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Sub-Categories of Passions

Doctrine of Karman in Jain Philosophy

PREFACE TO THE GERMAN EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
The contents of first volume of the Karmagranthas.
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
TRANSLATOR'S NOTE
  INTRODUCTION
  THE KARMAN IN ITSELF
  THE KARMAN IN THEIR RELATION TO THE SOUL AND TO ONE ANOTHER
  THE QUALITIES OF THE SOUL
  STATES OF EXISTENCE AND CLASSES OF BEINGS
  THE CAUSES OF THE KARMAN AND THE MEANS FOR ITS ANNIHILATION
  THE WAY OF SALVATION
  THE 14 GUNASTHANAKAS
  THE STATE OF THE RELEASED

STATES OF EXISTENCE AND CLASSES OF BEINGS


 

 

The undeveloped reasonable five-sensed beings.

cognition: mati-, sruta-, avadhi-jnana (ajnana), acaksur-,

avadhi-darsana.

activity : karmana-, and audarika-misra-kaya-yoga.

lesyas : all 6.

belief : mithyatva, sasvadana-samyaktva, samyaktva (not samyagmithyatva ! Kg. I, 98a).

conduct : avirati.

gunasthana: 1, 2, 4.

 

Beings of this class bind only karman suitable for animals and human beings.

 

 Table of bandha                   udaya            satta of nama-k.

 

23,25abc,26,29abc,30ab      21c, 26e      92,88,86ab,80ab,78ab

 

THE HUMAN STATE OF EXISTENCE.

Human beings are of three kinds:

 

1.   those living in the 15 Karmabhumis,

2.   those living in the 30 Akarmabhumis,

3.   those living on the 56 Antaradvipas.

 

According to another division (Tattv. III 15) they are divided into aryas and mlecchas. Like animals there are developed and undeveloped beings of this class.

 

The developed human beings.

With the developed human beings all upayogas and yogas, all lesyas, every kind of belief and conduct, and all 14 gunasthanas are possible. The following combinations of nama-k occur in udaya: 20, 21de, 25de, 26fg, 27cde, 28defghi, 29ghiklm, 30fghi, 31c, 8,9.

 

They can bind all species of karman-combinations suitable to all 4 states of existence; all species of satta-combinations are possible with them. The mutual relationship in which bandha, udaya and satta-ks are standing towards one another, differs according to the gunasthana. (See below).

 

Before all other beings mankind enjoys an infinite advantage; human being only can attain perfect self-discipline and thereby acquire salvation. The existence in the human state is, therefore, the condition sine qua non of salvation, and a jiva must be reborn in this state in order to be saved.

 

The undeveloped human beings.

To the undeveloped human beings, i.e. those whose organs or faculties have not fully grown, belong also those created by coagulation. The sammurcchima-manusyas are produced through generatio aequivoca in bile, phlegm, urine, mucus, blood, semen, in a corpse, in impure places, through the union of a man and a woman (stripurusasamyoge), etc. (Kg. I, 117a).

 

The marganasthanas and karman-combinations correspond to those of the undeveloped five-sensed animals.

 

THE CELESTIAL STATE OF EXISTENCE.

Gods (deva) are beings with fine transformation-bodies who pass their lives, which are very long in comparison to earthly conception, relatively in a greater or smaller state of bliss. They enter into existence through "manifestation" (upapata), i.e. they appear suddenly where according to their karman they must originate. If the ayus of a god is exhausted, his existence is ended, without a cause of death (upakrama) being the apparent reason of it. Gods are developed and undeveloped; the latter only if their organs are not fully developed. The faculties (labdhi) of the body, breath, etc. are always completely existing in a god (Kg. I, 115b).

 

cognition: mati-, sruta-, avadhi-jnana (or ajnana), caksur- acaksur-, avadhi-darsana.

activity : 4 vag-yogas, 4 mano-yogas, vaikriya-, vaikriya-misra- and karmana-kaya-yoga.

lesyas : all 6 occur, yet among the classes of gods differences exist, concerning which further details will be given later.

belief : mithyatva, sasvadana samyaktva, samyagmithyatva, samyaktva,

conduct : gods possess no self-control, because there is no possibility for them to practice it, as every wish is fulfilled immediately it arises (Gandhi 111).

gunasthanas: 1--4.

