauspicious and the transcendental, which may be owned by a self. At
another place he classifies Dhyana into Prasasta and Aprasasta. These
two mode of classification are not incompatible, but evince difference
of perspectives; the former represents the psychical or psychological
view, the latter, the practical or ethical view. In a different way,
the Prasasta type of Dhyana may be considered as including good and
pure types of Dhyana may be considered as including good and pure
types of Dhyana within it; and this will again give us the two types
of Dhyana, namely, Arta-dhyana and Raudradhyana. The Prasasta
category of Dhyana has been deemed to be potent enough to make the
aspirant realise the emancipated status. On the contrary, the
Aprasasta one forces the mundane being to experience worldly
sufferings. Thus those who yearn for liberation should abjure Arta
and Raudra Dhyanas and embrace Dharma and Sukla ones. In dealing with
Dhyana as Tapa, we are completely concerned with the
IX. 27/10 2 Sat. Vol. XIII. p. 64.
468. 4 sarvartha. IX-28.
20. 6 Jnana. II. 27, 28.
XXV. 17. 8 Kartti. 469,; Ta. su. IX-28.
9 Ta. su.
IX-29- 10 sarvartha. IX-29.
Tattvanusasana. 34, 220.
types of Dhyana, since they are singularly relevant to the auspicious
and the transcendental living. But in the previous pages we have
frequently referred to the avoidance of Aprasasta types of Dhyana
without revealing their nature. At this stage, we propose, in the
first instance, to discuss the nature of Aparasasta types of Dhyana,
the exposition of which would help us to understand clearly the sharp
distinction between the two categories of Dhyana. To speak in a
different way, if Prasasta Dhyana is the positive aspect of Tapa,
Aparasasta one represents the negative one.
APRASASTA DHYANA: (A) ARTA-DHYANA: The word Arta implies anguish and
affliction; and the dwelling of the mind on the thoughts resulting
from such a distressed state of mind is to be regarded as Artadhyana.
In this world of storm and stress, though there are illimitable things
which may occasion pain and suffering to the empirical soul, yet all
of them cannot be expressed by the limited human understanding. Four
kinds of Arta-dhyana have been recognised. The first concerns itself
with the fact of one's being constantly occupied with the anxiety of
overthrowing the associated undesirable objects of varied nature. In
a different way, when the discomposure of mind results on account of
the baneful association of disagreeable objects which are either heard
or perceived or which occur in mind owing to previous impressions, we
have the first type of Arta-dhyana, namely, Ista-viyogaja. The
constant occupation of mind to remove the distressing state of mind
resulting form the diseased condition of the body, is called the third
type of Arta-dhyana, namely, Vedana-janita. To yearn for agreeable
pleasures and to contrive to defeat and slander the enemy constitute
what is called the fourth type of Arta-dhyana, namely, Nidana-janita.
Again, to make up one's mind for and to dwell upon the way of getting
the objects of sensual pleasures are termed the fourth type of
Arta-dhyana, namely, Nidana-janita. It may be noted here that the
Arta-dhyana in general is natural to the
Sarvartha. IX. 28. 2. Jnana XXV. 37, Ta. su. IX. 30 to 3.
IX-30; Kartti. 471; Jana. XXV. 28.
XXV. 27,; Kartti. 471.
5 Ta. su.
IX. 31; XXV. 31; Kartti. 472.
IX. 32; jnana. XXV. 32.
Sarvartha. IX. 33.
souls on account of the evil dispositions existing from an infinite
past. It discovers itself owing to the presence of inauspicious
Lesyas like Krsna, Nila, and Kapota in the texture of the worldly
self, and brings about sub-human birth where innumerable
pain-provoking things inevitably arise. The Arta-dhyana with its
four-fold classification occurs in the perverted, the spiritually
converted, and the partially disciplined personalities. Even the
saint associated with Pramada sometimes gets influenced by the above
types except the fourth. It will not be amiss to point out that just
as the householder cannot escape the Himsa of one-sensed Jivas, so he
cannot avoid Arta-dhyana. No doubt, he can reduce it to an
irreducible extent, but cannot remove it altogether unlike the saint
of a high order.
