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Doctrine of Karman in Jain Philosophy

PREFACE TO THE GERMAN EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
The contents of first volume of the Karmagranthas.
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
TRANSLATOR'S NOTE
  INTRODUCTION
  THE KARMAN IN ITSELF
  THE KARMAN IN THEIR RELATION TO THE SOUL AND TO ONE ANOTHER
  THE QUALITIES OF THE SOUL
  STATES OF EXISTENCE AND CLASSES OF BEINGS
  THE CAUSES OF THE KARMAN AND THE MEANS FOR ITS ANNIHILATION
  THE WAY OF SALVATION
  THE 14 GUNASTHANAKAS
  THE STATE OF THE RELEASED

STATES OF EXISTENCE AND CLASSES OF BEINGS


 

 

The Animal State of Existence

The Human State of Existence

The Celestial State of Existence

The Infernal State of Existence

 

Explanation Kg. I, 95 , Ps. 13; guna-sthanas Kg. I 97b: yoga Kg. I, 99a Ps. 17; upayoga Kg. I, 99b, Ps. 19; lesya Kg. I, 101 b; margana-sthanas Kg. I 115b, Ps. 92; alpabahutva Kg. I, 137a Ps. 125; bandha-svamitva Kg. I 81b, Ps. 511, Tattv. II-IV, Lp. IV-IX, Utt. 36 Comp. A. Guerinot, "Le Jivaviyara de Santisuri."

 

The most important accidental states of the jiva are his state of existence (gati) and the class of being (jati) to which he belongs. Through realization of certain karman-species the shapeless jiva receives a certain shape which lasts until the quantity of life (ayus), which is necessary for its existence and which is bound in the preceding existence, is exhausted. If this has happened, the jiva is re-born in a new form, conditional upon his karman; and thus it continues till, finally, the jiva has become tired of this constant change of birth and death and takes the road of salvation proclaimed by Mahavira and in the end achieves release. As soon as the jiva has freed himself from all karman, he loses all corporeal shape and exists into all eternity as a pure spirit free from all finite limitations conditional upon the karman.

 

As a principle for the classification of living beings, Jainism takes the number of the senses. There are beings with 1,2,3,4 and 5 senses; the jivas with 1 sense have either a fine or a gross body, those with 5 senses possess either the inner sense (manas) or not and are called accordingly samjnin (endowed with reason) or asamjnin (unreasonable). In this way there result 7 classes of beings. But as all of them are occurring in a developed (paryapta) or in an undeveloped (aparyapta) state, this number must be doubled; there are altogether 14 jivasthanas.

 

Jainism distinguishes 4 different states of existence (gati): that of the celestial, the infernal, the human beings and that of the animals. "Animals are called all those beings which remain if the celestial, infernal and human beings are excluded" (Tattv. IV 28); the name of animal is therefore applied also to plants and elementary beings. Animals occur in all 14 jivasthanas, human beings in the two last alone (i.e. as developed and undeveloped reasonable 5 sensed beings), celestial and infernal beings only as developed samjnipancendriyas.

 

In the following I give a summary of the different species of living beings. I follow the disposition given in the Lp., i.e. I treat first the animals, then human, celestial and infernal beings. In each class I being with some explanatory remarks; I must restrict myself here, however to the indispensable and must for further particulars refer to the literature above indicated. Thereupon I shall discuss to which marganasthana the singular species belongs; I confine myself here to upayoga, yoga, lesya, belief and conduct, because the others require no special treatment. The inconsecutiveness I am guilty of in noting down the gunasthana to which the jivas of the different class of being can attain, although I explain the theory of the gunasthanas later, every one who wishes to inform himself quickly about them after having read the whole of the book will find justified. At the end I indicate which nama-ks are bound by a jiva or exist in him in udaya and satta. The numbers refer to the combinations given in chapter III, 1 and are arranged in such a way that with every bandha combination all udaya and satta combinations printed in the same line are possible.

 

THE ANIMAL STATE OF EXISTENCE.

Note: No animal binds the ks. tirthakara and translocation-body and its limbs.

 

The developed fine one-sensed animals (suksma-paryaptas).

These beings are so fine that they cannot be perceived singly by our senses. They have as body: earth, water, fire, wind or plants. They have only one sense: touch, and all belong to the 3rd sex.

cognition: mati-ajnana, sruta-ajnana, acaksur-darsana.

activity : audarika-kaya-yoga.

lesya : black, dark or gray.

belief : mithyatva.

conduct : avirati.

gunasthana: 1.

 

Beings of this class do not bind the celestial and infernal state of existence, anupurvi, ayus; transformation-body and its limbs. The fire- and wind-beings do not in addition bind human state of existence, anupurvi, ayus and high family surroundings.

 

Table of bandha                                  udaya                       satta of nama-k.

 

23, 25abc, 26, 29abc, 30ab            21a, 24a, 26a            92, 88, 86ab, 80ab, 78ab
 

The undeveloped fine, one-sensed animals (suksma-aparyaptas).

These differ from the paryaptas only with regard to the activity and to udaya of nama-k.

Activity: karmana, and audarik-misra-kaya-yoga.

 

Table of bandha                              udaya              satta of nama-k.

 

23, 25abc, 26 29abc, 30ab            21a, 24a      92, 88, 86ab, 80ab, 78ab

 

The developed gross one-sensed animals (BADAR-paryaptas).

The body of these beings is gross and therefore visible. Whilst the suksmas are equal to one another exteriorly, there exist here individual differences between the groups belonging to one species. The badara-ekendriyas have earth, water, fire, wind or plants as bodies. Earth-beings are: dust, clay, sand, stones, metals, vermilion, orpiment, and so forth; water-beings: water, dew, snow, fog and so on ; fire-beings: flames, coals, meteors, lightning, etc.; wind-beings: squalls, whirlwinds, etc.; plants are of two species: they have, either, together with others a common body, as garlic, onion etc., or each has its own body as trees, shrubs, etc. (JS. II 215 seq.).

 

All these beings have only one sense: touch and belong to the 3rd sex. Cognition, lesya, belief, conduct, gunasthana as with the suksma-paryaptas.

 

Activity: vaikriya-, and vaikriya-misra-kaya-yoga with the wind-beings; with the others audarika-kaya-yoga.

 

Beings of this class do not bind: celestial and infernal state of existence, anupurvi, ayus; transformation-body and limbs. The fire- and wind-beings do not bind in addition human state of existence, anupurvi, ayus, and high family surroundings.

 

Table of bandha                                    udaya                         satta of nama-k.

 

23, 25abc, 26, 29abc, 30ab      21,24ab,25a,26abc, 27a,      92,88,86ab,80ab, 78ab