 

Devas are reincarnated as human beings or as animals; if as the latter, however, only as developed gross earth-, water or plant-beings, as well as 5-sensed animals. The following karmans are not bound by them: celestial and infernal state of existence, anupurvi, ayus; transformation-body and limbs; translocation-body and limbs: undeveloped common body, 2-,3-,4-sensed class of beings, fine body.

 

After these general remarks, I give a short characteristic of the 4 celestial classes and their subdivisions.

1.   The lowest species of gods are the Bhavanavasins who, on their part, are divided into 10 classes, which have the following names: Asura-kumara, Naga-kumara, Vidyut-kumara, Suparna-kumara, Agni-kumara, Vata-kumara, Stanita-kumara, Udadhi-kumara, Dvipa-kumara, Dik-kumara. The first named ones are living in the upper part of the uppermost hell (Ratnaprabha), the others in the earth. In appearance they equal princes, as the second part of their name indicates. At the head of each class are 2 Indras; the other members of a class are divided into 9 grades. They satisfy their sexual needs by bodily coition. Their lesya is black, dark, gray or fiery. They bind no tirthakara-karman.

2.   The Vyantaras comprise 8 classes: Kinnara, Kimpurusa, Mahoraga, Gandharva, Yaksa, Raksasa, Bhuta and Pisaca. They live in all 3 worlds, they are partly free, partly serving others--even men. The 1st rank of each class is again occupied by 2 Indras; besides these, there are, however, only 7 other grades. Sexual pleasure, lesya and karman as with the preceding class.

3.   The Jyotiskas are divided into 5 classes: suns, moons, planets; naksatras and fixed stars. In the human world these are continually revolving, in the direction towards the right round the Meru mountain; beyond in they are not in constant movement. There are many Indras here--the suns and moons --besides 7 other grades. The other as with the preceding.

4.   The Vaimanikas are divided into 2 chief classes: Kalpopapannas (inhabitants of Kalpas) and Kalpatitas (kalpa-less). Kalpa means abode of the gods.

1)   The Kalpopapannas are inhabiting the following Kalpas: 1. Saudharma, 2. Aisana, 3. Sanatkumara, 4. Mahendra, 5. Brahma-loka, 6. Lantaka, 7. Mahasukra, 8. Sahasrara, 9. Anata, 10. Pranata, 11. Arana and 12. Acyuta. The 1. Kalpa lies above the canopy of the Meru, then every one above the other. With every Kalpa the lifetime, power, delights, splendor, purity of the lesya, strength of the senses, and sphere of activity of the avadhi-knowledge of its inhabitants is growing whilst the circumstance of the sphere (through which they wander in the universe), the size of the body, the possession and the pride, is decreasing. In 1 and 2 bodily coition is still performed; in the others a more and more refined sort of sexual satisfaction takes its place. At the head of each group stands an Indra, besides whom there are still 9 grades. The lesya is in 1 and 2 fiery, in 3,4,5 lotus-pink, thereafter white. In 1 and 2 each karman assimilable by gods, is bound, in 3-8 not the karmans of 1-sensed class of beings, immovable body, warm splendor, in 9-12, in addition to these not cold luster, animal state, anupurvi, ayus.

2)   The Kalpatitas have a white lesya and no sexual desire at all. With them no difference in rank exists. They are divided into 2 divisions, which again are subdivided into many classes.

I.   The Graiveyakas are 9-fold: Sudarsana, Supratibandha, Manorama, Sarvabhadra, Suvisala, Somanasa, Sumamkasa, Priyamkara, nandikara. They do not bind the karmans: 1-sensed class of beings, immovable body warm splendor, cold luster, animal state of existence, anupurvi and ayus.