(B) RAUDRA-DYNANA: We now proceed to explain the Raudra-dhyana, which
also admits of four kinds. To take delight in killing living beings,
to be felicitous in hearing, seeing and reviving the oppression caused
to sentient beings, to seek ill of others, to be envious of other
man's prosperity and merits, to collect the implements of Himsa, to
show kindness to cruel persons, to be revengeful, to wish defeat and
victory in war-all these come within the purview of the first kind of
Raudra-dhyana, namely, Himsanandi Raudra-dhyana. The individual whose
mind is permeated by falsehood, who desires to entangle the world in
troubles by dint of propagating vicious doctrines, and writing
unhealthy literature for the sake of his own pleasure, who amasses
wealth by taking recourse to deceit and trickery, who contrives to
show faults fraudulently in faultless persons in cheating the simple
and the ignorant through the fraudulent language, may be considered to
be indulging in the second type of Raudra-dhyana namely, Mrasanandi
Raudra-dhyana. Dexterity in theft, zeal in the act of thieving, and
the education for theft should be regarded as the third type of
Raudra-dhyana, namely, Cauryanandi Raudra-dhyana. The endeavor a man
does not guard paraphernalia and pleasures of the senses is called the
fourth type of Raudradhyana, namely, Visayanandi Raudra-dhyana. It
deserves our notice
XXV. 41. 2 Jnana. XXV. 40, 42, ; Rajava. IX. 33.
XXV-39; Ta.su. Ix. 34.
XXVI. 4, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, ; Kartti. 473.
XXVI. 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, ; Kartti. 473.
XXVI. 24,; Kartti. 474.
XXI. 29,; Kartti. 474.
undisciplined and partially disciplined persons are the subjects of
Raudra-dhyana. Though the partially disciplined persons are the
victims of this Dhyana on account of their observing partial conduct,
i.e., partial Ahimsa, partial truth, partial non-stealing, partial
nonacquisition and partial chastity, yet Raudra-dhyana in their case
is incapable of leading them to experience miseries of hellish
beings. The life of the saint is exclusive of this Dhyana, since in
its presence conduct degenerates. This Dhyana also occurs in the self
without any education and is the result of the interests passions, or
of the Krsna, Nila and Kapota Lesyas.
PRE-REQUISITES OF PRASASTA DHYANA: Next in order comes the Prasasta
type of Dhyana which may be called Dhyana proper. This type of Dhyana
is conducive to Moksa or final release. Before we directly embark
upon the study of the types of Prasasta Dhyana, it is of primary and
redial importance to delineate their pre-requisites, which will
enforce banishment of all the inimical elements robbing the soul of
the legitimate disposition and proper conduct for spiritual
advancement. In consequence the self will gain strength to dive deep
into the ordinarily unfathomable depths of the mysterious self.
Indubiously, in the initial stages the purity of empirical and
psychical background is the indispensable condition of Dhyana. The
necessary pre-requisites of Dhyana, in general, may be enumerated by
saying that the subject must have the ardent desire for final
liberation, be non-attached to worldly objects, possess unruffled and
tranquil mind, and be self-controlled, stable, sense controlled,
patient and enduring. Besides, one should steer clear of 1) the
worldly, 2) the philosophic-ethical, and 3) the mental distractions,
and look to the suitability of 4) time, 5) place, 6) posture and 7) to
the attainment of mental equilibrium, before one aspires to Dhyana
conducive to liberation. We now deal with them in succession. 1) The
life of the householder is fraught with numberless disturbances, which
impede the development of his meditational disposition. Subhacandra
hold an antagonistic attitude towards the successful performance of
Dhyana in the life of the householder. He says that we may hope for
the presence of the flower of the sky, and horn of the donkey at some
time and place,
IX. 35. 2 Sarvartha. IX. 35.
Ibid. 4 Kartti. 469. kmama/ XXVO/ 43,;
Rajava. IX. 3/4.
IV. 6. XXVII-3.
adornment of the householder's life with Dhyana is never possible.
All this must not imply that the householder is outright incapable of
performing Dhyana, but it should mean that he cannot perform Dhyana of
the best order, which is possible only in the life of the saint. 2)
If the aspirant, despite his saintly garb suffers from the
philosophical and ethical delusions, he will likewise lose the
opportunity of performing Dhyana. In other words, right belief and
right conduct cannot be dispensed with, if Dhyana is to be performed.
3) The control of mind which is turn leads to the control of passions
and senses is also the essential condition of Dhyana. Mental
distraction like mental perversion hinders meditational progress, and
to achieve liberation without mental purity is to drink water from
there where it is not, i.e., from the river of mirage. That is Dhyana,
that is supreme knowledge, that is the object of Dhyana by virtue of
which the mind after transcending ignorance submerges in the self's
own nature. A man who talks of Dhyana without the conquest of mind is
ignorant of the nature of Dhyana. On the reflective plane, the
recognition of the potential divinity of the empirical self and the
transcendental self will unequivocally function as the mental
pre-requisite condition of Dhyana. The practice of the fourfold
virtues of martini (friendship with all creates), pramoda
(appreciation of the merits of others), Karuna (compassion and
sympathy) and madhyastha (indifference to the unruly) has also been
represented as the mental pre-requisite conditions of Dhyana. These
quadruple virtues, when practiced in an earnest spirit, cause to
disappear the slumber of perversion, and to set in eternal
tranquillity. 4-6) The selection of proper place, posture and time is
of no less importance for the performance of Dhyana. The aspirant
should avoid those places which are inhabited by the vicious,
hypocrites, and the acutely perverted persons, and by gamblers,
drunkards, harlots etc., and should choose those places which are
associated with the names of holy Tirthamkaras and saints. A bank of
a river, a summit of a mountain, an island, and a cave and other
places of seclusion and inspiration, should be chosen for practising
spiritual concentration. As regards the posture for Dhyana, for the
people of this age who
IV. 17. 2 Ibid. XXII. 19. 3 Ibid. XXII. 20.
XXII. 24. 5 Ibid. XXVII. 4. 6 Ibid. XXVII. 18.
XXVII-23 TO 33. 8 Ibid. XXVIII. 1.
XXVIII. 2 to 7.
generally deficient in energy, Paryanka or Padma and Kayotsarga
postures are especially recommended. For him, whose mind is
immaculate, stable, enduring, controlled and detached, every posture,
every place and every time is fit for meditation. A place may be
secluded or crowded, the saint may be properly or improperly seated,
the stability of saint's mind is the proper time for meditation.
Subhacandra very beautifully portrays the mental and the saint should
be purified by the waves of the ocean of discriminatory enlightenment,
be destitute of passions, be like an unfathomable ocean, be
undeviating like a mountain, and should be without all sorts of doubts
and delusions. Besides, the posture of the saint should be such as to
arouse suspicion in the mind of a wise man regarding his being a
stone-statue or a painted figure. The Yogi who attains sturdiness and
steadfastness in posture does not get perturbed by being confronted
with the extremes of cold and heat and by being harassed by furious
animals. 7) The saint who has controlled his mind and purged it of
perversion and passions is said to have attained initial mental
equipoise by viruted of which he is not seduced by the sentient and
nonsentient, the pleasant and unpleasant objects. The consequence of
this is that his desires vanish, ignorance disappears, and his mind is
calmed. And above all he can sweep away the filth of Karman within a
twinkle of an eye. The great Acarya Subacandra is so much overwhelmed
by the importance of this sort of mental poise that he esteems this as
the Dhyana of the best order. Thus mental equanimity precedes Dhyana.
PROCESS OF DHYANA: After dealing with the pre-requisites of Dhyana, we
now propose to discuss the process of Dhyana. For the control of the
mind, and for the successful performance of Dhyana the process of
breath-control (pranayama) may be necessary, but it being painful
engenders Arta-dhyana which consequently deflects the saint from his
desired path. Besides, the process of breath-control develops diverse
supernormal powers which cause hindrance to the healthiest
developments of the spirit. Hence the better method is to withdraw
XXVII. 12. 2. Ibid. XXVII. 21.
XXVII. 22. 4 Ibid. XXVIII. 38 to 40.
XXVIII. 32. 6 Ibid. XXIV. 2.
XXIV. 11, 12. 8 Ibid. XXIV. 13.
XXX-9. 10 Ibid. XXX-6.
sensual objects and the mind from the senses, and to concentrate the
mind on the forehead (lalata). This process is called Pratyahara.
Ten places in the body have been enumerated for mental concentration,
namely, the two eyes, the two ears, the foremost point of the nose,
the forehead, the mouth, the navel, the head, the heart, the palate,
the place between the two eye-brows. The Yogi should think over his
original underived potency of the self, and compare his present state
with the non-manifested nature of the self. He should regard
ignorance and sensual indulgence as the causes of the fall. Then, he
should be determined to end the obstructions to the manifestation of
the transcendental self by dint of the sword of meditation. He should
express his resolution by affirming that he is neither a hellish
being, nor an animal, nor a man, nor a celestial being, but a
transcendental being devoid of these mundane transformations, which
result form the Karmic association. And again, being possessed of
infinite power, knowledge, intuition and bliss, he must not go away
from his original nature. Having determined in this manner, the
patient, enduring, steadfast, and crystal pure Yogi should meditate
upon the material and non-material objects as possessing the triple
nature of origination, destruction and continuance, as also upon the
omniscient souls, embodied and disembodied. Having meditated upon the
six kinds of Dravyas in their true nature, the Yogi should either
acquire the spirit of non-attachment or enrapture his mind in the
ocean of Paramatman who is associated with the number of original and
unique characteristics. The Yogi gets engrossed with these
characteristics, and endeavors to enlighten his own self with
spiritual illumination. He gets immersed in the nature of Paramatman
to such an extent that the consciousness of the distinctions of
subject, object, and the process vanishes. This is the state of
equality (samarasibhava) and identification (ekikarana) where the self
submerges in the transcendental self, and becomes non-different from
it. This sort of meditation is called Savirya-dhyana.
There is another way of speaking about the process of Dhyana. Of the
three states of self, namely, the external, the internal and the
transcendental, the Yogi should renounce the external self, and
XXX. 3. 2 Ibid. XXX. 13. 3 Ibid. XXX. 12.
XXX. 13, 14. 5 Ibid. XXX. 17. 6 Ibid. XXX. 18, 19.
XXX. 20 to 34. 8 Ibid. XXX. 37. 9. Ibid. XXX. 38.
transcendental self by means of the internal self. In other words,
after abandoning the spirit of false selfhood and after attaining
spiritual conversion, the Yogi should ascend higher through the ladder
of the latter with the steps of meditation. The ignorant are occupied
with the renunciation and possession of external objects, while the
wise are occupied with the renunciation and possession of internal
ones; but the supervise transcend the thoughts of the external and the
internal. Hence, in order to attain this last state, the Yogi after
isolating the self from speech and body should fix his mind on his own
self, and perform other actions by means of speech and body without
mental inclination. The constant meditation upon the fact, "I am
that", "I am that" results in the steadfastness of Atmanic experience.
The author of the Jnanarnava, in addition, elaborately expounds
the process of Dhyana by classifying Dhyana into 1) Pindastha, 2)
Padastha, 3) Rupastha and 4) Rupatita. Though the credit of their
lucid exposition devolves upon Subhacandra, yet the credit of
suggestion and enumeration in the history of Jaina literature goes to
Yogindu who is believed to have lived in the 6th century
A.D. much earlier than Subhacandra. We shall now dwell upon this
fourfold classification. 1) The Pindasthadhyana comprises the five
forms of contemplation (Dharmas) which have been explained in the
following way. (a) The yogi should imagine a motionless, noiseless
and ice-white ocean in Madhyaloka. In the center of the ocean he
should imagine a finely-constructed, resplendent and enchanting lotus
of thousand petals as extensive as Jambudvipa. The center of the
lotus of thousand petals as extensive as Jambudvipa. The center of
the lotus should then be imagined as having a periapt the Yogi should
imagine a raised throne resembling the resplendence of the moon. And
therein the should imagine himself seated in a serene frame of mind.
He should then firmly believe that his self is potent enough to sweep
away all the filth of passions and to demolish all the Karmas. This
type of contemplation is called Parthivi-dharana. (b) Afterwards the
Yogi is required to imagine a beautiful, well-shaped lotus of sixteen
petals in the region of his own naval. He should then imagine that
XXX. 10. 2 Ibid. XXXII. 60. 3 Ibid. XXXII. 61.
XXXII. 42. 5 Ibid. XXXVII. 1. 6 Yogasara. 98.
XXXVII. 2. 8 Ibid. XXXVII. 4 to 9.
petal is inscribed with one of the sixteen vowels,
�, ��, �,
��, �, ��, ��. ���, �, ��, ���, ���, ���, �:
and that the pericarp of this lotus in
inscribed with a holy syllable,. Afterwards he should imagine that the
smoke is slowly coming out of the upper stroke of the holy syllable
and that after some-time the smoke turns itself into a flame of fire
which this lotus, which represents the eight petals situated in the
region of the heart. After this lotus, which represents the eight
kinds of Karmas, has been reduced to ashes, the Yogi should imagine a
fire surrounding the body. After the body is reduced to ashes, the
fire, in the absence of anything to burn, is automatically
extinguished. This type of contemplation is called Agneyi-dharana.
(c) The yogi should then imagine the powerful winds which are capable
of blowing away the ashes of the body. After the ashes are imagined
to be blown away, the should imagine the steadiness and calmness of
the wind. This type of contemplation is called Svasanadharana. (d)
The yogi should then imagine heavily clouded sky along with lightning,
thundering and rainbow. Such imagination should culminate in the
constant downpour of big and bright rain drops like pearls. These
rain drops are required to be imagined as serving the holy function of
washing away the remnants of the ashes of the body. This type of
contemplation is called Varuni-dharana. (e) Afterwards the Yogi
should think over his own soul as great as an omniscient, as bereft of
seven constituent elements of the body, as possessed of radiance which
is as immaculate as the full-orbed moon. He should, then, consider
his soul as associated with supernormal features, as seated on the
throne, as adored and worshipped by Devas, Devils and the men. After
this he should regard his soul as free from all kinds Karmas, as
possessed of all the divine attributes and qualities. This is called
Tattvarupavati-dharana. With this finishes the practising of the
Pindastha-dhyana which leads to the blissful life, enduring and
2-4) The Padastha-dhyana means contemplation by means of certain
Mantric syllables, such as 'Om', 'Arahanta' etc.6
Subhacandra draws attention to the number of such syllables, which
need not be dealt with here. The Rupastha-dhyana consists in
meditating on the divine qualities and the extraordinary powers of the
Arahantas. The Yogi by virtue
XXXVII. 10 TO 19. 2 Ibid XXXVII. 20 TO 23.
XXXVII. 24 to 27. 4. Ibid. XXXVII. 28 to 30.
XXXVII. 31. 6. Ibid. XXXVIII. 1.
XXXIX. 1 to 8.
of meditating on the divine qualities
imagines his own self as the transcendental self and believe that �I
am that omniscient soul and not any thing else.� 1 The Rupatita-dhyana
implies the meditation on the attributes of Siddhatman. In other
words, the Rupatita-dhyana is that where in the Yogi meditates upon
the self as blissful consciousness, pure and formless.
We have thus dwelt upon the
various processes of Dhayana. These different processes, which may be
brought under Prasasta-dhyana, are capable of leading us to the
supreme state of transcendental existence. All this was a digression
from the traditional enumeration which recognises four kinds of
Dharma-dhyana and four kinds of Sulka-dhyana. We shall now deal with
these kinds of Dhyana.
DHARMA-DHYANA : The word �Dharma� implies the veritable nature of
things, the ten kinds of Dharma, the triple jewels and the protection
of living beings. Four types of Dharma,-dhyana have been recognised,
namely, 1) Ajna-vicaya, 2) Apaya-vicaya, 3) Vipaka-vicaya, and lastly
4) Samsthana-vicaya. 1) When the aspirant finds no one to preach,
lacks subtle wit, is obstructed by the rise of Karmas, is encountered
with the subtleties of objects and experiences the deficiency of
evidence and illustration in upholding and vindicating any doctrine,
he adheres, to the exposition of the Arahanta after believing that the
Arahanta does not misrepresent things. The aspirant is said to have
performed Ajna-vicaya Dharma-dhyana. Or he who has understood the
nature of objects and who therefore makes use of Naya and Pramana for
justifying certain doctrine is believed to have performed Ajna-vicaya
Dharma-dhyana. We may here say that the purpose of this Dhayna is to
maintain intellectual clarity regarding the metaphysical nature of
objects propounded by the Arahanta. 2) To ponder over the adequate
ways and means of emancipating the souls from the worldly suffering
caused by the perverted belief, knowledge and conduct, and to meditate
on the means of ascending the ladder of spiritual welfare, are
designated as Apaya-vicaya Dharma-dhyana. Besides, the aspirant should
give himself to serious contemplation : �who am I ?� Why there are
inflow and bondage of Karmas? How
XXXIX.42, 43. 2 Ibid XL. 16.
476 4. Ta.su. IX.36.
Sarvatha. IX. 36. 6. Sarvartha. IX. 36.
7.Sarvartha. IX. 36.
Karmas can be overthrown? What is liberation ? and what is the
manifested nature of soul on being liberated? If Ajna-vicaya
establishes oneself in truth, Apaya-vicaya lays stress on the means of
releasing the essential nature of truth. 3) Vipaka-vicaya Dharma-dhyana
implies the reflection on the effects which Karmas produce on the
diverse empirical souls. 4) The reflection on the nature and form of
this universe constitutes what is called Samathana-vicaya Dharma-dhyana.
This kind of Dhyana impresses upon the mind the vastness of the
universe and the diversity of its constituents. By this Dhyana the
aspirant realises his own position in the universe. These four types
of Dhyana serve twofold purposes, of auspicious reflection and
self-meditation; i.e., they supply the material for the intellect and
offer inspiration to the self for meditation as well as reflection,
the latter may pass into the four kinds of Dhyana are reflective when
intellectual thinking is witnessed, and they are meditative when the
mind attains stability in respect of them. The best kind of Dharma-dhyana
is to meditate upon the self by fixing one�s mind in it after
renouncing all other thoughts.4
SUKLA-DHYANA : Dharma-dhyana which has so far been expounded prepares
a suitable ground and atmosphere for ascending the loftiest spiritual
heights. It claims to have swept away every iota of inauspicious
dispositions from the mind of the aspirant. The Yogi has achieved
self-mastery to the full, and has developed a unique taste for the
accomplishment of that something which unique. The Yogi, having
brushed aside the unsteadiness of his mind, now resorts to Sukla
Dhyana (pure Dhyana), which is so called because of its origination
after the destruction or subsidence of the filth of passions. Not all
Yogi are capable of performing this type of Dhyana. Only those who are
possessing bodies of the best order (Vajra Vrsabha Naraca, etc.), can
have all the four types of Sukladhyana. Of the four types of
Sukla-dhyana, namely, Prthaktva-vitarka-vicara, Ekatva-vitarka-avicara,
Suksmakriy apratipation, and Vyuparata-kriyanivartin, the first two
occur up to the twelfth Gunasthana with the
XXXIV. 34/11. 2. Sarvartha. Ix. 36; Mula. 401.
Sarvartha. IX. 36. 4 Kartti. 480.
XLII. 3, 6. 6 Jnana. XLII. 5.
IX. 39. 8 We shall deal with the Gunashanas in
the next chapter.
conceptual thinking based on scriptural knowledge, and the last two
crown the omniscient where conceptual activity of the mind abates to
the last. To dwell upon these types, the first type (Prthaktvavitarka-vicara)
is associated with Prthaktva from one aspect of entity to another, for
example, substance to modifications and vice versa, from one verbal
symbol to another, and from one kind of Yoga (activity) to another. In
second type (Ekatva-vitarka-avivara) Vicara is absent, and
consequently oneness displace many-ness. The mind shortens its field
of concentration to the effect that the Yogi meditates upon one
substance, an atom, or a modification of substance with the assistance
of only one kind of Yoga. Hence the second type of Dhyana is
associated with Viktarka and Ekatva, i.e., with scriptural knowledge
and oneness. With the performance of this second type of Dhyana the
Yogi reduces the ashes the four types of obscuring (ghatin)
Karmas. In consequence the Yogi experiences infinite intuition,
knowledge, bliss and energy. Thus the state of Jivanmukti is attained.
The omniscient occupies himself with the third type of Sukla-dhyana (Suksmarkriyapratipatin)
when an Antarmuhurta remains in final emancipation. After establishing
himself in gross bodily activity, he makes the activities of mind and
speech subtle. Then after renouncing the bodily activity, he fixes
himself in the activities of mind and speech, and makes the gross
bodily activity subtle. Afterwards mental and vocal activities are
stopped and only subtle activity of body is left. In the last type of
even the subtle activity of body is stopped. The soul now becomes
devoid of mental, vocal and physical vibrations, and immediately after
the time taken to pronounces five syllables it attains disembodied
TYPES OF SPIRITUAL DEATH PURSUED BY THE SAINT : We shall end this
chapter after dwelling upon the types of spiritual death pursued by
the saint. Of the five types of death already discussed the saint is
qualified for Pandita-marana, 2) Ingini-marana, 3)
Prayopagramana-marana, Only that saint who is confronted with
incurable disease, intolerable old age, formidable famine, great
weakness of hearing and sight, infirmity of legs,
XLII. 7,8. 2. Jnana. XLII. 13, 15 TO 17.
XLII. 27. 4. Ibid. XLII. 29.
XLII. 41. 6 Ibid. 48.
49. 8 Ibid. 50.
58, 59. 10 Bhaga. Ara. 29.
certain inevitable troubles, and others like these has permitted to
adopt any of the above Maranas. He who is quite capable of pursuing
his course of conduct well need not turn towards such deaths.
According to the Acaranga Sutra when the saint feels that his
body does not respond properly to his spiritual practices, he is
allowed to put an end to it by reducing the quantity of food
gradually. We shall now deal with the Bhaktapratijna-marana. In the
circumstances expressed above or when the occurring of natural death
has been conceived to be a matter of certainty after a short duration
of time (maximum twelve years) (and minimum six months), the saint
takes the guidance of some efficient Acarya, and resorts to the
process of internal and external renunciation. The internal
renunciation refers to the emasculation of the passions of anger and
the like, while the external one, to the enervation of body. The saint
renounces all Parigrahas except broom, and pot for water, attains all
sorts of external, and internal purity , and gives himself to the
constant reflection on austerity, knowledge, fearlessness, loneliness
and endurance. By abandoning all strengthening juices and accepting
only unseasoned and simple meals and practising the six kinds of
external austerities, the saint gradually weakens his body, though he
takes care that his internal peace is not disturbed. Of all these
methods of depriving the body of strength, the practice of two days
fast, three days to five days fast and then light meals have been
appreciated. Along with this it is imperative for the saint to remove
anger by forbearance, pride by modesty, deceit by simplicity, and
greed by contentment. Similarly minor passions of laughter,
indulgences, sorrow, ennui, disgust, fear, and sex inclinations;
instinct of food, of acquisition, of fear, and of sex; three
inauspicious Lesyas, namely, Krsna, Nila and Kapota; and attachment to
supernatural power : all these should be brushed aside. This whole
process continues till the spiritual atmosphere created by the Acarya,
so that at the time of death the toughts may not get polluted. Next
comes Ingini-marana. It is more difficult to practise. It is capable
of being pursued by the saints who possess bodies of the best order.
The saint who prepares himself for this type of death resorts to a
place devoid of living
Ara. 71 to 74. 2 Ibid. 75. 3 Aca. pp. 71-2.
Ara. 252; Uttara. 36/250 5 Ibid. 159, 205.
206. 7 Ibid. 162 to 167, 187. 8 Bhaga. Ara.
207, 208, 246 to 248. 9 Ibid. 250, 251.
10 Ibid. 260. 260
beings, lighted by sunlight, and not
perforated by holes. There he lies down, or sits, or remains standing
on the bed of straw properly made bereft of living beings. He then,
Purges his mind of inimical thoughts, establishes himself in Dharsana,
Jnana and Caritra, and sets his face against all sorts of food and
Parigraha. He educes all Parishes, undauntedly resists all
temptations, and does not get disturbed even if his body is thrown at
untoward places by furious animals. He engages himself in meditation,
avoids sleep, and does not neglects his essential duties. In short,
his whole time is devoted to meditation, study, auspicious reflection
and the like. He does not requires the services of other saints and of
the Acarya. In the Bhaktapratijna-marana the saint serves himself and
is served by others, in the Ingini-marana the saint serves himself and
is served by others, but in the Prayopgamana-marana neither he serves
himself, nor does he accept the service of others. In the
Prayaopagamana-marana the saint does not feel the necessity of even
evacuating his bowels. He keeps his body from beginning to end in the
same position in which he first placed it. He does not use the bed of
straw. We may point out here that the Acaranga probably discusses
these three types of death without giving their technical names.
According to it, in the Bhaktapratijna-manara, the saint lies down on
a bed of straw after giving up all kinds of food. He does not move
even if he is touched by mosquitoes, ants etc. He bears them calmly.
In the Ingini-marana the saint lies down on the bare ground after
renouncing all food. He may move his limbs. In the Prayopagamanamarana,
the saint does not stir from his place; and the restrains all the
movements of his body.
SIGNIFICANCE OF JAINA ETHICS
SUMMARY OF THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER : The
previous chapter styled Acara of the �Muni� has been devoted to the
exposition of the various phases of Muni�s conduct, which conforms to
the general standard of
1 Bhaga. Ara. 2035. 2036.
2041. 2 Ibid. 2038, 2039.
3 Ibid. 2047 to
2049. 4 Bhaga. Ara. 2053, 2054,
5 Ibid. 2064. Gomma. ka.
61. 6 Ibid. 2065.
7 Bhaga. Ara.
2068. 8 Doctrines of Jainism p.
9 Acara., 75-7.
negating Himsa to the last degree. We have
endeavored, in the first place, to expound that his way of life which
is adopted after he has awakened to transcendental consciousness is
indicative of the discipline which eliminates all that stands in the
way of his progress towards spiritual illumination. It purges away all
those superfluous and detrimental elements that dissipate the precious
energies of the self, and bulk the revelation of the divine
magnificence and beauty. Secondly, we have unfolded the nature and
importance of incentives to spiritual life, have emphasised the
necessity of a simultaneous internal and external discipline, and have
brought out the significance of the strenuous pursuance of the twenty
eight Mulagunas. Thirdly, we have explained the nature of Parisahas
and austerities, as also the importance of the subjugation of the
former, and the observance of the latter. And lastly, we have dealt
with the process of Muni�s Sallekhana (spiritual welcome to death ) .
METAPHYSICS, ETHICS AND
MYSTICISM: We have so far seen how the Jaina formulation of the
ethical theory is grounded in metaphysics. The concept of Ahimsa
follows as a logical consequence of the ontological nature of things.
The entire ethical discipline prescribed for the layman and the monk
is meant for translating Ahimsa into practice, the actual realisation
of which can only be affected in the plenitude of mystical experience.
Thus, if the fountain-head of ethics is metaphysics, mysticism win be
its culmination. In other words, if the relationship of ethics to
metaphysics is intimate, the relationship of ethics to mysticism is in
no way less so. It will not be amiss to point out that ethics is the
connecting link between the metaphysical speculation and the mystical
realisation. It paves the way from metaphysics to mysticism. The
journey from intellect to intuition can only be traversed through the
medium of morality. The remark of Prof. Ranade is very enlightening in
this respect : � Metaphysics, Morality and Mysticism are as
inseparable from each other in the interest of the highest spiritual
development of man as intellect, will and emotion are inseparable for
his highest psychological development.� We have, in the previous
chapter, frequently, alluded to the spiritual nature of the Jaina
ethics. We shall now endeavor to discuss its relevancy in more detail
for the mystical life. In other words, we shall now bring out the
significance of Jaina ethics, in view of its potentiality to land us
in the domain of spiritualism, by dwelling upon the fourteen stages
1 Constructive Survey of Upanisadic
Philosophy, p. 288.
spiritual evolution, technically called
Gunasthanas, as propounded by the Jaina Acaryas.
MYSTICISM: Before we commence to reckon with the nature of
Gunasthanas, we propose to discuss the nature of mysticism, which
will enable us to evaluate the Jaina conception of morality. The
word� Mysticism� does not possess any uniform and consistent meaning
in spite of a noble history to its credit. It has been variously used
and diversely interpreted. To dwell upon these various expressions
and interpretations of the word �Mysticism� is not our objective. We
simply note that notwithstanding its manifold meanings the note of
concordance found in them is greater than that of discordance. Prof.
Ranade rightly says: �the mystics of all ages and countries form an
eternal divine society.�1 �There are no racial, no
communal, no national prejudices among them. Time and space have
nothing to do with the eternal and infinite character of their
mystical experience.�2 �They may weave out their mysticism
with the threads of any metaphysical structure, but they always to go
behind the words and realize a unity of significance.�3
The equivalent expression in Jainism for the word �Mysticism� is �Suddhopayoga�.
According to Kundakunda, mysticism consists in realising the
transcendental self through the internal self after renouncing the
external self;4 i.e., after relinquishing the Bahiratman
and by turning to the Antaratman, one should realise the supra-
ethical state of the Paramatman. In other words, non- conceptual and
perpetual meditation on the supreme self ought to be effected after
abandoning the Bahiratman through the intermediation of the Antaratman;
i.e., Bahiratman is to be of necessity renounced to attain Antaratman,
which will in turn lead us to an unimaginable transformation into
Paramatman through the medium of meditation and other practices of
moral nature. Following Kundakunda, Yogindu,5 Pujyapada,6
Subhacandra,7 Karttikeya8 etc., have endorsed
this very statement. It will not be idle to point out here that in
realising the transcendental self, the whole of the existence is
intuited on account of the spontaneous efflux 0f omniscience. The
realisation of self and intuition of other substances are synchronal.
According to Prof. Ranade,9
Mysticism in Maharastra, Preface, p. 2.
to God in Hindi Literature, p. 2.
Intro., p. 26. 4 Mo. Pa. 4, 7. 5 PP. I. 12.
4, 27. 7 Jnana. XXXII. 10 8 Kartti. 192.
Mysticism in Maharastra, Preface. p. 1
Mysticism denotes that attitude of mind which involves a direct,
immediate, first- hand, intuitive apprehension of God.� This
definition as given by Prof. Ranade is in keeping with the Jaina
exposition of mysticism, provided that the word �God� is understood in
the sense of the transcendental self as recognised by Jainism. Thus
mysticism is not mere speculation, but action. It is the transition
from the life of sense to the life of spirit, which is tantamount to
achieving the immortal heritage of man. This amounts to the
realisation of the transcendental self. The limited character of the
individual self is disrupted and invaded by the absolute self which
the individual feels as his own. We may sum up by saying that
mysticism culminates in the heightened and completed form of life,
which is accomplished by that transcendental belief, knowledge, and
conduct which in our life remains ordinarily below the threshold of
The definition of mysticism as given above comprises the
mystical aim as well as the process of its attainment. This mode of
expression of the nature of mysticism may be calculated to summarize
the aspirant�s spiritual quest. Just as Kundakunda resorts to explain
perspicuously the transcendental and the empirical nature of the self
by taking recourse to the employment of the two spiritual Nayas,
Niscaya and Vyavaharai, so he has announced the three kinds of selves
to make possible the discriminative knowledge of the �Self� and
�Not-self� and to unlock the doors of mystical experience, may, to
identify oneself with that.